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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Determinants of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in urine of Flemish adolescents.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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As part of the second Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II), bisphenol-A (BPA) and different phthalate metabolites were analyzed, for the first time, in the urine of 210 adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. All chemicals had a detection frequency above 90%. For all compounds, except the sum of DEHP, highest levels were detected during spring. Average values for the Flemish adolescents were in an agreement with concentrations found in different international studies, all confirming the ubiquity of BPA and phthalate exposure. There was a significant correlation between BPA and the different phthalate metabolites (r between 0.26 and 0.39; p<0.01). Shared sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates, such as food packaging, were suggested to be responsible for this positive correlation. Different determinants of exposure were evaluated in relation to the urinary concentrations of these chemicals. For BPA, a significant association was observed with household income class, smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. For phthalates, the following significant associations were observed: age (MBzP), educational level of the adolescent (MBzP), equivalent household income (MnBP), use of personal care products (MnBP and MBzP), wall paper in house (MnBP and MBzP) and use of local vegetables (MnBP and MBzP).
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Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7-9 years.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002-2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p'-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7-9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old.
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Neurobehavioral function and low-level metal exposure in adolescents.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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An excessive metal exposure is harmful to the brain. However, many aspects of metal neurotoxicity remain unclear including the magnitude of the low-level exposure effects and the level of exposure that can be assumed safe. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between a low-level metal exposure and three neurobehavioral domains (sustained attention, short-term memory, and manual motor speed). We measured Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Tl in blood, Cd, Ni, and toxicologically relevant As in urine and methyl Hg in hair in 606 adolescents between 13.6 and 17 years of age. A two-fold increase in blood Cu was associated with a 0.37 standard deviations decrease in sustained attention (95% CI: -0.67 to -0.07, p=0.02) and 0.39 standard deviations decrease in short-term memory (95% CI: -0.70 to -0.07, p=0.02), accounting for gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, household income per capita, occupation of the parents, and education level of the mother. None of the other metals was significantly associated with the neurobehavioral domains that were measured. The observed associations between blood Cu and neurobehavioral performance are in line with recent studies in elderly. However, the relevance of our results for public health remains to be elucidated.
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Trace metals in blood and urine of newborn/mother pairs, adolescents and adults of the Flemish population (2007-2011).
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The Flemish Centre for Environment and Health started with human biomonitoring in 2002 (FLEHS I: 2002-2006). The main goal of the second human biomonitoring cycle (FLEHS II: 2007-2011), was to determine mean values for a large number of pollutants in a representative sample of the general Flemish population. Values for Cd and Pb were updated, and a group of previously undetermined metals and metalloids (As, Mn, Cu and Tl) were included in some of the age groups. In this human biomonitoring program, three different age groups of the general Flemish population were monitored: 255 newborns and their mothers, 210 adolescents aged 14-15, and 204 adults between 20 and 40 years old. Trace elements were determined in cord blood and maternal blood of the mothers, in blood and urine of adolescents and in urine of adults. Determinants of life-style and personal factors were taken into account. The levels of trace elements in cord blood and maternal blood were for most elements at the lower end of the range found in literature. For Pb, As and Tl, a strong correlation (respectively r=0.43, 0.55 and 0.33; p<0.05) was found between levels in cord blood (respectively 8.6, 0.54 and 0.017 ?g/L) and maternal blood (11.1, 0.64 and 0.028 ?g/L), indicating that they are transported via the placenta from mother to fetus. The levels found in the adolescents and adults were compared with results from international biomonitoring studies, and were found to be in the same ranges. With the exception of Pb, all trace elements increased with increasing age group population. Finally, the results also showed that the levels of Cd and Pb in blood for this campaign (e.g. for Pb 8.6 and 14.8 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively) were lower compared to the first campaign (e.g. for Pb 14.7 and 21.7 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively), indicating a decrease over time. However, differences in sampling strategies might partially explain this observed trend.
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A novel method for the determination of dissolved methylmercury concentrations using diffusive gradients in thin films technique.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A novel DGT probe and analysis protocol were developed for the determination of MeHg concentrations in aquatic system. The DGT probe consisted of an agarose (AG) gel as the diffusive hydrogel and a 3-mercaptoproply functionalised silica resin gel as the resin gel. The polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel which is commonly used in DGT probes to assess trace metal concentrations in aquatic system appeared to be unsuitable for the determination of MeHg. The affinity of the PA hydrogel for MeHg is very high reducing its accumulation by the resin. In contrast, the AG hydrogel presents a by far lower affinity towards MeHg, which makes it suitable as diffusive layer in a DGT probe for MeHg determinations. Two extraction procedures to liberate MeHg from the resin were studied: one is involving thiourea as complexing agent, the other a simple acidic extraction. The extraction step was followed by an ethylation reaction of the liberated MeHg to determine low concentrations of MeHg species by Headspace-Gas Chromatography-Atomic Fluorescence (HS-GC-AFS). With the thiourea extraction method the recovery of the adsorbed MeHg compounds was extremely low while the recovery with the acid extraction method was 100%. The reliability of the novel DGT probe and analysis protocol was studied. A linear dependency between the amount of MeHg accumulated on the resin gel and both the deployment time and the gel thickness were demonstrated. From those experiments a diffusion coefficient of MeHg in AG gel was determined: 5.1±0.20×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Additional experiments showed that the new DGT method can be used in most natural waters independent of the ionic strength and within a pH range of 3-8.
