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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will output as the TE0 mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < -17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology.
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Low-intensity focused ultrasound mediated localized drug delivery for liver tumors in rabbits.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Objective: To explore the antitumor effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) mediated localized drug delivery of adriamycin-microbubble-PLGA nanoparticle complexes on rabbits VX2 liver tumor. Methods: ADM-NMCs were prepared by covalent linking of ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-NPs) to the shell of the microbubbles. A fixed water bag filled with microbubbles was subjected to LIFU and non-focused ultrasound respectively, and the ultrasound images of which were recorded before and after ultrasonication. A total of 54 VX2 liver tumor-burdened rabbits were divided into six groups randomly, including control, ADM-NPs combined with LIFU, microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NPs and microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU and ADM-NMCs combined with Non-FUS. The tumor volume and volume inhibition rate (VIR) of tumor progression were calculated and compared. Apoptotic cells were labeled by terminal deoxyuridine nick end. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The median survival time of the animals were recorded and compared. Results: ADM-NMCs were successfully prepared with an average diameter of 1721?nm. The highest VIR and apoptotic index (AI) were found in the group of ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU while the lowest proliferating index (PI) was simultaneously observed in this group. The median survival time of the rabbits in the ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU group was the longest (71days) among all groups. Conclusions: ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU could inhibit the rabbits VX2 liver tumor progress by delaying the tumor proliferation and accelerating apoptosis, which presents a novel process for liver tumor targeting chemotherapy.
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[Effect of Gansui Banxia Tang plus-minus Gansui and Gancao anti-drug combination that preferred dose close to clinical application on diuretic effect in malignant ascites rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To observe the effect of Gansui Banxia Tang plus-minus Gansui and Gancao anti-drug combination on hepatic and renal functions in malignant ascites rats to explore whether the efficacy or toxicity associated with the anti-drug combination.
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EPAS-1 mediates SP-1-dependent FBI-1 expression and regulates tumor cell survival and proliferation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Factor binding IST-1 (FBI-1) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. As FBI-1 is over-expressed in multiple human cancers, the regulation of itself would provide new effective options for cancer intervention. In this work, we aimed to study the role that EPAS-1 plays in regulating FBI-1. We use the fact that specificity protein-1 (SP-1) is one of the crucial transcription factors of FBI-1, and that SP-1 can interact with the endothelial pas domain protein-1 (EPAS-1) for the induction of hypoxia related genes. The study showed that EPAS-1 plays an indispensible role in SP-1 transcription factor-mediated FBI-1 induction, and participated in tumor cell survival and proliferation. Thus, EPAS-1 could be a novel target for cancer therapeutics.
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Understanding complex transcriptome dynamics in schizophrenia and other neurological diseases using RNA sequencing.
Int. Rev. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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How the human brain develops and adapts with its trillions of functionally integrated synapses remains one of the greatest mysteries of life. With tremendous advances in neuroscience, genetics, and molecular biology, we are beginning to appreciate the scope of this complexity and define some of the parameters of the systems that make it possible. These same tools are also leading to advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Like the substrate for these problems, the etiology is usually complex-involving an array of genetic and environmental influences. To resolve these influences and derive better interventions, we need to reveal every aspect of this complexity and model their interactions and define the systems and their regulatory structure. This is particularly important at the tissue-specific molecular interface between the underlying genetic and environmental influence defined by the transcriptome. Recent advances in transcriptome analysis facilitated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) can provide unprecedented insight into the functional genomics of neurological disorders. In this review, we outline the advantages of this approach and highlight some early application of this technology in the investigation of the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Recent progress of RNA-Seq studies in schizophrenia has shown that there is extraordinary transcriptome dynamics with significant levels of alternative splicing. These studies only scratch the surface of this complexity and therefore future studies with greater depth and samples size will be vital to fully explore transcriptional diversity and its underlying influences in schizophrenia and provide the basis for new biomarkers and improved treatments.
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Biomass-directed synthesis of 20 g high-quality boron nitride nanosheets for thermoconductive polymeric composites.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Electrically insulating boron nitride (BN) nanosheets possess thermal conductivity similar to and thermal and chemical stabilities superior to those of electrically conductive graphenes. Currently the production and application of BN nanosheets are rather limited due to the complexity of the BN binary compound growth, as opposed to massive graphene production. Here we have developed the original strategy "biomass-directed on-site synthesis" toward mass production of high-crystal-quality BN nanosheets. The strikingly effective, reliable, and high-throughput (dozens of grams) synthesis is directed by diverse biomass sources through the carbothermal reduction of gaseous boron oxide species. The produced BN nanosheets are single crystalline, laterally large, and atomically thin. Additionally, they assemble themselves into the same macroscopic shapes peculiar to original biomasses. The nanosheets are further utilized for making thermoconductive and electrically insulating epoxy/BN composites with a 14-fold increase in thermal conductivity, which are envisaged to be particularly valuable for future high-performance electronic packaging materials.
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Papillary breast lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: morphological enhancement patterns and diagnostic strategy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To identify features which determine the papillary nature of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based on morphological and pathological correlations, and predict which papillomas are malignant.
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Recognition of Bungarus multicinctus venom by a DNA aptamer against ?-bungarotoxin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antibody-based technology is the main method for diagnosis and treatment of snake bite envenoming currently. However, the development of an antibody, polyclonal or monoclonal, is a complicated and costly procedure. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that recognize specific targets such as proteins and have shown great potential over the years as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In contrast to antibodies, aptamers can be selected in vitro without immunization of animals, and synthesized chemically with extreme accuracy, low cost and high degree of purity. In this study we firstly report on the identification of DNA aptamers that bind to ?-bungarotoxin (?-BuTx), a neurotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. A plate-SELEX method was used for the selection of ?-BuTx specific aptamers. After 10 rounds of selection, four aptamer candidates were obtained, with the dissociation constant ranged from 65.9 nM to 995 nM measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Competitive binding assays using both the fluorescently labeled and unlabeled aptamers revealed that the four aptamers bound to the same binding site of ?-BuTx. The best binder, ?B-1, bound specifically to ?-BuTx, but not to BSA, casein or ?-Bungarotoxin. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked aptamer assay demonstrated that ?B-1 could discriminate B. multicinctus venom from other snake venoms tested. The results suggest that aptamer ?B-1 can serve as a useful tool for the design and development of drugs and diagnostic tests for ?-BuTx poisoning and B. multicinctus bites.
