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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rifampicin resistance mutations in the 81 bp RRDR of rpoB gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates using Xpert® MTB/RIF in Kampala, Uganda: a retrospective study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Introduction of Xpert® MTB/RIF assay has revolutionalised the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (rif), a surrogate marker for multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) as well as one of the principal first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. In general, rpoB mutations can be found in 96.1% of rif-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains worldwide and these mutations usually are located in a region at the 507-533rd amino acid residuals (81 bp) in the MTB rpoB gene, which is referred to as Rifampicin-resistance-determining region (RRDR). In this study, we determined the frequency of MDR-TB in Kampala using Xpert® MTB/RIF in comparison with the agar proportion method using Middlebrook 7H11and further determined the frequency of probes for different rpoB gene mutations using Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in the 81 bp RRDR.
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Prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the small membrane filtration method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity, and there is a need to improve its performance since it is commonly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the small membrane filtration (SMF) method, an approach that uses a vacuum manifold and is designed to concentrate bacilli onto a filter that can be examined microscopically. We enrolled hospitalized adults suspected to have pulmonary TB in Kampala, Uganda. We obtained a clinical history and three spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct, concentrated, and SMF), MGIT (mycobacterial growth indicator tube) 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) cultures, and Xpert MTB/RIF testing. We performed per-specimen (primary) and per-patient analyses. From October 2012 to June 2013, we enrolled 212 patients (579 sputum specimens). The participants were mostly female (63.2%), and 81.6% were HIV infected; their median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/?l. Overall, 19.0%, 20.4%, 27.1%, 25.2%, and 25.9% of specimens tested positive by direct smear, concentrated smear, MGIT culture, LJ culture, and Xpert test, respectively. In the per-specimen analysis, the sensitivity of the SMF method (48.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.4 to 59.6) was lower than those of direct smear (60.9%; 51.4 to 70.5 [P = 0.0001]) and concentrated smear (63.3%; 53.6 to 73.1 [P < 0.0001]). Subgroup analyses showed that SMF performed poorly in specimens having a low volume or low bacterial load. The SMF method performed poorly compared to standard smear techniques and was sensitive to sample preparation techniques. The optimal laboratory SMF protocol may require striking a fine balance between sample dilution and filtration failure rate.
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Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown.
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Clinical utility of a novel molecular assay in various combination strategies with existing methods for diagnosis of HIV-related tuberculosis in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low income, high-tuberculosis burden, countries are considering selective deployment of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) due to high cost per test. We compared the diagnostic gain of the Xpert add-on strategy with Xpert replacement strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-infected adults to inform its implementation.
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Evaluation of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in a high prevalence HIV/TB setting.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) using routinely available diagnostic methods is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology and pleural tissue TB culture involves an invasive procedure which requires expertise and appropriate equipment, both often unavailable in many health units. Xpert MTB/Rif test has been widely evaluated in sputum specimens but data on its performance in pleural TB is scarce. We evaluated the accuracy of Cepheid's Xpert MTB/Rif test on pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural TB in Uganda.
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A comparison of tools used for tuberculosis diagnosis in resource-limited settings: a case study at Mubende referral hospital, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study compared TB diagnostic tools and estimated levels of misdiagnosis in a resource-limited setting. Furthermore, we estimated the diagnostic utility of three-TB-associated predictors in an algorithm with and without Direct Ziehl-Neelsen (DZM).
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Sensititre MYCOTB MIC Plate for Testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First- and Second-Line Drugs.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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For Mycobacterium tuberculosis, phenotypic methods for drug susceptibility testing of second-line drugs are poorly standardized and technically challenging. The Sensititre MYCOTB MIC plate (MYCOTB) is a microtiter plate containing lyophilized antibiotics and configured for determination of MICs to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. To evaluate the performance of MYCOTB for M. tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method (APM) as the comparator, we conducted a two-site study using archived M. tuberculosis isolates from Uganda and the Republic of Korea. Thawed isolates were subcultured, and dilutions were inoculated into MYCOTB wells and onto 7H10 agar. MYCOTB results were read at days 7, 10, 14, and 21; APM results were read at 21 days. A total of 222 isolates provided results on both platforms. By APM, 106/222 (47.7%) of isolates were resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. Agreement between MYCOTB and APM with respect to susceptibility or resistance was ?92% for 7 of 12 drugs when a strict definition was used and ?96% for 10 of 12 drugs when agreement was defined by allowing a ± one-well range of dilutions around the APM critical concentration. For ethambutol, agreement was 80% to 81%. For moxifloxacin, agreement was 83% to 85%; incorporating existing DNA sequencing information for discrepant analysis raised agreement to 91% to 96%. For MYCOTB, the median time to plate interpretation was 10 days and interreader agreement was ?95% for all drugs. MYCOTB provided reliable results for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing of first- and second-line drugs except ethambutol, and results were available sooner than those determined by APM.
