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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effectiveness of first-line treatment with recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in steroid-naive patients with new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results of a prospective cohort study.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To conduct a prospective cohort study using anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as first-line therapy in patients with new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
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TCR bias and affinity define two compartments of the CD1b-glycolipid-specific T Cell repertoire.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Current views emphasize TCR diversity as a key feature that differentiates the group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 systems. Whereas TCR sequence motifs define CD1d-reactive NKT cells, the available data do not allow a TCR-based organization of the group 1 CD1 repertoire. The observed TCR diversity might result from donor-to-donor differences in TCR repertoire, as seen for MHC-restricted T cells. Alternatively, diversity might result from differing CD1 isoforms, Ags, and methods used to identify TCRs. Using CD1b tetramers to isolate clones recognizing the same glycolipid, we identified a previously unknown pattern of V gene usage (TRAV17, TRBV4-1) among unrelated human subjects. These TCRs are distinct from those present on NKT cells and germline-encoded mycolyl lipid-reactive T cells. Instead, they resemble the TCR of LDN5, one of the first known CD1b-reactive clones that was previously thought to illustrate the diversity of the TCR repertoire. Interdonor TCR conservation was observed in vitro and ex vivo, identifying LDN5-like T cells as a distinct T cell type. These data support TCR-based organization of the CD1b repertoire, which consists of at least two compartments that differ in TCR sequence motifs, affinity, and coreceptor expression.
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Effect of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) is a key mechanism in obesity-induced cardiovascular disease. To unravel mechanisms whereby human adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic IR, the effect of human AT-extracellular vesicles (EVs) on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells was determined.
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Brief report: Autologous stem cell transplantation restores immune tolerance in experimental arthritis by renewal and modulation of the Teff cell compartment.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) induces long-term drug-free disease remission in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This study was undertaken to further unravel the immunologic mechanisms underlying ASCT by using a mouse model of proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PGIA).
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T cell recognition of naturally presented epitopes of self-heat shock protein 70.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Self-reactive T cells have shown to have a potential role as regulators of the immune system preventing or even suppressing autoimmunity. One of the most abundant proteins that can be eluted from human HLA molecules is heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). The aims of the current study are to identify HSP70 epitopes based on published HLA elution studies and to investigate whether T cells from healthy individuals may respond to such self-epitopes. A literature search and subsequent in silico binding prediction based on theoretical MHC binding motifs resulted in the identification of seven HSP70 epitopes. PBMCs of healthy controls proliferated after incubation with two of the seven peptides (H167 and H290). Furthermore H161, H290, and H443 induced CD69 expression or production of cytokines IFN? or TNF? in healthy controls. The identification of these naturally presented epitopes and the response they elicit in the normal immune system make them potential candidates to study during inflammatory conditions as well as in autoimmune diseases.
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Interleukin-7 and Toll-like receptor 7 induce synergistic B cell and T cell activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the potential synergy of IL-7-driven T cell-dependent and TLR7-mediated B cell activation and to assess the additive effects of monocyte/macrophages in this respect.
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Intra-articular CD1c-expressing myeloid dendritic cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients express a unique set of T cell-attracting chemokines and spontaneously induce Th1, Th17 and Th2 cell activity.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are potent T cell-activating antigen-presenting cells that have been suggested to play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses in many disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite this, studies that have reported on the capacity of naturally occurring circulating mDCs to regulate T cell activation in RA are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and functional properties of naturally occurring CD1c (BDCA-1)+?mDCs from synovial fluid (SF) compared to those from peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients.
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Plasma IL-25 is elevated in a subgroup of patients with clinical reactivity to peanut.
Clin Transl Allergy
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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One of the IL-17 family members, IL-25, has been implicated with the initiation and amplification of Th2 responses in animal models and has been associated with airway hyper-reactivity. The involvement of IL-25 and also IL-17 in food allergic disease remains to be investigated.