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A novel reaction of peroxiredoxin 4 towards substrates in oxidative protein folding.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) is the only endoplasmic reticulum localized peroxiredoxin. It functions not only to eliminate peroxide but also to promote oxidative protein folding via oxidizing protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In Prx4-mediated oxidative protein folding we discovered a new reaction that the sulfenic acid form of Prx4 can directly react with thiols in folding substrates, resulting in non-native disulfide cross-linking and aggregation. We also found that PDI can inhibit this reaction by exerting its reductase and chaperone activities. This discovery discloses an off-pathway reaction in the Prx4-mediated oxidative protein folding and the quality control role of PDI.
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The value of the ucN13-P15 interpeak latency predicted acute posterior circulation ischemia and the chronic outcome.
J Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the ucN13-P15 (CV2-Fz) and IcN13-P15 (CV7-Fz) interpeak latencies when used to predict acute posterior circulation ischemia.
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Diabetes disease progression in Goto-Kakizaki rats: effects of salsalate treatment.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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This study investigates the antidiabetic effects of salsalate on disease progression of diabetes in non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an experimental model of type 2 diabetes. Salsalate was formulated in rat chow (1,000 ppm) and used to feed rats from 5 to 21 weeks of age. At 5 weeks of age, GK and Wistar (WIS) control rats were subdivided into four groups, each composed of six rats: GK rats with standard diet (GK-C); GK rats with salsalate-containing diet (GK-S); WIS rats with standard diet (WIS-C); and WIS rats with salsalate-containing diet (WIS-S). The GK-C rats (167.2±11.6 mg/dL) showed higher blood glucose concentrations than WIS-C rats (133.7±4.9 mg/dL, P<0.001) at the beginning of the experiment, and had substantially elevated blood glucose from an age of 15 weeks until sacrifice at 21 weeks (341.0±133.6 mg/dL). The GK-S rats showed an almost flat profile of blood glucose from 4 weeks (165.1±11.0 mg/dL) until sacrifice at 21 weeks of age (203.7±22.2 mg/dL). While this difference in blood glucose between 4 and 21 weeks in GK-S animals was significant, blood glucose at 21 weeks was significantly lower in GK-S compared to GK-C animals. At sacrifice, salsalate decreased plasma insulin (GK-S =1.0±0.3; GK-C =2.0±0.3 ng/mL, P<0.001) and increased plasma adiponectin concentrations (GK-S =15.9±0.7; GK-C =9.7±2.0 ?g/mL, P<0.001). Salsalate also lowered total cholesterol in GK-S rats (96.1±8.5 mg/dL) compared with GK-C rats (128.0±11.4 mg/dL, P<0.001). Inflammation-related genes (Ifit1 and Iigp1) exhibited much higher mRNA expression in GK-C rats than WIS-C rats in liver, adipose, and muscle tissues, while salsalate decreased the Ifit1 and Iigp1 mRNA only in adipose tissue. These results suggest that salsalate acts to both increase adiponectin and decrease adipose tissue-based inflammation while preventing type 2 diabetes disease progression in GK rats.
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Is urban development an urban river killer? A case study of Yongding Diversion Channel in Beijing, China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The high population and concrete environment alter urban areas by changing temperature, rainfall runoff, and water resource utilization activities. This study was conducted to investigate the water quality features of the Yongding Diversion Channel in Beijing, China, and its relationship with rainfall and urban development. Monthly water quality data were obtained from April to October of 2004 at monitoring sites of Sanjiadian, Gaojing, Luodaozhuang, and Yuyuangtan. The monthly water quality grades from 2007 to 2011 were also investigated and compared with those of other rivers. Dissolved oxygen and pH showed greater decreases after one or two moderate rainfall events than several light rainfall events. The potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) increased more after several light rainfall events than after one or two moderate or heavy rainfall events. Pollutant concentrations (CODMn, NH3-N, TP) in downstream regions showed greater changes than those in upstream areas after heavy rainfall events. Intense human activities around the channel greatly influenced the water quality of the channel in rainy season because of runoff pollution; however, heavy rainfall had a strong dilution effect on the pollutant concentrations in rivers. Overall, urban development has obviously deteriorated the water quality of the Yongding Diversion Channel as indicated by an increase in the water quality index from 3.22 in 2008 to 4.55 in 2010. The Pearson correlation between monthly rainfall and water quality indices from 2007 to 2011 ranged from 0.1286 to 0.6968, generally becoming weaker as rainfall and rainfall runoff became more random and extreme.
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Artemisinin prevents electric remodeling following myocardial infarction possibly by upregulating the expression of connexin 43.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Artemisinin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on ventricular remodeling. The present study investigated whether artemisinin was able to decrease the ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) in rats following myocardial infarction (MI) and aimed to determine the possible underlying mechanisms. The rats were subjected to surgery to induce MI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery and were randomly allocated to receive vehicle or artemisinin (75 mg/kg/day) treatment for four weeks. Programmed electrical stimulation demonstrated a significantly increased VFT in the artemisinin-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. The electrophysiological improvement of the VFT was accompanied by increased immunofluorescence-stained connexin 43 (Cx43), myocardial Cx43 protein and mRNA levels in artemisinin-treated rats. The present study also demonstrated that artemisinin significantly decreased tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels at the infarcted border zone. Thus, artemisinin demonstrated a protective effect on ventricular arrhythmias following MI. Although the precise mechanism by which artemisinin modulates the dephosphorylation of Cx43 is unknown, it is likely that artemisinin increased the expression of Cx43 via the inhibition of TNF-?.
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Divergent kinetic and thermodynamic hydration of a porous Cu(II) coordination polymer with exclusive CO? sorption selectivity.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Selective adsorption and separation of CO2 are of great importance for different target applications. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a promising class of porous materials for this purpose. Here we present a unique MOF material, [Cu(tba)2]n (tba = 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)benzoate), which shows high CO2 adsorption selectivity over CH4/H2/O2/Ar/N2 gases (with IAST selectivity of 41-68 at 273 K and 33-51 at 293 K). By using a critical point dryer, the CO2 molecules can be well sealed in the 1D channels of [Cu(tba)2]n to allow a single-crystal X-ray analysis, which reveals the presence of not only C(?+)-H···O(?-) bonds between the host framework and CO2 but also quadrupole-quadrupole (CO2(?-)···(?+)CO2) interactions between the CO2 molecules. Furthermore, [Cu(tba)2]n will suffer divergent kinetic and thermodynamic hydration processes to form its isostructural hydrate {[Cu(tba)2](H2O)}n and a mononuclear complex [Cu(tba)2(H2O)4] via single-crystal to single-crystal transformations.
