JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The C. lari group is currently composed of five species (C. lari, C. insulaenigrae, C. volucris, C. subantarcticus and C. peloridis), as well as a group of strains termed the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) and other C. lari-like strains. Here we present the complete genome sequences of 11 C. lari group strains, including the five C. lari group species, four UPTC strains and a lari-like strain isolated in this study. The genome of C. lari subsp. lari strain RM2100 was described previously. Analysis of the C. lari group genomes indicates that this group is highly related at the genome level. Furthermore, these genomes are strongly syntenic with minor rearrangements occurring only in four of the twelve genomes studied. The C. lari group can be bifurcated, based on the flagella and flagellar modification genes. Genomic analysis of the UPTC strains indicated that these organisms are variable but highly-similar, closely related to but distinct from C. lari. Additionally, the C. lari group contains multiple genes encoding hemagglutination domain proteins, which are either contingency genes or linked to conserved contingency genes. Many of the features identified in strain RM2100, such as major deficiencies in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, are conserved across all 12 genomes, suggesting that these common features may play a role in the association of the C. lari group with coastal environments and watersheds.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of HIV status on fertility desire and knowledge of long-acting reversible contraception of postpartum Malawian women.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objectives of this study were to describe the most recent pregnancy intentions and family planning preferences of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected postpartum Malawian women, and to assess whether HIV status is associated with fertility desire and knowledge of intrauterine contraception (IUC) and the subdermal contraceptive implant. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline characteristics of Malawian women enrolled in a prospective cohort study assessing postpartum contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women at a government hospital completed a baseline survey assessing reproductive history, family planning preferences, and knowledge of IUC and the implant. We used Pearson's chi-square tests to compare these parameters between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between HIV status and fertility desire and knowledge about IUC and the implant. Of 634 postpartum women surveyed, HIV-infected women were more likely to report their most recent pregnancy was unintended (49% vs. 37%, p = 0.004). Nearly all women (97%) did not want a child in the next 2 years, but HIV-infected women were more likely to desire no more children (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 1.89). HIV-infected women were also less likely to know that IUC (adjusted PR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84) and the implant (adjusted PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) are safe during breast-feeding. Postpartum women strongly desire family spacing and many HIV-infected postpartum women desire no more children, suggesting an important role for these long-acting methods. Education about the efficacy and safety of IUC and the implant particularly during breast-feeding may facilitate postpartum use.
Related JoVE Video
Coaching strategies for enhancing practice transformation.
Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current research on primary care practice redesign suggests that outside facilitation can be an important source of support for achieving substantial change.
Related JoVE Video
Using CD4 percentage and age to optimize pediatric antiretroviral therapy initiation.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Quantifying pediatric immunologic recovery by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation at different CD4 percentage (CD4%) and age thresholds may inform decisions about timing of treatment initiation.
Related JoVE Video
Inconsistency of Phenotypic and Genomic Characteristics of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Requires Reevaluation of Current Diagnostics.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of five C. fetus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genomes of 23 C. fetus strains of the two subspecies showed a division into two clusters. The phylogenetic core genome clusters were not consistent with the phenotypic classifications of the C. fetus subspecies. However, they were consistent with the molecular characteristics of the strains, which were determined by multilocus sequence typing, sap typing, and the presence/absence of insertion sequences and a type I restriction modification system. The similarity of the genome characteristics of three of the phenotypically defined C. fetus subsp. fetus strains to C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains, when considering the core genome and accessory genes, requires a critical evaluation of the clinical relevance of C. fetus subspecies identification by phenotypic assays.
Related JoVE Video
Complete Genome Sequence and Annotation of a Campylobacter jejuni Strain, MTVDSCj20, Isolated from a Naturally Colonized Farm-Raised Chicken.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human food-borne illness, with contaminated poultry products serving as a main source of human infection. C. jejuni strain MTVDSCj20 was isolated from the cecal contents of a farm-raised chicken that was naturally colonized with Campylobacter. We present here the complete annotated genome sequence of MTVDSCj20.
Related JoVE Video
Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.
Related JoVE Video
Minimal clinically important difference of the L Test for individuals with lower limb amputation: A pilot study.
Prosthet Orthot Int
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The L Test is a reliable/valid clinical evaluation of mobility that measures walking speed in seconds. It can be used with individuals with lower limb amputation. Responsiveness of the L Test is not yet determined.
Related JoVE Video
A model for developing, evaluating, and disseminating best practices in education and training.
Clin Transl Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the shift toward team-based translational science came recognition that existing strategies for training individual investigators and retaining them in the biomedical workforce would be inadequate. To support this shift, it is important to: develop innovative strategies to educate and train diverse members of research teams; evaluate those programs; and disseminate best practices broadly. We have developed a four-phase model to facilitate the development, evaluation, and widespread dissemination of innovative strategies to train the biomedical research workforce. Phase I (Innovate) involves small scale trials of programs to address perceived training needs or new methods of delivery. Phase II (Incubate) refines and evaluates promising Phase I activities on a larger scale. Phase III (Translate) seeks to replicate initial successes either locally (Phase IIIa) or with other interested institutions (Phase IIIb). Phase IV (Disseminate) assesses whether identified local best practices can have success on a broader scale. We present specific examples from our own experience that demonstrate the utility of this model, and then conclude with opportunities and challenges related to the education and training of this workforce.
