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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Manufacturing and characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 reference standard material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Gene therapy approaches using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) and serotype 8 (rAAV8) have achieved significant clinical benefits. The generation of rAAV Reference Standard Materials (RSM) is key to providing points of reference for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for gene transfer vectors. Following the example of the rAAV2RSM, here we have generated and characterized a novel RSM based on rAAV serotype 8. The rAAV8RSM was produced using transient transfection, and the purification was based on density gradient ultracentrifugation. The rAAV8RSM was distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols to 16 laboratories worldwide. Mean titers and 95% confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles (mean, 5.50×10(11) pt/ml; CI, 4.26×10(11) to 6.75×10(11) pt/ml), vector genomes (mean, 5.75×10(11) vg/ml; CI, 3.05×10(11) to 1.09×10(12) vg/ml), and infectious units (mean, 1.26×10(9) IU/ml; CI, 6.46×10(8) to 2.51×10(9) IU/ml). Notably, there was a significant degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This outcome emphasizes the need to use RSMs to calibrate the titers of rAAV vectors in preclinical and clinical studies at a time when the field is maturing rapidly. The rAAV8RSM has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (VR-1816) and is available to the scientific community.
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Mini-laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy with the use of 3-mm instruments and laparoscope.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To analyze our preliminary outcomes on the use of 3 mm instruments for laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN).
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Surgical treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in Spain during the 2006-2011 period.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Surgery is one of the basic pillars in the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The objective of the present study was to analyse the current state of the use of surgery in patients with HNSCC in Spain.
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Prostacyclin-synthase expression in head and neck carcinoma patients and its prognostic value in the response to radiotherapy.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Prostacyclin (PGI2 ) plays a role in cancer progression but the mechanism is currently poorly understood. Additionally, no data are available about the prognostic value of the PGI2 -pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) therapy. We evaluated the expression of the PGI2 -pathway in HNSCC patients. PGI2 production and PGI-Synthase (PGIS) expression, in terms of mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (immunoblotting), were lower in tumor samples than in non-tumoral mucosa, whereas, as expected, COX-2 expression was increased in HNSCC tumor samples. Using local control of the tumor after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy as a dependent variable, patients were classified in two categories of PGIS transcript-levels. The high-PGIS group had a significantly lower frequency of local and distant failure than the low-PGIS group, and the 5-year cancer-specific survival was higher [90.2% (CI 95%: 81.0-99.4%) vs 60.5% (CI 95%:44.4-76.6%)]. None of the four HNSCC cell lines analyzed expressed PGIS and therefore they did not produce PGI2 . However, HNSCC conditioned media enhanced PGI2 production in endothelial cells (EC). The stable analog of PGI2 , carbaprostacyclin (cPGI2 ), exerted little effect on HNSCC cell lines migration, and no effect on cell cycle distribution or proliferation rate after radiation injury was observed. Nevertheless, cPGI2 promoted EP-4-dependent in vitro angiogenesis. Von Willebrand factor expression (EC-marker) and capillary density were significantly higher in the group of patients with high-expression of PGIS. Our results indicate that PGIS expression was associated to radiotherapy efficiency. Although we do not provide direct evidence of a relationship between tumor vascularization and radiotherapy efficiency, our results suggest that the effect of PGI2 is related with its ability to promote vascularization. These results also support the concept that coadjuvant therapy with PGIS enhancers, such as retinoids, could have therapeutic value for HNSCC treatment.
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Low blood levels of sTWEAK are related to locoregional failure in head and neck cancer.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Identifying serum pre-treatment molecular markers that can predict response to therapy is of great interest in head and neck oncology and is required to develop personalized treatments that maximize survival while minimizing morbidity. The main aim was to investigate the potential prognostic significance of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), and its receptors, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) and CD163, in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study comprised 37 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed, untreated HNSCC. Serum and tissue samples from these patients were available for study. We determined sTWEAK and sCD163 levels in serum from 37 HNSCC patients by ELISA. TWEAK, CD163, Fn14 and TNF-? gene expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR in 111 matched tissue samples (tumoral, adjacent and distal/normal mucosa). Our results showed a significant relationship between low sTWEAK levels and poor locoregional control of the disease. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the locoregional recurrence-free survival rate in patients with low sTWEAK circulating levels was significantly lower than in patients with high levels, and that high CD136/TWEAK expression ratio in tumors was also related to poor prognosis. sTWEAK pre-treatment serum levels might be used as prognostic non-invasive biomarkers for locoregional control in patients with HNSCC. Future investigations are warranted to determine the potential prognostic significance of this non-invasive biomarker in the rapid discrimination according to the locoregional control achieved in patients who received a non-surgical organ preservation treatment.
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[Aetiology and treatment of vocal fold paralysis: retrospective study of 108 patients].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To review the aetiology and treatment of laryngeal paralysis diagnosed at our hospital and to describe the available therapeutic options.
