MTA has been investigated as a root-end filling material. Its mechanism of action has some similarities to that of Ca(OH)2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process taking place in the delayed replantation of monkey teeth using calcium hydroxide and MTA as root canal filling materials. Five monkeys had their lateral incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 minutes. After root canal preparation, the teeth were assigned to two groups according to root canal filling material: I, calcium hydroxide; and II, MTA. The same treatment sequence was followed for both groups: coronal seal, periodontal ligament removal, immersion of the tooth in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride, irrigation of the socket with saline and replantation. Both groups exhibited replacement resorption, areas of ankylosis and absence of inflammatory root resorption. Statistically similar results (p > 0.05) were observed for both groups regarding replacement root resorption, but the groups differed significantly (p < 0.05) regarding the occurrence of ankylosis. MTA may be a viable clinical option for filling teeth submitted to delayed replantation, and is an acceptable option for treating replanted permanent teeth in order to prevent tooth resorption, particularly when dressing changes are not possible.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of 15 % propolis and 2 % acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solutions on the root surface-adhered necrotic cemental periodontal ligament in delayed tooth replantation.
This study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of OPG, RANK, and RANKL proteins in the repair after immediate and delayed replantation of rat teeth. Fifty-six Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right lateral incisor extracted and then replanted, according to the following conditions: group I (control; n = 8), teeth were not extracted; group II (n = 16), immediate replantation; group III (n = 16), delayed replantation without treatment; and group IV (n = 16), delayed replantation after root surface treatment (periodontal ligament removal and immersion in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride) and calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing. Rats in group I were euthanized on the first day of the experiment, while the animals in the other groups were euthanized 10 and 60 days after replantation (n = 8/period). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were obtained for histological analysis. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of OPG and RANKL proteins in all groups and both postreplantation times, except for group II at 60 days. In the experimental groups, RANK expression was observed only at 10 days. In conclusion, there was strong immunostaining for the OPG-RANK-RANKL system at the earlier postreplantation time, suggesting a more effective participation of these proteins at the start of the healing process, as their expression decreased at 60 days.
AIM: To evaluate peri-implant bone repair of implants placed into the roots of delayed reimplanted teeth, in a process of ankylosis and external replacement resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The third and fourth mandibular premolars of four (4) beagle dogs were used as experimental sites. The study was divided into three stages: stage 1 - endodontic and extraction/reimplantation session, stage 2 - decrowning session and stage 3 - implant placement. Two groups were identified: (I) immediate implants, including implants installed in fresh extraction sockets of the distal roots, and (II) experimental implants, including implants installed into the retained ankylotic mesial roots. In each group, 16 implants were planned to be inserted, but only 9 immediate implants and 12 experimental implants were used for analyses. Implants were intended to heal in a submerged mode. After 4 months of healing, the animals were sacrificed and ground sections were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. RESULTS: Eleven of the twelve implants in the experimental group were found successful regarding clinical and radiographic aspects. For immediate implants, a lower BIC% was found at the coronal portion (BIC% 1 = 42.2%) compared with the three most coronal threads portion (BIC% 2 = 55.1). Also, experimental implants presented a lower BIC% at the coronal portion (BIC% 1 = 36.9%) compared with the three most coronal threads portion (BIC% 2 = 45.3). CONCLUSION: Comparison between groups showed a higher degree of BIC% and mineralization in immediate group compared with experimental group. The differences, however, did not yield statistical significance.
Clinical experience has shown that most avulsed teeth are replanted after a long extra-alveolar time and dry or inadequate wet storage, causing necrosis of periodontal ligament cells. This condition invariably leads to development of external root resorption, leaving the filling material in contact with the periapical connective tissues. In this study, the periapical tissue reactions to calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were evaluated after occurrence of external root resorption as an expected sequela of delayed tooth replantation. Twenty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) had their right upper incisor extracted and maintained in dry storage for 60 min. Then, the dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were immersed in a 2% acidulated phosphate sodium fluoride solution, pH 5.5, for 10 min. The teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 10), in which the canals were filled with either a CH and saline paste (CH group) or MTA (MTA group). The sockets were irrigated with saline, and the teeth were replanted. After 80 days, it was possible to observe large areas of replacement root resorption and some areas of inflammatory root resorption in both groups. More severe inflammatory tissue reaction was observed in contact with calcium hydroxide compared with the mineral trioxide aggregate. New bone formation was more intense at the bottom of the socket in the MTA group. In conclusion, as far as periapical tissue compatibility is concerned, intracanal MTA can be considered as a viable option for root canal filling in delayed tooth replantation, in which external root resorption is an expected sequela.