Related JoVE Video
French-Canadian translation of the WheelCon-M (WheelCon-M-F) and evaluation of its validity evidence using telephone administration.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to: (1) translate the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Wheelchair Users (WheelCon-M) into a French-Canadian version (WheelCon-M-F); and (2) evaluate the WheelCon-M-F validity evidence based on response processes, internal structure, and relations with other variables. Methods: The WheelCon-M was translated from English to French using the Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures - Principles of Good Practice guidelines. We used a test-retest design to examine the validity of the WheelCon-M-F with 24 community dwelling, experienced manual wheelchair users who had a variety of musculoskeletal and neurological diagnoses. Results: The mean?±?SD WheelCon-M-F score was 63.8?±?19.9. All WheelCon-M-F items were either identical or similar in meaning to the WheelCon-M items. Clarification issues were identified with 27/63 items. Cronbach's alpha was 0.98 and the retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87. The standard error of measurement and smallest real difference were 7.2 and 19.9, respectively. There were no floor or ceiling effects. WheelCon-M-F correlations with social support and participation were r?=?0.54 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusions: The WheelCon-M-F is a valid outcome measure for assessing manual wheelchair confidence in the French-Canadian population. Implications for Rehabilitation The WheelCon-M-F is a valid outcome measure available for assessing wheelchair confidence, a modifiable barrier to wheelchair use. Translation of the WheelCon-M into the WheelCon-M-F allows collection of both clinical and research wheelchair confidence data using the two official Canadian languages, English and French.
Related JoVE Video
Manifestations and implications of uncertainty for improving healthcare systems: an analysis of observational and interventional studies grounded in complexity science.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundThe application of complexity science to understanding healthcare system improvement highlights the need to consider interdependencies within the system. One important aspect of the interdependencies in healthcare delivery systems is how individuals relate to each other. However, results from our observational and interventional studies focusing on relationships to understand and improve outcomes in a variety of healthcare settings have been inconsistent. We sought to better understand and explain these inconsistencies by analyzing our findings across studies and building new theory.MethodsWe analyzed eight observational and interventional studies in which our author team was involved as the basis of our analysis, using a set theoretical qualitative comparative analytic approach. Over 16 investigative meetings spanning 11 months, we iteratively analyzed our studies, identifying patterns of characteristics that could explain our set of results.Our initial focus on differences in setting did not explain our mixed results. We then turned to differences in patient care activities and tasks being studied and the attributes of the disease being treated. Finally, we examined the interdependence between task and disease.ResultsWe identified system-level uncertainty as a defining characteristic of complex systems through which we interpreted our results. We identified several characteristics of healthcare tasks and diseases that impact the ways uncertainty is manifest across diverse care delivery activities. These include disease-related uncertainty (pace of evolution of disease and patient control over outcomes) and task-related uncertainty (standardized versus customized, routine versus non-routine, and interdependencies required for task completion).ConclusionsUncertainty is an important aspect of clinical systems that must be considered in designing approaches to improve healthcare system function. The uncertainty inherent in tasks and diseases, and how they come together in specific clinical settings, will influence the type of improvement strategies that are most likely to be successful. Process-based efforts appear best-suited for low-uncertainty contexts, while relationship-based approaches may be most effective for high-uncertainty situations.
Related JoVE Video
Influences of wheelchair-related efficacy on life-space mobility in adults who use a wheelchair and live in the community.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Self-efficacy has important implications for health and functioning in people with limited mobility. However, the influence of self-efficacy on mobility in adults who use wheelchairs has yet to be investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n?=?8) and reptiles (n?=?5). The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and genomic data from sap analysis, 16S rRNA gene and hsp60 sequence comparison, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that these strains are closely related to C. fetus but clearly differentiated from recognized subspecies of C. fetus. Therefore, this unique cluster of 13 strains represents a novel subspecies within the species C. fetus, for which the name Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is proposed, with strain 03-427(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2539(T)?=?LMG 27499(T)) as the type strain. Although this novel taxon could not be differentiated from C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis using conventional phenotypic tests, MALDI-TOF MS revealed the presence of multiple phenotypic biomarkers which distinguish Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. from recognized subspecies of C. fetus.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of a routine, opt-out HIV testing program on HIV testing and case detection in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease clinics.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection.
Related JoVE Video
Sampling at community level by using satellite imagery and geographical analysis.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditional random sampling at community level requires a list of every individual household that can be randomly selected in the study community. The longitudinal demographic surveillance systems often used as sampling frames are difficult to create in many resource-poor settings.
Related JoVE Video
STI patients are effective recruiters of undiagnosed cases of HIV: results of a social contact recruitment study in Malawi.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Validating the wheelchair outcome measure for residents in long-term care.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the retest reliability and construct validity of the self-report and proxy versions of the wheelchair outcome measure (WhOM) among residents in long-term care.