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Cytokine assays: an assessment of the preparation and treatment of blood and tissue samples.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Cytokines are key components of the innate and adaptive immune system. As pivotal players in the progression or regression of a pathological process, these molecules provide a window through which diseases can be monitored and can thus act as biomarkers. In order to measure cytokine levels, a plethora of protocols can be applied. These methods include bioassays, protein microarrays, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescence and bead based multiplex immunoassays (MIA). Due to the interaction and activity of cytokines, multiplex immunoassays are at the forefront of cytokine analysis by allowing multiple cytokines to be measured in parallel. However, even with optimized protocols, sample standardization needs to occur before these proteins can optimally act as biomarkers. This review describes various factors influencing the levels of cytokines measured in plasma, serum, dried blood spots and tissue biopsies, focusing on sample collection and handling, long term storage and the repetitive use of samples. By analyzing how each of these factors influences protein levels, it is concluded that samples should be stored at low temperatures in order to maintain cytokine stability. In addition, within a study, sample manipulations should be kept the same, with measurement protocols being chosen for their compatibility with the research in question. By having a clear understanding of what factors influence cytokine levels and how to overcome these technical issues, minimally confounded data can be obtained and cytokines can achieve optimal biomarker activity.
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A conserved human T cell population targets mycobacterial antigens presented by CD1b.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Human T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) pair in millions of combinations to create complex and unique T cell repertoires for each person. Through the use of tetramers to analyze TCRs reactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1b, we detected T cells with highly stereotyped TCR ?-chains present among genetically unrelated patients with tuberculosis. The germline-encoded, mycolyl lipid-reactive (GEM) TCRs had an ?-chain bearing the variable (V) region TRAV1-2 rearranged to the joining (J) region TRAJ9 with few nontemplated (N)-region additions. Analysis of TCRs by high-throughput sequencing, binding and crystallography showed linkage of TCR? sequence motifs to high-affinity recognition of antigen. Thus, the CD1-reactive TCR repertoire is composed of at least two compartments: high-affinity GEM TCRs, and more-diverse TCRs with low affinity for CD1b-lipid complexes. We found high interdonor conservation of TCRs that probably resulted from selection by a nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecule and an immunodominant antigen.
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Selection of perforin expressing CD4+ adenovirus-specific T-cells with artificial antigen presenting cells.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Adenoviruses (HAdV) can cause life threatening infections, especially in paediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Yet, no effective antiviral medication is available. One treatment option is adoptive transfer of HAdV-specific T-cells from the graft donor into the patient. Especially CD4+ T-cells are critical to control HAdV infection. To allow for applicability of CD4+ T-cells in adoptive therapy, sufficient numbers of HAdV-specific T-cells with low levels of residual alloreactive T-cells are required. In this study, we explored the possibility to selectively expand and isolate functional HAdV-specific T-cells from PBMCs in response to 15-mer peptides using artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs), composed of liposomes harbouring HAdV-peptide/HLA-Class-II complexes. HAdV-specific T-cells generated using this method produce mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines, express perforin and granzyme B, kill HAdV-infected cells effectively and are not alloreactive. Thus, the generation and isolation of HAdV-specific CD4+ T-cells seem a critical step towards specific adoptive therapy for HAdV infections after allogeneic SCT.
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Low-grade adipose tissue inflammation in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Low-grade systemic inflammation is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its source remains unclear. Adipose tissue is a potent producer of inflammatory mediators and may contribute to systemic inflammation in COPD, possibly via hypoxia.
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Bystander suppression of experimental arthritis by nasal administration of a heat shock protein peptide.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Mucosal immune therapy with disease-inducing antigens is an effective way to prevent experimental arthritis, but in humans these antigens are unknown. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis, however, T cell recognition of a so-called bystander antigen, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), is associated with a good prognosis. Recently epitopes derived from HSP60, a microbial peptide (p1) and its self-homologue (p2) were reported to induce tolerogenic T cell responses in vitro in patients with arthritis. A study was undertaken to determine whether mucosal administration of these bystander epitopes can be similarly effective in suppressing arthritis.
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Vaccination leads to an aberrant FOXP3 T-cell response in non-remitting juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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To investigate how meningococcal C vaccination in patients with remitting (oligoarticular) or progressive (polyarticular) juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) influences the specific T-cell response to both the vaccine and heat shock protein 60, a regulatory auto-antigen in JIA.