This study evaluated the repair process after delayed replantation of rat teeth, using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) mixed with camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), chlorhexidine 2% (CHX), or saline as temporary root canal dressing to prevent and/or control inflammatory radicular resorption. Thirty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinos) had their right upper incisor extracted, which was bench-dried for 60 minutes. The dental papilla, the enamel organ, the dental pulp, and the periodontal ligament were removed. The teeth were immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution for 10 minutes. The root canals were dried with absorbent paper cones and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals according to root canal dressing used: group 1: Ca(OH)2 + saline, group 2: Ca(OH)2 + CMCP, and group 3: Ca(OH)2 + CHX 2%. Before replanting, the teeth sockets were irrigated with saline. Histological analysis revealed the presence of inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, and ankylosis in all 3 groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between group 3 and the other groups. The use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with CMCP or CHX did not show an advantage over the use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with saline in preventing and/or controlling inflammatory resorption in delayed replantation of rat teeth.
Endodontic treatment is an important step of tooth replantation protocols, but the ideal moment for definitive obturation of replanted teeth has not yet been established. In this study, a histomorphometric analysis was undertaken to evaluate the repair process on immediate replantation of monkeys teeth after calcium hydroxide (CH) therapy for 1 and 6?months followed by root canal filling with a CH-based sealer (Sealapex(®) ). The maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors of five female Cebus apella monkeys were extracted, kept in sterile saline for 15?min, replanted and splinted with stainless steel orthodontic wire and composite resin for 10?days. In Group I (control), definitive root canal filling was performed before tooth extraction. In Groups II and III, CH therapy started after removal of splint, and definitive root canal filling was performed 1 and 6?months later, respectively. The animals were euthanized 9?months after replantation, and specimens were processed for histomorphometric analysis. In all groups, epithelial attachment occurred at the cementoenamel junction or very close to this region; the areas of resorption on root surface had small extension and depth and were repaired by newly formed cementum; and the periodontal ligament was organized. Statistical analysis of the scores obtained for the histomorphometric parameters did not show any statistically significant difference (P?=?0.1221) among the groups. The results suggests that when endodontic treatment is initiated 10?days after immediate replantation and an antibiotic regimen is associated, definitive root canal filling can be performed after a short-term CH therapy.
Crown-root fractures account for 5% of all fractures in permanent teeth and can involve enamel, dentin, and cementum. Depending on whether there is pulpal involvement, these problems may be classified as complicated (which are more common) or noncomplicated. The treatment depends on the level of the fracture line, root length and/or morphology, and esthetic needs. Several treatment strategies are available for esthetic and functional rehabilitation in crown-root fractures. Adhesive tooth fragment reattachment is the most conservative restorative option when the tooth fragment is available and the biological width has no or minimal violation. This article reports a case of an uncomplicated crown-root fracture in the permanent maxillary right central incisor of a young patient who received treatment with adhesive tooth fragment reattachment, preserving the anatomic characteristics of the fractured tooth after periodontal intervention. The fracture line of the fragment had an unusual shape, starting on the palatal side and extending to the buccal side subgingivally. After 7 years, the attached coronal fragment remained in position with good esthetics, as well as clinical and radiographic signs of pulpal vitality, periodontal health, and root integrity, thus indicating success.