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Stomal recurrence in head and neck cancer patients with temporary tracheostomy.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Stomal recurrence following a temporary tracheostomy in the management of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) without laryngectomy is a rare finding. We studied the incidence and prognostic significance of stomal recurrence in patients who had a temporary tracheostomy.
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Elective treatment of the neck for second primary tumors of the head and neck.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to define the role of elective neck dissection in patients with a second N0 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We carried out a retrospective study in 74 patients with a second N0 HNSCC treated with an elective neck dissection. Thirteen patients (17.6 %) had occult neck node metastases. The risk of occult neck nodes was low for patients with a second glottic tumor (0 %), and for patients with non-glottic T1-T2 tumors who had received previous radiotherapy in the neck (5.3 %). Patients with non-glottic locally advanced tumors (T3-T4) and non-glottic T1-T2 tumors who had not received previous radiotherapy in the neck had a risk of occult neck nodes of 28.1 and 33.3 %, respectively. Elective neck dissection could be omitted in patients with glottic tumors and in patients with an early tumor (T1-T2) who had received previous radiotherapy in the neck.
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Inclusion of extracapsular spread in the pTNM classification system: a proposal for patients with head and neck carcinoma.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The inclusion of data about the presence of metastatic neck nodes with extracapsular spread (ECS) in the neck dissection improves the prognostic classification of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Chronic adherence to heat and moisture exchanger use in laryngectomized patients.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Total laryngectomy leads to pulmonary problems such as excessive sputum production, forced expectoration and increased coughing. The use of a heat and moisture exchanger (Provox(®) HME) reduces these symptoms. The aim of this study was to quantify chronic adherence to HME use in laryngectomized patients.
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[Head and neck sarcomas. Our experience].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2011
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Head and neck sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours that vary greatly in clinical presentation, with different histopathological and biological characteristics.
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Total or subtotal glossectomy with microsurgical reconstruction: functional and oncological results.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Management of patients after total or subtotal glossectomy presents challenging reconstruction of complex three-dimensional defects. Such defects can have a dramatic effect on respiration, speech, and nutrition, and may significantly impact quality of life.
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Tumor cells induce COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression in microvascular endothelial cells mainly by means of IL-1 receptor activation.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) plays a key role in immune response, tumor progression and metastasis. We previously showed that macrovessel-derived endothelial cells do not produce PGE(2) enzymatically because they do not express the inducible microsomal PGE-synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Nevertheless, differences between macro- and micro-vessel-derived endothelial cells regarding arachidonic acid (AAc) metabolism profile have been reported. The present work was conducted to evaluate the expression of PGE(2)-pathway-related enzymes in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) in culture and to test the hypothesis that the tumor cell-HMVEC cross talk could increase mPGES-1 expression in HMVEC. We treated HMVEC in culture with human recombinant IL-1?. IL-1? induced PGE(2) release and COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression in terms of mRNA and protein, determined by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. HMVEC constitutively expressed mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) and the IL-1? treatment did not modify their expression. PGE(2) synthesized by HMVEC from exogenous AAc was linked to mPGES-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed mPGES-1 expression in microvessels in vivo. COX-2 and mPGES-1 were also induced in HMVEC by the conditioned medium from two squamous head and neck carcinoma cell lines. Conditioned medium from tumor cell cultures contained several cytokines including the IL-1? and IL-1?. Tumor cell-induced COX-2 and mPGES-1 in HMVEC was strongly inhibited by the IL-1-receptor antagonist, indicating the important implication of IL-1 in this effect. HMVEC could therefore contribute directly to PGE(2) formed in the tumor. Our findings support the concept that mPGES-1 could be a target for therapeutic intervention in patients with cancer.
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Structural insights into the activation mechanism of melibiose permease by sodium binding.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2010
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The melibiose carrier from Escherichia coli (MelB) couples the accumulation of the disaccharide melibiose to the downhill entry of H(+), Na(+), or Li(+). In this work, substrate-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy was used in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy to quantitatively compare the conformational properties of MelB mutants, implicated previously in sodium binding, with those of a fully functional Cys-less MelB permease. The results first suggest that Asp55 and Asp59 are essential ligands for Na(+) binding. Secondly, though Asp124 is not essential for Na(+) binding, this acidic residue may play a critical role, possibly by its interaction with the bound cation, in the full Na(+)-induced conformational changes required for efficient coupling between the ion- and sugar-binding sites; this residue may also be a sugar ligand. Thirdly, Asp19 does not participate in Na(+) binding but it is a melibiose ligand. The location of these residues in two independent threading models of MelB is consistent with their proposed role.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Extended deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap for head and neck reconstruction: a clinical experience with 100 patients.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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The extended deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) artery flap had been described in 1983. For head and neck reconstruction, we have been using a variation of this flap, namely a perforator free flap of the deep inferior epigastric system with a superolateral extension of the skin paddle.