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Functional human regulatory T cells fail to control autoimmune inflammation due to PKB/c-akt hyperactivation in effector cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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During the last decade research has focused on the application of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the treatment of autoimmune disease. However, thorough functional characterization of these cells in patients with chronic autoimmune disease, especially at the site of inflammation, is still missing. Here we studied Treg function in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and observed that Tregs from the peripheral blood as well as the inflamed joints are fully functional. Nevertheless, Treg-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and cytokine production by effector cells from the site of inflammation was severely impaired, because of resistance to suppression. This resistance to suppression was not caused by a memory phenotype of effector T cells or activation status of antigen presenting cells. Instead, activation of protein kinase B (PKB)/c-akt was enhanced in inflammatory effector cells, at least partially in response to TNF? and IL-6, and inhibition of this kinase restored responsiveness to suppression. We are the first to show that PKB/c-akt hyperactivation causes resistance of effector cells to suppression in human autoimmune disease. Furthermore, these findings suggest that for a Treg enhancing strategy to be successful in the treatment of autoimmune inflammation, resistance because of PKB/c-akt hyperactivation should be targeted as well.
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Adipokine levels in subretinal fluid from patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Adipokines have recently emerged as a novel group of mediators with important roles in inflammatory and immune responses and in the process of wound healing. This study investigated the involvement of several adipokines in the future development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) following reattachment surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). A multiplex immunoassay was used to measure 6 different adipokines in 75 subretinal fluid samples collected during reattachment surgery for primary RRD. Twenty-one patients who developed a redetachment due to postoperative PVR after scleral buckling surgery (PVR group) were compared with age-, sex-, and storage-time-matched RRD samples from 54 patients with an uncomplicated postoperative course (RRD group). Levels of adiponectin (P = 0.006), cathepsin S (P = 0.001), and leptin (P = 0.041) were significantly elevated in the PVR group as compared to the RRD group. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were significantly lower in the PVR group than in the RRD group (P = 0.044). After correction for diabetes, body mass index (BMI), macular involvement, and preoperative PVR, the association between postoperative PVR development and adiponectin, cathepsin S, and TIMP-1 remained statistically significant (P < 0.05), whereas the significant correlation between PVR and elevated leptin levels was lost (P = 0.068). There were no significant differences in levels of chemerin (P = 0.351) and adipsin (P = 0.915). Of all adipokines investigated, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that adiponectin was the exclusive predictor of the development of postoperative PVR after scleral buckling surgery (P = 0.003). Our findings indicate that, at the time of surgery for primary RRD, an altered expression of certain adipokines is associated with the future development of postoperative PVR.
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Interleukin and growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a major cause of visual loss in developed countries. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), an eye-sight threatening complication of RRD surgery, resembles a wound-healing process with inflammation, scar tissue formation, and membrane contraction. This study was performed to determine the possible involvement of a wide range of cytokines in the future development of PVR, and to identify predictors of PVR and visual outcome.
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Survival, but not maturation, is affected in neutrophil progenitors from GSD-1b patients.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD 1b) is caused by mutations in the Glucose-6-phosphate transporter and is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis. In addition, GSD-1b is associated with chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent infections and inflammatory bowel disease. It is unclear whether the neutropenia is solely due to enhanced apoptosis of mature neutrophils or whether aberrant neutrophil development may also contribute. Here we demonstrate that hematopoietic progenitors from GSD-1b patients are not impaired in their capacity to develop into mature neutrophils. However, optimal survival of neutrophil progenitors from GSD-1b patients requires high glucose levels (> 200 mg dl(-1)), suggesting that even under normoglycemic conditions these cells are more prone to apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of cytokine levels in peripheral blood suggests an inflammatory state with an inverse correlation between the level of inflammation and the number of neutrophils. Finally, in some patients, with low numbers of peripheral blood neutrophils, high numbers of neutrophils were observed in the intestine. Together, these results suggest that the neutropenia observed in GSD-1b patients is not caused by impaired maturation, but may be caused by both increased levels of apoptosis and egress of neutrophils from the blood to the inflamed tissues.