This study assessed the occurrence and characteristics of oral and maxillofacial infections in patients treated at a Brazilian oral and maxillofacial emergency service during a 7-year period. The clinical files of all patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Araçatuba Dental School, São Paulo State University, Brazil, between 2002 and 2008 were reviewed. From a population of 3645 patients treated in this period, the study sample consisted of 93 subjects who presented odontogenic infections. Data referring to the patients sex, age, medical history, and the etiology, diagnosis, complications, drug therapy/treatment, and evolution of the pathologic diseases were collected and analyzed using the Epi Info 2000 software. Of these patients, 54 were men (58.1%) and 39 were women (41.9%). Most patients were in the 31- to 40-year-old (20.7%) and 21- to 30-year-old (19.6%) age groups. The most frequent etiology was pulp necrosis due to caries (80.6%). Regarding the treatment, antibiotics were administered to all patients, surgical drainage was done in 75 patients (82.4%), and 44 patients (47.3%) needed hospital admission. First-generation cephalosporin alone or combined with other drugs was the most prescribed antibiotic (n = 26) followed by penicillin G (n = 25). Most patients (n = 85, 91.4%) responded well to the treatment. Five cases had complications: 3 patients needed hospital readmission, 1 case progressed to descending mediastinitis, and 1 patient died. Odontogenic infections can be life-threatening and require hospital admission for adequate patient care. Complications from odontogenic infections, although rare, may be fatal if not properly managed.
Crown-root fractures in permanent teeth cause esthetic and functional problems. This paper reports the case of a complicated crown-root fracture in the maxillary right central incisor of a young patient who was treated with a multidisciplinary approach in two phases. A modified Widman flap, root canal therapy, glass fiber post cementation, and adhesive tooth fragment reattachment were performed shortly after an accident. Satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes were obtained. However, the patient did not attend follow-up visits and returned after 7 years. During this second phase, the clinical and radiographic examination showed stability and adaptation of the fragment and good periodontal health conditions, but crown darkening and a radiolucent image associated with the root apex of the fractured tooth were also observed. The periapical lesion was surgically removed by apicoectomy, and the esthetics were recovered with a direct composite resin veneer on the traumatized tooth.
The prognosis of tooth replantation is usually related to the need of endodontic treatment, which has a direct relationship with the occurrence of root resorptions. Several studies have been undertaken in an attempt to prevent, delay, or treat these complications, which are the main causes of loss of replanted teeth. This literature review examines research evidence on intracanal dressings and root canal filling materials used in cases of tooth replantation. A comprehensive search was performed in the Medline/Pubmed, Bireme and Scielo full-text electronic journal databases to retrieve English-language articles referring to these topics that had been published between 1964 and 2010. Calcium hydroxide (CH) remains the usually recommended choice as an intracanal medicament in replanted teeth; however, there is evidence to support the initial use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic combination such as Ledermix paste to control potential early resorption, prior to the introduction of CH where the beneficial effect in the treatment of progressive root resorption has been well proven. Regarding root filling materials, CH-containing sealers are a good option because of their biological properties. Accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment plan may constitute very complex tasks, particularly in tooth avulsion because several variables are involved. In addition to the technical knowledge and clinical experience directed toward the quality of treatment, patient education may favorably influence the survival of replanted teeth.
Root fractures in immature teeth are rare because the resilience of the alveolar bone is more favorable to the occurrence of luxation. This article reports a case of traumatic injury in an immature permanent tooth that progressed to root fracture, having a parafunctional oral habit as the possible modifying factor of case evolution. A 12-year-old boy presented for treatment complaining of a defective restoration and mild pain on the maxillary right central incisor. The patient had a history of crown fracture in this tooth due to trauma 2 years before. The clinical examination showed healthy gingival tissues and no abnormal tooth mobility, whereas radiographic projections revealed healthy periradicular tissues, incomplete root formation, and no visible root fracture. As pulp necrosis was diagnosed, calcium hydroxide therapy was started for canal disinfection and subsequent obturation. However, after 4 weeks of treatment, a horizontal fracture line was observed radiographically in the roots middle third. The patient denied a new traumatic injury, but revealed the habit of chewing on a pencil. Refraining from the deleterious oral habit was strongly advised, and root canal filling with mineral trioxide aggregate was performed to treat the root fracture. After 4 years of follow-up, the tooth has normal function and no abnormal mobility. Images suggestive of remodeling at the apical end of the coronal segment and replacement resorption of the apical segment are seen radiographically. This case demonstrates the need of following cases of dental trauma and the possible influence of parafunctional oral habits as modifying factors of case progression.