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Time-integrated monitoring of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in aquatic environments using the ceramic toximeter and the CALUX bioassay.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Ceramic passive samplers or toximeters (packed with active carbon 1%, w/w, on celite), in combination with the CALUX bioassay have been used as a time-integrated monitoring technique for dissolved dioxin-like PCBs in urban and industrial wastewaters. The technique showed to be reliable during laboratory experiments: (1) PCB-126 amounts extracted from the passive samplers increased linearly with the time of exposure and (2) PCB-126 concentrations calculated from the amounts accumulated by the passive samplers were in agreement with their concentrations in the testing solution. Afterwards the toximeters were applied in the field. Two sampling sites located in Egypt were chosen: the Belbeis drainage canal, and the EMAK paper mill. A total of 18 ceramic toximeters were exposed to the wastewater in both sampling sites for a maximum period of 4 weeks. Two samplers were collected weekly from each site to monitor the increase in target analytes over time. Extracts were analyzed using the CALUX bioassay and the total dioxin-like PCB toxicity was reported for the aqueous phase (water column), as well as the solid phase (sediment and sludge) in both sampling sites. The time-weighted average concentration (TWA) of dl-PCBs in wastewater of the paper mill during the sampling period ranged between 7.1 and 9.1 pg-BEQL(-1), while that of the drainage canal ranged between 9.5 and 12.2 pg-BEQL(-1). The dl-PCBs in the fibrous sludge (paper mill) and bottom sediment (drainage canal) were 0.5 and 0.4 pg-BEQg(-1) dry-weight, respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficients between sediment and water (logKoc) for the paper mill and the canal were 2.4 and 4.3, respectively.
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Modelling metal speciation in the Scheldt Estuary: combining a flexible-resolution transport model with empirical functions.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Predicting metal concentrations in surface waters is an important step in the understanding and ultimately the assessment of the ecological risk associated with metal contamination. In terms of risk an essential piece of information is the accurate knowledge of the partitioning of the metals between the dissolved and particulate phases, as the former species are generally regarded as the most bioavailable and thus harmful form. As a first step towards the understanding and prediction of metal speciation in the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium, the Netherlands), we carried out a detailed analysis of a historical dataset covering the period 1982-2011. This study reports on the results for two selected metals: Cu and Cd. Data analysis revealed that both the total metal concentration and the metal partitioning coefficient (Kd) could be predicted using relatively simple empirical functions of environmental variables such as salinity and suspended particulate matter concentration (SPM). The validity of these functions has been assessed by their application to salinity and SPM fields simulated by the hydro-environmental model SLIM. The high-resolution total and dissolved metal concentrations reconstructed using this approach, compared surprisingly well with an independent set of validation measurements. These first results from the combined mechanistic-empirical model approach suggest that it may be an interesting tool for risk assessment studies, e.g. to help identify conditions associated with elevated (dissolved) metal concentrations.
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Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. These effects may occur at low environmental exposures but the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. We collected cord blood samples of 183 newborns to identify associations between arsenic levels and birth anthropometric parameters in an area with very low arsenic exposure. Our core research aim was to screen for transcriptional marks that mechanistically explain these associations. Multiple regression analyses showed that birth weight decreased with 47 g (95% CI: 16-78 g) for an interquartile range increase of 0.99 ?g/L arsenic. The model was adjusted for child's sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and parity. Higher arsenic concentrations and reduced birth weight were positively associated with changes in expression of the sFLT1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) gene in cord blood cells in girls. The protein product of sFLT1 is a scavenger of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the extracellular environment and plays a key role in the inhibition of placental angiogenesis. In terms of fetal development, inhibition of placental angiogenesis leads to impaired nutrition and hence to growth retardation. Various genes related to DNA methylation and oxidative stress showed also changed expression in relation to arsenic exposure but were not related to birth outcome parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased expression of sFLT1 is an intermediate marker that points to placental angiogenesis as a pathway linking prenatal arsenic exposure to reduced birth weight.
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Daily variations of Zn and Pb concentrations in the Deûle River in relation to the resuspension of heavily polluted sediments.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Sediments in the Deûle River (northern France) are severely polluted by metals in the vicinity of several metallurgical plants. The aim of this paper is to identify the role played by the recurrent resuspension of these polluted sediments by boat traffic on the dissolved Pb and Zn concentrations in the river. For that purpose, several high-frequency on-line monitoring campaigns were performed. Our results clearly suggest that the resuspension of sedimentary particles into the overlying water significantly increased the dissolved electrolabile Pb and Zn contents. This increase does not persist for a long time because at night and during weekends and holidays, when the boat traffic strongly slows down, Pb and Zn concentrations drop again quickly. Our data also indicate that the biological processes (such as photosynthetic and respiration activities), diffusive and benthic fluxes, as well as dilution of pore water into the overlying water during sediment remobilization do not contribute significantly to the sharp increase of dissolved Pb and Zn concentrations in the river during the day. The good correlation between turbidity and electrolabile metal concentration allows us to discard slow AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfides) oxidation as well. Desorption of metals from sediment particles was clearly the most relevant process, responsible for the increase of dissolved Pb and Zn concentrations in the water column.
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Trace metal concentrations measured in blood and urine of adolescents in Flanders, Belgium: Reference population and case studies Genk-Zuid and Menen.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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In the Flemish human biomonitoring programme FLEHS II (2007-2011) trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Tl, Sb, As and toxic relevant arsenic) were analysed in the blood and urine of adolescents (14-15 years old) in the reference population in Flanders and in areas of important industrial activities: Genk-Zuid and Menen. After adjustment of the results for confounding factors, the adolescents living in Genk-Zuid had higher levels of Cr, Cu and Tl in blood, higher levels of Cd and toxic relevant arsenic (TRA) in urine, but lower levels of Ni in blood and Sb in urine compared to the reference population. In Menen higher levels of Cd and Cu in urine, higher concentrations of Tl in blood but lower concentrations of Pb in blood and lower Ni, Sb and As in urine were found compared to the reference population. For both the reference population and the hot spots the concentrations are within the ranges found in other countries. Compared to the previous biomonitoring programme FLEHS I (2002-2006) a decrease in the concentrations of Cd and especially of Pb in blood was observed. However, it cannot be excluded that differences between the two campaigns are partially due to different sampling strategies.
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Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: From organ to transcriptome level.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).