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Risk of third and fourth tumors in patients with head and neck cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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The objective of our study was to analyze the incidence and location of second and subsequent tumors in patients after an index head and neck carcinoma.
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Management of sinonasal inverted papillomas and comparison of classification staging systems.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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The aim of this study was to describe treatment results in patients with sinonasal inverted papilloma and to compare recent classification staging systems.
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In-plane and out-of-plane infrared difference spectroscopy unravels tilting of helices and structural changes in a membrane protein upon substrate binding.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) difference spectroscopy stands out because of its ability to provide information on the interaction of substrates with membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. We show how the study and interpretation of the structural changes in membrane proteins upon substrate binding is simplified by obtaining ATR-IR difference spectra with polarized light and then computing the difference spectra in the z and x,y directions, where structural and orientation changes give specific difference absorbance patterns. In combination with a maximum-entropy band-narrowing method and some simple spectroscopic rules, the present approach allows us to unambiguously identify changes in the tilt of some helices in the secondary transporter melibiose permease following melibiose binding in the presence of sodium, suggesting the formation of an occluded state during the transport mechanism of the substrates.
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Parotidectomies in benign parotid tumours: "Sant Pau" surgical extension classification.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2009
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At present different options co-exist for treating a benign tumour of the parotid gland, which has led to some confusion about the extent of resection performed in each case. In an effort to improve this situation, we created a classification system to define the areas removed. We started using this classification in July, 2006, and this article reviews its applicability and usefulness.
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Influence of the persistence of tobacco and alcohol use in the appearance of second neoplasm in patients with a head and neck cancer. A case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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To evaluate the influence of persistent tobacco and alcohol use on the risk of a second metachronous neoplasm in the aerodigestive tract in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.
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[Results of an organ conservation protocol in patients with locally advanced laryngeal tumours].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Advanced laryngeal carcinoma patients, candidates for total laryngectomy, nowadays have different treatment options. One of them is induction chemotherapy, which allows modulation of the second manoeuvre according to the degree of response achieved. This study presents the results of a large series of patients treated according to this protocol.
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[Combined endoscopic treatment for Zenkers diverticulum versus open approach; review of our experience].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Zenkers diverticulum is a superior esophagus sphincter disease with a surgical management in symptomatic cases. This treatment has undergone important changes in recent years.
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Ceratocricoid muscle: an embryological and anatomical study.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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This study aimed to document the prevalence and morphology of the ceratocricoid muscle in a large sample of fetuses and adults and to explain its possible origin in a sample of embryos. Forty-five embryos, thirty-four fetuses, and ninety human larynges from adults with no known laryngeal pathology were studied. The muscle was observed in 23% of the fetal sample and in 14% of the adult sample. No significant differences were observed in the laterality in any of the groups. The ceratocricoid muscle is attached between the cricoid lamina and the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage and also into the capsule of the cricothyroid joint. The muscle is innervated by several branches (between one and three) from the anterior division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve as it courses behind the cricothyroid joint. The ceratocricoid muscle develops from tissue within the mesenchymal bridge which connects the external and internal laryngeal sphincters or rings from embryonic stages 15-20. The close relationship of the ceratocricoid muscle to the recurrent laryngeal nerve could mean that it can exert pressure on this nerve. This may be a possible explanation for the causation of certain idiopathic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies.
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Alteration of sugar-induced conformational changes of the melibiose permease by mutating Arg141 in loop 4-5.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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The melibiose permease (MelB) from Escherichia coli couples the uptake of melibiose to that of Na+, Li+, or H+. In this work, we applied attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) difference spectroscopy to obtain information about the structural changes involved in substrate interaction with the R141C mutant and with the wild-type MelB reacted with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). These modified permeases have the ability to bind the substrates but fail to transport them. It is shown that the sugar-induced ATR-FTIR difference spectra of the R141C mutant are different from those corresponding to the Cys-less permease from which it is derived. There are alterations of peaks assigned to turns and beta-structures located most likely in loop 4-5. In addition, and quite notably, a peak at 1659 cm(-1), assigned to changes at the level of one alpha-helix subpopulation, disappears in the melibiose-induced difference spectrum in the presence of Na+, suggesting a reduction of the conformational change capacity of the mutated MelB. These helices may involve structural components that couple the cation- and sugar-binding sites. On the other hand, MelB-NEM difference spectra are proportionally less disrupted than the R141C ones. Hence, the transport cycle of these two permeases, modified at two different loops, is most likely impaired at a different stage. It is proposed that the R141C mutant leads to the generation of a partially defective ternary complex that is unable to catalyze the subsequent conformational change necessary for substrate translocation.
