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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early PSA level decline is an independent predictor of biochemical and clinical control for salvage postprostatectomy radiotherapy.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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To improve the early detection of responders to salvage external beam radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
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A novel classification method for prediction of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy based on a semi-nonnegative ICA of 3D planned dose distributions.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The understanding of dose/side-effects relationships in prostate cancer radiotherapy is crucial to define appropriate individual's constraints at the therapy planning. Most of the existing methods to predict side effects do not fully exploit the rich spatial information conveyed by the three-dimensional planned dose distributions. We propose a new classification method for three-dimensional individuals' doses, based on a new semi-nonnegative ICA algorithm to identify patients at risk of presenting rectal bleeding from a population treated for prostate cancer. The method firstly determines two bases of vectors from the population data (the first basis corresponds to rectal bleeding patients and the second one characterizes the non rectal bleeding patients). The classification is then achieved by projecting a new three-dimensional individual planned dose onto both subspaces spanned by the two bases. A given patient is thus classified by calculating its distance to the two subspaces. The results, obtained on a cohort of 87 patients (at two years follow-up) treated with radiotherapy, showed high performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity.
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[Prostate cancer: what treatment techniques for which tumors? Ethical and methodological issues].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The identification of the optimal radiation technique in prostate cancer is based on the results of dosimetric and clinical studies, although there are almost no randomized studies comparing different radiation techniques. The feasibility of the techniques depends also on the technical and human resources of the radiation department, on the cost of the treatment from the points of view of the society, the patient and the radiation oncologist, and finally on the choice of the patient. The slow evolution of prostate cancer leads to consider the biochemical failure as the main judgment criteria in the majority of the studies. A proper urinary radio-induced toxicity evaluation implies a long follow-up. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is recommended in case of high dose (?76Gy) to the prostate, pelvic lymph nodes irradiation and hypofractionation schedules. For low-risk tumors, the aim of the treatment is to preserve quality of life, while limiting costs. Stereotactic body radiotherapy shows promising results, although the follow-up is still limited and phase III trials are ongoing. Focal radiation techniques are in the step of feasibility. For intermediate and high-risk tumors, the objective of the treatment is to increase the locoregional control, while limiting the toxicity. IMRT combined with IGRT leads to either a well-validated dose escalation strategy for intermediate risk tumors, or to a strategy of moderate hypofractionated schedules, which cannot be yet considered as a standard treatment. These combined radiation techniques allow finally large lymph node target volume irradiation and dose escalation potentially in the dominant intraprostatic lesion. The feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost approaches is demonstrated.
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Random forests to predict rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiation therapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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To propose a random forest normal tissue complication probability (RF-NTCP) model to predict late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiation therapy, and to compare its performance to that of classic NTCP models.
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[Educational and preventive care implemented by student nurses].
Soins
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The nursing training reference framework comprises 5 teaching units relating to the acquisition of skill 5: initiating and implementing educational and preventive care. The portion of teaching linked to the educational dimension of care corresponds to an evolution of healthcare needs, notably with people suffering from chronic diseases. The implementation of this reform of nursing studies can lead trainers to involve students more in educational projects for patients.
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Surface-constrained nonrigid registration for dose monitoring in prostate cancer radiotherapy.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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This paper addresses the issue of cumulative dose estimation from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images in prostate cancer radiotherapy. It focuses on the dose received by the surfaces of the main organs at risk, namely the bladder and rectum. We have proposed both a surface-constrained dose accumulation approach and its extensive evaluation. Our approach relied on the nonrigid registration (NRR) of daily acquired CBCT images on the planning CT image. This proposed NRR method was based on a Demons-like algorithm, implemented in combination with mutual information metric. It allowed for different levels of geometrical constraints to be considered, ensuring a better point to point correspondence, especially when large deformations occurred, or in high dose gradient areas. The three following implementations: 1) full iconic NRR; 2) iconic NRR constrained with landmarks (LCNRR); 3) NRR constrained with full delineation of organs (DBNRR). To obtain reference data, we designed a numerical phantom based on finite-element modeling and image simulation. The methods were assessed on both the numerical phantom and real patient data in order to quantify uncertainties in terms of dose accumulation. The LCNRR method appeared to constitute a good compromise for dose monitoring in clinical practice.
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Segmentation of pelvic structures for planning CT using a geometrical shape model tuned by a multi-scale edge detector.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Accurate segmentation of the prostate and organs at risk in computed tomography (CT) images is a crucial step for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation, as performed nowadays, is a time consuming process and prone to errors due to the a high intra- and inter-expert variability. This paper introduces a new automatic method for prostate, rectum and bladder segmentation in planning CT using a geometrical shape model under a Bayesian framework. A set of prior organ shapes are first built by applying principal component analysis to a population of manually delineated CT images. Then, for a given individual, the most similar shape is obtained by mapping a set of multi-scale edge observations to the space of organs with a customized likelihood function. Finally, the selected shape is locally deformed to adjust the edges of each organ. Experiments were performed with real data from a population of 116 patients treated for prostate cancer. The data set was split in training and test groups, with 30 and 86 patients, respectively. Results show that the method produces competitive segmentations w.r.t standard methods (averaged dice = 0.91 for prostate, 0.94 for bladder, 0.89 for rectum) and outperforms the majority-vote multi-atlas approaches (using rigid registration, free-form deformation and the demons algorithm).
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A new pencil beam model for photon dose calculations in heterogeneous media.
Phys Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The pencil beam method is commonly used for dose calculations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this study, we have proposed a novel pencil model for calculating photon dose distributions in heterogeneous media. To avoid any oblique kernel-related bias and reduce computation time, dose distributions were computed in a spherical coordinate system based on the pencil kernels of different distances from source to surface (DSS). We employed two different dose calculation methods: the superposition method and the fast Fourier transform convolution (FFTC) method. In order to render the superposition method more accurate, we scaled the depth-directed component by moving the position of the entry point and altering the DSS value for a given beamlet. The lateral components were thus directly corrected by the density scaling method along the spherical shell without taking the densities from the previous layers into account. Significant computation time could be saved by performing the FFTC calculations on each spherical shell, disregarding density changes in the lateral direction. The proposed methods were tested on several phantoms, including lung- and bone-type heterogeneities. We compared them with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for several field sizes with 6 MV photon beams. Our results revealed mean absolute deviations <1% for the proposed superposition method. Compared to the AAA algorithm, this method improved dose calculation accuracy by at least 0.3% in heterogeneous phantoms. The FFTC method was approximately 40 times faster than the superposition method. However, compared with MC, mean absolute deviations were <3% for the FFTC method.