Related JoVE Video
A description of manual wheelchair skills training curriculum in entry-to-practice occupational and physical therapy programs in Canada.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Purpose: To describe the curriculum for manual wheelchair (MWC) skills training in entry-to-practice occupational (OT) and physical therapy (PT) programs in Canada. Methods: An online survey was sent to 28 directors of entry-to-practice OT and PT programs in Canadian universities. Responses were solicited from individuals who could report about wheelchair skills training. Fourteen survey questions asked about: (1) demographic information, (2) specific curriculum content for MWC skills training, (3) teaching methods used, (4) instructional methods and estimated time used to teach MWC skills and (5) whether validated wheelchair skills training programs were used in curriculum development. Results: Responses received from 21/28 programs, (OT-11/14; PT-10/14). About 16 of 21 programs included curriculum for MWC skills training. Informal hands-on instruction was the most common method used for teaching wheelchair skills (13/21), while multiple lectures were used the least (5/21). Only 8/21 used a validated wheelchair skills training program in curriculum development. Conclusion: Despite the public availability of a validated wheelchair skills program, there is little use of the program in entry-to-practice curriculum. Integrating online training programs into existing curricula or the development of post-professional training modules may help clinicians to better accommodate the mobility needs of the substantially increasing population with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Current clinical curriculum includes basic wheelchair skills training, but not necessarily training in the advanced wheelchair skills that are needed for optimal wheelchair mobility. There is evidence for a standardized approach for providing wheelchair skills training, that may be administered through curriculum, online or through post-graduate training modules.
Related JoVE Video
A description of manual wheelchair skills training: current practices in Canadian rehabilitation centers.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Purpose: To describe current practices for manual wheelchair (MWC) skills training in Canadian rehabilitation centers. Methods: An online survey was sent to practice leaders in occupational (OT) and physical therapy (PT) at 87 Canadian rehabilitation centers. Responses were solicited from individuals who could report about wheelchair skills training at facilities with at least 10 beds designated for rehabilitation. Thirty-four questions asked about: (1) demographics, (2) components of MWC training, (3) amount of MWC skills training, (4) use of validated programs and (5) perceived barriers to using validated programs. Data were analyzed using summary statistics. Results: About 68/87 responses were received primarily from OTs (42/68). Basic MWC skills training (e.g. wheel-locks) was consistently part of clinical practice (45/68), while advanced skills training (e.g. curb-cuts) was rare (8/68). On an average, 1-4?h of training was done (29/68). Validated training programs were used by 16/68, most of whom used them "rarely" (7/16). Common barriers to using validated programs were lack of time (43/68) and resources (39/68). Conclusions: Learning to use a wheelchair is important for those with ambulation impairments because the wheelchair enables mobility and social participation. Providing opportunities for advanced wheelchair skills training may enhance mobility and social participation in a safe manner. Implications for Rehabilitation There is evidence confirming the benefits of a validated wheelchair skills program, yet most clinicians do no not use them. A variety of perceived barriers may help to explain the limited use of existing programs, such as time, resources and knowledge. Effective knowledge translation efforts may help alleviate some of these barriers, and novel wheelchair training approaches may alleviate some burden on clinicians to help accommodate the increasing number of older wheelchair users.
Related JoVE Video
Redirecting intracellular trafficking and the secretion pattern of FSH dramatically enhances ovarian function in mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted constitutively or in pulses, respectively, from pituitary gonadotropes in many vertebrates, and regulate ovarian function. The molecular basis for this evolutionarily conserved gonadotropin-specific secretion pattern is not understood. Here, we show that the carboxyterminal heptapeptide in LH is a gonadotropin-sorting determinant in vivo that directs pulsatile secretion. FSH containing this heptapeptide enters the regulated pathway in gonadotropes of transgenic mice, and is released in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, similar to LH. FSH released from the LH secretory pathway rescued ovarian defects in Fshb-null mice as efficiently as constitutively secreted FSH. Interestingly, the rerouted FSH enhanced ovarian follicle survival, caused a dramatic increase in number of ovulations, and prolonged female reproductive lifespan. Furthermore, the rerouted FSH vastly improved the in vivo fertilization competency of eggs, their subsequent development in vitro and when transplanted, the ability to produce offspring. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to fine-tune the target tissue responses by modifying the intracellular trafficking and secretory fate of a pituitary trophic hormone. The approach to interconvert the secretory fate of proteins in vivo has pathophysiological significance, and could explain the etiology of several hormone hyperstimulation and resistance syndromes.
Related JoVE Video
Metrics for assessing improvements in primary health care.
Annu Rev Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metrics focus attention on what is important. Balanced metrics of primary health care inform purpose and aspiration as well as performance. Purpose in primary health care is about improving the health of people and populations in their community contexts. It is informed by metrics that include long-term, meaning- and relationship-focused perspectives. Aspirational uses of metrics inspire evolving insights and iterative improvement, using a collaborative, developmental perspective. Performance metrics assess the complex interactions among primary care tenets of accessibility, a whole-person focus, integration and coordination of care, and ongoing relationships with individuals, families, and communities; primary health care principles of inclusion and equity, a focus on people's needs, multilevel integration of health, collaborative policy dialogue, and stakeholder participation; basic and goal-directed health care, prioritization, development, and multilevel health outcomes. Environments that support reflection, development, and collaborative action are necessary for metrics to advance health and minimize unintended consequences.