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Holocord spinal epidural abscess in a pregnant patient presenting as premature labour: a rare presentation of an unusual diagnosis.
CJEM
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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ABSTRACTSpinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare clinical entity. It is less common when the entire epidural space is involved, known as a holocord or panspinal SEA, and it is even less common in a pregnant patient. We report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus holocord SEA in a 30-year-old female at approximately 22 weeks' gestational age who presented with lumbar pain and pelvic pressure and the urge to bear down. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated extensive SEA and meningitis from the foramen magnum to the lumbar spine that was treated both medically and surgically. The incidence of, clinical presentation of, and risk factors for developing SEA are discussed. If untreated, expanding SEAs produce sensory symptoms and signs, motor dysfunction, and, eventually, paralysis and death. The medical and surgical management of SEA is also discussed. SEA can have an insidious and atypical presentation despite extensive involvement of the epidural space. Therefore, the diagnosis of SEA should always be considered in patients who present to the emergency department with back pain.
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Factors associated with the use of prenatal corticosteroids in the management of preterm delivery in Chinese hospitals.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To assess the prevalence of the use of prenatal corticosteroids (PCS) in the management of preterm delivery and the factors associated with PCS administration.
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Renal sympathetic denervation suppresses ventricular substrate remodelling in a canine high-rate pacing model.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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This study sought to assess whether renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) could suppress ventricular substrate remodelling and attenuate heart failure (HF) progression.
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Downregulation of microRNA-429 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting p27Kip1 in human prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are closely associated with cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various types of cancer, including prostate cancer. In this study, the role of miR-429 in the regulation of cell proliferation was investigated in prostate cancer cells. miR-429 expression levels were measured in the IF11 and IA8 prostate cancer cell lines and normal prostate epithelial tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. miR-429 mimics or an miR-429 inhibitor were then transfected into the human prostate cancer cell lines. MTT and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to detect the effect of miR-429 on cell proliferation. A luciferase reporter system was employed to verify the potential target of miR-429. The results revealed that miR-429 was significantly upregulated in the human prostate cancer cell lines, compared with the normal prostate epithelial tissue. Downregulation of miR-429 expression in IF11 and IA8 cells inhibited cell proliferation and arrested the cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The luciferase assay demonstrated that p27Kip1 was a direct target of miR-429. Furthermore, overexpression of p27Kip1 was observed to partially rescue the proliferation?promoting effect of miR-429 on IA8 cells. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge this study was the first to show that miR-429 is involved in the oncogenesis of prostate cancer and thus may be a novel prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer.
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Associations between problematic internet use and adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms: possible role of sleep quality.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To evaluate the associations between problematic Internet use (PIU) and physical and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescents, and to investigate the possible role of sleep quality in this association.
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Thiol as a synthon for preparing thiocarbonyl: aerobic oxidation of thiols for the synthesis of thioamides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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It is a constant challenge to develop an environmentally friendly, atom-economical, and step-economical method for the preparation of thioamides. Herein, we describe an oxidation method that affords the direct conversion of thiols to thioamides without the use of exogenous sulfur reagents. This is the first instance of a successful utilization of thiols as a synthon for the preparation of thioamides under economical conditions.
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Versatile mesoporous DyIII coordination framework for highly efficient trapping of diverse pollutants.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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This work presents a mesoporous Dy(III) metal-organic framework with two types of void cages (diameters: 4.4 and 2.8 nm), which can efficiently adsorb a variety of chemical pollutants, including toxic metals, iodine, and formaldehyde.
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Telomere shortening is associated with genetic anticipation in Chinese Von Hippel-Lindau disease families.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. A phenomenon known as genetic anticipation has been documented in some hereditary cancer syndromes, where it was proved to relate to telomere shortening. Because studies of this phenomenon in VHL disease have been relatively scarce, we investigated anticipation in 18 Chinese VHL disease families. We recruited 34 parent-child patient pairs (57 patients) from 18 families with VHL disease. Onset age was defined as the age when any symptom or sign of VHL disease first appeared. Anticipation of onset age was analyzed by paired t test and the other two special tests (HV and RY2). Relative telomere length of peripheral leukocytes was measured in 29 patients and 325 healthy controls. Onset age was younger in child than in parent in 31 of the 34 parent-child pairs. Patients in the first generation had older onset age with longer age-adjusted relative telomere length, and those in the next generation had younger onset age with shorter age-adjusted relative telomere length (P < 0.001) in the 10 parent-child pairs from eight families with VHL disease. In addition, relative telomere length was shorter in the 29 patients with VHL disease than in the normal controls (P = 0.003). The anticipation may relate to the shortening of telomere length in patients with VHL in successive generations. These findings indicate that anticipation is present in families with VHL disease and may be helpful for genetic counseling for families with VHL disease families and for further understanding the pathogenesis of VHL disease.
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The synergetic effect of MoS? and graphene on Ag?PO? for its ultra-enhanced photocatalytic activity in phenol degradation under visible light.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The photo-degradation of organic pollutants using solar light is an attractive chemical process for water pollution control. In this study, we synthesized a new composite material consisting of silver phosphate (Ag?PO?) sub-microcrystals grown on a layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS?) and graphene (GR) hybrid as a high-performance photocatalyst for the degradation of toxic organic pollutants. This composite photocatalyst was prepared via a simple two-step hydrothermal process that used sodium molybdate, thiourea and graphene oxide as precursors for the MoS?/GR hybrid and silver nitrate for the Ag?PO? sub-microcrystals. The composite Ag?PO?-0.02(MoS?/0.005GR) was found to be the most effective catalyst for the photo-decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenol under simulated solar light and visible light (? ? 420 nm). The photocatalyst was also highly active for the degradation of nitrophenol and chlorophenol. The ultra photocatalytic activity of the novel catalyst arose from the synergetic effects of MoS? and GR as cocatalysts in the composite. MoS?/GR nanosheets served as electron collectors for the interfacial electron transfer from Ag?PO? to electron acceptors in the aqueous solution and thus enhanced the separation of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and made the holes more available for organic oxidation. In addition, the presence of MoS? and GR provided more active adsorption sites and allowed for the activation of dissolved O? for organic degradation in water.