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A wearable system for multi-segment foot kinetics measurement.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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This study aims to design a wearable system for kinetics measurement of multi-segment foot joints in long-distance walking and to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The wearable system consisted of inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) on toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank, and a plantar pressure insole. After calibration in a laboratory, 10 healthy elderly subjects and 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis walked 50m twice wearing this system. Using inverse dynamics, 3D forces, moments, and power were calculated in the joint sections among toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank. Compared to those we previously estimated for a one-segment foot model, the sagittal and transverse moments and power in the ankle joint, as measured via multi-segment foot model, showed a normalized RMS difference of less than 11%, 14%, and 13%, respectively, for healthy subjects, and 13%, 15%, and 14%, for patients. Similar to our previous study, the coronal moments were not analyzed. Maxima-minima values of anterior-posterior and vertical force, sagittal moment, and power in shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-forefoot joints were significantly different between patients and healthy subjects. Except for power, the inter-subject repeatability of these parameters was CMC>0.90 for healthy subjects and CMC>0.70 for patients. Repeatability of these parameters was lower for the forefoot-toes joint. The proposed measurement system estimated multi-segment foot joints kinetics with acceptable repeatability but showed difference, compared to those previously estimated for the one-segment foot model. These parameters also could distinguish patients from healthy subjects. Thus, this system is suggested for outcome evaluations of foot treatments.
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Development and experimental validation of a finite element model of total ankle replacement.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Total ankle replacement remains a less satisfactory solution compared to other joint replacements. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model of total ankle replacement, for future testing of hypotheses related to clinical issues. To validate the finite element model, an experimental setup was specifically developed and applied on 8 cadaveric tibias. A non-cemented press fit tibial component of a mobile bearing prosthesis was inserted into the tibias. Two extreme anterior and posterior positions of the mobile bearing insert were considered, as well as a centered one. An axial force of 2kN was applied for each insert position. Strains were measured on the bone surface using digital image correlation. Tibias were CT scanned before implantation, after implantation, and after mechanical tests and removal of the prosthesis. The finite element model replicated the experimental setup. The first CT was used to build the geometry and evaluate the mechanical properties of the tibias. The second CT was used to set the implant position. The third CT was used to assess the bone-implant interface conditions. The coefficient of determination (R-squared) between the measured and predicted strains was 0.91. Predicted bone strains were maximal around the implant keel, especially at the anterior and posterior ends. The finite element model presented here is validated for future tests using more physiological loading conditions.
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A new deconvolution approach to robust fluence for intensity modulation under geometrical uncertainty.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This work addresses random geometrical uncertainties that are intrinsically observed in radiation therapy by means of a new deconvolution method combining a series expansion and a Butterworth filter. The method efficiently suppresses high-frequency components by discarding the higher order terms of the series expansion and then filtering out deviations on the field edges. An additional approximation is made in order to set the fluence values outside the field to zero in the robust profiles. This method is compared to the deconvolution kernel method for a regular 2D fluence map, a real intensity-modulated radiation therapy field, and a prostate case. The results show that accuracy is improved while fulfilling clinical planning requirements.
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Impact of MLC leaf width on volumetric-modulated arc therapy planning for head and neck cancers.
J Appl Clin Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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This dosimetric study investigated the impact of multileaf collimators (MLC) leaf width in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck cancers (HNC), either with a "standard" simultaneously integrated boost technique (S-SIB) or with a "dose painting" SIB technique (DP-SIB). HNC patients were planned either with an S-SIB comprising three dose levels, from 56 to 70 Gy (16 patients), or with a DP-SIB comprising five dose levels, from 56 to 84 Gy (8 patients), in 35 fractions. Two VMAT plans were calculated for each SIB technique using two Elekta MLCs: MLCi2 with 10 mm leaf width and Beam Modulator (BM) with 4 mm leaf width. Dose distributions were evaluated by comparing doses on PTVs, main OARs, and healthy tissue, and by comparing conformation indexes. Treatment efficiencies were evaluated by comparing the number of monitor units and the number of needed arcs. Comparisons of the two MLCs depending on the two SIB techniques showed: i) Regarding PTVs: Dmean and D2% on lower doses PTV decreased respectively by 0.5 Gy (p = 0.01) and 0.9 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; no significant difference was found for DP-SIB;ii) Regarding OARs: for spinal cord and brainstem, D2% decreased respectively by 1.2 Gy (p = 0.03) and 4.2 Gy (p = 0.04) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; for controlateral parotid, D50% decreased by 1.5 Gy (p = 0.01) with BM than with MLCi2 for S-SIB; iii) Regarding treatment efficiency: the number of monitor units was 44% (p = 0.00) and 51% (p = 0.01) higher with BM for S-SIB and DP-SIB, respectively. Two arcs were more frequently needed with BM to reach an acceptable dose distribution. This study demonstrated that Beam Modulator (4 mm leaf width) and MLCi2 (10 mm leaf width) MLCs from Elekta provided satisfactory dose distributions for treatment delivery with VMAT technique for complex HNC cases with standard and dose painting prescriptions. OAR sparing was better with BM, mainly for brainstem and spinal cord. However, delivery efficiency of VMAT plans was better with MLCi2.
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[Choice of optimal margins in prostate conformal radiotherapy].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The planning CT allows the delineation of the prostate (clinical target volume, CTV) but with an imprecision at the apex and the inability to visualize the intraprostatic cancer. MRI enables accurate visualization of the prostate outlines and in some extent the intraprostatic tumour (gross tumour volume [GTV]). The integration of MRI data within the CT remains still complex. Analysis of prostatectomy specimen has guided the definition of a CTV beyond the capsule, depending on pretreatment factors. In practice, the CTV can be defined as follows: prostate-only, for good prognosis tumours; prostate (+0 to 5mm margins, excluding the rectum) and seminal vesicles (possibly limited to 2 cm of their proximal region) for intermediate-risk tumours; prostate (+5mm margins) and seminal vesicles for high-risk tumours. The planning target volume (PTV) should be between 5mm and 10mm depending on the space directions, in the absence of image-guidance (IGRT). It could be reduced to 5mm in case of IGRT. In the adjuvant setting after prostatectomy, the definition of the CTV should follow the recommendations from cooperative groups. It takes into account both the analysis of pattern of local recurrence after prostatectomy, but also the specific histological analysis of the surgical specimen of the patient. The corresponding PTV margin is 6 to 8mm.