The prevalence of dental trauma and its consequences are challenging. This article presents a clinical case of a 9-year-old female who was in a bicycling accident and had a dental intrusion of the left maxillary lateral incisor with extensive dislocation. In the emergency department, surgical repositioning of the intruded tooth and a splinting with steel wire and composite resin was performed and the soft-tissue lesions were sutured. Two weeks after the first visit, pulp necrosis was found and endodontic treatment of the intruded tooth was started with a calcium hydroxide dressing. Despite the traumatic nature of the dental injury, the result of treatment was favorable. After 3 years of follow-up, repair of the resorptions and no signs of ankylosis of the teeth involved were evident. Considering the patients age and the extent of intrusion, it was concluded that surgical repositioning associated with adequate endodontic therapy was an effective alternative treatment for this case.
This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fishers exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.
Success of tooth replantation is limited because part of the replanted tooth is lost because of progressive root resorption. This study used histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing process of rat teeth replanted after different extra-oral periods, simulating immediate and delayed replantation. Sixty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right incisors extracted and randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10): C4, C30 and C45, in which the teeth were replanted 4 min (immediate), 30 min (delayed) and 45 min (delayed) after extraction, respectively, and L4, L30 and L45, in which the teeth were replanted after the same extra-alveolar times, but the root surfaces and the alveolar wounds were irradiated with a gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) diode laser before replantation. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The anatomic pieces containing the replanted teeth were obtained and processed for either histomorphometrical analysis under optical microscopy or immunohistochemical expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor Kappa-B (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) proteins. Areas of external replacement and inflammatory root resorption were observed in all groups, without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Ankylosis was more frequent in L30 than in C30 (P < 0.05). RANKL immunostaining predominated over RANK and OPG immunostaining in both groups with immediate tooth replantation (P < 0.05). For the 45-min extra-alveolar time, however, there was greater evidence of RANK immunostaining compared to RANKL for both control and laser-treated groups (P < 0.05). Positive TRAP immunostaining predominated in L4 and L30 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, under the tested conditions, the treatment of the root surface and the alveolar wound with LLLT did not improve the healing process after immediate and delayed tooth replantation in rats.
Post-traumatic complications occasionally lead to tooth loss as well as the need for future implants. However, rehabilitation with endosseous osseointegrated implants does not protect the patient from the risk of suffering a new trauma. Implant fracture and the damage of the hexagon are post-traumatic complications that guide the clinician to preparing a more intricate treatment plan. The authors present a clinical case of a recurrent trauma of maxillary implant fracture. The treatment plan was to remove the implants followed by autogenous bone grafting to correct the defect. Two titanium implants were replaced, followed by connective tissue graft after allowing complete the healing process of the bone graft to occur. In the postoperative period of 6 months, satisfactory results have been shown as regards soft and hard tissues wound healing.
Traumatic tooth injuries involve function and aesthetics and cause damage that range from minimal enamel loss to complex fractures involving the pulp tissue and even loss of the tooth crown. Technical knowledge and clinical experience are essential to establish an accurate diagnosis and provide a rational treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Restorative Dentistry specialists about the management of crown and crown-root fractures based on treatment plans proposed by these professionals for these cases. A descriptive questionnaire was mailed to 245 Restorative Dentistry specialists with questions referring to their professional profile and the treatment plans they would propose for the management of crown and crow-root fractures resulting from dental trauma. One hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned properly filled. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was used to determine the frequency and the level of the significance among the variables. The analysis of data showed that in spite of having a specialist title, all interviewees had great difficulty in planning the treatments. As much as 42.8% of the participants were unable to treat all types of dental trauma. Complicated and uncomplicated crown-root fractures posed the greatest difficulties for the dentists to establish adequate treatment plans because these fractures require multidisciplinary knowledge and approach for a correct case planning and prognosis.