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Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator is proposed based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will evolve into the TE0 mode in the wide output arm while the input TE0 mode excites the TE0 mode in the narrow arm. The numerical simulation results show that the mode conversion efficiency increases with the lengths of the tapers and the Y-junction for the output waveguide widths in a large range. This proposed device has < 0.4 dB insertion loss with > 12 dB extinction ratio in an ultra-broad wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1750 nm. With such a broad operating bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for polarization diversity operating across every communication bands. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed in terms of the device width variation, the slab height variation and the variation of the upper-cladding refractive index.
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Acute liver failure in Chinese children: a multicenter investigation.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Currently, no documentation is available regarding Chinese children with acute liver failure (ALF). This study was undertaken to investigate etiologies and outcomes of Chinese children with ALF.
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Photosensing performance of branched CdS/ZnO heterostructures as revealed by in situ TEM and photodetector tests.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining thermal vapour deposition and a hydrothermal method. Drastic optoelectronic performance enhancement of such heterostructures was revealed, compared to plain CdS nanobelts, as documented by comparative in situ optoelectronic studies on corresponding individual nanostructures using an originally designed laser-compatible transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Furthermore, flexible thin-film based photodetectors based on standard CdS nanobelts and newly prepared CdS/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on PET substrates, and comparative photocurrent and photo-responsivity measurements thoroughly verified the in situ TEM results. The CdS/ZnO branched heterostructures were found to have better performance than standard CdS nanobelts for optoelectronic applications with respect to the photocurrent to dark current ratio and responsivity.
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Expression of androgen receptor and its association with estrogen receptor and androgen receptor downstream proteins in normal/benign breast luminal epithelium.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The androgen receptor (AR) is strongly expressed in the majority of breast carcinomas, but its role in breast hormonal carcinogenesis is not clear. We believe a better knowledge of the biology of normal/benign breast tissue will be the key to understanding this process. Using standard immunohistochemical staining on consecutive sections and dual immunohistochemical labeling, we studied the expression pattern of AR and estrogen receptor (ER) in normal/benign breast luminal epithelial cells. We found that most of the AR-positive cells are also ER positive, about 10% of the cells are AR-positive only, whereas ER-positive only cells are uncommon, a distribution pattern of hormone receptor expression similar to what was revealed in invasive breast carcinomas. Whereas the expression of AR downstream proteins, such as prostate-specific antigen and gross cystic disease fluid protein, was either negative or unrelated to the AR status. We conclude that AR and ER expression status in invasive breast carcinomas reflects that of their progenitor cells in terminal duct lobular units. Our study did not reveal the expression of AR downstream proteins in normal/benign luminal epithelial cells at the regular immunohistochemistry level.
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A novel small molecule aurora kinase inhibitor attenuates breast tumor-initiating cells and overcomes drug resistance.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Chemoresistance is a major cause of cancer treatment failure. Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) have attracted a considerable amount of attention due to their role in chemoresistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we evaluated the small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor AKI603 as a novel agent against TICs in breast cancer. AKI603 significantly inhibited Aurora-A (AurA) kinase and induced cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the intragastric administration of AKI603 reduced xenograft tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that breast cancer cells that were resistant to epirubicin expressed a high level of activated AurA and also have a high CD24(Low)/CD44(High) TIC population. The inhibition of AurA kinase by AKI603 abolished the epirubicin-induced enrichment of TICs. Moreover, AKI603 suppressed the capacity of cells to form mammosphere and also suppressed the expression of self-renewal genes (?-catenin, c-Myc, Sox2, and Oct4). Thus, our work suggests the potential clinical use of the small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor AKI603 to overcome drug resistance induced by conventional chemotherapeutics in breast cancer.
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Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012-May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals.
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Mapping of sheep sensory cortex with a novel microelectrocorticography grid.
J. Comp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Microelectrocorticography (µECoG) provides insights into the cortical organization with high temporal and spatial resolution desirable for better understanding of neural information processing. Here we evaluated the use of µECoG for detailed cortical recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in an ovine model. The approach to the cortex was planned using an MRI-based 3D model of the sheep's brain. We describe a minimally extended surgical procedure allowing placement of two different µECoG grids on the somatosensory cortex. With this small craniotomy, the frontal sinus was kept intact, thus keeping the surgical site sterile and making this approach suitable for chronic implantations. We evaluated the procedure for chronic implantation of an encapsulated µECoG recording system. During acute and chronic recordings, significant SEP responses in the triangle between the ansate, diagonal, and coronal sulcus were identified in all animals. Stimulation of the nose, upper lip, lower lip, and chin caused a somatotopic lateral-to-medial, ipsilateral response pattern. With repetitive recordings of SEPs, this somatotopic pattern was reliably recorded for up to 16 weeks. The findings of this study confirm the previously postulated ipsilateral, somatotopic organization of the sheep's sensory cortex. High gamma band activity was spatially most specific in the comparison of different frequency components of the somatosensory evoked response. This study provides a basis for further acute and chronic investigations of the sheep's sensory cortex by characterizing its exact position, its functional properties, and the surgical approach with respect to macroanatomical landmarks.
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Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 colocalizes with type 2 in corticotropin-releasing factor-containing cellular profiles in rat brain.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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To investigate whether CRHR1 and CRHR2 are colocalized in CRH-specific neurons in rat brain.
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Proteome changes in mesenteric lymph induced by sepsis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The present study aimed to examine the changes in mesenteric lymph during the development of sepsis and to identify the distinct proteins involved, as targets for further study. The sepsis animal model was constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mesenteric lymph was collected from 28 adult male Sprague?Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=7 per group): CLP?6 h, CLP?24 h, sham?6 h and sham?24 h groups. Capillary high performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze the proteome in mesenteric lymph. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was then conducted to investigate the distinct proteins. Compared with the sham group, 158 distinct proteins were identified in the lymph samples from the CLP group. Five of these proteins associated with the same lipid metabolism pathway were selected, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), annexin A1 (Anxa1), neutrophil gelatinase?associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100a8 and S100a9. The expression of ApoE, Anxa1, NGAL, S100a8 and S100a9 were all elevated in the progression of sepsis. The five proteins were reported to be closely associated with disease development and may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. In conclusion, identifying proteome changes in mesenteric lymph provides a novel perspective to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying sepsis.