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Prognostic role of MMP-9 expression in head and neck carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
Oral Oncol.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 at a transcriptional level in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Studying substrate binding to reconstituted secondary transporters by attenuated total reflection infrared difference spectroscopy.
Methods Mol. Biol.
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The determination of protein conformational changes induced by the interaction of substrates with secondary transporters is an important step toward the elucidation of their transport mechanism. Since conformational changes in a protein alter its vibrational patterns, they can be detected with high sensitivity by infrared difference (IR(diff)) spectroscopy without the need for external probes. We describe a general procedure to obtain substrate-induced IR(diff) spectra by alternating perfusion of buffers over an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal containing an adhered film of a membrane protein reconstituted in lipids. As an example, we provide specific protocols to obtain melibiose and Na(+)-induced ATR-IR(diff) spectra of reconstituted melibiose permease, a sodium/melibiose co-transporter from E. coli. The presented methodology is applicable in principle to any membrane protein, provided that it can be purified and reconstituted in functional form, and appropriate substrates are available.
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Prognostic factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of CHAID decision trees technology and Cox analysis.
Head Neck
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The purpose of this study was to compare the risk factors obtained from a classical statistical method (Cox proportional hazards model) and the results obtained with classification trees (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection [CHAID] model) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Endonasal endoscopic scalpel-forceps dacryocystorhinostomy vs endocanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy.
Eur J Ophthalmol
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Purpose. To compare the efficacy of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and endocanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy. Materials and methods. A total of 126 dacryocystorhinostomies were performed in 111 patients with epiphora. In 55% of cases (69/126) we performed an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and in 45% (57/126) we carried out an endocanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy using diode laser. The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. The mean age was higher in the endocanalicular group than in the endonasal endoscopic group: 64 versus 62 years. There were 25 men (23%) and 86 women (77%). Results. Successful results were achieved in 73% of patients (92/126). In the endonasal endoscopic group, 83% of patients (57/69) were symptom free compared to 62% of patients (35/57) in the laser diode group. A bicanalicular nasal silicone tube was left in place for a mean of 2.32 months in the endoscopic endonasal group and for 2.82 months in the laser diode group (p=0.164). Median time of recurrence after removal of the tube was 3.56 months (range 0-9.6): 2.84 months in the laser diode group and 4.87 months in the endonasal endoscopic group (p=0.069). Conclusions. The endonasal endoscopic approach achieved better results for nasolacrimal obstruction than the endocanalicular laser diode technique.
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[Geographic distribution of dengue fever cases in flooded zones from Villahermosa, Tabasco, in 2010].
Rev Chilena Infectol
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To describe the geographical distribution of dengue fever cases in flooded areas of Villahermosa, Tabasco, in 2010.
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Comparison of chi-squared automatic interaction detection classification trees vs TNM classification for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
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To compare chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) classification trees vs the seventh edition of the TNM classification for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and to assess whether CHAID classification trees might improve results obtained with the TNM classification.
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Overexpression of the nuclear factor-kappa B (p65) in association with local failure in patients with head and neck carcinoma undergong radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
Head Neck
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The aim of this study was to evaluate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) expression as a biologic marker to predict local control in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
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Interaction between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts in the biosynthesis of PGE2.
J. Lipid Res.
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Prostaglandin (PG)E(2) is relevant in tumor biology, and interactions between tumor and stroma cells dramatically influence tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cross-talk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and fibroblasts could substantially enhance PGE(2) biosynthesis. We observed an enhanced production of PGE(2) in cocultures of HNSCC cell lines and fibroblasts, which was consistent with an upregulation of COX-2 and microsomal PGE-synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in fibroblasts. In cultured endothelial cells, medium from fibroblasts treated with tumor cell-conditioned medium induced in vitro angiogenesis, and in tumor cell induced migration and proliferation, these effects were sensitive to PGs inhibition. Proteomic analysis shows that tumor cells released IL-1, and tumor cell-induced COX-2 and mPGES-1 were suppressed by the IL-1-receptor antagonist. IL-1? levels were higher than those of IL-1? in the tumor cell-conditioning medium and in the secretion from samples obtained from 20 patients with HNSCC. Fractionation of tumor cell-conditioning media indicated that tumor cells secreted mature and unprocessed forms of IL-1. Our results support the concept that tumor-associated fibroblasts are a relevant source of PGE(2) in the tumor mass. Because mPGES-1 seems to be essential for a substantial biosynthesis of PGE(2), these findings also strengthen the concept that mPGES-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention in patients with HNSCC.
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Second, third, and fourth head and neck tumors. A progressive decrease in survival.
Head Neck
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Patients with a first head and neck carcinoma have a high risk of successive neoplasms, many of which appear again in the head and neck. Second head and neck tumors have a poorer prognosis than first tumors, but data about the prognosis of third and fourth tumors in the head and neck are lacking.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.