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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Grips and hand movements of chimpanzees during feeding in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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It has long been assumed that stone tool making was a major factor in the evolution of derived hominin hand morphology. However, stresses on the hand associated with food retrieval and processing also have been recognized as relevant early hominin behaviors that should be investigated. To this end, chimpanzee food manipulation was videotaped in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Grips and hand movements by 39 chimpanzees were analyzed for arboreal and terrestrial feeding involving 10 food-types and associated vegetation. It was predicted that (1) new grips would be found that had not been observed in captivity, (2) forceful precision grips would be absent from the repertoire, as in captivity, and (3) precision handling would be observed. New grips involving the full thumb and buttressed index finger, and a new integrated pattern of grips and forceful hand movements were discovered, associated with feeding on large fruits and meat. Participation of the full thumb in these grips, rather than the distal thumb and fingers, throws light on feeding behaviors that may have become increasingly significant factors in the evolution of derived hominin thumb morphology. The proximal thumb stabilizes food with the flexed index finger against the pull of the teeth and provides leverage in breaking food into portions. Isolated qualitative observations of possibly forceful pinch by the thumb and side of the index finger highlight the need for comparative quantitative data to test whether humans are unique in forceful precision gripping capability. Precision handling was not seen. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: Predation patterns and tool use characteristics.
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Chimpanzees are renowned for their use of foraging tools in harvesting social insects and some populations use tools to prey on aggressive army ants (Dorylus spp.). Tool use in army ant predation varies across chimpanzee study sites with differences in tool length, harvesting technique, and army ant species targeted. However, surprisingly little is known about the detailed ecology of army ant predation. We studied army ant predation by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at the Seringbara study site in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea (West Africa), over 10 years (2003-2013). We investigated chimpanzee selectivity with regards to army ant prey species. We assessed the temporal variation in army ant-feeding and examined whether army ant predation was related to rainfall or ripe fruit availability. Moreover, we examined whether chimpanzees showed selectivity regarding plant species used for tool manufacture, as well as the relationship between tool species preference and tool collection distance. Lastly, we measured tool properties and investigated the use of tool sets and composite tools in army ant predation. Seringbara chimpanzees preyed on one army ant species (D. nigricans) more often than expected based on encounter rates, which may be explained by the overlap in altitudinal distribution between chimpanzees and D. nigricans. Army ant predation was not related to rainfall or fruit availability. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tool materials and collected their preferred tool species (Alchornea hirtella) from greater distances than they did other species. Lastly, Seringbara chimpanzees used both tool sets and composite tools (tree perch) in army ant predation. Tool types (dig vs. dip) differed in width and strength, but not length. Tool composites were found at 40% of ant-feeding sites. Our study sheds new light on the ecology of army ant predation and provides novel insights into chimpanzee selection of army ant prey and tool species. Am. J. Primatol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and their mammalian sympatriates: Mt. Assirik, Niokolo-Koba National Park, Senegal.
Primates
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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In intact, mosaic ecosystems, chimpanzees are sympatric with a wide range of other mammals, which may be predators, prey, or competitors. We delve beyond the nominal data of species lists to interval-level data on 35 medium-bodied and large-bodied mammals encountered at a hot, dry, and open field site in far West Africa. Frequency of encounter, habitat where found, and number of individuals encountered are analysed for species for which enough data were accumulated. Further, we compare findings over three periods (1976-1979, 2000, 2012). Species most often encountered were those normally classed as typical savanna forms. Even a crude classification into forest, woodland, and grassland ecotypes yields differences in species likely to meet apes. Comparison of encounter rates over time was surprisingly congruent, although not all species seen in the 1970s survived to the 2000s. Overall, Assirik's mammalian fauna is comparable to palaeo-faunal guilds sympatric with various extinct hominins.
