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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-32 Promotes Angiogenesis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we now reveal that IL-32 also possesses angiogenic properties. The hyperproliferative ECs of human pulmonary arterial hypertension and glioblastoma multiforme exhibited a markedly increased abundance of IL-32, and, significantly, the cytokine colocalized with integrin ?V?3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor blockade, which resulted in EC hyperproliferation, increased IL-32 three-fold. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of IL-32 negated the 58% proliferation of ECs that occurred within 24 h in scrambled-transfected controls. Reduction of IL-32 neither affected apoptosis (insignificant changes in Bak-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, lactate dehydrogenase, annexin V, and propidium iodide) nor VEGF or TGF-? levels, but siIL-32-transfected adult and neonatal ECs produced up to 61% less NO, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and up to 3-fold more activin A and endostatin. In coculture-based angiogenesis assays, IL-32? dose-dependently increased tube formation up to 3-fold; an ?V?3 inhibitor prevented this activity and reduced IL-32?-induced IL-8 by 85%. In matrigel plugs loaded with IL-32?, VEGF, or vehicle and injected into live mice, we observed the anticipated VEGF-induced increase in neocapillarization (8-fold versus vehicle), but unexpectedly, IL-32? was equally angiogenic. A second signal such as IFN-? was required to render cells responsive to exogenous IL-32?; importantly, this was confirmed using a completely synthetic preparation of IL-32?. In summary, we add angiogenic properties that are mediated by integrin ?V?3 but VEGF-independent to the portfolio of IL-32, implicating a role for this versatile cytokine in pulmonary arterial hypertension and neoplastic diseases.
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The Role of Extracellular RNA in Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in Mice.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling after injury are driven by inflammation and mononuclear cell infiltration. Extracellular RNA (eRNA) has recently been implicated to become enriched at sites of tissue damage, and to act as a pro-inflammatory mediator. We here addressed the role of eRNA in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis and neointima formation after injury in atherosclerosis-prone mice.
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Chitinase inhibition promotes atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Chitinase 1 (CHIT1) is secreted by activated macrophages. Chitinase activity is raised in atherosclerotic patient sera and is present in atherosclerotic plaque. However, the role of CHIT1 in atherosclerosis is unknown. Preliminary studies of atherosclerosis in cynomolgous monkeys revealed CHIT1 to be closely correlated with areas of macrophage infiltration. Thus, we investigated the effects of a chitinase inhibitor, allosamidin, on macrophage function in vitro and on atherosclerotic development in vivo. In RAW264.7 cells, allosamidin elevated monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression, and increased activator protein 1 and nuclear factor-?B transcriptional activity. Although inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and IL-1? expression were increased, Arg1 expression was decreased by chitinase inhibition, suggesting that suppression of CHIT1 activity polarizes macrophages into a M1 phenotype. Allosamidin decreased scavenger receptor AI, CD36, ABCA1, and ABCG1 expression which led to suppression of cholesterol uptake and apolipoprotein AI-mediated cholesterol efflux in macrophages. These effects were confirmed with CHIT1 siRNA transfection and CHIT1 plasmid transfection experiments in primary macrophages. Apolipoprotein E-deficient hyperlipidemic mice treated for 6 weeks with constant administration of allosamidin and fed an atherogenic diet showed aggravated atherosclerotic lesion formation. These data suggest that CHIT1 exerts protective effects against atherosclerosis by suppressing inflammatory responses and polarizing macrophages toward an M2 phenotype, and promoting lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in macrophages.
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Selenoprotein K is required for palmitoylation of CD36 in macrophages: implications in foam cell formation and atherogenesis.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Selk is an ER transmembrane protein important for calcium flux and macrophage activation, but its role in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis has not been evaluated. BMDMs from Selk(-/-) mice exhibited decreased uptake of modLDL and foam cell formation compared with WT controls, and the differences were eliminated with anti-CD36 blocking antibody. CD36 expression was decreased in TNF-?-stimulated Selk(-/-) BMDMs compared with WT controls. Fluorescence microscopy revealed TNF-?-induced clustering of CD36 in WT BMDMs indicative of lipid raft localization, which was absent in Selk(-/-) BMDMs. Fractionation revealed lower levels of CD36 reaching lipid rafts in TNF-?-stimulated Selk(-/-) BMDMs. Immunoprecipitation showed that Selk(-/-) BMDMs have decreased CD36 palmitoylation, which occurs at the ER membrane and is crucial for stabilizing CD36 expression and directing its localization to lipid rafts. To assess if this phenomenon had a role in atherogenesis, a HFD was fed to irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice reconstituted with BM from Selk(-/-) or WT mice. Selk was detected in aortic plaques of controls, particularly in macrophages. Selk(-/-) in immune cells led to reduction in atherosclerotic lesion formation without affecting leukocyte migration into the arterial wall. These findings suggest that Selk is important for stable, localized expression of CD36 in macrophages during inflammation, thereby contributing to foam cell formation and atherogenesis.