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Reproducibility of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) measurements in mussel shells and comparison with micro-drill sampling and solution ICP-MS.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The accumulation of trace elements (Mg, Mn, Sr, Ba) in Unio pictorum L. mussel shells from Lake Balaton has been assessed using a Laser Ablation (LA) system coupled to either a quadrupole-based or a sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP - MS), as well as by a combination of micro-drill sampling and solution ICP-MS. The LA-ICP-MS measurements were carried out in the holes made by the micro-drilling system. The longitudinal concentration profiles obtained with the different methods show similar patterns. However, the absolute concentrations determined at individual spots (holes) can be quite different. Especially Ba shows erratic peaks at a very small spatial scale. A paired, two-sample t-test between LA-ICP-MS longitudinal profiles and between LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill/solution ICP-MS profiles indicates that, in most cases, there is no significant difference between the concentration profiles of Ba, Mg, Mn and Sr. Average shell concentrations of Mg, Mn, Sr and Ba, as obtained by LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill/solution ICP-MS, compare well with bulk shell concentrations as obtained by acid digestion/ICP-MS of larger shell pieces. Next to the four elements mentioned above, also the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn could be determined by bulk shell analysis. The element concentrations in 11 shells, all sampled at the same site, show a relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2% (Ni) and 46% (Zn). LA-ICP-MS and micro-drill solution ICP-MS are not sensitive enough for the determination of ultra-trace elements in Lake Balatons mussel shells. We estimated the amount of shell material necessary to determine Ni, Pb, Cr and Cu by micro-drilling ICP-MS (for a concentration that equals 3 times their limit of detection) at, respectively, 0.04, 0.82, 2.7 and 0.4 mg, while the amount sampled by micro-drilling is about 0.06 mg.
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Gender-specific transcriptomic response to environmental exposure in Flemish adults.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Flanders, Belgium, is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The Flemish Environment and Health Survey (2002-2006) aimed at determining exposure to pollutants of neonates, adolescents, and older adults and to assess associated biological and health effects. This study investigated genome wide gene expression changes associated with a range of environmental pollutants, including cadmium, lead, PCBs, dioxin, hexachlorobenzene, p,p-DDE, benzene, and PAHs. Gene expression levels were measured in peripheral blood cells of 20 adults with relatively high and 20 adults with relatively low combined internal exposure levels, all non-smokers aged 50-65. Pearson correlation was used to analyze associations between pollutants and gene expression levels, separately for both genders. Pollutant- and gender-specific correlation analysis results were obtained. For organochlorine pollutants, analysis within genders revealed that genes were predominantly regulated in opposite directions in males and females. Significantly modulated pathways were found to be associated with each of the exposure biomarkers measured. Pathways and/or genes related to estrogen and STAT5 signaling were correlated to organochlorine exposures in both genders. Our work demonstrates that gene expression in peripheral blood is influenced by environmental pollutants. In particular, gender-specific changes are associated with organochlorine pollutants, including gender-specific modulation of endocrine related pathways and genes. These pathways and genes have previously been linked to endocrine disruption related disorders, which in turn have been associated with organochlorine exposure. Based on our results, we recommend that males and females be considered separately when analyzing gene expression changes associated with exposures that may include chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties.
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Biomarkers of human exposure to personal care products: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS 2007-2011).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Personal care products (PCPs), such as soaps, perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, etc., contain a variety of chemicals that have been described as potentially hormone disrupting chemicals. Therefore, it is important to assess the internal exposure of these chemicals in humans. Within the 2nd Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II, 2007-2011), the human exposure to three classes of pollutants that are present in a wide variety of PCPs--i.e. polycyclic musks (galaxolide, HHCB and tonalide, AHTN in blood), parabens (urinary para-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) and triclosan (urinary TCS)--was assessed in 210 Flemish adolescents (14-15 years) and in 204 adults (20-40 years) randomly selected from the general population according to a stratified two stage clustered study design. The aim of this study was to define average levels of exposure in the general Flemish population and to identify determinants of exposure. Average levels (GM (95% CI)) in the Flemish adolescents were 0.717 (0.682-0.753) ?g/L for blood HHCB; 0.118 (0.108-0.128) ?g/L for blood AHTN; 1022 (723-1436) ?g/L for urinary HBA and 2.19 (1.64-2.92) ?g/L for urinary TCS. In the adults, levels of HBA were on average 634 (471-970) ?g/L. Inter-individual variability was small for HHCB and AHTN, intermediate for HBA, and large for TCS. All biomarkers were positively associated with the use of PCPs. Additionally, levels of HHCB and AHTN increased with higher educational level of the adolescents. Both in adults and adolescents, urinary HBA levels were negatively correlated with BMI. We define here Flemish exposure values for biomarkers of PCPs, which can serve as baseline exposure levels to identify exposure trends in future biomonitoring campaigns.
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Time-integrated monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in urban and industrial wastewaters using a ceramic toximeter and the CALUX bioassay.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The ceramic toximeter as a passive sampler in combination with the CALUX bioassay was utilized as a time-integrated pollution-assessment technique for dioxin-like PCDD/Fs in wastewaters. Toximeters filled with XCARB and enclosed in stainless steel cages were submerged in wastewater of Belbeis drainage-canal and EMAK paper-mill, located in Egypt, for 28 days. Two samplers were removed every week from each site. Extracts from toximeters, from bottom-sediments, and from paper-mill sludge were analyzed by the CALUX. Results showed a regular increase in the amounts of PCDD/Fs trapped by the toximeters as sampling time increased. Time-weighted average concentrations (TWA) of PCDD/Fs in the wastewaters of the drainage-canal and paper-mill were 231 (214-281) and 26 (24.1-32.6) pg-BEQL(-1), respectively. Compared to literature data, this means a high pollution level for the drainage-canal water, while the pollution level in the paper-mill wastewater is similar to that reported for other paper mills. The PCDD/Fs levels in the drainage-canal bottom-sediments and in the paper-mill sludge were 8.3 and 14.6 pg-BEQg(-1) dry-weight, at the lower end of internationally reported values in similar compartments. The sampling rate of the tested toximeters for dissolved PCDD/Fs was about 3.6 mL d(-1). Sediment/water partitioning coefficient logKd of PCDD/Fs in the drainage-canal and the paper-mill was 1.42 and 2.70 respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient logKoc was 4.17 and 3.19 respectively, and is lower than the reported values for other sites.