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Expression of ghrelin and its receptor in rats after coronary artery ligation.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, which has been shown to exert beneficial effects on cardiac function and ventricular remodeling. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of ghrelin and the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a), and the association with cardiac remodeling in rats with myocardial infarction (MI). Twenty-four hours after ligation of the anterior descending artery (LAD), adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 3 d, 7 d and 28 d group. Sham animals underwent thoracotomy and pericardiotomy, but not LAD ligation. Expression of both ghrelin and GHSR-1a was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by ELISA kit. In addition, cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements. Plasma and cardiac expression of ghrelin decreased on days 3, 7 and 28 compared with the sham group (P<0.05). In contrast the GHSR-1a mRNA levels increased during the same days (P<0.05). Decreased positive immunoreaction for ghrelin and increased positive GHSR-1a were also observed in the infarcted heart. Interestingly, plasma ghrelin correlated negatively with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (r=-0.59, P=0.002) and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (r=-0.73, P<0.01). The ghrelin system may play an important role regulating cardiac remodeling after MI and present as a potential significant target for pharmacological modulation and treating cardiac remodeling.
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Changes of gallic acid mediated by ultrasound in a model extraction solution.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Ultrasound has been widely used as a new kind of auxiliary extraction technique in food industry, but its effect cannot be ignored on the potential degradation of the extracted target compound. In this paper, a model extraction solution was constructed with the standard gallic acid as target compound to be extracted, and its change was monitored by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) under different ultrasonic extraction conditions, namely, solvent types, extractant concentrations, extraction time, extraction temperature, ultrasound power and frequency, in order to understand the effect of ultrasound on the extract during ultrasonic extraction and provide an objective evaluation of ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols. The results indicate that ultrasonic parameters had definite effect on the degradation of gallic acid during ultrasonic extraction, which implies that the extraction yield should not be over-focused in actual extraction applications of ultrasound, more attention should be paid to the potential degradation of the extracted target compound induced by ultrasound.
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Antipsychotic drugs and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a nested case-control study using the CPRD.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The evidence to date on the relationship between antipsychotic drugs and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is limited.
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Acylglycerol kinase promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in breast cancer via suppression of the FOXO1 transcription factor.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is reported to be overexpressed in multiple cancers. The clinical significance and biological role of AGK in breast cancer, however, remain to be established.
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Genome-wide association study identifies ITPR2 as a susceptibility gene for Kashin-Beck disease in Han Chinese.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Objective. Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy, the pathogenesis of which remains elusive. To identify susceptibility genes for KBD, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of KBD. Methods. 90 grade II or III KBD patients with extreme KBD phenotypes and 1,627 healthy controls were enrolled in initial GWAS. Affymetrix Genome Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 was applied for genotyping. For replication study, 9 SNPs of significant ITPR2 gene identified by the GWAS were tested in an independent validation sample containing 559 KBD patients and 467 healthy controls. Results. We identified a novel associated locus for KBD (ITRP2, rs10842750, P = 1.58×10(-) (8) ) in the GWAS. Replication study observed significant associations between KBD and the 9 validation SNPs of ITPR2 gene, including rs10842750 (P = 5.97×10(-3) ), rs16931011 (P = 1.29×10(-3) ), rs1531928 (P = 4.95×10(-3) ), rs4414322 (P = 4.40×10(-3) ), rs11048570 (P = 4.53×10(-3) ), rs11048572 (P = 4.43×10(-3) ), rs2017510 (P = 4.58×10(-3) ), rs9669395 (P = 5.77×10(-3) ) and rs1002835 (P = 4.85×10(-3) ). In KBD patients, the genotype score of rs10842750 (P = 0.013) was also correlated with KBD clinical severity grades. Conclusion. Our results strongly suggest that ITPR2 was a novel susceptibility gene for KBD in Han Chinese. This study may provide new insight into the pathogenesis and rationale of therapies for KBD as well as other osteoarthrosis with similar articular cartilage lesions. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Measurement of hydroxyproline in collagen with three different methods.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Determination of the 4-hydroxy-l-proline (hydroxyproline) concentration may provide useful information for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases caused by disorders of collagen metabolism. The objective of the present study was to apply liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to assess the hydroxyproline concentration. The hydroxyproline concentration in lung and liver tissues measured by LC-MS was compared with values obtained by a colorimetric method, as well as a fluorescence method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from previous studies by our group. The determination of the hydroxyproline concentration by LC-MS was improved as compared with that using the colorimetric and HPLC methods, due to its simplicity, high sensitivity (pg level) and short separation time. These results suggested that utilizing the LC-MS method for measuring the hydroxyproline concentration would be advantageous for the diagnosis of diseases associated with abnormalities of collagen metabolism.
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Regulatory B cells correlate with HIV disease progression.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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A rare subset of IL-10-producing B cells, named Breg, was recently identified in mice and humans. Currently, there are no unified cell surface markers to identify Breg, and the relationship between the frequency of Breg and HIV disease progression in chronic HIV infection is unclear. In the present study, we determined whether the cell surface markers of Breg reported for other diseases are suitable for identifying Breg in HIV-infected patients. In addition, we examined the relationship between Breg and HIV disease progression. We found that Breg frequency correlated positively with viral load and negatively with CD4 count in chronic HIV infection. Following antiretroviral treatment, the CD4 count increased and the frequency of Breg decreased stepwise. There was no difference in IL-10 expression of CD1d(hi) or CD1d(lo) cells isolated from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, CD1d may not be a marker of Breg in HIV-infected patients.
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Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.
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The role of RIP3 mediated necroptosis in ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neurons injuries.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) injury is a generally accepted precursor of auditory neuropathy. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) has been reported as an important necroptosis pathway mediator that can be blocked by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). In our study, we sought to identify whether necroptosis participated in SGN injury. Ouabain was applied to establish an SGN injury model. We measured the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) threshold shift as an indicator of the auditory conditions. Positive ?3-tubulin immunofluorescence staining indicated the surviving SGNs. RIP3 expression was evaluated using immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. SGN injury promoted an increase in RIP3 expression that could be suppressed by application of the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1. A decreased ABR threshold shift and increased SGN density were observed when Nec-1 was administered with apoptosis inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD). These results demonstrated that necroptosis is an indispensable pathway separately from apoptosis leading to SGN death pathway, in which RIP3 plays an important role.