Related JoVE Video
Blending remote sensing data products to estimate photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in the surface ocean.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and its precursor, superoxide (O?(-)), are well-studied photochemical products that are pivotal in regulating redox transformations of trace metals and organic matter in the surface ocean. In attempts to understand the magnitude of both H?O? and O?(-) photoproduction on a global scale, we implemented a model to calculate photochemical fluxes of these products from remotely sensed ocean color and modeled solar irradiances. We generated monthly climatologies for open ocean H?O? photoproduction rates using an average apparent quantum yield (AQY) spectrum determined from laboratory irradiations of oligotrophic water collected in the Gulf of Alaska. Because the formation of H?O? depends on secondary thermal reactions involving O?(-), we also implemented a temperature correction for the H?O? AQY using remotely sensed sea surface temperature and an Arrhenius relationship for H?O? photoproduction. Daily photoproduction rates of H?O? ranged from <1 to over 100 nM per day, amounting to ?30 ?M per year in highly productive regions. When production rates were calculated without the temperature correction, maximum daily rates were underestimated by 15-25%, highlighting the importance of including the temperature modification for H?O? in these models. By making assumptions about the relationship between H?O? and O?(-) photoproduction rates and O?(-) decay kinetics, we present a method for calculating midday O?(-) steady-state concentrations ([O?(-)]ss) in the open ocean. Estimated [O?(-)]ss ranged from 0.1-5 nM assuming biomolecular dismutation was the only sink for O?(-), but were reduced to 0.1-290 pM when catalytic pathways were included. While the approach presented here provides the first global scale estimates of marine [O?(-)]ss from remote sensing, the potential of this model to quantify O?(-) photoproduction rates and [O?(-)]ss will not be fully realized until the mechanisms controlling O?(-) photoproduction and decay are better understood.
Related JoVE Video
Measurement properties of the late life disability index among individuals who use power wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Late Life Disability Instrument (LLDI) in individuals who use power wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population.
Related JoVE Video
First Closed Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of C. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. We report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar.
Related JoVE Video
A cross-sectional analysis of HIV and hepatitis C clinical trials 2007 to 2010: the relationship between industry sponsorship and randomized study design.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The proportion of clinical research sponsored by industry will likely continue to expand as federal funds for academic research decreases, particularly in the fields of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C (HCV). While HIV and HCV continue to burden the US population, insufficient data exists as to how industry sponsorship affects clinical trials involving these infectious diseases. Debate exists about whether pharmaceutical companies undertake more market-driven research practices to promote therapeutics, or instead conduct more rigorous trials than their non-industry counterparts because of increased resources and scrutiny. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry, which allows investigators to fulfill a federal mandate for public trial registration, provides an opportunity for critical evaluation of study designs for industry-sponsored trials, independent of publication status. As part of a large public policy effort, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) recently transformed the ClinicalTrials.gov registry into a searchable dataset to facilitate research on clinical trials themselves.
Related JoVE Video
Association between self-efficacy and participation in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of undiagnosed trichomoniasis in a probability sample of urban young adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T. vaginalis infection (trichomoniasis) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. It is associated with increased HIV risk and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Trichomoniasis surveillance data do not exist for either national or local populations. The Monitoring STIs Survey Program (MSSP) collected survey data and specimens which were tested using nucleic acid amplification tests to monitor trichomoniasis and other STIs in 2006-09 among a probability sample of young adults (N?=?2,936) in Baltimore, Maryland--an urban area with high rates of reported STIs. The estimated prevalence of trichomoniasis was 7.5% (95% CI 6.3, 9.1) in the overall population and 16.1% (95% CI 13.0, 19.8) among Black women. The overwhelming majority of infected men (98.5%) and women (73.3%) were asymptomatic. Infections were more common in both women (OR?=?3.6, 95% CI 1.6, 8.2) and men (OR?=?9.0, 95% CI 1.8, 44.3) with concurrent chlamydial infection. Trichomoniasis did not vary significantly by age for either men or women. Women with two or more partners in the past year and women with a history of personal or partner incarceration were more likely to have an infection. Overall, these results suggest that routine T vaginalis screening in populations at elevated risk of infection should be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51), which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms associated with the CosR regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Gender-based screening for chlamydial infection and divergent infection trends in men and women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the potential impact of chlamydial screening policy that recommends routine screening of women but not men.
Related JoVE Video
Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification present on most C. jejuni isolates. Although the MeOPN structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. In this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparisons and high resolution magic angle spinning NMR, that MeOPN modifications are common to several Campylobacter species. Using MeOPN biosynthesis and transferase mutants generated in C. jejuni strain 81-176, we observed that loss of MeOPN from the cell surface correlated with increased invasion of Caco-2 epithelial cells and reduced resistance to killing by human serum. In C. jejuni, the observed serum mediated killing was determined to result primarily from activation of the classical complement pathway. The C. jejuni MeOPN transferase mutant showed similar levels of colonization relative to the wild-type in chickens, but showed a five-fold drop in colonization when co-infected with the wild-type in piglets. In Galleria mellonella waxmoth larvae, the MeOPN transferase mutant was able to kill the insects at wild-type levels. Furthermore, injection of the larvae with MeOPN-linked monosaccharides or CPS purified from the wild-type strain did not result in larval killing, indicating that MeOPN does not have inherent insecticidal activity.