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Interleukin-10 overexpression in macrophages suppresses atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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In atherogenesis, macrophage foam cell formation is modulated by pathways involving both the uptake and efflux of cholesterol. We recently showed that interleukin-10 (IL-10) modulates lipid metabolism by enhancing both uptake and efflux of cholesterol in macrophages. However, the mechanistic details of these properties in vivo have been unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of IL-10 in macrophages would alter susceptibility to atherosclerosis and whether IL-10 exerts its antiatherosclerotic properties by modulating lipid metabolism in macrophages. We utilized a macrophage-specific retroviral vector that allows long-term in vivo expression of IL-10 in macrophages through transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow cells (BMCs). IL-10 expressed by macrophages derived from transduced BMCs inhibited atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice by reducing cholesteryl ester accumulation in atherosclerotic sites. Experiments with primary macrophages indicated that macrophage source of IL-10 stimulated both the uptake (by up-regulating scavenger receptors) and efflux of cholesterol (by activating the PPARgamma-LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway), thereby reducing inflammation and apoptosis in atherosclerosis. These findings indicate that BMC-transduced macrophage IL-10 production can act as a strong antiatherogenic agent, and they highlight a novel antiatherosclerotic therapy using a simple, yet effective, stem cell transduction system that facilitates long-term expression of IL-10 in macrophages.
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Interleukin-10 facilitates both cholesterol uptake and efflux in macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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Foam cell formation is a hallmark event during atherosclerosis. The current paradigm is that lipid uptake by scavenger receptor in macrophages initiates the chronic proinflammatory cascade and necrosis core formation that characterize atherosclerosis. We report here that a cytokine considered to be anti-atherogenic, interleukin-10 (IL10), promotes cholesterol uptake from modified lipoproteins in macrophages and its transformation into foam cells by increasing the expression of scavenger receptor CD36 and scavenger receptor A. Although uptake of modified lipoproteins is considered proatherogenic, we found that IL10 also increases cholesterol efflux from macrophages to protect against toxicity of free cholesterol accumulation in the cell. This process was PPARgamma-dependent and was mediated through up-regulation of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) protein expression. Importantly, expression of inflammatory molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and MMP9 as well as apoptosis were dramatically suppressed in lipid-laden foam cells treated with IL10. The notion that IL10 can mediate both the uptake of cholesterol from modified lipoproteins and the efflux of stored cholesterol suggests that the process of foam cell formation is not necessarily detrimental as long as mechanisms of cholesterol efflux and transfer to an exogenous acceptor are functioning robustly. Our results present a comprehensive antiatherogenic role of IL10 in macrophages, including enhanced disposal of harmful lipoproteins, inhibition of inflammatory molecules, and reduced apoptosis.
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Disruption of tissue-specific fucosyltransferase VII, an enzyme necessary for selectin ligand synthesis, suppresses atherosclerosis in mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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A hallmark feature of atherosclerosis is that circulating mononuclear cells adhere to the endothelium and migrate into the subendothelial space. This adhesion is mediated by molecules such as selectins that are expressed on the surfaces of both leukocytes and endothelial cells. In this study, we have determined the role of tissue-specific fucosyltransferase VII (FucT-VII), an enzyme necessary for selectin ligand synthesis, in the development of atherosclerosis. We adopted a scheme of transplanting either FucT-VII(-/-)GFP(+) bone marrow into lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor low density lipoprotein receptor mice or FucT-VII(+/+) GFP(+) bone marrow into FucT-VII(-/-), low density lipoprotein receptor double-mutant mice to evaluate the roles of E- and P-selectin ligands versus L-selectin ligands, respectively, in diet-induced atherosclerosis. GFP was used to track the transplanted cells. Our results indicate that, compared with controls, selective disruption of E- and P-selectin ligand synthesis resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerosis. Selective disruption of L-selectin ligand production did not reduce atherosclerosis as robustly as disruption of E- and P-selectin ligands. In both groups, however, there was a significant reduction in the accumulation of macrophages in the lesion. These studies indicate that selectin ligands, particularly those for E- and P-selectins, play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by regulating macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions.
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Leu128(3.43) (l128) and Val247(6.40) (V247) of CXCR1 are critical amino acid residues for g protein coupling and receptor activation.
PLoS ONE
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CXCR1, a classic GPCR that binds IL-8, plays a key role in neutrophil activation and migration by activating phospholipase C (PLC)? through G?(15) and G?(i) which generates diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates (IPs). In this study, two conserved amino acid residues of CXCR1 on the transmembrane domain (TM) 3 and TM6, Leu128(3.43) (L128) and Val247(6.40) (V247), respectively, were selectively substituted with other amino acids to investigate the role of these conserved residues in CXCR1 activation. Although two selective mutants on Leu128, Leu128Ala (L128A) and Leu128Arg (L128R), demonstrated high binding affinity to IL-8, they were not capable of coupling to G proteins and consequently lost the functional response of the receptors. By contrast, among the four mutants at residue Val247 (TM6.40), replacing Val247 with Ala (V247A) and Asn (V247N) led to constitutive activation of mutant receptors when cotransfected with G?(15). The V247N mutant also constitutively activated the G?(i) protein. These results indicate that L128 on TM3.43 is involved in G protein coupling and receptor activation but is unimportant for ligand binding. On the other hand, V247 on TM6.40 plays a critical role in maintaining the receptor in the inactive state, and the substitution of V247 impaired the receptor constraint and stabilized an active conformation. Functionally, there was an increase in chemotaxis in response to IL-8 in cells expressing V247A and V247N. Our findings indicate that Leu128(3.43) and Val247(6.40) are critical for G protein coupling and activation of signaling effectors, providing a valuable insight into the mechanism of CXCR1 activation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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