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Intraocular interleukin-17 and proinflammatory cytokines in HLA-A29-associated birdshot chorioretinopathy.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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To determine the levels of 23 immune mediators in paired aqueous humor (AqH) and serum samples from patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR).
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Cord blood CD4+ T cells respond to self heat shock protein 60 (HSP60).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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To prevent harmful autoimmunity most immune responses to self proteins are controlled by central and peripheral tolerance. T cells specific for a limited set of self-proteins such as human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) may contribute to peripheral tolerance. It is not known whether HSP60-specific T cells are present at birth and thus may play a role in neonatal tolerance. We studied whether self-HSP60 reactive T cells are present in cord blood, and if so, what phenotype these cells have.
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Th17 plasticity in human autoimmune arthritis is driven by the inflammatory environment.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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In several murine models of autoimmune arthritis, Th17 cells are the dominant initiators of inflammation. In human arthritis the majority of IL-17-secreting cells within the joint express a cytokine phenotype intermediate between Th17 and Th1. Here we show that Th17/1 cells from the joints of children with inflammatory arthritis express high levels of both Th17 and Th1 lineage-specific transcription factors, RORC2 and T-bet. Modeling the generation of Th17/1 in vitro, we show that Th17 cells "convert" to Th17/1 under conditions that mimic the disease site, namely low TGFbeta and high IL-12 levels, whereas Th1 cells cannot convert to Th17. Th17/1 cells from the inflamed joint share T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality with Th17 cells, suggesting a shared clonal origin between Th17 and Th17/1 cells in arthritis. Using CD161, a lectin-like receptor that is a marker of human Th17, we show synovial Th17 and Th17/1 cells, and unexpectedly, a large proportion of Th1 cells express CD161. We provide evidence to support a Th17 origin for Th1 cells expressing CD161. In vitro, Th17 cells that convert to a Th1 phenotype maintain CD161 expression. In the joint CD161+ Th1 cells share features with Th17 cells, with shared TCR clonality, expression of RORC2 and CCR6 and response to IL-23, although they are IL-17 negative. We propose that the Th17 phenotype may be unstable and that Th17 cells may convert to Th17/1 and Th1 cells in human arthritis. Therefore therapies targeting the induction of Th17 cells could also attenuate Th17/1 and Th1 effector populations within the inflamed joint.
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A multiplex immunoassay for human adipokine profiling.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Adipose tissue secretory proteins, called adipokines, play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Because methods for comprehensive adipokine profiling in patient plasma and other biological samples are currently limited, we developed a multiplex immunoassay for rapid and high-throughput measurement of 25 adipokines in only 50 microL of sample.
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Chemokine levels in subretinal fluid obtained during scleral buckling surgery after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The exact role of these chemokines, their correlation with IL-6 after primary RRD, and their association with the future development of PVR are not yet known.
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Different cytokine signatures in children with localized and invasive adenovirus infection after stem cell transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2010
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HAdV infection is a dangerous complication after pediatric SCT. In this study, we aimed at determining the cytokine profile in plasma samples in case of HAdV infection after SCT to gain more knowledge about the HAdV-specific immune response. In this prospective study, 47 pediatric SCT recipients were included in three yr. By using particle-based MIA, 17 different cytokines were analyzed in 41 plasma samples of patients with a localized HAdV infection (presence of HAdV in feces, urine or throat detected by culture) and patients with invasive HAdV infection (HAdV viremia in blood, detected by PCR). In patients with invasive HAdV infection, but not in patients with localized HAdV infection, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1beta, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, and also IL17, MIP1alpha, OSM, and IP10 were produced. The simultaneous release of the cytokines IL1beta, IL17, IL18, OSM, MIP1alpha, and IP10 was related to invasive HAdV infections. We also show that cytokine signatures can be helpful to differentiate invasive HAdV infection from GvHD and EBV infections. In conclusion, after SCT, children with invasive HAdV infection have a different cytokine profile compared with patients with a localized HAdV infection.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress inflammatory activation of rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial macrophages and tissue.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Macrophages contribute significantly to the pathology of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Macrophage activation and survival are tightly regulated by reversible acetylation and deacetylation of histones, transcription factors, and structural proteins. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models of chronic inflammatory disease, depressed macrophage HDAC activity in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or RA may contribute to inflammation in these diseases, potentially contraindicating the therapeutic administration of HDACis. In this study, we directly examined whether HDACis could influence the activation of macrophages derived from the inflamed joints of patients with RA. We found that inhibition of class I/II HDACs or class III sirtuin HDACs potently blocked the production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by macrophages from healthy donors and patients with RA. Two HDACis, trichostatin A and nicotinamide, selectively induced macrophage apoptosis associated with specific downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bfl-1/A1, and inflammatory stimuli enhanced the sensitivity of macrophages to HDACi-induced apoptosis. Importantly, inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine production in intact RA synovial biopsy explants was also suppressed by HDACis. Our study identifies redundant, but essential, roles for class I/II and sirtuin HDACs in promoting inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell survival in RA.