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Burden of tuberculosis disease among adolescents in a rural cohort in Eastern Uganda.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The world health organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency, mainly affecting people in sub-Saharan Africa. However there is little data about the burden of TB among adolescents. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of TB and assessed factors associated with TB among adolescents aged 12--18 years in a rural population in Uganda in order to prepare the site for phase III clinical trials with novel TB vaccines among adolescents.
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Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda: a cross-sectional diagnostic study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis remains a challenge worldwide. The Xpert MTB/RIF test, a rapid mycobacteria tuberculosis diagnostic tool, was recommended for use in children based on data from adult studies. We evaluated the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis using one induced sputum sample and described clinical characteristics associated with a positive Xpert MTB/RIF test. The sputum culture on both Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) was the gold standard.
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Species and genotypic diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Uganda.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Smear microscopy, a mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in developing countries, cannot differentiate M. tuberculosis complex from NTM infection, while pulmonary TB shares clinical signs with NTM disease, causing clinical and diagnostic dilemmas. This study used molecular assays to identify species and assess genotypic diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates from children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis at a demographic surveillance site in rural eastern Uganda.
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High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe pneumonia in Uganda.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in children presenting with severe pneumonia has previously been reported in South Africa. However, little is known about TB among children with pneumonia in Uganda and other resource limited countries. Moreover, TB is associated with high morbidity and mortality among such children. We conducted this study to establish the burden of pulmonary TB in children admitted with severe pneumonia in our setting.
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Molecular investigation of multiple strain infections in patients with tuberculosis in Mubende district, Uganda.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Multiple strain tuberculosis (TB) infections are now an acceptable facet of tuberculosis epidemiology. Identification of patients infected with more than one strain gives an insight in disease dynamics at individual and population level. This study therefore aimed at identifying multiple strain infections among TB infected patients. Furthermore, to determine factors associated with multiple strain infections in Mubende district of Uganda. A total of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients at Mubende regional referral hospital were characterized using 15 loci MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping and deletion analysis. Genotypic and epidemiological data were analyzed using MIRU-VNTR plus, Bionumerics software version 6.1 and an exact logistic regression model respectively. Eight (11.1%) of the 72 patients had mixed TB infections. Five were exclusively pulmonary mixed infections while three had both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections (Compartmentalized TB infections). Unlike previous studies that have linked this phenomenon to Beijing strains, multiple strains in this study belonged to T2-Uganda, X2 and T1 lineages. Two of the pulmonary mixed infections were resistant to rifampicin or isoniazid. All except one were HIV positive, newly diagnosed cases and urban residents of Mubende district. The study revealed that one in nine urban dwelling, HIV/TB co-infected patient were infected with more than one M. tuberculosis strains. The molecular findings give indications of a vital component of the disease dynamics that is most likely under looked at clinical level.
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Molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and economic aspects of tuberculosis in Mubende district, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied.
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An Early Morning Sputum Sample Is Necessary for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Even with More Sensitive Techniques: A Prospective Cohort Study among Adolescent TB-Suspects in Uganda.
Tuberc Res Treat
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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends collection of two sputum samples for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, with at least one being an early morning (EM) using smear microscopy. It remains unclear whether this is necessary even when sputum culture is employed. Here, we determined the diagnostic yield from spot and the incremental yield from the EM sputum sample cultures among TB-suspected adolescents from rural Uganda. Sputum samples (both spot and early-morning) from 1862 adolescents were cultured by the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) methods. For spot samples, the diagnostic yields for TB were 19.0% and 57.1% with LJ and MGIT, respectively, whereas the incremental yields (not totals) of the early-morning sample were 9.5% and 42.9% (P < 0.001) with LJ and MGIT, respectively. Among TB-suspected adolescents in rural Uganda, the EM sputum culture has a high incremental diagnostic yield. Therefore, EM sputum in addition to spot sample culture is necessary for improved TB case detection.
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Incremental yield of serial sputum cultures for diagnosis of tuberculosis among HIV infected smear negative pulmonary TB suspects in Kampala, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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Sputum culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Although mostly used for research, culture is recommended by the World Health Organization for TB diagnosis among HIV infected smear negative PTB suspects. Even then, the number of sputum samples required remains unspecified. Here, we determined the Incremental Yield (IY) and number of samples required to diagnose an additional PTB case upon second and third serial sputum culture.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.