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Connectivity between migrating and landlocked populations of a diadromous fish species investigated using otolith microchemistry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Smelt Osmerus eperlanus has two different life history strategies in The Netherlands. The migrating population inhabits the Wadden Sea and spawns in freshwater areas. After the closure of the Afsluitdijk in 1932, part of the smelt population became landlocked. The fresh water smelt population has been in severe decline since 1990, and has strongly negatively impacted the numbers of piscivorous water birds relying on smelt as their main prey. The lakes that were formed after the dike closure, IJsselmeer and Markermeer have been assigned as Natura 2000 sites, based on their importance for (among others) piscivorous water birds. Because of the declining fresh water smelt population, the question arose whether this population is still supported by the diadromous population. Opportunities for exchange between fresh water and the sea are however limited to discharge sluices. The relationship between the diadromous and landlocked smelt population was analysed by means of otolith microchemistry. Our interpretation of otolith strontium ((88)Sr) patterns from smelt specimens collected in the fresh water area of Lake IJsselmeer and Markermeer, compared to those collected in the nearby marine environment, is that there is currently no evidence for a substantial contribution from the diadromous population to the spawning stock of the landlocked population.
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Links between bacterial communities in marine sediments and trace metal geochemistry as measured by in situ DET/DGT approaches.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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Our current view about the relationship between metals and bacteria in marine sediments might be biased because most studies only use ex situ approaches to quantify metals. The aim of the present research was to compare ex situ and in situ methods of metal measurement (DET and DGT--diffusive equilibration or diffusive gradients in thin-films) and relate the results with two commonly used microbiological variables (bacterial biomass and bacterial diversity as revealed by DGGE). No previous studies have used such in situ approaches in microbial ecology. For biomass and most of the investigated trace metals (Ag, Cd, Sn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al) no significant correlations were found. The exceptions were Fe, Mn, Co, and As which behave like micronutrients. For bacterial diversity, no relevant relationships were found. We conclude that in situ methods are more adapted tools for microbial ecologists but that ex situ approaches are still necessary.
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Dioxin analysis in water by using a passive sampler and CALUX bioassay.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2011
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Passive sampling of organic pollutants is a new trend in environmental monitoring and analysis. Passive samplers are being developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional snapshot sampling approach. The ceramic toximeter is a promising passive sampler for monitoring dioxin-contaminated surface and ground waters. It consists of an alumina cylinder lined with a thin coating of titania and a pore diameter of 0.05 ?m. The cylinder serves as a diffusion barrier limiting the analyte transport to molecular diffusion only, as well as a container for a selective trapping material of a high capacity and affinity towards the chemical(s) of concern. The cylinder is closed from both sides with PTFE caps. The ceramic toximeter was filled with activated carbon as the trapping material and has been tested in vitro for the sampling of dioxin-contaminated water. In addition, the utilization of the CALUX bioassay technique for analyzing the trapped dioxin has greatly reduced the time and costs for dioxin scanning in aqueous media. Exposure times varied between 1 and 7 days in a solution of 1.35 ng-TCDDL(-1) (TCDD is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin). The mean effective molecular diffusion coefficient of TCDD in the toximeter amounts to 11.9×10(-6)m(2)d(-1) while the minimum concentration detectable in an aquatic system after 30 days of exposure amounts to 0.89 pg-TCDDL(-1).
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Synthesized mercaptopropyl nanoporous resins in DGT probes for determining dissolved mercury concentrations.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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3-Mercaptopropyl functionalized SBA-15 (SH-SBA) and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized ethenylene bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica (SH-PMO) were included in a Diffusive Gradients in Thin film (DGT) probe and compared to similar commercially available resins also containing thiol functional groups, such as Sumichelate Q10R (SQR) and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel (SH-KG), and also to the Chelex-100 resin for the determination of labile Hg concentrations. An agarose gel was used as the diffusive gel because the classic polyacrylamide gel shows more than 20% of Hg adsorption. According to our results, the Chelex-100 resin presents a much lower affinity for Hg than the thiol based resins. The non-linear accumulation profile of mercury with time for the Chelex-100 resin makes it in fact impossible to use Ficks law for estimating the diffusion coefficient of Hg. The 4 other resins all show a linear accumulation profile of Hg with time. Although the highest accumulation rate is observed for SH-PMO followed by SQR, SH-SBA and SH-KG, these values do not differ very much.
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Evidence of highly dynamic geochemical behaviour of zinc in the Deûle river (northern France).
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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The monitoring of dissolved zinc in the Deûle river was undertaken at three different periods of the years 2008 and 2009. Electrolabile concentrations of Zn were estimated every 2 hours for several weeks by using an ATMS (Automatic Trace metal Monitoring System) based on voltammetric measurements using a solid Ag-Hg rotating disc working electrode. Complementary measurements were carried out with DGT (Diffusive Gradient in Thin films) pistons deployed directly in the river for 24 hours. Water samples filtrated at 0.45 ?m were also analysed by HR-ICP-MS to estimate the total dissolved concentrations of zinc and other trace metals. High frequency monitoring of zinc over several weeks in the Deûle river indicated that the concentration could change significantly over short time periods. Resuspension of polluted sediment and biological activities are two main factors that control the behaviour of zinc in the Deûle river. Furthermore, in May 2009, daily cycles of the electrolabile zinc fraction have been observed at relatively constant total dissolved concentration. It is assumed that this particular behaviour of zinc is based on an exchange between colloids and/or nonelectrolabile forms and free cation and inorganic complexes at a daily time scale.