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Nomograms to predict late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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To analyze late urinary toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT): symptom description and identification of patient characteristics or treatment parameters allowing for the generation of nomograms.
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Outcome of unilateral ankle arthrodesis and total ankle replacement in terms of bilateral gait mechanics.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Previous studies assessed the outcome of ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR) surgeries; however, the extent of postoperative recovery towards bilateral gait mechanics (BGM) is unknown. We evaluated the outcome of the two surgeries at least 2 years post rehabilitation, focusing on BGM. 36 participants, including 12 AA patients, 12 TAR patients, and 12 controls were included. Gait assessment over 50?m distance was performed utilizing pressure insoles and 3D inertial sensors, following which an intraindividual comparison was performed. Most spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters in the TAR group were indicative of good gait symmetry, while the AA group presented significant differences. Plantar pressure symmetry among the AA group was also significantly distorted. Abnormality in biomechanical behavior of the AA unoperated, contralateral foot was observed. In summary, our results indicate an altered BGM in AA patients, whereas a relatively fully recovered BGM is observed in TAR patients, despite the quantitative differences in several parameters when compared to a healthy population. Our study supports a biomechanical assessment and rehabilitation of both operated and unoperated sides after major surgeries for ankle osteoarthrosis. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
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Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The majority of current models utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One of their main drawbacks is the lack of spatial accuracy, since they consider the organs as a whole volume and thus ignore the heterogeneous intra-organ radio-sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a dose-image-based framework to reveal the relationships between local dose and toxicity. In this approach, the three-dimensional (3D) planned dose distributions across a population are non-rigidly registered into a common coordinate system and compared at a voxel level, therefore enabling the identification of 3D anatomical patterns, which may be responsible for toxicity, at least to some extent. Additionally, different metrics were employed in order to assess the quality of the dose mapping. The value of this approach was demonstrated by prospectively analyzing rectal bleeding (?Grade 1 at 2 years) according to the CTCAE v3.0 classification in a series of 105 patients receiving 80 Gy to the prostate by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Within the patients presenting bleeding, a significant dose excess (6 Gy on average, p < 0.01) was found in a region of the anterior rectal wall. This region, close to the prostate (1 cm), represented less than 10% of the rectum. This promising voxel-wise approach allowed subregions to be defined within the organ that may be involved in toxicity and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step.
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Critical evaluation of outcome scales assessment of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Outcome following foot and ankle surgery can be assessed by disease- and region-specific scores. Many scoring systems exist, making comparison among studies difficult. The present study focused on outcome measures for a common foot and ankle abnormality and compared the results obtained by 2 disease-specific and 2 body region-specific scores.
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Salivary gland-sparing other than parotid-sparing in definitive head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy does not seem to jeopardize local control.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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BACKGROUND: The objective was to analyze locoregional (LR) failure patterns in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC) treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with whole salivary gland-sparing: parotid (PG), submandibular (SMG), and accessory salivary glands represented by the oral cavity (OC). METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with Stage I-II (23%) or III/IV (77%) HNC treated by definitive IMRT were included. For all LR failure patients, the FDG-PET and CT scans documenting recurrence were rigidly registered to the initial treatment planning CT. Failure volumes (Vf) were delineated based on clinical, radiological, and histological data. The percentage of Vf covered by 95% of the prescription isodose (Vf-V95) was analyzed. Failures were classified as "in-field" if Vf--V95 >= 95%, "marginal" if 20% < Vf-V95 < 95%, and "out-of-field" if Vf-V95 <=20%. Correlation between Vf-V95 and mean doses (Dmean) in the PG, SMG, and OC was assessed using Spearmans rank-order correlation test. The salivary gland dose impact on the LR recurrence risk was assessed by Cox analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 20 months (6--35). Contralateral and ipsilateral PGs were spared in 98% and 54% of patients, respectively, and contralateral and ipsilateral SMG in 26% and 7%, respectively. The OC was spared to a dose <=40 Gy in 26 patients (37%). The 2-year LR control rate was 76.5%. One recurrence was "marginal", and 12 were "in-field". No recurrence was observed in vicinity of spared structures. Vf-V95 was not significantly correlated with Dmean in PG, SMG, and OC. The LR recurrence risk was not increased by lower Dmean in the salivary glands, but by T (p = 0.04) and N stages (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Over 92% of LR failures occurred "in-field" within the high dose region when using IMRT with a whole salivary gland-sparing strategy. Sparing SMG and OC in addition to PG thus appears a safe strategy.
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Cost of prostate image-guided radiation therapy: results of a randomized trial.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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This cost analysis aimed to quantify the cost of IGRT in relation to IGRT frequency and modality with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) or orthogonal electronic portal imaging with fiducial markers (EPI-FM).
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Segmentation of foot and ankle complex based on kinematic criteria.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Although various foot models were proposed for kinematics assessment using skin makers, no objective justification exists for the foot segmentations. This study proposed objective kinematic criteria to define which foot joints are relevant (dominant) in skin markers assessments. Among the studied joints, shank-hindfoot, hindfoot-midfoot and medial-lateral forefoot joints were found to have larger mobility than flexibility of their neighbour bonesets. The amplitude and pattern consistency of these joint angles confirmed their dominancy. Nevertheless, the consistency of the medial-lateral forefoot joint amplitude was lower. These three joints also showed acceptable sensibility to experimental errors which supported their dominancy. This study concluded that to be reliable for assessments using skin markers, the foot and ankle complex could be divided into shank, hindfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and toes. Kinematics of foot models with more segments must be more cautiously used.