The maintenance of the avulsed teeth in appropriate media for preserving the cellular viability has been important for repairing the periodontal ligament and preventing the root resorption after tooth reimplantation. Propolis is a substance capable of preserving cellular viability. This study aimed to analyze the propolis substance as a storage media for maintaining the avulsed teeth, besides to determine the ideal time period for keeping the tooth inside it. Thus, 60 maxillary right central incisors of rats were extracted and divided into five groups. In groups I and II, teeth were kept in propolis for 60 min and 6 h, respectively; in group III, teeth were kept in milk for 6 h; in group IV, teeth were kept dry for 60 min; and in group V, they were immediately reimplanted. All teeth had their root canals filled with calcium hydroxide paste. Following, teeth were reimplanted in their sockets. After 15 and 60 days, animals were killed and the obtained samples were processed in laboratory for microscopic and morphometric analyzing. The results showed that the occurrence of inflammatory resorption, dental ankylosis and the formation of the connective tissue parallel to the root surface were similar among groups. It could be verified a greater occurrence of replacement resorption in group IV when comparing to other groups. In groups I and IV, the presence of periodontal ligament-like connective tissue was substantially smaller than the other groups. Regarding to the cementum amount over the root, it could be observed that this was present in smaller amount in groups I and IV. Group II was similar to groups III and IV. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the use of propolis as a storage media for maintaining avulsed teeth could be highlighted, and the 6-h period was more appropriate than the 60-min period.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological alterations occurred in the periradicular region of rat molars after intentional subluxation using an experimental method to induce dentoalveolar trauma. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were selected for the study. The dentoalveolar trauma was experimentally induced by the application of an occlusogingival force on the occlusal surface of the maxillary right first molar using a tensiometer secured on a fully articulated support with adjustable steel shafts. The animals were assigned to six groups (n = 3), according to the intensity of the force applied to induce trauma: Group I (GI, control) - no force application; Groups II-VI (GII-GVI) - the animals were subjected to 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 cN force, respectively. After experimental induction of trauma, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. In the animals of GII, GIII and GIV, the histological alterations were similar to those described for GI. GVI (1000 cN) presented the most severe alterations, with the occurrence of buccal bone plate fracture, alveolar fracture and root fracture, which are not present in mild traumatic injuries like subluxation. The 900 cN force (GV) was capable to produce clinical and histological alterations in the gingival and periodontal tissues compatible with those observed in subluxation.
Among the factors that influence the success of treatment of a root perforation, its location and possibility of contamination are determinant because the interaction of these 2 factors may result in significant periodontal injury. The management of cases of hard-to-reach contaminated perforations depends on the choice of an adequate technique. In the case reported in this article, controlled orthodontic tooth extrusion was successfully performed to treat gingival recession secondary to root perforation. The outcomes showed that this technique preserves the zone of attached gingiva, maintains the crown height, and prevents the involvement of the supporting bone tissue. The favorable clinical and radio?graphic conditions after 7 years of follow-up demonstrate the viability of this treatment approach.
Dental trauma is a common consequence of sports practice to which emergency treatment is critical. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of sports participants about dental trauma procedures, particularly tooth avulsion. A specific questionnaire concerning concepts, experiences and behaviors after dental trauma and the use of mouthguard was standardized and validated with 80 people. The validated questionnaire was then distributed to 310 sports participants. The results showed that 28.4% had experienced a kind of dental trauma; 42.6% would look for a dentist for treatment; 51.7% reimplanted or would reimplant the avulsed tooth; 6.5% would maintain the avulsed tooth in milk. Although 47.4% of the participants were aware of the possibility of accidents during sports practice, only 13.9% reported to use a mouthguard. This study showed an overall lack of knowledge of sportsmen and sportswomen with regards to tooth avulsion, thus reinforcing the need for educational campaigns to improve the immediate emergency treatment of tooth avulsion.
Several local factors that influence the healing process of replanted teeth have been investigated. However, it remains unclear how systemic alterations, such as diabetes mellitus, affect the prognosis of these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing process of incisors of non-controlled diabetic rats replanted after storage in bovine long shelf-life (UHT) whole milk. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection of either citrate buffer solution (group I - control; n = 16) or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution to induce diabetes (group II; n = 16). After confirmation of the diabetic status by analysis of the glycemic levels, the maxillary right incisor of each animal was extracted and immersed in milk for 60 min. The root canals of teeth were then instrumented, and were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based dressing and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic and were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The specimens containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The results showed that the connective tissue adjacent to the root surface was less organized in the diabetic animals than in the control animals in both periods; the root dentin was less severely affected by root resorption in the diabetic rats; there were no significant differences between the control and diabetic groups regarding the occurrence of replacement resorption and inflammatory resorption.
This aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of two experimental acetazolamide (AZ)-based pastes in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Both pastes contained AZ as the main component in similar concentration. The vehicle in experimental paste 1 was saline, while experimental paste 2 was prepared with propylene glycol. Sixty polyethylene tubes were sealed at one end with gutta-percha (GP), which served as a control. Half of the tubes were filled with paste 1 and half with paste 2. The tubes were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 15 rats, being 4 tubes for each animal. The animals were killed 7, 15 and 45 days after surgery and the specimens were processed in laboratory. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to level of inflammatory process: 1- none; 2- mild; 3- moderate; 4- severe. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p< or =0.05). Paste 1 produced an inflammatory process at 7 days. However, the intensity of this inflammation decreased with time and was nearly absent at 45 days. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the control (GP) and paste 1. However, paste 2 produced inflammatory response at all study periods and differed significantly (p<0.05) from the control. In conclusion, in the present study, the experimental AZ-based paste 1 was considered as biocompatible as the control matrial (GP), while experimental paste 2 was irritating to rat subcutaneous tissue.
Dental trauma, particularly tooth avulsion, is a frequent cause of tooth loss in children, adolescents, and young adults. The avulsed tooth should be immediately reimplanted in its alveolus. This procedure can be performed by anyone at the accident site and not only by dental surgeons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of sixth graders of the city of Araçatuba, SP, about dental avulsion and tooth reimplantation through a structured and standardized survey. Our sample consisted of 778 students. The data collected was processed using the program EPIINFO 2000. Most students were around 12 years of age and 94.5% related to practice some kind of sports. Results demonstrated that the possibility of tooth reimplantation after dental avulsion is not acknowledged among these students and dental traumatism was associated to caries, toothache, and use of orthodontic appliances. Only 18.9% of the students associated dental traumatism to an impact trauma; 3.6% would store the tooth in milk, and 3.1% believed the tooth could be reimplanted by anyone present at the accident site. In summary, the results show an overall the lack of knowledge about dental traumatism and highlight the need of special programs designed to educate school-aged students about emergency procedures to handle cases of dental traumatisms.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of orthodontic wires bonded onto the enamel with cyanoacrylate ester. To obtain the specimens, 120 human premolars (extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons) were included in acrylic blocks of rapid polymerization with three teeth each. Four groups were formed with ten specimens each. In the specimens, a dental splint model was made with cyanoacrylate ester and round stainless steel wire. In groups I, II and III, cyanoacrylate ester was used with round steel wires, with variation in diameter: 0.014 inches; 0.016 inches and 0.018 inches, respectively. In group IV, round steel wire 0.018 inches was used with photo polymerizing resin composite with previous acid etching. The adhesive force of the materials was measured in two points under the action of the tensiometer (ETM-USA). The number of loose wires was counted along with those that remained fixed according to the different levels of force applied because of the direction of the tensile force (vertical or horizontal) and the diameter of the wire used. The data obtained were first submitted to a descriptive analysis and then submitted to a statistical analysis (Friedmans Test and Dunns Test of Multiple Comparison - Epi-info 3.2). Within the limitations of the experimental conditions presented, the cyanoacrylate ester or Super Bonder maintained bonded to enamel and steel wires (0.016 and 0.018 inches) during the tensile strength tests under different levels of applied forces.
Alendronate is a known inhibitor of root resorption and the development of alendronate paste would enhance its utilization as intracanal medication. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility of experimental alendronate paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats, for utilization in teeth susceptible to root resorption. The study was conducted on 15 male rats, weighing approximately 180-200 grams. The rats dorsal regions were submitted to one incision on the median region and, laterally to the incision, the subcutaneous tissue was raised and gently dissected for introduction of two tubes, in each rat. The tubes were sealed at one end with gutta-percha and taken as control. The tubes were filled with experimental alendronate paste. The animals were killed at 7, 15 and 45 days after surgery and the specimens were processed in laboratory. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to the inflammatory process and statistically compared by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Alendronate paste promoted severe inflammation process at 7 days, with statistically significant difference compared to the control (P < 0.05%). However, at 15 days, there was a regression of inflammation and the presence of connective tissue with collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels was observed. After 45 days, it was observed the presence of well-organized connective tissue, with collagen fibers and fibroblasts, and few inflammatory cells. No statistical difference was observed between the control and experimental paste at 15 and 45 days. The experimental alendronate paste was considered biocompatible with subcutaneous tissue of rat.