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Social distribution of internal exposure to environmental pollution in Flemish adolescents.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Environmental justice research suggests that inequalities in the distribution of environmental exposure to chemical pollution systematically disadvantage the lower social strata of society. The effects of these inequalities on the human exposure to pollution are however to a large extend unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess social gradients in human biomonitoring results of a representative sample of Flemish adolescents.
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On the lability of dissolved Cu, Pb and Zn in freshwater: optimization and application to the Deûle (France).
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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A procedure to determine lead and zinc by anodic stripping voltammetry and copper by cathodic stripping voltammetry in natural river samples was developed and validated. Cu determination involves the adsorption of Cu complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) onto a hanging mercury drop electrode. All samples were studied at natural pH and following optimal conditions were found: an accumulation step at -1.3 V (all potential values in the paper are given versus the Ag/AgCl, [KCl]=3M reference electrode) during 30s for determination of Zn contents and at -0.7 V during 60s for determination of Pb contents. Concerning Cu analysis, the optimal oxine concentration was found to be 10(-5)M with a deposition potential of -1.1 V during 30s followed by an adsorption step at -0.25 V during 15s. This procedure was afterwards validated by using certified reference freshwater and performing an intercalibration exercise. Finally the method was successfully applied in the Deûle River, highly contaminated by dissolved Zn and to a lesser extent by Pb and Cu, due to past and present activities of metallurgical plants. Under these optimal conditions, metal concentrations measured by our voltammetric procedures in the Deûle River were found in the range 12.4-23.2 nM for Zn, 1.7-3.2 nM for Pb and 4.9-7.6 nM for Cu.
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Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium), the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance.
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Concept of the Flemish human biomonitoring programme.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Since 2002 a human biomonitoring network has been established in Flanders (Belgium) as part of a programme on environmental health surveillance. The human biomonitoring network should support environmental health policy by identifying priorities for further action. The first cycle of the programme (2002-2006) confirmed the hypotheses that living in areas with different environmental pressure is reflected in different loads of environmental chemicals in the residents. In the second cycle of the programme (2007-2011) the number of environmental chemicals for which human biomonitoring data were obtained was expanded substantially. The goal of the Flemish programme is to use and translate the scientific results into policy actions. Its further orientation in the second cycle to human biomonitoring in hot spots and sensitive age groups or susceptible persons with underlying complications (e.g. persons with diabetes) are linked to these goals. Interaction with stakeholders is embedded in the programme emphasizing transparency of the choices that are made and direct communication. The Flemish human biomonitoring programme is organized centrally with major involvement of research partners from different disciplines which allows engrafting environmental health research on the programme. One of the major focuses is the question whether combinations of pollutants in the general population are associated with biological effects. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the options that were taken in the human biomonitoring programme in order to achieve its goals.
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Sources of PCDD/Fs, non-ortho PCBs and PAHs in sediments of high and low impacted transboundary rivers (Belgium-France).
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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PAHs, PCDD/Fs and non-ortho PCBs have been assessed in Yser and Upper-Scheldt river sediments. Higher contamination levels were observed in the Upper-Scheldt sediments: maximum concentrations for the 16 US-EPA PAHs, PCDD/Fs and non-ortho PCBs respectively amount to 8.9 mg kg(-1), 12 ng TEQ kg(-1) and 5.1 ng TEQ kg(-1). Diagnostic PAH ratios in sediments and atmospheric samples suggest that the PAH compounds are from pyrolytic origin, more specifically combustion processes. The huge consumption of coal in cokes-ovens and smelters and its use for house-heating in Northern France, although decreasing during the last decades, are in support of that suggestion. PCDD/F fingerprints in sediments and deposition material indicate that OCDD is the dominant congener. In addition use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the past led to a minor contribution of PCDD/Fs in our sediment samples. Non-ortho PCBs form a substantial fraction of the total TEQ concentrations observed in the sediments. Since the 1980s and 1990s a substantial reduction of the PCDD/F sediment concentrations is observed, but this is not the case for the PAHs.
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The CALUX bio-assay: analytical comparison between mouse hepatoma cell lines with a low (H1L6.1c3) and high (H1L7.5c1) number of dioxin response elements.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls are contaminants of high concern and as such, sensitive tools are needed to detect these persistent organic compounds in a variety of matrices. Due to the large amount of samples that need to be investigated for example for food and feed control, the CALUX bioassay (H1L6.1 clone) was developed allowing rapid and cost-efficient analysis of biological and environmental samples. Recently, a new and more sensitive clone (H1L7.5) was constructed as the third generation CALUX bioassay. This new cell line was subject of an amplification of dioxin response elements (DREs), allowing lower concentrations of target compound to be analyzed. A comparison is made between the previous, well-defined H1L6.1c3 cell line and the new H1L7.5c1 cell line: it appears that the bioassay making use of the higher number of DREs is more stable and robust, shows better repeatability and reproducibility and is; on average, 3 times more sensitive.
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Internal exposure to pollutants and sexual maturation in Flemish adolescents.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Flanders is densely populated with much industry and intensive farming. Sexual maturation of adolescents (aged 14-15 years) was studied in relation to internal exposure to pollutants. Serum levels of pollutants and sex hormones were measured in 1679 participants selected as a random sample of the adolescents residing in the study areas. Data on sexual development were obtained from the medical school examination files. Self-assessment questionnaires provided information on health, use of medication and lifestyle factors. In boys, serum levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p-DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (sum of marker PCB138, 153 and 180) were significantly and positively associated with pubertal staging (pubic hair and genital development). Higher levels of serum HCB and blood lead were associated with, respectively, a lower and a higher risk of gynecomastia. In girls, significant and negative associations were detected between blood lead and pubic hair development; higher exposure to PCBs was significantly associated with a delay in timing of menarche. Environmental exposures to pollutants at levels actually present in the Flemish population are associated with measurable effects on pubertal development. However, further understanding of toxic mode of action and sensitive windows of exposure is needed to explain the current findings.