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Ambulatory measurement of ankle kinetics for clinical applications.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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This study aimed to design and validate the measurement of ankle kinetics (force, moment, and power) during consecutive gait cycles and in the field using an ambulatory system. An ambulatory system consisting of plantar pressure insole and inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) on foot and shank was used. To test this system, 12 patients and 10 healthy elderly subjects wore shoes embedding this system and walked many times across a gait lab including a force-plate surrounded by seven cameras considered as the reference system. Then, the participants walked two 50-meter trials where only the ambulatory system was used. Ankle force components and sagittal moment of ankle measured by ambulatory system showed correlation coefficient (R) and normalized RMS error (NRMSE) of more than 0.94 and less than 13% in comparison with the references system for both patients and healthy subjects. Transverse moment of ankle and ankle power showed R>0.85 and NRMSE<23%. These parameters also showed high repeatability (CMC>0.7). In contrast, the ankle coronal moment of ankle demonstrated high error and lower repeatability. Except for ankle coronal moment, the kinetic features obtained by the ambulatory system could distinguish the patients with ankle osteoarthritis from healthy subjects when measured in 50-meter trials. The proposed ambulatory system can be easily accessible in most clinics and could assess main ankle kinetics quantities with acceptable error and repeatability for clinical evaluations. This system is therefore suggested for field measurement in clinical applications.
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[From image-guided radiotherapy to dose-guided radiotherapy].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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In case of tumour displacement, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on the use of cone beam CT (tomographie conique) allows replacing the tumour under the accelerator by rigid registration. Anatomical deformations require however replanning, involving an estimation of the cumulative dose, session after session. This is the objective of this study.
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[Mid-ventilation position planning: optimal model for dose distribution in lung tumour].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The dose distribution for lung tumour is estimated using a 3D-CT scan, and since a person breathes while the images are captured, the dose distribution doesnt reflect the reality. A 4D-CT scan integrates the motion of the tumour during breathing and, therefore, provides us with important information regarding tumours motion in all directions, the motion volume (ITV) and the time-weighted average position (MVP).
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A risk-adapted strategy of radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy in stage II seminoma.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy in stage II seminoma are currently debated.
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The isolated talonavicular arthrodesis.
Foot Ankle Clin
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Based on a high percentage of good results, retrospective studies strongly suggest that isolated talonavicular arthrodesis provides efficient pain relief and functional improvement in case of talonavicular arthritis in rheumatoid arthritis, primary or posttraumatic arthritis, flexible acquired flatfoot deformity, residual dorsolateral subluxation of the talonavicular joint after surgical treatment of clubfoot, and some neurologic disorders. However, prospective trials with rigorous methodology are required to establish evidence of efficacy for this procedure. Well-designed biomechanical studies have demonstrated the key role of the talonavicular joint in the complex hindfoot motion and may serve as baseline for further prospective studies.
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Evidence for validity and reliability of a French version of the FAAM.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a self reported questionnaire for patients with foot and ankle disorders available in English, German, and Persian. This study plans to translate the FAAM from English to French (FAAM-F) and assess the validity and reliability of this new version.
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Avulsion fracture of the peroneus longus tendon insertion at the base of the first metatarsal: report of a case.
Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Isolated avulsion fracture of the peroneus longus tendon insertion at the base of the first metatarsal is very rare. Similar to most avulsion fractures that result from excessive strain at a tendon or ligament insertion, this type of injury is caused by the strong tension exerted by the peroneus longus tendon. The mechanisms leading to this lesion and treatment options are not clearly defined. We present the case of an isolated minimally displaced intra-articular avulsion fracture at the plantar lateral base of the first metatarsal. Faced with a painful non-union following conservative treatment we considered excision of the bony fragment and first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis. This leads to a favourable functional outcome.
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[((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in cervix cancer: lymph node assessment and prognostic/predictive value of primary tumour analysis].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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In cervix carcinoma: (a) to evaluate the ability of ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the lymph node detection; (b) to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of the primary cervical PET parameters.
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Prostate segmentation in HIFU therapy.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Prostate segmentation in 3-D transrectal ultrasound images is an important step in the definition of the intra-operative planning of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. This paper presents two main approaches for the semi-automatic methods based on discrete dynamic contour and optimal surface detection. They operate in 3-D and require a minimal user interaction. They are considered both alone or sequentially combined, with and without postregularization, and applied on anisotropic and isotropic volumes. Their performance, using different metrics, has been evaluated on a set of 28 3-D images by comparison with two expert delineations. For the most efficient algorithm, the symmetric average surface distance was found to be 0.77 mm.
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Regional US carbon sinks from three-dimensional atmospheric CO2 sampling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Studies diverge substantially on the actual magnitude of the North American carbon budget. This is due to the lack of appropriate data and also stems from the difficulty to properly model all the details of the flux distribution and transport inside the region of interest. To sidestep these difficulties, we use here a simple budgeting approach to estimate land-atmosphere fluxes across North America by balancing the inflow and outflow of CO(2) from the troposphere. We base our study on the unique sampling strategy of atmospheric CO(2) vertical profiles over North America from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory aircraft network, from which we infer the three-dimensional CO(2) distribution over the continent. We find a moderate sink of 0.5 ± 0.4 PgC y(-1) for the period 2004-2006 for the coterminous United States, in good agreement with the forest-inventory-based estimate of the first North American State of the Carbon Cycle Report, and averaged climate conditions. We find that the highest uptake occurs in the Midwest and in the Southeast. This partitioning agrees with independent estimates of crop uptake in the Midwest, which proves to be a significant part of the US atmospheric sink, and of secondary forest regrowth in the Southeast. Provided that vertical profile measurements are continued, our study offers an independent means to link regional carbon uptake to climate drivers.
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[Dosimetric factors predictive of late toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Dose escalation in prostate cancer is made possible due to technological advances and to precise dose-volume constraints to limit normal tissue damage. This article is a literature review focusing on the correlations between exposure (doses and volumes) of organs at risk (OAR) and rectal, urinary, sexual and bone toxicity, as well as on mathematical models aiming at toxicity prediction. Dose-volume constraint recommendations are presented that have been shown to be associated with reduced rectal damage. Indeed, the clinical data is relatively strong for late rectal toxicity (bleeding), with constraints put on both the volume of the rectum receiving high doses (?70 Gy) and the volume receiving intermediate doses (40 to 60 Gy). Predictive models of rectal toxicity (Normal Tissue Complication Probability) appear to accurately estimate toxicity risks. The correlations are much weaker for the bulb and the femoral heads, and nearly do not exist for the bladder. Further prospective studies are required, ideally taking into account patient-related risk factors (co-morbidities and their specific treatments), assays of normal tissue hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and mathematical models applied on 3D images acquired under the treatment machine (e.g. Cone Beam CT).
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[Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT)].