Root fractures are defined as those that involve cement, dentin and pulp, comprising from 0.5 to 7% of injuries in permanent dentition. Diagnosis is made through clinical and radiographic exams, the latter frequently being limited by the position of the fracture. Treatment varies according to the displacement and vitality of the fragments. The authors present a clinical case of recurrent trauma of tooth 21 causing a horizontal root fracture in the middle third. After several attempts at endodontic treatment, the option was to remove the apical fragment by surgery. The postoperative period of 4 years shows very satisfactory results with regard to wound repair and tooth mobility, or implantation of the coronal segment.
Immediate replantation into the socket is the ideal procedure in cases of accidental avulsion of permanent teeth. In Brazil, firefighters with special paramedic training are in charge of providing first-aid care to victims of road accidents and might have to deal with tooth avulsions. This study assessed the knowledge of firefighters regarding the emergency management of avulsed teeth. Information was collected from a questionnaire submitted to 110 volunteer firefighters in seven cities in the São Paulo State (Brazil). The results revealed that 70.9% of the respondents did not know what tooth avulsion was; 53.6% did not know what tooth replantation was or defined it incorrectly; 60% would not act properly in tooth avulsion cases; 20.9% did not consider replantation of the avulsed tooth into the socket as a treatment option; the ideal time interval for tooth replantation was unknown to 40% of the interviewees; 90% of the participants answered that they would not be able to perform tooth replantation. Among those who considered themselves unable to perform tooth replantation, 47.3% chose saline as the best storage medium for an avulsed tooth, 21.8% chose milk, 3.6% chose the patients mouth and 20% reported not knowing where to store the tooth; 81.8% of the firefighters reported not to have ever received any specific directions on tooth replantation and 100% of them considered this knowledge a requirement for first-aid care to accident victims. In conclusion, the knowledge of the surveyed firefighters regarding emergency management after tooth avulsion was unsatisfactory in several aspects that are important for the success of replantation procedures. Firefighters with special paramedic training should be educated on how to proceed in cases of dentoalveolar traumas and tooth avulsions in order to improve treatment prognosis and increase the survival rate of replanted teeth.
Minimal extraoral dry storage period and moist storage for the avulsed tooth are identified as key steps for the treatment protocol of tooth replantation. Among the possible moist storage media, bovine milk has stood out because of its capacity of preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers. This condition has attracted the attention to investigate the use of powdered milk, which is one of the presentation forms of bovine milk, as a feasible storage medium in cases of delayed tooth replantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process after delayed replantation of rat teeth stored in reconstituted powdered milk and long shelf-life (ultra high temperature) whole milk. Forty maxillary right rat incisors were assigned to four groups (n = 10): group I--the teeth were extracted and immediately replanted into theirs sockets; group II--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of freshly reconstituted powdered milk; group III--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of long shelf-life whole milk; group IV--the teeth were kept dry for the same time. All procedures were performed at room temperature. Next, the root canals of teeth in groups II, III, and IV were instrumented, filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste, and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic therapy and were killed by anesthetic overdose 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups I and IV regarding the presence of replacement resorption and PDL remnants on root surface. The powdered milk and long shelf-life whole milk presented similar results to each other and may be indicated as storage media for avulsed teeth.
Gingival overgrowth (GO) may be related to the frequent use of certain medications, such as cyclosporin, phenytoin (PHT), and nifedipine, and is therefore denominated drug-induced GO. This article reports a case of a patient who with chronic periodontitis made use of PHT and presented generalized GO. A 30-year-old man with GO was referred to the clinic of the Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil. The complaint was poor aesthetics because of the GO. The patient had a medical history of a controlled epileptic state, and PHT was administered as an anticonvulsant medication. The clinical examination showed generalized edematous gingival tissues and presence of bacterial plaque and calculus on the surfaces of the teeth. The diagnosis was GO associated with PHT because no other risk factors were identified. Treatment consisted of meticulous oral hygiene instruction, scaling, root surface instrumentation, prophylaxis, and daily chlorhexidine mouth rinses. After this stage, periodontal surgery was performed, and histopathologic evaluation was made. The patient has been under control for 3 years after the periodontal surgery, and up to the present time, there has been no recurrence. It can be concluded that PHT associated with the presence of irritants favored gingival growth and that the association of nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies was effective in the treatment of GO. Besides, motivating the patient to maintain oral hygiene is a prerequisite for the maintenance of periodontal health.