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Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium), an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government.
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Internal exposure to pollutants and body size in Flemish adolescents and adults: associations and dose-response relationships.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Flanders is densely populated with much industry and intensive farming. Body size of 14- to 15-year old adolescents and of adults aged 50-65 was studied in relation to internal exposure to pollutants. 1679 adolescents (887 boys and 792 girls), 775 men and 808 women were selected as a random sample of the population. Concentrations of pollutants in blood or urine were measured in accordance with quality control/quality assurance procedures. Self-assessment questionnaires provided information on personal and life-style factors. Height and weight of subjects were measured. Confounding factors and significant covariates were taken into account. For boys and girls, height and body mass index (BMI) showed a negative association with urinary concentration of cadmium and BMI also with serum concentration of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and with the sum of serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 138, 153, and 180 (marker PCBs), whereas BMI showed a positive association with serum concentration of PCB 118. For boys, height showed a negative association with urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and positive associations with serum concentrations of HCB and PCB 118. For adults no significant associations between internal exposure and height were observed. For men, BMI showed negative associations with urinary cadmium concentration and with serum levels of marker PCBs and positive associations with serum levels of HCB, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE), PCB 118 and the dioxin fraction of dioxin-like activity. For women, BMI showed a negative association with urinary cadmium concentration, with blood lead concentration and with the concentration of marker PCBs in serum, and a positive association with serum concentrations of HCB, p,p-DDE and PCB 118. Associations between biological effects and internal exposures were, in terms of the regression coefficient, often stronger at exposures below the median. Environmental exposures to pollutants resulting in "normal" levels of internal exposure were associated with quite substantial differences in body mass index.
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Internal exposure to pollutants and sex hormone levels in Flemish male adolescents in a cross-sectional study: associations and dose-response relationships.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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Flanders is densely populated with much industry and intensive farming. Hormonal status of 14- to 15-year-old male adolescents was studied in relation to internal exposure to pollutants. A total of 887 participants were selected as a random sample of the adolescents residing in the study areas. Confounding factors and significant covariates were taken into account. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol, and the aromatase index showed significant positive associations with serum levels of marker polychlorobiphenyls (sum of PCBs 138, 153, and 180) and of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a negative association with urinary cadmium concentration. Serum levels of estradiol also showed a positive association with serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). A doubling of serum concentrations of marker PCBs and HCB and of urinary concentration of cadmium were, respectively, associated with an increase of 16.4% (P<0.00001) and 16.6% (P<0.001) and a decrease of 9.6% (P<0.001) in serum testosterone concentration. Similar findings were made after additional adjustment for concurrent exposures. Associations between biological effects and internal exposures were, in terms of the regression coefficient, often stronger at exposures below the median. Environmental exposures to pollutants resulting in "normal" levels of internal exposure were associated with quite substantial differences in hormone concentrations.
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Mercury speciation in the Persian Gulf sediments.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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The concentrations of total mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) were determined in 78 marine sediments in the Iranian coastal waters of the Persian Gulf along nine transects perpendicular to the coastline. Total Hg ranged from 10 to 56 ng g( - 1)d.w. and MMHg from 0.1 to 0.4 ng g( - 1) d.w. The fraction of methyl mercury accounted from 0.3% to 1.1% of the total mercury amount. The organic carbon (OC) content ranged from 0.4% to 1.8%. The present study indicates that the levels of Hg in the sediments of the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf were all in the concentration range of unpolluted areas regarding Hg (<100 ng g( - 1)). The concentrations of total Hg, methyl mercury and organic carbon were generally higher in the deeper stations. Total Hg and MMHg were significantly correlated, but no significant correlations could be found between the Hg and OC levels.
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Accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five fish species from the Persian Gulf.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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In this study, concentrations of 16 elements were quantified in muscles and livers of 141 fishes belonging to five commercially species. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker and silver pomfret fish species were obtained from Abadan, Deylam, Bushehr-Nirogah, Dayyer port, Lengeh port and Abbas port in Hormozgan, Bushehr and Khozesran provinces at the Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf. The contents of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Tl, V and Zn in fish muscles and livers were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS), after digestion in a CEM (Mars 5) microwave oven using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Our results indicated that almost all metals were more accumulated in younger flathead, greasy grouper and tiger-tooth fishes. Contrary to the other fish species, grunt seems to stronger accumulating elements in the older fishes. Strong and positive correlations were observed in three or more of the fish species between V, Al, Fe, Tl, Co and Pb. The results confirmed that fish muscle and liver tissues appeared to be good bio-indicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants. The results also showed that the element levels in the muscles of all fishes in our study were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health, except for arsenic.
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Development of sensitive metalloporphyrin probes for chemiluminescent imaging detection of serum proteins.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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The development of metalloporphyrin- (ferric protoporphyrin IX chloride (FePP), cobalt (III) protoporphyrin IX chloride, copper (II) protoporphyrin IX) enhanced chemiluminescent (CL) imaging detection of serum proteins after PAGE is described in this article. The detection is based on the catalytic activity of metalloporphyrins, especially FePP, in the CL reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system. Some relatively low abundant proteins such as hemopexin (Hpx) and complement C4 are sensitively detected by FePP-enhanced CL imaging. Other proteins such as haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, complement C3, and alpha-1-antitrypsin are also detected and identified by MS and MS/MS techniques. Detection limit of Hpx is as low as 20 ng, without the need of expensive antibodies or tedious immunoassay procedures. The mechanism of the proposed method is discussed employing standard proteins. The application to the analysis of different protein patterns in healthy people and in Thalassemia patients is being investigated.