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Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86?±?0.29, weighing 543?±?57 kg and producing 24.32?±?3.86 kg milk per day were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 diets (n?=?10 per treatment): 1) low-concentrate mixed forage diet (LCF) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 46 : 54; 2) high-concentrate corn straw diet (HCS) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 65 : 35; 3) low-concentrate corn straw diet (LCS) with the same concentrate to roughage ratio (46 : 54) as LCF. The experiment lasted 6 weeks, and samples were collected in the last week. Milk samples were analyzed for conventional components, rumen fluid samples were analyzed for pH and endotoxin, and mammary arterial and venous plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?).
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Enzymatic synthesis of 2'-deoxyuridine by whole cell catalyst co-expressing uridine phosphorylase and thymidine phosphorylase through auto-induction system.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Genes encoding uridine phosphorylase (UP) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) from Escherichia coli K12 were cloned and recombined respectively into plasmids pET-21a(+) and pET-28a(+). The recombinant plasmids BL21/pET21a-UP and BL21/pET28a-TP were co-transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) to construct highly effective BTU strain (BL21/pET28a-TP, pET21a-UP) overexpressing both of UP and TP. BTU was cultivated in ZYM-Fe-5052 medium for 10 h and used as catalyst to synthesize 2'-deoxyuridine (dUR). It was found to increase the productivity of dUR by 8-9 fold when compared to wild E. coli K12 and E. coli BL21(DE3) strains. A series of experiments were carried out to find out the optimal conditions for synthesis of dUR. At 50°C, with 0.25‰ dry wt./v to catalyze the reaction of 2:1 ?-thymidine: uracil (60 mM ?-thymidine, 30 mM uracil), the conversion rate of dUR would reach 61.6% at 1 h, which was much higher than the rates obtained by BTU strain cultured in LB medium and induced by IPTG. This result proved co-expression and auto-induction were efficient methods in enhancing the expression quantity and activity of nucleoside phosphorylases, and they also had significant implications for large-scale industrial production of dUR and synthesis of other nucleoside derivatives.
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Application of Mn/MCM-41 as an adsorbent to remove methyl blue from aqueous solution.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In this study, the application of Mn loaded MCM-41 (Mn/MCM-41) was reported as a novel adsorbent for methyl blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The mesoporous structure of Mn/MCM-41 was confirmed by XRD technique. Surface area, pore size and wall thickness were calculated from BET equation and BJH method using nitrogen sorption technique. FT-IR studies showed that Mn were loaded on the hexagonal mesoporous structures of MCM-41. It is found that the MCM-41 structure retained after loading of Mn but its surface area and pore diameter decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of MB from aqueous solution was investigated by Mn/MCM-41 with changing Mn content, adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, contact time, pH and the temperature. Under the chosen condition (25°C, 0.02 g adsorbent dosage, 6.32 pH, 50 mg L(-1) MB, 1 wt.% Mn), a high MB adsorption capacity (45.38 mg g(-1)) was achieved by Mn/MCM-41 process at 120 min, 8.6 times higher than MCM-41. The electrostatic interaction was considered to be the main mechanism for the dye adsorption. The experimental data fitted well to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The adsorption of MB on Mn/MCM-41 followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous.
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p120 modulates LPS-induced NF-?B activation partially through RhoA in bronchial epithelial cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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p120-Catenin (p120) is an adherens junction protein recognized to regulate cell-cell adhesion. Emerging evidence indicates that p120 may also play an important role in inflammatory responses, and the regulatory mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we showed that p120 was associated with airway inflammation. p120 downregulation induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation, accompanied with I ? B ? degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, and increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- treated C57BL mice and human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Moreover, we first found that p120 directly coprecipitated with RhoA in BECs. After LPS stimulation, although total RhoA and p120-bound RhoA were unchanged, RhoA activity was increased. Y27632, a ROCK inhibitor, could partially inhibit nuclear translocation of p65. Overexpression of p120 inactivated RhoA and NF-?B in BECs, whereas p120 loss significantly increased RhoA activity, p65 nuclear translocation, and IL-8 expression. Taken together, our study supports the regulatory role of p120 in airway inflammation and reveals that p120 may modulate NF-?B signaling partially through RhoA.
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Pd-carbene migratory insertion: application to the synthesis of trifluoromethylated alkenes and dienes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of halides with CF3-substituted diazo compounds or N-tosylhydrazones has been explored for the synthesis of CF3-substituted alkenes and 1,3-butadienes. Pd-carbene migratory insertion plays the key role in these transformations.
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Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) present a higher probability of distant metastasis and lack of effective targeted therapy. ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) is an ETS (E-26) transcription factor and has been associated with tumor metastasis. However, the clinical and functional significance of ETV4 in TNBC still remains unclear.
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Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide (SVHRP) Enhances Neurogenesis and Neurite Outgrowth of Immature Neurons in Adult Mice by Up-Regulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU- positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.
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High-glucose inhibits human fibroblast cell migration in wound healing via repression of bFGF-regulating JNK phosphorylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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One of the major symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) is delayed wound healing, which affects large populations of patients worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism behind this illness remains elusive. Skin wound healing requires a series of coordinated processes, including fibroblast cell proliferation and migration. Here, we simulate DM by application of high glucose (HG) in human foreskin primary fibroblast cells to analyze the molecular mechanism of DM effects on wound healing. The results indicate that HG, at a concentration of 30 mM, delay cell migration, but not cell proliferation. bFGF is known to promote cell migration that partially rescues HG effects on cell migration. Molecular and cell biology studies demonstrated that HG enhanced ROS production and repressed JNK phosphorylation, but did not affect Rac1 activity. JNK and Rac1 activation were known to be important for bFGF regulated cell migration. To further confirm DM effects on skin repair, a type 1 diabetic rat model was established, and we observed the efficacy of bFGF on both normal and diabetic rat skin repair. Furthermore, proteomic studies identified an increase of Annexin A2 protein nitration in HG-stressed fibroblasts and the nitration was protected by activation of bFGF signaling. Treatment with FGFR1 and JNK inhibitors delayed cell migration and increased Annexin A2 nitration levels, indicating that Annexin A2 nitration is modulated by bFGF signaling via activation of JNK. Together with these results, our data suggests that the HG-mediated delay of cell migration is linked to the inhibition of bFGF signaling, specifically through JNK suppression.
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Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS) diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw) on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS) diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw) and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF) diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage).
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Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI) in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.
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Embryonic Stem Cells Promoting Macrophage Survival and Function are Crucial for Teratoma Development.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigenic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34, which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2, and TNF-?, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to inhibit teratoma development would increase the safety of ESC-based therapies, inasmuch as the depletion of macrophages completely inhibits ESC-induced angiogenesis and teratoma development.