Related JoVE Video
Complete Genome Sequence of the Campylobacter coli Clinical Isolate 15-537360.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter coli strain 15-537360 was originally isolated in 2001 from a 42-year-old patient with gastroenteritis. Here, we report its complete genome sequence, which comprises a 1.7-Mbp chromosome and a 29-kbp conjugative cryptic plasmid. This is the first complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate of C. coli.
Related JoVE Video
Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum Strain 03-427T.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here, we present the first whole-genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies.
Related JoVE Video
Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-omics approaches to deciphering a hypervirulent strain of Campylobacter jejuni.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni clone SA recently emerged as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States and is also associated with foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. A distinct phenotype of this clone is its ability to induce bacteremia and abortion. To facilitate understanding the pathogenesis of this hypervirulent clone, we analyzed a clinical isolate (IA3902) of clone SA using multi-omics approaches. The genome of IA3902 contains a circular chromosome of 1,635,045 bp and a circular plasmid of 37,174 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that IA3902 is most closely related to C. jejuni NCTC11168, which is a reference strain and was previously shown to be non-abortifacient in pregnant animals. Despite the high genomic synteny and sequence homology, there are 12 variable regions (VRs) and 8,696 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels between the two genomes. Notably, the variable genes in the capsular polysaccharides biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation loci of IA3902 are highly homogenous to their counterparts in C. jejuni subsp. doylei and C. jejuni G1, which are known to be frequently associated with bacteremia. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiles were conducted to compare IA3902 with NCTC11168, which revealed that the pathways of energy generation, motility, and serine utilization were significantly up-regulated in IA3902, whereas the pathways of iron uptake and proline, glutamate, aspartate, and lactate utilization were significantly down-regulated. These results suggest that C. jejuni clone SA has evolved distinct genomic content and gene expression patterns that modulate surface polysacharide structures, motilitiy, and metabolic pathways. These changes may have contributed to its hyper-virulence in abortion induction.
Related JoVE Video
The footprint of old syphilis: using a reverse screening algorithm for syphilis testing in a U.S. Geographic Information Systems-Based Community Outreach Program.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of syphilis reverse sequence screening has not been evaluated in community outreach. Using reverse sequence screening in neighborhoods identified with geographic information systems, we found that among 239 participants, 45 (19%) were seropositive. Of these, 3 (7%) had untreated syphilis, 33 (73%) had previously treated syphilis infection, and 9 (20%) had negative nontreponemal test results.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of the Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The qualitative Roche HIV-1 DNA Amplicor assay has been used for the past 20 years to diagnose HIV infection in infants and young children but is being phased out; hence, alternative assays must be found. The Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is currently the only FDA-cleared HIV-1 nucleic acid assay approved for diagnosis, but data on the use of this assay with infant plasma are limited. We assessed Aptimas performance using control material for reproducibility and limit of detection and 394 plasma samples (0.2 to 0.5 ml) from HIV-exposed infected and uninfected infants and children for analytical sensitivity and specificity. Assays to assess within-run repeatability and between-run reproducibility indicated that the controls with 10,000 (5 of 5), 200 (5 of 5), 100 (16 of 16), 50 (12 of 12), and 25 (20 of 20) HIV-1 RNA copies/ml (cp/ml) were always positive, and negatives were always negative (20 of 20). The limit of detection was 14 cp/ml, as determined by probit analysis. The analytic sensitivity of the assay was 99.5% (189/190 samples; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.9%) and specificity was 99.5% (199/200 samples; 95% CI, 97.2 to 99.9%). These results suggest that the assay is suitable for early infant diagnosis of HIV-1.
Related JoVE Video
Complete Genome Sequence of the Arcobacter butzleri Cattle Isolate 7h1h.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arcobacter butzleri strain 7h1h was isolated in the United Kingdom from the feces of a clinically healthy dairy cow. The genome of this isolate was sequenced to completion. Here, we present the annotation and analysis of the completed 7h1h genome, along with a comparison of this genome to the existing A. butzleri genomes.
Related JoVE Video
Feasibility of the Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial.
Related JoVE Video
Assessing the effect of HIV counselling and testing on HIV acquisition among South African youth.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Youth aged 15-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa are at a high risk for HIV acquisition and urgently need HIV prevention interventions. HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is designed to promote HIV prevention. However the impact of HCT on HIV acquisition has never been assessed among youth. We assess the impact of HCT on HIV acquisition among South African youth.
Related JoVE Video
Prevention and control of sexually transmissible infections among hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Sex Health
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Hotel-based sex workers in Bangladesh have high rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs), high client turnover and low condom use. Two monthly clinic-based strategies were compared: periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and enhanced syndromic management (ESM) - one round of presumptive treatment followed by treatment based on assessment and laboratory tests. Methods: A randomised controlled trial compared PPT and ESM by prevalence and incidence, behaviour, retention, cost and STI incidence and prevalence. Demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected from women at two clinics in Dhaka. All women received presumptive treatment and were randomised to receive PPT or ESM at nine monthly visits. Results: In total, 549 women (median age: <20 years) were enrolled. At baseline, the prevalence of chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 41% (ESM: 41%; PPT: 42%). After 9 months, chlamydia and gonorrhoea decreased to 7% overall, (ESM: 7.4%; PPT: 6.8%). At each visit, 98% of women receiving ESM met the therapy criteria and were treated. Retention was low (50%). Total costs were 50% lower per visit for each woman for PPT (ESM: $11.62 v. PPT: $5.80). The number of sex work sessions was reduced from 3.3 to 2.5 (P<0.001), but income did not change. Coercion was reduced but condom use at last sex did not change significantly. Conclusions: Monthly PPT and ESM were effective approaches for STI control. PPT offered a feasible, low-cost alternative to ESM. Educational aspects led to a reduction in coercion and fewer sessions. Implementation studies are needed to improve condom use and retention.