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Dietary exposure to total and toxic arsenic in Belgium: importance of arsenic speciation in North Sea fish.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Total and toxic (sum of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic (MMA), and dimethylarsenic (DMA)) As concentrations were assessed in 19 respectively 4 different fish and shellfish species from the North Sea. Following results were obtained: (i) for fish an average total As concentration of 12.8 microg/g ww and a P90 value of 30.6 microg/g ww; (ii) for shellfish an average total As concentration of 21.6 microg/g ww and a P90 value of 40.0 microg/g ww; (iii) for fish an average toxic As concentration of 0.132 microg/g ww and a P90 value of 0.232 microg/g ww; (iv) for shellfish an average toxic As concentration of 0.198 microg/g ww and a P90 value of 0.263 microg/g ww. For the Belgian consumer the average daily intake of total arsenic from fish, shellfish, fruit, and soft drinks (the main food carriers of As in Belgium) amounts to 285 microg/day with more than 95% coming from fish and shellfish, while for a high level consumer it amounts to 649 microg/day, more than twice the average value. Using the same daily consumption pattern for the selected food products as for total As, we find that the average daily intake of toxic As amounts to 5.8 microg/day, with a 50% contribution of fish and shellfish and the high level intake to 9.5 microg/day. When considering the FOA/WHO Expert Committees recommendation for inorganic As intake of 2 microg/kg bw/day or 140 microg/day for a 70 kg person, the toxic dose in Belgium is thus an order of magnitude lower.
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On-line microheterogeneity analysis and rapid phenotyping of haptoglobin by capillary electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulfate as additive.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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To improve the detection sensitivity and determine phenotypes of haptoglobin (Hp), a prefilling technique was developed and tested in capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV-vis absorbance detection. Adding 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the protein sample and 0.1% SDS to the prefilling buffer solution, on-line stacking and microheterogeneity separation of Hp were achieved. In addition, the influences of pH, buffer concentration, sample and prefilling buffer SDS concentration upon resolution were examined. Under optimized conditions, Hp-microheterogeneity was well resolved and two phenotypes of Hp (Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-2) were differentiated. This method was applied to the analysis of sera from normal individuals and beta-Thalassemia patients. After the depletion of albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), this method allowed to determine two phenotypes in different individuals and to detect the decrease of Hp in beta-Thalassemia patients. Featuring high efficiency, speed and simplicity, the proposed method shows great potential for use in clinical diagnosis and proteome research.
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An accurate model for the determination of the kinetic coefficients of the copper-catalyzed oxidation of iodide by oxygen in an aqueous acidic medium.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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The reaction rate of the copper-catalyzed oxidation of iodide by oxygen in an aqueous acidic medium is first order in copper and oxygen concentrations, Michaelis-Menten in pH and a complex, asymmetrical bell shaped function in iodide concentrations. A theoretical, multivariate reaction rate equation was proposed which enabled to optimise the various kinetic coefficients. During the parameter optimisation, the experiments were weighted taking into account all measurement uncertainties, i.e. both on the reaction rate (output) and on the reactants concentrations (inputs). This has two important advantages: (1) the model can be statistically checked to be acceptable for the description of the available measurements, and (2) the parameter uncertainties can be estimated accurately. In this case study, the model was indeed validated to be acceptable and the kinetic parameters could be estimated with a standard deviation between 5% (minimum) and 16% (maximum). As an application of this model, copper concentrations can be determined.
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Novel application of carbon nanotubes for improving resolution in detecting human serum proteins with native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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This paper describes a novel application of carbon nanotubes for improving the resolution of a native PAGE in the detection of human serum proteins. Carbon nanotubes were functionalized and introduced into the gel of native PAGE system, and the electropherogram showed sharp, clear bands. Furthermore, the separation of some most important proteins was improved, and the established method could be applied for the detection of sera from patients with liver diseases.
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Mercury accumulation in fish species from the Persian Gulf and in human hair from fishermen.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Total and methylmercury concentrations were assessed in muscle and liver of 141 fish samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. All fish samples belonged to five different species: grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker, and silver pomfret. In addition, Hg and methylmercury were analyzed in scalp hair of 19 fishermen living in the same coastal stations of the Persian Gulf and consuming several fish meals a week. Total mercury concentrations in fish muscle and liver ranged from 0.01 to 1.35 microg g(-1) w.w. and from 0.02 to 1.30 microg g(-1) w.w., respectively. In fish muscle, 3% of the Hg concentrations were higher than 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w., which corresponds to the maximum acceptable WHO level, while 9% were in the range of polluted fish (between 0.3 and 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w.). The highest mercury concentrations in fish muscle were observed in flathead fish at Abadan (average of 0.68 microg g(-1) w.w.). Methylmercury fractions in fish muscle and liver amount to 34-99% (median 64%) and 24-70% (median 43%), respectively. The mean total Hg concentration in the fishermens scalp hair amounted to 2.9 +/- 2.2 microg g(-1), with 68% in the form of methylmercury. Ninety-five percent of the Hg levels in the fishermens hair were below 10 microg g(-1), which is the WHO warning limit. In addition, relationships between the mercury levels in hair, on the one hand, and exposure-related factors such as Hg levels in specific fish species, regional differences, and number of fish meals, on the other hand, are discussed. It appears that a significant correlation for example exists between Hg levels human hair and fish muscle or human hair and age and that mean mercury levels in fish muscle and human hair decreased from western (Abadan) to eastern (Abbas port) coastal sites.
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The relation between the estimated dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and levels in blood in a Flemish population (50-65 years).