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The 'other faunivory' revisited: Insectivory in human and non-human primates and the evolution of human diet.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The role of invertebrates in the evolution of human diet has been under-studied by comparison with vertebrates and plants. This persists despite substantial knowledge of the importance of the 'other faunivory', especially insect-eating, in the daily lives of non-human primates and traditional human societies, especially hunters and gatherers. Most primates concentrate on two phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, but of the latter's classes, insects (especially five orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) are paramount. An insect product, bees' honey, is particularly important, and its collection shows a reversal of the usual sexual division of labor. Human entomophagy involves advanced technology (fire, containers) and sometimes domestication. Insectivory provides comparable calorific and nutritional benefits to carnivory, but with different costs. Much insectivory in hominoids entails elementary technology used in extractive foraging, such as termite fishing by chimpanzees. Elucidating insectivory in the fossil and paleontological record is challenging, but at least nine avenues are available: remains, lithics, residues, DNA, coprolites, dental microwear, stable isotopes, osteology, and depictions. All are in play, but some have been more successful so far than others.
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Selective insectivory at Toro-Semliki, Uganda: comparative analyses suggest no 'savanna' chimpanzee pattern.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) insectivory across Africa is ubiquitous. Insects provide a significant nutritional payoff and may be important for chimpanzees in dry, open habitats with narrow diets. We tested this hypothesis at Semliki, Uganda, a long-term dry study site. We evaluated prospects for insectivory by measuring insect abundance along de novo transects and trails, monitoring social insect colonies, and surveying available raw materials for elementary technology. We determined the frequency and nature of insectivory through behavioral observation and fecal analysis. We then compared our results with those from 15 other long-term chimpanzee study sites using a cluster analysis. We found that Semliki chimpanzees are one of the most insectivorous populations studied to date in terms of frequency of consumption, but they are very selective in their insectivory, regularly consuming only weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) and honey and bees from hives of Apis mellifera. This selectivity obtains despite having a full range of typical prey species available in harvestable quantities. We suggest that Semliki chimpanzees may face ecological time constraints and therefore bias their predation toward prey taxa that can be quickly consumed. Geographical proximity correlated with the results of the cluster analysis, while rainfall, a relatively gross measure of environment, did not. Because broad taxonomic groups of insects were used in analyses, prey availability was unlikely to have a strong effect on this pattern. Instead, we suggest that transmission of cultural knowledge may play a role in determining chimpanzee prey selection across Africa. Further study is needed to test these hypotheses.
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Macroscopic inspection of ape feces: what's in a quantification method?
Am. J. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Macroscopic inspection of feces has been used to investigate primate diet. The limitations of this method to identify food-items to species level have long been recognized, but ascertaining aspects of diet (e.g., folivory) are achievable by quantifying food-items in feces. Quantification methods applied include rating food-items using a scale of abundance, estimating their percentage volume, and weighing food-items. However, verification as to whether or not composition data differ, depending on which quantification method is used during macroscopic inspection, has not been done. We analyzed feces collected from ten adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We compare dietary composition totals obtained from using different quantification methods and ascertain if sieve mesh size influences totals calculated. Finally, this study validates findings from direct observation of feeding by the same individuals from whom the fecal samples had been collected. Contrasting diet composition totals obtained by using different quantification methods and sieve mesh sizes can influence folivory and frugivory estimates. However, our findings were based on the assumption that fibrous matter contained pith and leaf fragments only, which remains to be verified. We advocate macroscopic inspection of feces can be a valuable tool to provide a generalized overview of dietary composition for primate populations. As most populations remain unhabituated, scrutinizing and validating indirect measures are important if they are to be applied to further understand inter- and intra-species dietary variation.
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Handedness is more than laterality: lessons from chimpanzees.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Is human handedness unique? That is, do our nearest living relations, chimpanzee and bonobo (Pan spp.) show species-wide handedness, as is seen in living Homo sapiens? The answer may depend on definition: Handedness (congruence across subjects and across tasks) should be distinguished from hand preference (within subject and task), manual specialization (within subject, across tasks), and task specialization (across subjects, within task). Comparison is required at both population and species level. Several methodological issues (e.g., ecological validity) are crucial, as are major confounding variables (e.g., bimanuality). The behavioral manual laterality of chimpanzees is well-studied in a variety of contexts. Especially important is tool use, which seems to enhance extent of lateralization, but this varies both within and across populations. There is much evidence for task specialization in chimpanzees, but no conclusive evidence of handedness in the strictest sense. Thus, human handedness seems to be unique among living hominoids.