The interpretation of the set of radiographs taken during the follow-up period after tooth replantation might pose several difficulties, especially the inability to adequately reproduce the projection geometry of the exposures. This article describes a method for the geometric standardization of intraoral radiographs using a custom-made apparatus comprising a film-holder attached to an occlusal splint for the long-term follow up of dentoalveolar trauma. The method was applied in a patient who suffered an avulsion of the maxillary central incisors and had the teeth replanted after 4 h in saline storage. Endodontic treatment started 7 days after the trauma with changes of a calcium hydroxide intracanal medication every 15 days in the first 2 months and thereafter at 30-day intervals for 8 months. Root canal filling was carried out after this period. The radiographic exposures taken at the follow-up visits were standardized to identify the possible alterations during the repair process, such as root resorptions. A maxillary arch impression was made with alginate, and the model was cast in stone for fabrication of an acetate occlusal splint. The custom-made apparatus used for standardization of the radiographic exposures was fabricated by fixing a Rinn X-C-P film-holder and a 5-mm-long piece of 0.7-mm orthodontic wire to the occlusal splint with autopolymerized acrylic resin. Radiographs were taken at 4-month intervals, starting 10 months after replantation up to 76 months. The images were digitized and analysed using the Digora system. The length of the central incisors was determined to verify the reproduction of the projection geometry of the exposures and the orthodontic wire served to assess accuracy during length estimations in the radiographs. The method described in this article for geometric standardization of intraoral radiographs provided a consistent reproduction of the geometric exposure parameters, being indicated for use in the radiographic follow up of cases of dentoalveolar trauma.
When late replantation is performed, the root surface and root canal should be treated. Notwithstanding failures still occur, because of the high rates of root resorption, evidencing the need to search for substances that may inhibit root resorption. The acetazolamide is a known anti-resorptive agent, and its use as root canal dressing may increase the success rates in the treatment of root resorption. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of an acetazolamide paste used as root canal dressing in late replanted teeth. The study was conducted on 24 maxillary right incisors of rats, which were avulsed and divided in two groups. In group I, the teeth were kept dry for 30 min, had their root surfaces rubbed with a blade, and were treated with 2% sodium fluoride at pH 5.5 for 20 min; the root canals were instrumented and filled with acetazolamide paste; and then the teeth were replanted. In group II, the treatment was similar to group I, except for the root canal dressing, with utilization of calcium hydroxide in group II. At 15 and 60 days after replantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were processed in a histotechnical laboratory for microscopic and morphometric analysis. The results demonstrated the ability of both intracanal substances to limit root resorption, yet they were unable to completely inhibit the root resorption. Replacement resorption lacunae were present in greater proportion in group II, at 60 days. It was concluded that the acetazolamide paste was effective to limit the root resorption, being more effective in limiting the replacement resorption compared with calcium hydroxide.
Dental tissues have special characteristics, and its regenerative capacity is noteworthy. However, understanding the circumstances that lead to regeneration is challenging. In this study, the chronology of the healing process after immediate replantation of rat incisor teeth was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses within a 60-day period. Thirty-six male Wistar rats had their maxillary right incisors extracted and replanted after 15 min in saline storage. The rats were sacrificed immediately 3, 7, 15, 28, and 60 days after replantation. The histological analysis showed rupture of the periodontal ligament and formation of a blood clot, which started being replaced by a connective tissue after 3 days. At 7 days, the gingival mucosa epithelium was reinserted and areas of root resorption could be seen. At 15 days, the periodontal ligament was repaired. At 3 days, the pulp presented an absence of the odontoblast layer, which started being replaced by a connective tissue. This tissue suffered gradual calcification, filling the root canal at 28 and 60 days. The root ends were closed. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed greater expression of OP, OPG, and RANK proteins in the initial periods (0 and 3 days), while TRAP expression predominated at 28 and 60 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in delayed tooth replantation, there is great new bone formation activity in the earlier periods of the repair process, while a predominance of bone resorption and remodeling is observed in the more advanced periods.
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