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Dioxin-like activity was measured in the serum of 1425 Flemish men and women via the CALUX assay. The adults, aged between 50 and 65 years, participated in a large biomonitoring program, executed by the Flemish Center of Expertise for Environment and Health between 2002 and 2006. Within the context of this biomonitoring program also dietary intake of dioxin-like contaminants was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire. The relation between the estimated dietary intake and the dioxin-like activity in serum was evaluated using multivariate analyses: a logistic model was performed on the total population, while a linear regression analysis was done on the subsample with quantifiable dioxin activity levels in serum. Region, gender, age, BMI, smoking status, as well as dietary habits were entered in the model, with dioxin level as an outcome estimate. Both the logistic and linear model confirmed the contribution of dietary intake to the dioxin activity measured in serum. Also BMI and region were found to be associated with dioxin activity levels.
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Enhanced separation of seven quinolones by capillary electrophoresis with silica nanoparticles as additive.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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This paper describes the enhanced separation of lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and pazufloxacin by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as running buffer additive. The impact of SiNPs concentration on the resolution and selectivity of separation was investigated and a given value of SiNPs was finally chosen under the optimum conditions. The addition of the SiNPs to the running buffer enabled electroosmotic flow (EOF) decrease and permitted full interaction between SiNPs and analytes. The influence of separation voltage, pH and buffer concentration on the separation in the presence of SiNPs was examined. Interactions between drugs and nanoparticles during the separation are discussed; the determination of interaction constants is also achieved. A good resolution of seven quinolones was obtained within 15 min in a 50 cm effective length fused-silica capillary at a separation voltage of +10 kV in a 12 mM disodium tetraborate-phosphate buffer (pH 9.08) containing 5.2 microgmL(-1) SiNPs.
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Organochlorine and heavy metals in newborns: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS 2002-2006).
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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To collect regional information on internal levels of pollutants in humans in Flanders, 1196 mother-child pairs were systematically recruited in 2002-2003 via 25 maternities across Flanders. Cd, Pb, PCB congeners 118, 170, 138, 153 and 180, p,p-DDE - a key metabolite of DDT- and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in cord blood or plasma. Cd was detected in 64% of the samples (geometric mean 0.21 microg/L cord blood). p,p-DDE (110 ng/g plasma lipids) and Pb (14.7 microg/L blood), were measurable in nearly all samples. The individual PCB congeners could be detected in 40 to 81% of the newborns (138+153+180=64.4 ng/g plasma lipids). HCB (18.9 ng/g plasma lipids) and dioxin-like compounds measured by DR-CALUX(R) (23 pg CALUX-TEQ/g lipids) were above detection limit in more than 75% of the samples. Age and smoking habits of the mothers, did not influence the cord blood Pb and Cd levels. The organochlorines increased 4 to 9% per year of the mothers age (partial R(2)=0.05 to 0.22). Mothers had 2.6% less PCBs in cord blood (partial R(2)=0.02) for each unit increase in pre-pregnancy BMI. Season of delivery, breastfeeding previous children or consumption of local dairy products, were minor determinants. Up to 20% of the variability in organochlorine concentrations was explained by residence area. It was concluded that the place of birth in Flanders is an important determinant of the load of pollutants measured at the start of life. This underlines the validity of human biomonitoring on (relatively) small geographical scale.
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Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.
Environ Health
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Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse.
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Multiple testing of food contact materials: a predictive algorithm for assessing the global migration from silicone moulds.
Talanta
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For reasons of food safety, packaging and food contact materials must be submitted to migration tests. Testing of silicone moulds is often very laborious, since three replicate tests are required to decide about their compliancy. This paper presents a general modelling framework to predict the samples compliance or non-compliance using results of the first two migration tests. It compares the outcomes of models with multiple continuous predictors with a class of models involving latent and dummy variables. The models prediction ability was tested using cross and external validations, i.e. model revalidation each time a new measurement set became available. At the overall migration limit of 10 mg dm(-2), the relative uncertainty on a prediction was estimated to be ~10%. Taking the default values for ? and ? equal to 0.05, the maximum value that can be predicted for sample compliance was therefore 7 mg dm(-2). Beyond this limit the risk for false compliant results increases significantly, and a third migration test should be performed. The result of this latter test defines the samples compliance or non-compliance. Propositions for compliancy control inspired by the current dioxin control strategy are discussed.
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Effect of bacterial mineralization of phytoplankton-derived phytodetritus on the release of arsenic, cobalt and manganese from muddy sediments in the Southern North Sea. A microcosm study.
Sci. Total Environ.
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Muddy sediments of the Belgian Continental Zone (BCZ) are contaminated by metals such as Co, As, Cd, Pb, and Ni. Previous studies have suggested that mineralization of phytodetritus accumulating each year on sediments might cause secondary contaminations of the overlying seawater (metal effluxes). The aim of the present research was to investigate these effluxes using a microcosm approach. Muddy sediments were placed in microcosms (diameter: 15 cm) and overlaid by phytodetritus (a mix of Phaeocystis globosa with the diatom Skeletonema costatum). The final suspension was 130.6 mg L(-1) (dw) and the final chlorophyll a content was 750 ± 35 ?g L(-1) (mean ± SD). Natural seawater was used for controls. Microcosms were then incubated in the dark at 15°C during 7 days. Metals were monitored in overlying waters and microbial communities were followed using bacterial and nanoflagellate DAPI counts, thymidine incorporation, community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and fluorescein diacetate analysis (FDA). Benthic effluxes observed in sediments exposed to phytodetritus were always more elevated than those observed in controls. Large effluxes were observed for Mn, Co and As, reaching 1084 nmol m(-2)day(-1) (As), 512 nmol m(-2)day(-1) (Co), and 755 ?mol m(-2)day(-1) (Mn). A clear link was established between heterotrophic microbial activity and metal effluxes. The onset of mineralization was very fast and started within 2h of deposition as revealed by CLPP. An increased bacterial production was observed after two days (8.7 mg Cm(-2)day(-2)) and the bacterial biomass appeared controlled by heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Calculations suggest that during phytoplankton blooms the microbial activity alone may release substantial amounts of dissolved arsenic in areas of the BCZ covered by muddy sediments.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.