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is a major technical innovation of radiotherapy. It allows locating the tumor under the linear accelerator just before the irradiation, by direct visualization (3D mode soft tissue) or indirect visualization (2D mode and radio-opaque markers). The technical implementation of IGRT is done by very different complex devices. The most common modality, because available in any new accelerator, is the cone beam CT. The main experiment of IGRT focuses on prostate cancer. Preliminary studies suggest the use of IGRT combined with IMRT should increase local control and decrease toxicity, especially rectal toxicity. In head and neck tumors, due to major deformation, a rigid registration is insufficient and replanning is necessary (adaptive radiotherapy). The onboard imaging delivers a specific dose, needed to be measured and taken into account, in order not to increase the risk of toxicity. Studies comparing different modalities of IGRT according to clinical and economic endpoints are ongoing; to better define the therapeutic indications.
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[Benefit of intensity modulated and image-guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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External beam radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat all stages of localized prostate cancer. Using a 3D conformal RT (3DCRT) without any androgen deprivation, a clear dose-effect relationship has been shown in terms of both biochemical control and also unfortunately of rectal and urinary toxicity. Compared to a "standard" 3DCRT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT) improves the dose distribution by mainly providing concave dose distribution and tight dose gradients. Based on large clinical experiences for at least one decade, IMRT is widely used to increase the dose in the prostate and therefore local control, without increasing toxicity. Indeed, toxicity rates observed after high dose delivered in the prostate (80Gy) with IMRT appear no different than those observed after a standard dose (70Gy) delivered by a standard 3DCRT. Arc IMRT appears a new promising IMRT modality, decreasing dramatically treatment duration. However, this IMRT-based dosimetric benefit may not be translated into a full clinical benefit, if intra-pelvic prostate motion is not taken in account. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) should be therefore associated with IMRT for a maximal clinical benefit. This article is a literature review showing the interest of both combined approaches.
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[Which IMRT? From "step and shoot" to VMAT: physicist point of view].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is essential to have a dose distribution matching with the planning target volume (PTV) in case of concave-shape target. Today IMRT delivery techniques with linear accelerator can be divided into two classes: techniques with fixed gantry, called "step and shoot" (S&S) and "sliding window" (SW), and rotational techniques, called intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We discuss about constraints for IMRT implementation from dosimetric planning to treatment delivery. We compare S&S and VMAT performances concerning dose distribution quality, efficiency and delivery time. We describe quality controls that must be implemented and the methods for analysis and follow-up performances. VMAT tends to yield similar dose distribution to MRT with fixed gantry. VMAT also decreases monitor units as well as treatment delivery time to less than 5 minutes. However, VMAT is an IMRT technique more difficult to master than S&S technique because there are more variable parameters.
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Outcome evaluation of ankle osteoarthritis treatments: plantar pressure analysis during relatively long-distance walking.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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This study aimed to use plantar pressure analysis in relatively long-distance walking for objective outcome evaluation of ankle osteoarthritis treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis and total ankle replacement.
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Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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New optical techniques of spectroscopy have shown promising results in the evaluation of solid tumours.
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[Whats new in forefoot surgery].
Rev Med Suisse
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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New implants and instruments have recently emerged in foot surgery. However, an additional and important development is the technique of minimally invasive surgery. As a result of new surgical approaches some common foot deformities can be corrected in a percutaneous manner. The benefits include improved wound healing, less pain, faster recovery, and less need for outpatient care. The main indications for such a technique are hallux valgus, correction of the lesser metatarsals, hallux rigidus, and some diabetic foot deformities.
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Evaluation of a mixed approach combining stationary and wearable systems to monitor gait over long distance.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Thanks to decades of research, gait analysis has become an efficient tool. However, mainly due to the price of the motion capture systems, standard gait laboratories have the capability to measure only a few consecutive steps of ground walking. Recently, wearable systems were proposed to measure human motion without volume limitation. Although accurate, these systems are incompatible with most of existing calibration procedures and several years of research will be necessary for their validation. A new approach consisting of using a stationary system with a small capture volume for the calibration procedure and then to measure gait using a wearable system could be very advantageous. It could benefit from the knowledge related to stationary systems, allow long distance monitoring and provide new descriptive parameters. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of this approach. Thus, a combined system was proposed to measure the 3D lower body joints angles and segmental angular velocities. It was then assessed in terms of reliability towards the calibration procedure, repeatability and concurrent validity. The dispersion of the joint angles across calibrations was comparable to those of stationary systems and good reliability was obtained for the angular velocities. The repeatability results confirmed that mean cycle kinematics of long distance walks could be used for subjects comparison and pointed out an interest for the variability between cycles. Finally, kinematics differences were observed between participants with different ankle conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the potential of a mixed approach for human movement analysis.
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Analysis of acute radiation-induced esophagitis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients using the Lyman NTCP model.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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To analyze acute esophagitis (AE) in a Chinese population receiving 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), combined or not with chemotherapy (CT), using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model.
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Step activity monitoring to assess ambulation before and after total ankle arthroplasty.
Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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The study objective was to compare walking activity before and after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA).
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[High dose for prostate irradiation with image guided radiotherapy: contribution of intensity modulation arctherapy].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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To compare two Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) techniques for prostate cancer: the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and the "Step and Shoot" technique (S&S).
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Ambulatory assessment of 3D ground reaction force using plantar pressure distribution.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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This study aimed to use the plantar pressure insole for estimating the three-dimensional ground reaction force (GRF) as well as the frictional torque (T(F)) during walking. Eleven subjects, six healthy and five patients with ankle disease participated in the study while wearing pressure insoles during several walking trials on a force-plate. The plantar pressure distribution was analyzed and 10 principal components of 24 regional pressure values with the stance time percentage (STP) were considered for GRF and T(F) estimation. Both linear and non-linear approximators were used for estimating the GRF and T(F) based on two learning strategies using intra-subject and inter-subjects data. The RMS error and the correlation coefficient between the approximators and the actual patterns obtained from force-plate were calculated. Our results showed better performance for non-linear approximation especially when the STP was considered as input. The least errors were observed for vertical force (4%) and anterior-posterior force (7.3%), while the medial-lateral force (11.3%) and frictional torque (14.7%) had higher errors. The result obtained for the patients showed higher error; nevertheless, when the data of the same patient were used for learning, the results were improved and in general slight differences with healthy subjects were observed. In conclusion, this study showed that ambulatory pressure insole with data normalization, an optimal choice of inputs and a well-trained nonlinear mapping function can estimate efficiently the three-dimensional ground reaction force and frictional torque in consecutive gait cycle without requiring a force-plate.