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Mutations in the perforin gene can be linked to macrophage activation syndrome in patients with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is considered to be an acquired form of familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (fHLH). FHLH is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diminished NK cell function and caused by mutations in the perforin gene (PRF1) in 20-50% of patients. Interestingly, SoJIA patients display decreased levels of perforin in NK cells and diminished NK cell function as well. Here, we analysed PRF1 and its putative promoter in SoJIA patients with or without a history of MAS.
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Defective phosphorylation of interleukin-18 receptor beta causes impaired natural killer cell function in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by arthritis and systemic features. Its pathogenesis is still largely unknown. It is characterized immunologically by natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction and cytokine signatures that predominantly feature interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-18. Since IL-18 can drive NK cell function, we examined how the high plasma levels of this cytokine are related to the documented NK cell failure in these patients.
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Pan-DR-binding Hsp60 self epitopes induce an interleukin-10-mediated immune response in rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Human Hsp60 is expressed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can elicit a regulatory T cell response in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid. However, Hsp60 can also trigger strong proinflammatory pathways. Thus, to understand the nature of these Hsp60-directed responses in RA, it is necessary to study such responses at the molecular, epitope-specific level. This study was undertaken to characterize the disease specificity and function of pan-DR-binding Hsp60-derived epitopes as possible modulators of autoimmune inflammation in RA.
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Differential cytokine profiles in juvenile idiopathic arthritis subtypes revealed by cluster analysis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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With the introduction of high-throughput biomarker measurements, traditional analysis of these markers is increasingly difficult. Using samples from a diverse group of patients, we tested the applicability of cluster analysis to these data. Using this method, we aim to visualize some of the patterns specific to certain disease groups. In particular, we focus on juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a multifactorial autoimmune disorder that ultimately leads to chronic inflammation of the joints.
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Prerequisites for cytokine measurements in clinical trials with multiplex immunoassays.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory pathways operative in patients in vivo. This is now possible due to novel technologies such as multiplex immunoassays (MIA) that allows detection of multiple cytokines in a single sample. However, apparently trivial underappreciated processes, (sample handling and storage, interference of endogenous plasma proteins) can greatly impact the reliability and reproducibility of cytokine detection.Therefore we set out to investigate several processes that might impact cytokine profiles such as blood collecting tubes, duration of storage, and number of freeze thawing cycles.
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Human regulatory T cell suppressive function is independent of apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the immune balance to prevent autoimmune disease. One outstanding question is how Tregs suppress effector immune responses in human. Experiments in mice demonstrated that Treg restrict effector T cell (Teff) responses by deprivation of the growth factor IL-2 through Treg consumption, resulting in apoptosis of Teff.
