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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis.
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Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: public health, laboratory, and clinical perspectives.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2011
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Influenza A H1N1 2009 virus caused the first pandemic in an era when neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral drugs were available in many countries. The experiences of detecting and responding to resistance during the pandemic provided important lessons for public health, laboratory testing, and clinical management. We propose recommendations for antiviral susceptibility testing, reporting results, and management of patients infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1. Sustained global monitoring for antiviral resistance among circulating influenza viruses is crucial to inform public health and clinical recommendations for antiviral use, especially since community spread of oseltamivir-resistant A H1N1 2009 virus remains a concern. Further studies are needed to better understand influenza management in specific patient groups, such as severely immunocompromised hosts, including optimisation of antiviral treatment, rapid sample testing, and timely reporting of susceptibility results.
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Status of global virologic surveillance for rubella viruses.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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The suspected measles case definition captures rubella cases. Therefore, measles surveillance will be improved in the course of the control and eventual elimination of rubella transmission. One aspect of rubella control, virologic surveillance, is reviewed here. A systematic nomenclature for rubella viruses (RVs) based on 13 genotypes has been established and is updated when warranted by increases in information about RVs. From 2005 through 2010, the genotypes of RVs most frequently reported were 1E, 1G, and 2B, and genotypes 1a, 1B, 1C, 1h, 1j, and 2C were less frequently reported. Virologic surveillance can support rubella control and elimination. Synopses of rubella virologic surveillance in various countries, regions, and globally are given, including characterization of viruses from imported cases in a country that has eliminated rubella and studies of endemic viruses circulating in countries without rubella control objectives. Current challenges are discussed.
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Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular epidemiology.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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A critical component of laboratory surveillance for measles is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet), provides for standardized testing in 183 countries and supports genetic characterization of currently circulating strains of measles viruses. The goal of this report is to describe the lessons learned from nearly 20 years of virologic surveillance for measles, to describe the global databases for measles sequences, and to provide regional updates about measles genotypes detected by recent surveillance activities. Virologic surveillance for measles is now well established in all of the WHO regions, and most countries have conducted at least some baseline surveillance. The WHO Global Genotype Database contains >7000 genotype reports, and the Measles Nucleotide Surveillance (MeaNS) contains >4000 entries. This sequence information has proven to be extremely useful for tracking global transmission patterns and for documenting the interruption of transmission in some countries. The future challenges will be to develop quality control programs for molecular methods and to continue to expand virologic surveillance activities in all regions.
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Coxsackievirus B3-associated aseptic meningitis: an emerging infection in Hong Kong.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Enterovirus (EV) infection is a common disease of childhood and associated not uncommonly with aseptic meningitis. In the summer of 2008, laboratory surveillance has detected increased number of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) associated aseptic meningitis in Hong Kong, constituting 11.6% of those infected. This study analyzed the epidemiology, circulating pattern, and clinical presentations of CVB3 in Hong Kong over the last 10 years with reference to the circulation of EV in the locality. Enteroviruses (EV) were isolated from respiratory, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), stool, and vesicular samples using human rhabdomyosarcoma, human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2-C), human lung fibroblast (MRC-5), and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines. Virus isolates were identified and characterized by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) using monoclonal antibodies (mAB), neutralization test as well as partial VP1 sequencing. Different from previous years, IF test result showed that majority of the isolates from 2008 were untypeable by the mAB suggesting antigenic change. Sequence analysis revealed that these isolates were clustered with recent isolate from Fuyang, China. Review of data from 1999 to 2008 showed increased activity of CVB3 in the years 2005 and 2008, and isolates in these 2 years displayed an amino acid change from threonine to alanine at codon 277 of the VP1 gene, which may be associated with central nervous system (CNS) disease.
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Sero-immunity and serologic response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in Hong Kong.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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To study the serologic response to the new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in Hong Kong, the level of immunity was measured before and after the occurrence of the outbreak, and the titer of antibody to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in serum samples of laboratory confirmed cases. The presence of pre-outbreak pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus antibodies in 37% of individuals older than >65 years suggested previous exposures to heterologous virus strains may have elicited cross-reacting antibody. Following large outbreaks of pandemic influenza A 2009 virus that peaked in September 2009, there is a change in immunity level in various age groups consistent with the attack rates among population in Hong Kong. Among individuals with mild clinical presentation, the antibody response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was stronger in those individuals aged ? 24 years but took more time to reach a titer of 40 when compared with those aged >24 years; however, the antibody level declined slower among individuals aged ? 24 years. Regardless of age, the antibody response rose rapidly and reached much higher titer among individuals with severe clinical presentation. Further study is required to collect additional data on antibody persistence and determine how much protection is conferred by previous exposure to seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses.
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Comparison of laboratory diagnostic methods for measles infection and identification of measles virus genotypes in Hong Kong.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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The sensitivities of IgM detection, virus isolation, and RT-PCR for the diagnosis of measles infection were assessed using samples collected from confirmed measles cases from 2006 to 2009. The optimal timing of specimen collection and the preferred specimen type(s) for these tests were also determined. IgM detection showed highest sensitivity when serum samples were collected >or=5 days after rash onset. Virus isolation gave the highest sensitivity when samples were collected
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Virologically confirmed population-based burden of hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses in children in Hong Kong.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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To determine virologically confirmed hospitalization rates associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses in Hong Kong children.
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Virologically confirmed population-based burden of hospitalization caused by influenza A and B among children in Hong Kong.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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We sought to determine the virologically confirmed hospitalization rates associated with influenza virus infection among Hong Kong children.
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Prevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among Cullers and poultry workers in Ho Chi Minh City, 2005.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Between 2003 and 2005, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses caused large scale outbreaks in poultry in the Ho Chi Minh City area in Vietnam. We studied the prevalence of antibodies against H5N1 in poultry workers and cullers who were active in the program in Ho Chi Minh City in 2004 and 2005.