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Association between thrombophilia gene polymorphisms and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To estimate the relationship between the risk of preeclampsia and two thrombophilia gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the factor V G1691A SNP and the prothrombin G20210A SNP.
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Variations of CITED2 are associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CITED2 was identified as a cardiac transcription factor which is essential to the heart development. Cited2-deficient mice showed cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis and neural crest defects. To explore the potential impact of mutations in CITED2 on congenital heart disease (CHD) in humans, we screened the coding region of CITED2 in a total of 700 Chinese people with congenital heart disease and 250 healthy individuals as controls. We found five potential disease-causing mutations, p.P140S, p.S183L, p.S196G, p.Ser161delAGC and p. Ser192_Gly193delAGCGGC. Two mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that the last four mutations significantly affected the interaction between p300CH1 and CITED2 or HIF1A. Further studies showed that four CITED2 mutations recovered the promoter activity of VEGF by decreasing its competitiveness with HIF1A for binding to p300CH1 and three mutations decreased the consociation of TFAP2C and CITED2 in the transactivation of PITX2C. Both VEGF and PITX2C play very important roles in cardiac development. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CITED2 has a potential causative impact on congenital heart disease.
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Recent advances in solution-processed inorganic nanofilm photodetectors.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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As important opto-electronical devices, nanofilm photodetectors constructed from inorganic low-dimensional nanostructures have drawn prime attention due to their significance in basic scientific research and potential technological applications. This review highlights a selection of important topics pertinent to inorganic nanofilm photodetectors processed via solution strategies. This article begins with a description of the advantages and drawbacks of nanofilm-based photodetectors versus 1D nanostructure-based ones, and then introduces rational design and controlled syntheses of various nanofilms via different wet-chemical routes, and then mainly focuses on their optoelectronic properties and applications in photodetectors based on the different types of nanofilms. Finally, the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting research and technology area are presented.
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[Gender difference on depressive symptoms among Chinese children and adolescents].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To explore the epidemiological characteristics and gender difference of depressive symptoms among Chinese children and adolescents.
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[Role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To investigate the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from C57BL/6 mice on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis.
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Gender- and Puberty-Dependent Association Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: National Survey Among Chinese Adolescents.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.
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Nanoscale architecture and cellular adhesion of biomimetic collagen substrates.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2013
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The ability to engineer bioactive sites within the biopolymer collagen has significant potential to dictate cellular microenvironments and processes. We have developed a novel recombinant DNA platform that enables such molecular-level control over this important material. In this investigation, we demonstrated the production of synthetic human collagen using yeast strains that were engineered with human prolyl hydroxylase ? and ? genes integrated into the genome and a codon-optimized collagen gene carried on a plasmid. To understand the extent to which this synthetic collagen can mimic native human collagen, we examined the relationships between the structural topology and physical stability with the ability to support adhesion of HT-1080 cells. Characterization of these biopolymers included evaluation using circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and MTT metabolic activity assays. Although the apparent melting temperatures of the recombinant collagens were ?3-5°C less than native sources, the recombinant and native collagens exhibited comparable triple helical structure, polymeric dimensions, adsorption on polystyrene, and cellular adhesion properties below their respective melting temperature values. These results support the feasibility of producing molecularly-engineered collagens that can mimic native substrates for therapeutic and tissue engineering applications.
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Oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cells and glial-restricted precursor cells generate different tumor phenotypes in response to the identical oncogenes.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Despite the great interest in identifying the cell-of-origin for different cancers, little knowledge exists regarding the extent to which the specific origin of a tumor contributes to its properties. To directly examine this question, we expressed identical oncogenes in two types of glial progenitor cells, glial-restricted precursor (GRP) cells and oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cells (O-2A/OPCs), and in astrocytes of the mouse CNS (either directly purified or generated from GRP cells). In vitro, expression of identical oncogenes in these cells generated populations differing in expression of antigens thought to identify tumor initiating cells, generation of 3D aggregates when grown as adherent cultures, and sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent BCNU. In vivo, cells differed in their ability to form tumors, in malignancy and even in the type of host-derived cells infiltrating the tumor mass. Moreover, identical genetic modification of these different cells yielded benign infiltrative astrocytomas, malignant astrocytomas, or tumors with characteristics seen in oligodendrogliomas and small-cell astrocytomas, indicating a contribution of cell-of-origin to the characteristic properties expressed by these different tumors. Our studies also revealed unexpected relationships between the cell-of-origin, differentiation, and the order of oncogene acquisition at different developmental stages in enabling neoplastic growth. These studies thus provide multiple novel demonstrations of the importance of the cell-of-origin in respect to the properties of transformed cells derived from them. In addition, the approaches used enable analysis of the role of cell-of-origin in tumor biology in ways that are not accessible by other more widely used approaches.
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[Role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating colitis through Fas/FasL-mediated immune regulation].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To investigate the difference in the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of mice from ovariectomy (OVX) group and sham group in treating colitis, and then further study the differences of Fas/FasL expression and downstream T cell migration and apoptosis between the two groups.
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Chemotherapy agents induced immunoresistance in lung cancer cells could be reversed by trop-2 inhibition in vitro and in vivo by interaction with MAPK signaling pathway.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment, but the prognosis of the cancer patients following chemotherapy has not been substantially improved. Alternative strategies such as immunotherapy and their combinations with chemotherapy are now being considered; however, the effects of chemotherapy on the immune responses of cancer cells are not fully understood. In the present studies, we reveal a potential link between chemotherapy and cancer immunoresistance, we first examined the effects of chemopreventive agent DDP on the expression of a cell surface glycopreotein Trop-2 in lung cancer cells, and found that DDP not only induce Trop-2 surface expression in human lung cancer cells, but also induce T cell apoptosis effectively. In order to investigate the relationship between DDP induced Trop-2 expression and T cell apoptosis, we stably transfected A549 and PC14 lung cancer cells with Trop-2 shRNA, the DDP induced Trop-2 surface expression was effectively decreased in stably transfected cell lines, but chemotherapeutic reagent induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis were increased through inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway. In vivo animal experiments showed that Trop-2 knockdown tumors displayed a slower growth rate than the control xenografts. Importantly, DDP treatment exhibited a strong antitumor activity in the mice with Trop-2 knockdown tumors, but only a marginal effect in the control group. Taken together, our data show that DDP resistance in lung cancer cells could be induced through increased surface expression of Trop-2, which at least partially by interfering with MAPK pathway. These results provide novel insight into the function of Trop-2 and encourage the design and testing of approaches targeting this protein and its partners.