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"An apes view of the Oldowan" revisited.
Evol. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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In 1989, Wynn and McGrew published an explicit comparison between Oldowan technology and what was then known of chimpanzee technology. They compared the range and variety of tools, adaptive role of tools, carrying distances, spatial cognition, manufacturing procedures, and modes of learning. They concluded that everything archeologists had reconstructed about the behavior of Oldowan hominins could be accommodated within the ape adaptive grade; that is, a paraphyletic group united by overall similarities in anatomy and, in this case, behavior. The only Oldowan activities that were almost unknown for modern apes were the long-distance transport of objects and direct competition with carnivores, which was implied by meat acquisition activities. "In its general features Oldowan culture was ape, not human. Nowhere in this picture need we posit elements such as language, extensive sharing, division of labor, or pair-bonded families, all of which are part of the baggage carried by the term human."
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Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methods.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Over the last 30 years it has become increasingly apparent that there are many behavioral differences among wild communities of Pan troglodytes. Some researchers argue these differences are a consequence of the behaviors being socially learned, and thus may be considered cultural. Others contend that the available evidence is too weak to discount the alternative possibility that the behaviors are genetically determined. Previous phylogenetic analyses of chimpanzee behavior have not supported the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. However, the results of these studies are potentially problematic because the behavioral sample employed did not include communities from central Africa. Here, we present the results of a study designed to address this shortcoming. We carried out cladistic analyses of presence/absence data pertaining to 19 tool-use behaviors in 10 different P. troglodytes communities plus an outgroup (P. paniscus). Genetic data indicate that chimpanzee communities in West Africa are well differentiated from those in eastern and central Africa, while the latter are not reciprocally monophyletic. Thus, we predicted that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the tool-use data should mirror the genetic data in terms of structure. The three measures of phylogenetic structure we employed (the Retention Index, the bootstrap, and the Permutation Tail Probability Test) did not support the genetic hypothesis. They were all lower when all 10 communities were included than when the three western African communities are excluded. Hence, our study refutes the genetic hypothesis and provides further evidence that patterns of behavior in chimpanzees are the product of social learning and therefore meet the main condition for culture.
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Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use cleavers and anvils to fracture Treculia africana fruits? Preliminary data on a new form of percussive technology.
Primates
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are renowned for their use of tools in activities ranging from foraging to social interactions. Different populations across Africa vary in their tool use repertoires, giving rise to cultural variation. We report a new type of percussive technology in food processing by chimpanzees in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: Treculia fracturing. Chimpanzees appear to use stone and wooden "cleavers" as tools, as well as stone outcrop "anvils" as substrate to fracture the large and fibrous fruits of Treculia africana, a rare but prized food source. This newly described form of percussive technology is distinctive, as the apparent aim is not to extract an embedded food item, as is the case in nut cracking, baobab smashing, or pestle pounding, but rather to reduce a large food item to manageably sized pieces. Furthermore, these preliminary data provide the first evidence of chimpanzees using two types of percussive technology for the same purpose.
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Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins?
Anim Cogn
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an "outdoor laboratory" site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain stones as hammer and anvil more often than expected by chance, even when taking into account preferences for individual stones by themselves. This may reflect an ability to recognise the nut-cracker as a single tool (composed of two elements, but functional only as a whole), as well as discrimination of tool quality-effectiveness. Through repeatedly combining the same pairs of stones--whether due to preferences for particular composites or for the two elements independently--tool-users may amplify use-wear traces and increase the likelihood of fracturing the stones, and thus of detaching pieces by battering.
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Primate archaeology.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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All modern humans use tools to overcome limitations of our anatomy and to make difficult tasks easier. However, if tool use is such an advantage, we may ask why it is not evolved to the same degree in other species. To answer this question, we need to bring a long-term perspective to the material record of other members of our own order, the Primates.