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Cytokine multiplex immunoassay: methodology and (clinical) applications.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Subsets of T cells can be distinguished on basis of their cytokine production and secretion profile.With the critical role of cytokines in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, cytokines hold the promise to become the ideal biomarkers to monitor development and progression of immune-mediated diseases, study the development of new therapeutic approaches (both in vitro and in vivo) and as outcome parameters. Because of the numerous interactions in the cytokine network, the pleiotropic actions and redundancy, it will be necessary to monitor the complete spectrum of cytokines. As such, the multiplex immunoassay (MIA) is the ideal technique for that purpose. This paper reviews the critical methodological steps of this technique, including the procedures for antibody coupling to beads and matrix effects of biological fluids and buffer solutions. The power and robustness of the MIA technique is illustrated by an analysis of cytokine profiles in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of alkaline phosphatase in coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. Alkaline phosphatase prevents endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation in animals and humans. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on surgical complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. In a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, a total of 63 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase or placebo was administered as an intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion for 36 hours. The primary endpoint was reduction of post-surgical inflammation. No significant safety concerns were identified. The overall inflammatory response to coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass was low in both placebo and bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase patient group. Five patients in the placebo group displayed a significant TNFalpha response followed by an increase in plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Such a TNFalpha response was not observed in the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase group, suggesting anti-inflammatory activity of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Other variables related to systemic inflammation showed no statistically significant differences. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase can be administered safely in an attempt to reduce the inflammatory response in coronary artery bypass grafting patients with a low to intermediate EuroSCORE. The anti-inflammatory effects might be more pronounced in patients developing more fulminant postoperative inflammatory responses. This will be investigated in a further trial with inclusion of patients undergoing complicated cardiac surgery, demanding extended cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp time. In this review article some recent patents related to the field are also discussed.
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Protein expression profiling of inflammatory mediators in human temporal lobe epilepsy reveals co-activation of multiple chemokines and cytokines.
J Neuroinflammation
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Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a chronic and often treatment-refractory brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures originating from the hippocampus. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying mTLE remain largely unknown. Recent clinical and experimental evidence supports a role of various inflammatory mediators in mTLE. Here, we performed protein expression profiling of 40 inflammatory mediators in surgical resection material from mTLE patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis, and autopsy controls using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. In mTLE patients we identified 21 upregulated inflammatory mediators, including 10 cytokines and 7 chemokines. Many of these upregulated mediators have not previously been implicated in mTLE (for example, CCL22, IL-7 and IL-25). Comparing the three patient groups, two main hippocampal expression patterns could be distinguished, pattern I (for example, IL-10 and IL-25) showing increased expression in mTLE?+?HS patients compared to mTLE-HS and controls, and pattern II (for example, CCL4 and IL-7) showing increased expression in both mTLE groups compared to controls. Upregulation of a subset of inflammatory mediators (for example, IL-25 and IL-7) could not only be detected in the hippocampus of mTLE patients, but also in the neocortex. Principle component analysis was used to cluster the inflammatory mediators into several components. Follow-up analyses of the identified components revealed that the three patient groups could be discriminated based on their unique expression profiles. Immunocytochemistry showed that IL-25 IR (pattern I) and CCL4 IR (pattern II) were localized in astrocytes and microglia, whereas IL-25 IR was also detected in neurons. Our data shows co-activation of multiple inflammatory mediators in hippocampus and neocortex of mTLE patients, indicating activation of multiple pro- and anti-epileptogenic immune pathways in this disease.
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Recognition of self-heat shock protein 60 by T cells from patients with atopic dermatitis.
Cell Stress Chaperones
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Heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) is a highly conserved stress protein and target of self-reactive T cells in various inflammatory diseases. Not much is known about a possible role in atopic disease. As atopic diseases are considered to be the result of a disturbance in the balance between T helper cells type 2 and regulatory T cells, it is of interest to know whether hsp60 acts as a bystander antigen in atopic disease. Our aim was to investigate whether hsp60 is involved in the chronicity of inflammation of atopic dermatitis (AD). We studied the expression of hsp60 in skin tissue of adults with AD by immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with AD were cultured with hsp60 and proliferative responses, cytokine secretion, surface markers, and functional assays were compared to responses of PBMC of healthy controls (HC). Hsp60 was detected more in lesional skin of AD patients compared to nonlesional skin. Furthermore, PBMC of children with AD proliferated more strongly in response to hsp60 compared to HC. hsp60-reactive T cells of atopic children produced high levels of IFN? and low levels of IL-10. In vitro activation with hsp60 leads to the induction of CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells expressing FOXP3 in both HC as well as in atopic children. However, despite their regulatory phenotype, hsp60-induced CD4(+)CD25(bright)CD127(-)FOXP3(+) T cells of AD patients were incapable of suppressing effector T cells in vitro. hsp60 is recognized by proinflammatory (IFN? high, IL-10 low) T cells in atopic patients and is more present in lesional AD skin. This suggests that hsp60-specific T cell responses contribute to local inflammation in AD.