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Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.
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A non-aggregation colorimetric assay for thrombin based on catalytic properties of silver nanoparticles.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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In this paper, we developed a simple and rapid colorimetric assay for protein detection based on the reduction of dye molecules catalyzed by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Aptamer-modified magnetic particles and aptamer-functionalized AgNPs were employed as capture and detection probes, respectively. Introduction of thrombin as target protein could form a sandwich-type complex involving catalytically active AgNPs, whose catalytic activity was monitored on the catalytic reduction of rhodamine B (RhB) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The amount of immobilized AgNPs on the complex increased along with the increase of the thrombin concentration, thus the detection of thrombin was achieved via recording the decrease in absorbance corresponding to RhB. This method has adopted several advantages from the key factors involved, i.e., the sandwich binding of affinity aptamers contributed to the increased specificity; magnetic particles could result in rapid capture and separation processes; the conjugation of AgNPs would lead to a clear visual detection. It allows for the detection limit of thrombin down to picomolar level by the naked eye, with remarkable selectivity over other proteins. Moreover, it is possible to apply this method to the other targets with two binding sites as well.
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Locoregional and distant recurrences after breast conserving therapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer: A meta-analysis.
Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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With higher incidence of recurrence, ongoing dispute exists on whether triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a good candidate for breast conserving therapy (BCT).
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Preparation and Hydrogen Sorption Performances of BCNO Porous Microbelts with Ultra-Narrow and Tunable Pore Widths.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Thats below the belt: Porous BCNO materials with tunable ultra-narrow pore widths (0.4-1.1?nm) were prepared and investigated with regard to H2 storage. The as-prepared samples show similar belt-like morphologies, chemical compositions, surface areas, and pore volumes. The difference in H2 sorption behavior for the materials reveals that a narrower pore width likely favors H2 uptake at a low pressure range, while an increased proportion of B?N domains in the materials may be beneficial to enhance H2 uptake at elevated pressures at 77?K.
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Wilms tumour suppressor gene 1 (WT1) is involved in the carcinogenesis of Lung cancer through interaction with PI3K/Akt pathway.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Although studies have shown the oncogene WT1 is overexpressed in lung cancer, there is no data showing the implication of WT1 in lung cancer biology. In the present study, we first demonstrated that isotype C of WT1 was conservely overexpressed in 20 lung cancer patient specimens. Knockdown of WT1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and the expression change of BCL-2 family genes in WT1+ A549 cells. Furthermore, we found that DDP treatment could decrease the WT1 mRNA expression level by 5% and 15% at a dose of 1 mug/ml, by 25% and 40% at a dose of 2 mug/ml for 24 and 48 h, respectively. In the mean time, DDP treatment also reduced the PI3K/AKT pathway activity. Further analysis by using siRNA targeting the AKT-1 and the PI3K pathway inhibitor Ly294002 revealed that the AKT-1 siRNA reduced the WT1 expression effectively in A549 cells, and the same result was observed in Ly294002 treated cells, indicating that DDP treatment could down regulate WT1 expression through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Of particular interest, knockdown of WT1 also inhibited the AKT expression effectively, Chip assay further confirmed that WT1 is a transcription factor of AKT-1. We thus concluded that there is a positive feedback loop between WT1 and AKT-1. Taken together, DDP treatment downregulates the WT1 expression through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and there is a feedback between WT1 and AKT-1; WT1 is involved in cellular proliferation in A549 cells, WT1 inhibition in combination with DDP will provide a new light for lung cancer therapy.
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Coculture of peripheral blood CD34+ cell and mesenchymal stem cell sheets increase the formation of bone in calvarial critical-size defects in rabbits.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The reconstruction of large bony defects remains a clinical challenge, and angiogenesis and neovascularisation are being given more attention in bone tissue engineering. In this study we cocultured peripheral blood CD34+ cells (PB-CD34+ cells), an endothelial progenitor cell/haematopoietic stem cell-enriched population, with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to investigate their potential for bony regeneration. Cocultured cells showed better osteogenic differentiation than MSC alone in vitro. The cocultured cells and MSC sheets were also composited with hydroxyapatite and implanted in calvarial critical-size defects in rabbits. The rabbits were killed before microcomputed tomographic (MicroCT) and histological analysis. The results showed that cocultured cell composites had promoted bony regeneration more efficiently by 8 weeks after implantation. Our results indicate that the coculture of PB-CD34+ cells and MSC increases bony regeneration in calvarial critical-size defects in rabbits, and provide a new promising therapeutic strategy to aid skeletal healing.
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Pliocene intraspecific divergence and Plio-Pleistocene range expansions within Picea likiangensis (Lijiang spruce), a dominant forest tree of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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A knowledge of intraspecific divergence and range dynamics of dominant forest trees in response to past geological and climate change is of major importance to an understanding of their recent evolution and demography. Such knowledge is informative of how forests were affected by environmental factors in the past and may provide pointers to their response to future environmental change. However, genetic signatures of such historical events are often weak at individual loci due to large effective population sizes and long generation times of forest trees. This problem can be overcome by analysing genetic variation across multiple loci. We used this approach to examine intraspecific divergence and past range dynamics in the conifer Picea likiangensis, a dominant tree of forests occurring in eastern and southern areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). We sequenced 13 nuclear loci, two mitochondrial DNA regions and three plastid (chloroplast) DNA regions in 177 individuals sampled from 22 natural populations of this species, and tested the hypothesis that its evolutionary history was markedly affected by Pliocene QTP uplifts and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Consistent with the taxonomic delimitation of the three morphologically divergent varieties examined, all individuals clustered into three genetic groups with intervariety admixture detected in regions of geographical overlap. Divergence between varieties was estimated to have occurred within the Pliocene and ecological niche modelling based on 20 ecological variables suggested that niche differentiation was high. Furthermore, modelling of population-genetic data indicated that two of the varieties (var. rubescens and var. linzhiensis) expanded their population sizes after the largest Quaternary glaciation in the QTP, while expansion of the third variety (var. likiangensis) began prior to this, probably following the Pliocene QTP uplift. These findings point to the importance of geological and climatic changes during the Pliocene and Pleistocene as causes of intraspecific diversification and range shifts of dominant tree species in the QTP biodiversity hot spot region.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.