Related JoVE Video
Central and peripheral corneal thinning in keratoconus.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent data regarding the mid-peripheral portion of the removed corneal button in transplant surgery indicate histopathologically that keratoconus was present also in the peripheral portion of the button. The intent of this study was therefore to investigate if peripheral changes could also be detected clinically by measuring the central and peripheral corneal thickness of KC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Global incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury.
Can J Neurol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This systematic review examines the incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in different countries worldwide and their trends over time. The literature search of the studies published between 1950 and 2012 captured 1,871 articles of which 64 articles on incidence and 13 articles on prevalence fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The global incidence of SCI varied from 8.0 to 246.0 cases per million inhabitants per year. The global prevalence varied from 236.0 to 1,298.0 per million inhabitants. In addition to regional differences regarding the prevalence rates of SCI across the globe, there has been a trend towards increasing prevalence rates over the last decades. Our results suggest a relatively broad variation of incidence and prevalence rates of SCI among distinctive geographic regions. These results emphasize the need for further studies on incidence and prevalence of SCI, and for international standards and guidelines for reporting on SCI.
Related JoVE Video
Reliability and validity of the French-Canadian Late Life Function and Disability Instrument in community-living wheelchair-users.
Scand J Occup Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects in the French-Canadian Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI-F).
Related JoVE Video
The detection and management of early HIV infection: a clinical and public health emergency.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review considers the detection and management of early HIV infection (EHI), defined here as the first 6 months of infection. This phase is clinically important because a reservoir of infected cells formed in the individual renders HIV incurable, and the magnitude of viremia at the end of this period predicts the natural history of disease. Epidemiologically, it is critical because the very high viral load that typically accompanies early infection also makes infected individuals maximally contagious to their sexual partners. Future efforts to prevent HIV transmission with expanded testing and treatment may be compromised by elevated transmission risk earlier in the course of HIV infection, although the extent of this impact is yet unknown. Treatment as prevention efforts will nevertheless need to develop strategies to address testing, linkage to care, and treatment of EHI. Cost-effective and efficient identification of more persons with early HIV will depend on advancements in diagnostic technology and strengthened symptom-based screening strategies. Treatment for persons with EHI must balance individual health benefits and reduction of the risk of onward viral transmission. An increasing body of evidence supports the use of immediate antiretroviral therapy to treat EHI to maintain CD4 count and functionality, limit the size of the HIV reservoir, and reduce the risk of onward viral transmission. Although we can anticipate considerable challenges in identifying and linking to care persons in the earliest phases of HIV infection, there are many reasons to pursue this strategy.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a severity of illness scoring system (inpatient triage, assessment and treatment) for resource-constrained hospitals in developing countries.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a new paediatric illness severity score, called inpatient triage, assessment and treatment (ITAT), for resource-limited settings to identify hospitalised patients at highest risk of death and facilitate urgent clinical re-evaluation.
Related JoVE Video
Sex ratio, poverty, and concurrent partnerships among men and women in the United States: a multilevel analysis.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social and economic contextual factors may promote concurrent sexual partnerships, which can accelerate population HIV transmission and are more common among African Americans than U.S. Whites. We investigated the relationship between contextual factors and concurrency.
Related JoVE Video
Community viral load as a measure for assessment of HIV treatment as prevention.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community viral load, defined as an aggregation of individual viral loads of people infected with HIV in a specific community, has been proposed as a useful measure to monitor HIV treatment uptake and quantify its effect on transmission. The first reports of community viral load were published in 2009, and the measure was subsequently incorporated into the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Although intuitively an appealing strategy, measurement of community viral load has several theoretical limitations and biases that need further assessment, which can be grouped into four categories: issues of selection and measurement, the importance of HIV prevalence in determining the potential for ongoing HIV transmission, interpretation of community viral load and its effect on ongoing HIV transmission in a community, and the ecological fallacy (ie, ecological bias). These issues need careful assessment as community viral load is being considered as a public health measurement to assess the effect of HIV care on prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring the diversity of Arcobacter butzleri from cattle in the UK using MLST and whole genome sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arcobacter butzleri is considered to be an emerging human foodborne pathogen. The completion of an A. butzleri genome sequence along with microarray analysis of 13 isolates in 2007 revealed a surprising amount of diversity amongst A. butzleri isolates from humans, animals and food. In order to further investigate Arcobacter diversity, 792 faecal samples were collected from cattle on beef and dairy farms in the North West of England. Arcobacter was isolated from 42.5% of the samples and the diversity of the isolates was investigated using multilocus sequence typing. An A. butzleri whole genome sequence, obtained by 454 shotgun sequencing of an isolate from a clinically-healthy dairy cow, showed a number of differences when compared to the genome of a human-derived A. butzleri isolate. PCR-based prevalence assays for variable genes suggested some tentative evidence for source-related distributions. We also found evidence for phenotypic differences relating to growth capabilities between our representative human and cattle isolates. Our genotypic and phenotypic observations suggest that some level of niche adaptation may have occurred in A. butzleri.