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Standardised protocol for primate faecal analysis.
Primates
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Macroscopic analysis of primate faeces as a way to study diet is well established, but lack of standardisation of methods may handicap comparative studies of the resulting data. Here we present a proven technique, including equipment and supplies, protocol and procedure, that yields quantitative data suitable for systematic investigation within and across primate taxa. As the problems of habituation become more obvious, the application of such indirect methods may increase in usefulness.
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Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.
J. Hum. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Long-term field studies have revealed considerable behavioural differences among groups of wild Pan troglodytes. Here, we report three sets of cladistic analyses that were designed to shed light on issues relating to this interpopulation variation that are of particular relevance to palaeoanthropology. In the first set of analyses, we focused on the proximate cause of the variation. Some researchers have argued that it is cultural, while others have suggested that it is the result of genetic differences. Because the eastern and western subspecies of P. troglodytes are well differentiated genetically while groups within the subspecies are not, we reasoned that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the phylogenetic signal should be stronger when data from the eastern and western subspecies are analysed together compared to when data from only the eastern subspecies are analysed. Using randomisation procedures, we found that the phylogenetic signal was substantially stronger with in a single subspecies rather than with two. The results of the first sets of analyses, therefore, were inconsistent with the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. The other two sets of analyses built on the results of the first and assumed that the intergroup behavioural variation is cultural in nature. Recent work has shown that, contrary to what anthropologists and archaeologists have long believed, vertical intergroup transmission is often more important than horizontal intergroup transmission in human cultural evolution. In the second set of analyses, we sought to determine how important vertical transmission has been in the evolution of chimpanzee cultural diversity. The first analysis we carried out indicated that the intergroup similarities and differences in behaviour are consistent with the divergence of the western and eastern subspecies, which is what would be expected if vertical intergroup transmission has been the dominant process. In the second analysis, we found that the chimpanzee cultural data are not only comparable to a series of modern human cultural data sets in terms of how tree-like they are, but are also comparable to a series of genetic, anatomical, and behavioural data sets that can be assumed to have been produced by a branching process. Again, this is what would be expected if vertical inter-group transmission has been the dominant process in chimpanzee cultural evolution. Human culture has long been considered to be adaptive, but recent studies have suggested that this needs to be demonstrated rather than assumed. With this in mind, in the third set of analyses we investigated whether chimpanzee culture is adaptive. We found the hypothesis that chimpanzee culture is adaptive was supported by an analysis of data from the Eastern African subspecies, but not by an analysis of data from the eastern and western subspecies. The results of our analyses have implications for the number of subspecies in Pan troglodytes, the relationship between hominin taxa and Palaeolithic industries, and the evolution of hominin cognition and behaviour.
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Emergence, propagation or disappearance of novel behavioral patterns in the habituated chimpanzees of Mahale: a review.
Primates
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Each local population of chimpanzees shows cultural variation, but little is known about how behavioral variations first emerge, and how often variants spread to other individuals and then become fixed as a local culture in chimpanzee society. Although field studies of chimpanzees are still too short to answer these questions definitively, it may stimulate further study in various sites to summarize the developments observed over the past 40 years at Mahale, Tanzania. Innovative patterns were operationally defined as new behavioral patterns performed by M group chimpanzees from 1981 onwards. Innovations included patterns of feeding (n = 8), human-directed behavior (n = 3), hygiene behavior (n = 4), maternal carrying of infants (n = 2), courtship (n = 2), play (n = 6), intimidation displays (n = 3), and quasi-grooming (n = 4). Although most patterns were repeated later by other individuals, six patterns were never seen performed by another individual, and eight patterns were performed by one or a few individuals but social transmission was unlikely. Thus, innovation was not rare, but emergence of fashion or establishment of traditions seems to occur rarely in chimpanzee society.
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Community composition, correlations among taxa, prevalence, and richness in gastrointestinal parasites of baboons in Senegal, West Africa.