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Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. Their high incidence and importance in health care facilities result in a great impact on public health. Studies from around the world describing increasing prevalence have been difficult to compare because of differing nomenclatures for variants of the dominant genotype, GII.4. We studied the global patterns of GII.4 epidemiology in relation to its genetic diversity.
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A HIV-1 heterosexual transmission chain in Guangzhou, China: a molecular epidemiological study.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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We conducted molecular analyses to confirm four clustering HIV-1 infections (Patient A, B, C & D) in Guangzhou, China. These cases were identified by epidemiological investigation and suspected to acquire the infection through a common heterosexual transmission chain.
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Oseltamivir- and amantadine-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1).
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in Hong Kong in 2006. In 2008, while both A/Brisbane/59/2007-like and A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1) were cocirculating, we detected amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1), caused by genetic reassortment or spontaneous mutation.
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Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Hong Kong.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute and self-limiting hepatitis in human. In Hong Kong, the number of notifications increased from 26 to 62 from year 2001 to 2007. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HEV in Hong Kong in order to determine the movement and distribution of HEV. HEV in 171 serum samples from HEV IgM positive cases from year 2001 to 2007 were amplified using RT-PCR and subjected to nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed 162 of 171 HEV detected cases (94.7%) belonged to genotype IV and 8 (4.7%) to genotype I. Interestingly, a cluster of 10 cases in year 2007 that had the same sequence of HEV was identified. Epidemiological data however did not detect any relationship between these cases. Since zoonotic transmission is a well known route of HEV infection, close monitoring of the circulating HEV strains in human and food source animals may help to provide additional information on the transmission of HEV and possible source of infection in Hong Kong.
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Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus 4 infections in hong kong: subtype 4B as common as subtype 4A.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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In this 1-year study, 35 (1.2%) of 2,912 nasopharyngeal aspirates were positive for human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4) by reverse transcription-PCR. Patients with HPIV4 infection were mainly young children and immunocompromised adults. In contrast to the reported predominance of HPIV4A infection, molecular subtyping revealed that 15 (44%) cases were caused by HPIV4B.
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design of multiplexed detection assays for identification of avian influenza a virus subtypes pathogenic to humans by SmartCycler real-time reverse transcription-PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for identification of the IAV M and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from six known AIVs infecting pigs, birds, and humans. IAV M1 gene-positive samples tested by single-step rRT-PCR and a fluorogenic Sybr green I detection system were further processed for H5 subtype identification by using two-primer-set multiplex and Sybr green I rRT-PCR assays. H5 subtype-negative samples were then tested with either a TaqMan assay for subtypes H1 and H3 or a TaqMan assay for subtypes H2, H7, and H9 and a beacon multiplex rRT-PCR identification assay. The four-tube strategy was able to detect 10 RNA copies of the HA genes of subtypes H1, H2, H3, H5, and H7 and 100 RNA copies of the HA gene of subtype H9. At least six H5 clades of H5N1 viruses isolated in Southeast Asia and China were detected by that test. Using rRT-PCR assays for the M1 and HA genes in 202 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, we identified a total of 39 samples positive for the IAV M1 gene and subtypes H1 and H3. When performed with a portable SmartCycler instrument, the assays offer an efficient, flexible, and reliable platform for investigations of IAV and AIV in remote hospitals and in the field.
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Molecular characterization of the 2011 Hong Kong scarlet fever outbreak.
J. Infect. Dis.
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A scarlet fever outbreak occurred in Hong Kong in 2011. The majority of cases resulted in the isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes emm12 with multiple antibiotic resistances. Phylogenetic analysis of 22 emm12 scarlet fever outbreak isolates, 7 temporally and geographically matched emm12 non-scarlet fever isolates, and 18 emm12 strains isolated during 2005-2010 indicated the outbreak was multiclonal. Genome sequencing of 2 nonclonal scarlet fever isolates (HKU16 and HKU30), coupled with diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assays, identified 2 mobile genetic elements distributed across the major lineages: a 64.9-kb integrative and conjugative element encoding tetracycline and macrolide resistance and a 46.4-kb prophage encoding superantigens SSA and SpeC and the DNase Spd1. Phenotypic comparison of HKU16 and HKU30 with the S. pyogenes M1T1 strain 5448 revealed that HKU16 displays increased adherence to HEp-2 human epithelial cells, whereas HKU16, HKU30, and 5448 exhibit equivalent resistance to neutrophils and virulence in a humanized plasminogen murine model. However, in contrast to M1T1, the virulence of HKU16 and HKU30 was not associated with covRS mutation. The multiclonal nature of the emm12 scarlet fever isolates suggests that factors such as mobile genetic elements, environmental factors, and host immune status may have contributed to the 2011 scarlet fever outbreak.
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Virulence potential of fusogenic orthoreoviruses.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Several severe respiratory virus infections that have emerged during the past decade originated in animals, including bats. In Indonesia, exposure to bats has been associated with increased risk of acquiring orthoreovirus infection. Although orthoreovirus infections are mild and self-limiting, we explored their potential for evolution into a more virulent form. We used conventional virus culture, electron microscopy, and molecular sequencing to isolate and identify orthoreoviruses from 3 patients in whom respiratory tract infection developed after travel to Indonesia. Virus characterization by plaque-reduction neutralization testing showed antigenic similarity, but sequencing of the small segment genes suggested virus reassortment, which could lead to increased virulence. Bats as a reservoir might contribute to virus evolution and genetic diversity, giving orthoreoviruses the potential to become more virulent. Evolution of this virus should be closely monitored so that prevention and control measures can be taken should it become more virulent.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.