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TLR9 agonist CpG enhances protective nasal HSP60 peptide vaccine efficacy in experimental autoimmune arthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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Peptide-based immune tolerance induction is considered an attractive treatment option for autoimmune diseases. The authors have developed a novel method that can enhance the induction of protective peptide-specific T-cell responses, using a rat arthritis model. The authors focused on the Toll-like receptor 9 ligand CpG, which was shown to stimulate regulatory T-cell proliferation when added to plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) using in-vitro cultures.
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Prediction of proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment surgery: potential of biomarker profiling.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
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To investigate the potential of a combined assessment of clinical risk factors and biomarker profiling in the prediction of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after retinal detachment surgery.
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Genome-wide microRNA profiling of human temporal lobe epilepsy identifies modulators of the immune response.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
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Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying mTLE may involve defects in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that control the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we performed a genome-wide miRNA profiling study to examine whether miRNA-mediated mechanisms are affected in human mTLE. miRNA profiles of the hippocampus of autopsy control patients and two mTLE patient groups were compared. This revealed segregated miRNA signatures for the three different patient groups and 165 miRNAs with up- or down-regulated expression in mTLE. miRNA in situ hybridization detected cell type-specific changes in miRNA expression and an abnormal nuclear localization of select miRNAs in neurons and glial cells of mTLE patients. Of several cellular processes implicated in mTLE, the immune response was most prominently targeted by deregulated miRNAs. Enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators was paralleled by a reduction in miRNAs that were found to target the 3-untranslated regions of these genes in reporter assays. miR-221 and miR-222 were shown to regulate endogenous ICAM1 expression and were selectively co-expressed with ICAM1 in astrocytes in mTLE patients. Our findings suggest that miRNA changes in mTLE affect the expression of immunomodulatory proteins thereby further facilitating the immune response. This mechanism may have broad implications given the central role of astrocytes and the immune system in human neurological disease. Overall, this work extends the current concepts of human mTLE pathogenesis to the level of miRNA-mediated gene regulation.
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Human adipocyte extracellular vesicles in reciprocal signaling between adipocytes and macrophages Human adipocyte EVs and macrophages.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
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Objective: We determined whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by human adipocytes or AT-explants play a role in the paracrine interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, a key mechanism in adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, leading to metabolic complications like insulin resistance. Design and Methods: EVs released from in vitro differentiated adipocytes and AT-explants ex vivo were characterized by electron microscopy, Western blot, multiplex adipokine-profiling and quantified by flow cytometry. Primary monocytes were stimulated with EVs from adipocytes, subcutaneous (SCAT) or omental-derived AT (OAT), and phenotyped. Macrophage supernatant was subsequently used to assess the effect on insulin signaling in adipocytes. Results: Adipocyte and AT-derived EVs differentiated monocytes into macrophages characteristic of human adipose tissue macrophages (ATM), defined by release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The adiponectin-positive subset of AT-derived EVs, presumably representing adipocyte-derived EVs, induced a more pronounced ATM-phenotype than the adiponectin-negative AT-EVs. This effect was more evident for OAT-EVs versus SCAT-EVs. Furthermore, supernatant of macrophages pre-stimulated with AT-EVs interfered with insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Finally, the number of OAT-derived EVs correlated positively with patients HOMA-IR. Conclusions: We demonstrate a possible role for human AT-EVs in a reciprocal pro-inflammatory loop between adipocytes and macrophages, with the potential to aggravate local and systemic insulin resistance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.