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Early PSA decrease is an independent predictive factor of clinical failure and specific survival in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy.
Ann. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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The aim was to identify predictors of outcome in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Materials and methods: A total of 448 patients with prostate cancer received EBRT alone (n = 361, group 1) or ADT followed by EBRT (n = 87, group 2). In group 2, ADT was initiated 3 months before EBRT. After baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) determination (PSA(preRT)), PSA was assessed during the 6th week of the EBRT course (PSA(6wRT)) in group 1. In group 2, PSA was measured again 3 months after the start of ADT, before EBRT (PSA(ADT-preRT)).
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[Acute ankle sprain: which immobilization?].
Rev Med Suisse
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
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Acute ankle sprain is the most frequent orthopaedic injury. Up to 4% of patients admitted to the emergency room will present with an acute ankle sprain. The lateral ligaments are involved at various degrees (anterior talo-fibular and calcaneo-fibular ligaments). Grade I acute ankle sprains are well treated with a compression bandage or an Aircast brace. Grade II and III acute ankle sprains are best treated with a below-knee cast. The Aircast brace is the next best treatment for such lesions (grades II and III) and will provide satisfactory support, but has been shown to be not as effective as the below-knee cast in terms of short to mid-term patients outcome (pain and function).
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[Cone beam CT based image guided radiotherapy: implementation and clinical use].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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The kV cone beam CT (CBCT) consists of an X-ray tube and a flat panel detector placed perpendicularly to the treatment beam, allowing the acquisition of hundreds of projections in one rotation of the gantry about the patient. Available in all new linear accelerators, the CBCT provides volumetric imaging in treatment position proving the realization of image- and dose-guided radiotherapy (IGRT and DGRT). The clinical indications correspond to mobile tumours irradiating with high precision required techniques, such as stereotactic, hypofractionated or high dose radiotherapy. The clinical experience is still very limited and concerns mainly prostate, head and neck and lung tumours. The registration and treatment protocols are briefly described. Quality control and training are major issues. CBCT based IGRT is a new technique which needs to be optimized. However, it should provide significant clinical benefit in combination with intensity modulated radiotherapy and new imaging modalities for target delineation.
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Long-term results of brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis confined to the glans (N- or NX).
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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To analyze the results of exclusive interstitial low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis, strictly confined to the glans.
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[Quantification of the volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in prostate cancer: margins and presence probability map].
Cancer Radiother
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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To quantify the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) anatomic variations in order to choose appropriate margins including intrapelvic anatomic variations. To quantify volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT).
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[Image-guided radiotherapy: rational, modalities and results].
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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The objective of Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) is to take in account the inter- or/and intrafraction anatomic variations (organ motion and deformations) in order to improve treatment accuracy. The IGRT should therefore translate in a clinical benefit the recent advances in both tumor definition thanks to functional imaging, and dose distribution thanks to intensity modulated radiotherapy. The IGRT enables direct or indirect tumor visualization during radiation delivery. If the tumor position does not correspond with the theoretical location of target derived from planning system, the table is moved. In case of important uncertainties related to target deformation, a new planning can be discussed. IGRT is realized by different types of devices which can vary in principle and as well as in their implementation: from LINAC-integrated-kV (or MV)-Cone Beam CTs to helicoidal tomotherapy, Cyberknife and Novalis low-energy stereoscopic imaging system. These techniques led to a more rational choice of Planning Target Volume. Being recently introduced in practice, the clinical results of this technique are still limited. Nevertheless, until so far, IGRT has showed promising results with reports of minimal acute toxicity. This review describes IGRT for various tumor localizations. The dose delivered by on board imaging should be taken in account. A strong quality control is required for safety and proper prospective evaluation of the clinical benefit of IGRT.
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A new conservative-dynamic treatment for the acute ruptured Achilles tendon.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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There is a trend towards surgical treatment of acute ruptured Achilles tendon. While classical open surgical procedures have been shown to restore good functional capacity, they are potentially associated with significant complications like wound infection and paresthesia. Modern mini-invasive surgical techniques significantly reduce these complications and are also associated with good functional results so that they can be considered as the surgical treatment of choice. Nevertheless, there is still a need for conservative alternative and recent studies report good results with conservative treatment in rigid casts or braces.
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Analysis of joint laxity after total ankle arthroplasty: cadaver study.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Clinical results of total ankle arthroplasty with early designs were disappointing. Recently-developed ankle prostheses have good mid-term results; however, limited information is available regarding effects of total ankle arthroplasty on ankle laxity.
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Evaluation of a modified Broström-Gould procedure for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability: A retrospective study with critical analysis of outcome scoring.
Foot Ankle Surg
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Chronic lateral ankle instability accounts for 20% of the ankle injuries. This study evaluates functional outcome of the modified Broström-Gould technique using suture anchors, with 4 different clinical scores.
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Total ankle replacement for rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle.
Foot Ankle Clin
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Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that may affect multiple joints, both small and large, and leads to numerous complications. The standard surgical treatment for a rheumatoid arthritic ankle has been an arthrodesis. The ideal candidate for an ankle replacement in a rheumatoid patient is one who is moderately active, has a well-aligned ankle and heel, and a fair range of motion in the ankle joint. Good surgical technique and correction of any hindfoot deformity will result in satisfactory alignment of the ankle with regard to the mechanical axis, and this will lead to increased prosthetic longevity.
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Comparison between two treatment planning systems for volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization for prostate cancer.
Phys Med
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To investigate the performances of two commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization regarding prostate cancer. The TPS were compared in terms of dose distributions, treatment delivery parameters and quality control results.
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[Prospective economic evaluation of image-guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer in the framework of the national programme for innovative and costly therapies assessment].
Cancer Radiother
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The main objective of the economical study was to prospectively and randomly assess the additional costs of daily versus weekly patient positioning quality control in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), taking into account the modalities of the 3D-imaging: tomography (CBCT) or gold seeds implants. A secondary objective was to prospectively assess the additional costs of 3D versus 2D imaging with portal imaging for patient positioning controls.
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Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and flatfoot: analysis with simulated walking.