Related JoVE Video
Dry eye disease and microbial keratitis: is there a connection?
Ocul Surf
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae.
Related JoVE Video
Cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV partner notification in urban Malawi.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Wheelchair skills training to improve confidence with using a manual wheelchair among older adults: a pilot study.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the effects of wheelchair skills training on confidence in older adults who are inexperienced wheelchair users.
Related JoVE Video
Rating of Everyday Arm-Use in the Community and Home (REACH) Scale for Capturing Affected Arm-Use after Stroke: Development, Reliability, and Validity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a brief, valid and reliable tool [the Rating of Everyday Arm-use in the Community and Home (REACH) scale] to classify affected upper limb use after stroke outside the clinical setting.
Related JoVE Video
Gonadotrope-specific expression and regulation of ovine follicle stimulating hormone Beta: transgenic and adenoviral approaches using primary murine gonadotropes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHB) is expressed specifically in pituitary gonadotropes in vertebrates. Transgenic mouse studies have shown that enhancers in the proximal promoter between -172/-1 bp of the ovine FSHB gene are required for gonadotrope expression of ovine FSHB. These enhancers are associated with regulation by activins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Additional distal promoter sequence between -4741/-750 bp is also required for expression. New transgenic studies presented here focus on this distal region and narrow it to 1116 bp between -1866/-750 bp. In addition, adenoviral constructs were produced to identify these critical distal sequences using purified primary mouse gonadotropes as an in vitro model system. The adenoviral constructs contained -2871 bp, -750 bp or -232 bp of the ovine FSHB promoter. They all showed gonadotrope-specific regulation since they were induced only in purified primary gonadotropes by activin A (50 ng/ml) and inhibited by GnRH (100 nM) in the presence of activin (except -232FSHBLuc). However, basal expression of all three viral constructs (in the presence of follistatin to block cellular induction by activin) was relatively high in pituitary non-gonadotropes as well as gonadotropes. Thus, gonadotrope-specific regulation associated with the proximal promoter was observed as expected, but the model was blind to distal promoter elements between -2871/-750 necessary for gonadotrope-specific expression of ovine FSHB in vivo. The new adenoviral-based in vitro technique did detect, however, a novel GnRH response element between -750 bp and -232 bp of the ovine FSHB promoter. We conclude that adenoviral-based studies in primary gonadotropes can adequately recognize regulatory elements on the ovine FSHB promoter associated with gonadotrope-specific regulation/expression, but that more physiologically based techniques, such as transgenic studies, will be needed to identify sequences between -1866/-750 bp of the ovine FSHB promoter that are also required for tissue/cell specific expression in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of acute HIV infection: a field evaluation of the determine® HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo test.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) point-of-care tests detect antibodies (Ab) but not p24 antigen (Ag) or RNA. In the absence of antibodies, p24 antigen and RNA typically indicate acute HIV infection. We conducted a field evaluation of the Determine® HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo rapid test (Combo RT).
Related JoVE Video
Evolutionary silence of the acid chaperone protein HdeB in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The periplasmic chaperones HdeA and HdeB are known to be important for cell survival at low pH (pH < 3) in Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Here we investigated the roles of HdeA and HdeB in the survival of various enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) following exposure to pH 2.0. Similar to K-12 strains, the acid protections conferred by HdeA and HdeB in EHEC O145 were significant: loss of HdeA and HdeB led to over 100- to 1,000-fold reductions in acid survival, depending on the growth condition of prechallenge cells. However, this protection was much less in E. coli O157:H7 strains. Deletion of hdeB did not affect the acid survival of cells, and deletion of hdeA led to less than a 5-fold decrease in survival. Sequence analysis of the hdeAB operon revealed a point mutation at the putative start codon of the hdeB gene in all 26 E. coli O157:H7 strains analyzed, which shifted the ATG start codon to ATA. This mutation correlated with the lack of HdeB in E. coli O157:H7; however, the plasmid-borne O157-hdeB was able to restore partially the acid resistance in an E. coli O145?hdeAB mutant, suggesting the potential function of O157-HdeB as an acid chaperone. We conclude that E. coli O157:H7 strains have evolved acid survival strategies independent of the HdeA/B chaperones and are more acid resistant than nonpathogenic K-12 for cells grown under nonfavorable culturing conditions such as in Luria-Bertani no-salt broth at 28°C. These results suggest a divergent evolution of acid resistance mechanisms within E. coli.
Related JoVE Video
HIV partner notification is effective and feasible in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities for HIV treatment and prevention.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sexual partners of persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection require HIV counseling, testing and, if necessary, evaluation for therapy. However, many African countries do not have a standardized protocol for partner notification, and the effectiveness of partner notification has not been evaluated in developing countries .
Related JoVE Video
Meeting the challenge of practice quality improvement: a study of seven family medicine residency training practices.
Acad Med
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incorporating quality improvement (QI) into resident education and clinical care is challenging. This report explores key characteristics shaping the relative success or failure of QI efforts in seven primary care practices serving as family medicine residency training sites.