Primates
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Studies of gastrointestinal parasite prevalence in Papio have either focused on a single troop or compared prevalence among troops that share migrants but differ in degree of human contact. Little is known about the extent of variation in prevalence where obvious factors that may drive prevalence (e.g., human contact) are absent, so it is difficult to interpret variation when these factors are present. To address this issue, we studied troops of Guinea baboons (Papio papio) that had almost no contact with humans or domesticated species of plants or animals. We tested the null hypotheses that community composition, richness, and prevalence would be similar between groups in two comparisons: (1) between troops in the same locality with no known differences in drivers of prevalence, and (2) between samples at the same location taken more than 20 years apart. We collected anonymous fecal samples from two troops of baboons living in a wilderness site, Mt. Assirik, in the Niokolo-Koba National Park, Republic of Senegal, West Africa. We collected samples from two valleys and analyzed prevalence and richness with respect to place and time. Both prevalence and richness were similar in the two valleys, but significant changes emerged in both prevalence and community composition compared with the previous survey in 1978-1979. We also found that the nematode Enterobius and a fluke, Watsonius, co-occurred within hosts more frequently than expected. This phenomenon has not been previously noted in the literature, and it suggests common environmental drivers or facilitation among these parasites.
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Ranging behavior of Mahale chimpanzees: a 16 year study.
Primates
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We have analyzed the ranging patterns of the Mimikire group (M group) of chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. During 16 years, the chimpanzees moved over a total area of 25.2 or 27.4 km(2), as estimated by the grid-cell or minimum convex polygon (MCP) methods, respectively. Annually, the M group used an average of 18.4 km(2), or approximately 70 %, of the total home-range area. The chimpanzees had used 80 % of their total home range after 5 years and 95 % after 11 years. M group chimpanzees were observed more than half of the time in areas that composed only 15 % of their total home range. Thus, they typically moved over limited areas, visiting other parts of their range only occasionally. On average, the chimpanzees used 7.6 km(2) (in MCP) per month. Mean monthly range size was smallest at the end of the rainy season and largest at the end of the dry season, but there was much variability from year to year. The chimpanzees used many of the same areas every year when Saba comorensis fruits were abundant between August and January. In contrast, the chimpanzees used several different areas of their range in June. Here range overlap between years was relatively small. Over the 16 years of the study we found that the M group reduced their use of the northern part of their range and increased their frequency of visits to the eastern mountainous side of their home range. Changes in home-range size correlated positively with the number of adult females but not with the number of adult males. This finding does not support a prediction of the male-defended territory model proposed for some East African chimpanzee unit-groups.
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The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.
J Comp Psychol
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The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned.
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Terrestrial nest-building by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): implications for the tree-to-ground sleep transition in early hominins.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
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Nest-building is a great ape universal and arboreal nesting in chimpanzees and bonobos suggests that the common ancestor of Pan and Homo also nested in trees. It has been proposed that arboreal nest-building remained the prevailing pattern until Homo erectus, a fully terrestrial biped, emerged. We investigated the unusual occurrence of ground-nesting in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which may inform on factors influencing the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the hominin lineage. We used a novel genetic approach to examine ground-nesting in unhabituated chimpanzees at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea. Previous research showed that ground-nesting at Seringbara was not ecologically determined. Here, we tested a possible mate-guarding function of ground-nesting by analyzing DNA from shed hairs collected from ground nests and tree nests found in close proximity. We examined whether or not ground-nesting was a group-level behavioral pattern and whether or not it occurred in more than one community. We used multiple genetic markers to identify sex and to examine variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (HV1, HV2) sequences. Ground-nesting was a male-biased behavior and males constructed more elaborate ("night") nests than simple ("day") nests on the ground. The mate-guarding hypothesis was not supported, as ground and associated tree nests were built either by maternally-related males or possibly by the same individuals. Ground-nesting was widespread and likely habitual in two communities. We suggest that terrestrial nest-building may have already occurred in arboreally-adapted early hominins before the emergence of H. erectus.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.