Gait Posture
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Many biomechanical studies investigated pathology of flatfoot and effects of operations on flatfoot. The majority of cadaveric studies are limited to the quasistatic response to static joint loads. This study examined the unconstrained joint motion of the foot and ankle during stance phase utilizing a dynamic foot-ankle simulator in simulated stage 2 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Muscle forces were applied on the extrinsic tendons of the foot using six servo-pneumatic cylinders to simulate their action. Vertical and fore-aft shear forces were applied and tibial advancement was performed with the servomotors. Three-dimensional movements of multiple bones of the foot were monitored with a magnetic tracking system. Twenty-two fresh-frozen lower extremities were studied in the intact condition, then following sectioning peritalar constraints to create a flatfoot and unloading the posterior tibial muscle force. Kinematics in the intact condition were consistent with gait analysis data for normals. There were altered kinematics in the flatfoot condition, particularly in coronal and transverse planes. Calcaneal eversion relative to the tibia averaged 11.1±2.8° compared to 5.8±2.3° in the normal condition. Calcaneal-tibial external rotation was significantly increased in flatfeet from mean of 2.3±1.7° to 8.1±4.0°. There were also significant changes in metatarsal-tibial eversion and external rotation in the flatfoot condition. The simulated PTTD with flatfoot was consistent with previous data obtained in patients with PTTD. The use of a flatfoot model will enable more detailed study on the flatfoot condition and/or effect of surgical treatment.
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Optical spectroscopy techniques can accurately distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours.
BJU Int.
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WHATS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: There is little known about optical spectroscopy techniques ability to evaluate renal tumours. This study shows for the first time the ability of Raman and optical reflectance spectroscopy to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours in an ex vivo environment. We plan to develop this optical assistance in the operating room in the near future.
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[Image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy].
Cancer Radiother
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Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account anatomical variations occurring during irradiation by visualization of anatomical structures. It may consist of a rigid registration of the tumour by moving the patient, in case of prostatic irradiation for example. IGRT associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is strongly recommended when high-dose is delivered in the prostate, where it seems to reduce rectal and bladder toxicity. In case of significant anatomical deformations, as in head and neck tumours (tumour shrinking and decrease in volume of the salivary glands), replanning appears to be necessary, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy. This should ideally be "monitored" and possibly triggered based on a calculation of cumulative dose, session after session, compared to the initial planning dose, corresponding to the concept of dose-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The creation of "planning libraries" based on predictable organ positions (as in cervical cancer) is another way of adaptive radiotherapy. All of these strategies still appear very complex and expensive and therefore require stringent validation before being routinely applied.
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[Diagnosis and treatment of the ruptured Achilles tendon].
Rev Med Suisse
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The treatment of the recently ruptured Achilles tendon can be conservative or surgical. The conservative treatment may be carried out using either a static cast immobilisation or using a dynamic brace and an early functional rehabilitation. The surgical technique can be either open or mini-invasive. Neglected and ancient ruptures may need to be treated surgically by a tendinoplasty. There is an ongoing discussion about how to manage the recently ruptured Achilles tendon, especially since recent descriptions of conservative-functional treatment procedures and mini-invasive surgical techniques. We present the choice of the different treatment options and the clinical reasoning to identify the best adapted treatment for the individual patient. The ideal treatment option depends on the functional demand and the medical condition of the patient.
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Quantitative estimation of foot-flat and stance phase of gait using foot-worn inertial sensors.
Gait Posture
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Time periods composing stance phase of gait can be clinically meaningful parameters to reveal differences between normal and pathological gait. This study aimed, first, to describe a novel method for detecting stance and inner-stance temporal events based on foot-worn inertial sensors; second, to extract and validate relevant metrics from those events; and third, to investigate their suitability as clinical outcome for gait evaluations. 42 subjects including healthy subjects and patients before and after surgical treatments for ankle osteoarthritis performed 50-m walking trials while wearing foot-worn inertial sensors and pressure insoles as a reference system. Several hypotheses were evaluated to detect heel-strike, toe-strike, heel-off, and toe-off based on kinematic features. Detected events were compared with the reference system on 3193 gait cycles and showed good accuracy and precision. Absolute and relative stance periods, namely loading response, foot-flat, and push-off were then estimated, validated, and compared statistically between populations. Besides significant differences observed in stance duration, the analysis revealed differing tendencies with notably a shorter foot-flat in healthy subjects. The result indicated which features in inertial sensors signals should be preferred for detecting precisely and accurately temporal events against a reference standard. The system is suitable for clinical evaluations and provides temporal analysis of gait beyond the common swing/stance decomposition, through a quantitative estimation of inner-stance phases such as foot-flat.
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Multi-segment foot kinematics after total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis during relatively long-distance gait.
Gait Posture
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This study aimed to investigate the influence of ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) treatments, i.e., ankle arthrodesis (AA) and total ankle replacement (TAR), on the kinematics of multi-segment foot and ankle complex during relatively long-distance gait. Forty-five subjects in four groups (AOA, AA, TAR, and control) were equipped with a wearable system consisting of inertial sensors installed on the tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals. The subjects walked 50-m twice while the system measured the kinematic parameters of their multi-segment foot: the range of motion of joints between tibia, calcaneus, and medial metatarsals in three anatomical planes, and the peaks of angular velocity of these segments in the sagittal plane. These parameters were then compared among the four groups. It was observed that the range of motion and peak of angular velocities generally improved after TAR and were similar to the control subjects. However, unlike AOA and TAR, AA imposed impairments in the range of motion in the coronal plane for both the tibia-calcaneus and tibia-metatarsals joints. In general, the kinematic parameters showed significant correlation with established clinical scales (FFI and AOFAS), which shows their convergent validity. Based on the kinematic parameters of multi-segment foot during 50-m gait, this study showed significant improvements in foot mobility after TAR, but several significant impairments remained after AA.
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Measurement of multi-segment foot joint angles during gait using a wearable system.