Related JoVE Video
Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 15- to 35-year-olds in Baltimore, MD.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States. This article reports population and subpopulation prevalence estimates of Ct and correlates of infection among 15- to 35-year-olds in Baltimore, MD.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of balance confidence on social activity after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation for first lower limb amputation.
Prosthet Orthot Int
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community living individuals with lower limb amputation have low balance confidence but the level of balance confidence in the first six months after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation is not known.
Related JoVE Video
Observing human movements helps decoding environmental forces.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vision of human actions can affect several features of visual motion processing, as well as the motor responses of the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that action observation helps decoding environmental forces during the interception of a decelerating target within a brief time window, a task intrinsically very difficult. We employed a factorial design to evaluate the effects of scene orientation (normal or inverted) and target gravity (normal or inverted). Button-press triggered the motion of a bullet, a piston, or a human arm. We found that the timing errors were smaller for upright scenes irrespective of gravity direction in the Bullet group, while the errors were smaller for the standard condition of normal scene and gravity in the Piston group. In the Arm group, instead, performance was better when the directions of scene and target gravity were concordant, irrespective of whether both were upright or inverted. These results suggest that the default viewer-centered reference frame is used with inanimate scenes, such as those of the Bullet and Piston protocols. Instead, the presence of biological movements in animate scenes (as in the Arm protocol) may help processing target kinematics under the ecological conditions of coherence between scene and target gravity directions.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective study of the ARCHITECTHIV Ag/Ab Combo fourth generation assay to detect HIV infection in sexually transmitted infection clinics.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective, cross-sectional study of HIV testing at two sexually transmitted infection clinics compares testing results from the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo fourth generation assay against the current standard of care in North Carolina (third generation enzyme immunoassay testing with western blot confirmation and reflex nucleic acid amplification testing of pooled seronegative samples). In this setting, the assay reported a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 99.9%, and a median turn-around time of 26.1 h.
Related JoVE Video
Reliability and validity of scores of a Chinese version of the Frenchay Activities Index.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a Chinese version of the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI-C) and evaluate the reliability and validity of its scores.
Related JoVE Video
High prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in women on antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon: Is targeted screening feasible?
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in low-income countries. Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality is higher in HIV-positive women, resource limitations restrict the implementation of systematic screening programs in these women. We explored the potential for targeted screening by assessing the prevalence, severity and predictors of cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SILs) in HIV-positive women in Cameroon.
Related JoVE Video
Grey spaces: the wheeled fields of residential care.
Sociol Health Illn
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many individuals living in residential care use a wheelchair as their primary means of mobility. Although studies have documented challenges encountered by residents in these facilities, few have addressed the role that wheelchairs, as potential enablers and barriers to mobility and participation, play in their lives. To better understand residents experiences, an ethnographic study was conducted drawing on Bourdieus theoretical constructs of capital, field, and habitus. Participant observations were conducted at two facilities, and residents, family members and staff took part in in-depth individual interviews. Our analysis revealed three themes. Ready to roll detailed how residents used wheelchairs as a source of comfort and means for expanding their social space, while staff could use them as a means to move and control some residents. Squeaky wheels described how residents solicited assistance from staff and family amid having to wait to perform activities of daily living. In, out and about revealed diversity in the places residents went, spaces they shared and the social activities in which they engaged inside and outside their residential facilities. The study findings emphasise how wheelchairs constitute capital that governs many fields of practice for residents and staff and suggest how practice and policy might be adjusted.
Related JoVE Video
Does the presence of accompanying symptom clusters differentiate the comparative effectiveness of second-line medication strategies for treating depression?
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We explored whether clinical outcomes differ by treatment strategy following initial antidepressant treatment failure among patients with and without clinically relevant symptom clusters.
Related JoVE Video
The role of acute and early HIV infection in the spread of HIV and implications for transmission prevention strategies in Lilongwe, Malawi: a modelling study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV transmission risk is higher during acute and early HIV infection than it is during chronic infection, but the contribution of early infection to the spread of HIV is controversial. We estimated the contribution of early infection to HIV incidence in Lilongwe, Malawi, and predict the future effect of hypothetical prevention interventions targeted at early infection only, chronic infection only, or both stages.
Related JoVE Video
Sharing the agenda: pondering the politics and practices of occupational therapy research.
Scand J Occup Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Occupational therapists espouse a client-centred philosophy of practice, yet little attention has been given to pondering the politics or client-centred practices of occupational therapy research. The aim of this paper is thus to foster reflection on occupational therapys commitment to client-centredness in the practice of occupational therapy research.
Related JoVE Video
Adjusting for sampling variability in sparse data: geostatistical approaches to disease mapping.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disease maps of crude rates from routinely collected health data indexed at a small geographical resolution pose specific statistical problems due to the sparse nature of the data. Spatial smoothers allow areas to borrow strength from neighboring regions to produce a more stable estimate of the areal value. Geostatistical smoothers are able to quantify the uncertainty in smoothed rate estimates without a high computational burden. In this paper, we introduce a uniform model extension of Bayesian Maximum Entropy (UMBME) and compare its performance to that of Poisson kriging in measures of smoothing strength and estimation accuracy as applied to simulated data and the real data example of HIV infection in North Carolina. The aim is to produce more reliable maps of disease rates in small areas to improve identification of spatial trends at the local level.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.