J Biomech Eng
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Usually the measurement of multi-segment foot and ankle complex kinematics is done with stationary motion capture devices which are limited to use in a gait laboratory. This study aimed to propose and validate a wearable system to measure the foot and ankle complex joint angles during gait in daily conditions, and then to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The foot and ankle complex consisted of four segments (shank, hindfoot, forefoot, and toes), with an inertial measurement unit (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) attached to each segment. The angles between the four segments were calculated in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes using a new algorithm combining strap-down integration and detection of low-acceleration instants. To validate the joint angles measured by the wearable system, three subjects walked on a treadmill for five minutes at three different speeds. A camera-based stationary system that used a cluster of markers on each segment was used as a reference. To test the suitability of the system for clinical evaluation, the joint angle ranges were compared between a group of 10 healthy subjects and a group of 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis, during two 50-m walking trials where the wearable system was attached to each subject. On average, over all joints and walking speeds, the RMS differences and correlation coefficients between the angular curves obtained using the wearable system and the stationary system were 1 deg and 0.93, respectively. Moreover, this system was able to detect significant alteration of foot and ankle function between the group of patients with ankle osteoarthritis and the group of healthy subjects. In conclusion, this wearable system was accurate and suitable for clinical evaluation when used to measure the multi-segment foot and ankle complex kinematics during long-distance walks in daily life conditions.
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A comparison between joint coordinate system and attitude vector for multi-segment foot kinematics.
J Biomech
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The joint angles of multi-segment foot models have been primarily described using two mathematical methods: the joint coordinate system and the attitude vector. This study aimed to determine whether the angles obtained through these two descriptors are comparable, and whether these descriptors have similar sensitivity to experimental errors. Six subjects walked eight times on an instrumented walkway while the joint angles among shank, hindfoot, medial forefoot, and lateral forefoot were measured. The angles obtained using both descriptors and their sensitivity to experimental errors were compared. There was no overall significant difference between the ranges of motion obtained using both descriptors. However, median differences of more than 6° were noticed for the medial-lateral forefoot joint. For all joints and rotation planes, both descriptors provided highly similar angle patterns (median correlation coefficient: R>0.90), except for the medial-lateral forefoot angle in the transverse plane (median R=0.77). The joint coordinate system was significantly more sensitive to anatomical landmarks misplacement errors. However, the absolute differences of sensitivity were small relative to the joints ranges of motion. In conclusion, the angles obtained using these two descriptors were not identical, but were similar for at least the shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-medial forefoot joints. Therefore, the angle comparison across descriptors is possible for these two joints. Comparison should be done more carefully for the medial-lateral forefoot joint. Moreover, despite different sensitivities to experimental errors, the effects of the experimental errors on the angles were small for both descriptors suggesting that both descriptors can be considered for multi-segment foot models.
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Five-year monitoring of a gay-friendly voluntary counselling and testing facility in Switzerland: who got tested and why?
BMC Public Health
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An increase in new HIV cases among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported in Switzerland since 2001. A rapid result HIV testing for MSM through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) facility ("Checkpoint") was opened in Geneva in 2005. This gay-friendly facility, the first to open in Switzerland, provides testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and rapid result HIV testing and counselling. Our objective was to analyze Checkpoints activity over its first five years of activity and its ability to attract at-risk MSM.
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Waiting times before initiation of radiotherapy might not affect outcomes for patients with glioblastoma: a French retrospective analysis of patients treated in the era of concomitant temozolomide and radiotherapy.
J. Neurooncol.
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Purpose of this study was to determine the effect of waiting time for radiotherapy on overall survival of patients with glioblastoma treated in the EORTC-NCIC trial at 18 centers in France. A total of 400 adult patients with glioblastoma who were treated between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2006 were included. There were 282 patients with "minimum criteria" according to the EORTC-NCIC trial: (i) concurrent chemotherapy with temozolomide; and (ii) age between 18 and 70 years old. Among these patients, 229 were treated with adjuvant temozolomide and were classified as "maximal criteria". One-hundred and eighteen patients were in the "without minimal criteria" group. Waiting time from the first symptom (FS-RT), pathology diagnosis (P-RT), multidisciplinary meeting (MM-RT), surgery (S-RT), and CT scan for delineation (CT-RT) until the start of radiotherapy were recorded. Median follow-up for all patients was 327 days. Overall, median FS-RT, P-RT, MM-RT, CT-RT, and S-RT times were 77, 36, 32, 12, and 41 days, respectively. Median, and 12 and 24-month overall survival were 409 days, and 56.3 ± 2.1 % and 27.6 ± 2.6 %, respectively. Univariate analysis failed to reveal a difference in survival, irrespective of the delay. In multivariate analysis, independent favorable prognostic factors for overall survival were age (p ? 0.0001) and type of surgery (p = 0.0006). In this large series treated during the EORTC-NCIC protocol period, waiting time until radiotherapy did not seem to affect patient outcome.
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A bioanalytical platform for simultaneous detection and quantification of biological toxins.
Sensors (Basel)
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Prevalent incidents support the notion that toxins, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants or animals are increasingly responsible for food poisoning or intoxication. Owing to their high toxicity some toxins are also regarded as potential biological warfare agents. Accordingly, control, detection and neutralization of toxic substances are a considerable economic burden to food safety, health care and military biodefense. The present contribution describes a new versatile instrument and related procedures for array-based simultaneous detection of bacterial and plant toxins using a bioanalytical platform which combines the specificity of covalently immobilized capture probes with a dedicated instrumentation and immuno-based microarray analytics. The bioanalytical platform consists of a microstructured polymer slide serving both as support of printed arrays and as incubation chamber. The platform further includes an easy-to-operate instrument for simultaneous slide processing at selectable assay temperature. Cy5 coupled streptavidin is used as unifying fluorescent tracer. Fluorescence image analysis and signal quantitation allow determination of the toxins identity and concentration. The systems performance has been investigated by immunological detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and the plant toxin ricin. Toxins were detectable at levels as low as 0.5-1 ng · mL(-1) in buffer or in raw milk.
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A new application of lipid nanoemulsions as coating agent, providing zero-order hydrophilic drug release from tablets.
J Drug Deliv
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The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate potential of nanoemulsions as a coating material for the tablets. The nanoemulsion of size less than 100?nm was prepared using a simple and low-energy spontaneous emulsification method. Conventional tablets containing theophylline as a model hydrophilic drug were prepared. The theophylline tablets were coated with the nanoemulsion using a fluid bed coater. The effect of different levels of the nanoemulsion coating on the theophylline release was evaluated. The theophylline tablets containing different levels of the nanoemulsion coating could be successfully prepared. Interestingly, the coating of tablet with the nanoemulsion resulted in zero-order release of theophylline from the tablets. The noncoated theophylline tablets release the entire drug in less than 2 minutes, whereas nanoemulsion coating delayed the release of theophylline from tablets. This investigation establishes the proof of concept for the potential of nanoemulsions as a coating material for tablets.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.