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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Risk factors of the occurence and death of acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective multicenter cohort study].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To explore the risk factors of the occurence and 28-day death of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care unit (ICU).
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Facilitating the formation of accountable care organizations in rural areas.
Rural Policy Brief
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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This Policy Brief presents characteristics contributing to the formation of four accountable care organizations (ACOs) that serve rural Medicare beneficiaries. Doing so provides considerations for provider organizations contemplating creating rural-based ACOs. Key Findings. (1) Previous organizational integration and risk-sharing experience facilitated ACO formation. (2) Use of an electronic health record system fostered core ACO capabilities, including care coordination and population health management. (3) Partnerships across the care continuum supported utilization of local health care resources.
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Trends in hospital network participation and system affiliation, 2007-2012.
Rural Policy Brief
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Key Findings. (1) Hospital network participation from 2007 to 2012 increased in larger hospitals (more than 150 beds), non-government not-for-profit hospitals, and metropolitan hospitals. Network participation changed inconsistently in other types of hospitals. (2) Hospital system affiliation has generally increased in hospitals of all sizes, non-government not-for-profit hospitals, hospitals in all census regions, CAHs, and both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan hospitals. There are notably higher percentages of system affiliation among midsized and large hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, and metropolitan hospitals compared to their counterparts.
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Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: program eligibility, beneficiary assignment, and quality measures.
Rural Policy Brief
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are groups of providers (generally physicians and/or hospitals) that may receive financial rewards by maintaining or improving care quality for a group of patients while reducing the cost of care for those patients. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) established a Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) and accompanying Medicare ACOs to “facilitate coordination and cooperation among providers to improve the quality of care for Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries and reduce unnecessary costs.” The MSSP now includes 343 ACOs; an additional 23 ACOs participate in the Medicare Pioneer ACO demonstration program, and there are approximately 240 private ACOs. Based on our analysis, among the Medicare ACOs 119 operate in both rural and urban counties and seven operate exclusively in rural counties. A little over 24 percent of non-metropolitan counties are included in Medicare ACOs. To assist rural providers considering ACO formation, this policy brief describes MSSP eligibility and participation requirements, beneficiary assignment processes, and quality measures.
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Bonding pathways of gold nanocrystals in solution.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Nanocrystal bonding is an important phenomenon in crystal growth and nanoscale welding. Here, we show that for gold nanocrystals bonding in solution can follow two distinct pathways: (1) coherent, defect-free bonding occurs when two nanocrystals attach with their lattices aligned to within a critical angle; and (2) beyond this critical angle, defects form at the interfaces where the nanocrystals merge. The critical misalignment angle for ?10 nm crystals is ?15° in both in situ experiments and full-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Understanding the origin of this critical angle during bonding may help us predict and manage strain profiles in nanoscale assemblies and inspire techniques toward reproducible and extensible architectures using only basic crystalline blocks.
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Nanomedicine in the Management of Microbial Infection - Overview and Perspectives.
Nano Today
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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For more than 2 billion years, microbes have reigned on our planet, evolving or outlasting many obstacles they have encountered. In the 20(th) century, this trend took a dramatic turn with the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines. Nevertheless, since then, microbes have progressively eroded the effectiveness of previously successful antibiotics by developing resistance, and many infections have eluded conventional vaccine design approaches. Moreover, the emergence of resistant and more virulent strains of bacteria has outpaced the development of new antibiotics over the last few decades. These trends have had major economic and health impacts at all levels of the socioeconomic spectrum - we need breakthrough innovations that could effectively manage microbial infections and deliver solutions that stand the test of time. The application of nanotechnologies to medicine, or nanomedicine, which has already demonstrated its tremendous impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, is rapidly becoming a major driving force behind ongoing changes in the antimicrobial field. Here we provide an overview on the current progress of nanomedicine in the management of microbial infection, including diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, drug delivery, medical devices, and vaccines, as well as perspectives on the opportunities and challenges in antimicrobial nanomedicine.
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Physiotherapy Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Background: Many studies reported that physiotherapy interventions are available to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the efficacy remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention on AD. Methods: The data sources were searched from literature databases, journals, and reference lists from 1 January 1990 to the end of 1 April 2014. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials with physiotherapy intervention were included in our meta-analysis. Jadad score and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality of included trials. Outcome measures were cognition function, physical function, activity of daily life (ADL) and neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results: 23 trials met the inclusion standard finally. Significant changes were seen in cognitive function: Mini-Mental State Examination score (weighted mean difference (WMD): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.76, to, 2.93], p < 0.0001), and verbal fluency (standard mean difference (SMD): 0.34, 95% CI: [0.01 to 0.66], p = 0.04). Other outcomes are also significant, they were timed up and go test (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: [0.30 to 0.83], p < 0.0001), berg functional balance scale (SMD: 1.11, 95% CI: [0.37 to 1.84], p = 0.003), 6-min walk distance test (SMD: 141.45, 95% CI: [11.72 to 271.18], p = 0.03), ADL (SMD: 0.78, 95% CI: [0.33 to 1.23], p = 0.0007) and NPI (SMD: -0.69, 95% CI: [-1.31 to -0.07], p = 0.03). Conclusion: The available data indicate that physiotherapy intervention may have benefits in AD. However, current data are not definitive; more carefully designed and conducted observational studies are needed to definitively establish that whether physiotherapy intervention can effectively alleviate symptoms of AD.
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Chronic Metformin Preconditioning Provides Neuroprotection via Suppression of NF-?B-Mediated Inflammatory Pathway in Rats with Permanent Cerebral Ischemia.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic metformin preconditioning offers potent neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic preconditioning with metformin conferred neuroprotection via suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)-mediated inflammatory pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or metformin (50 mg/kg daily, i.p.) for 3 weeks and were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). At 24 h (acute phase) and 96 h (subacute phase) after pMCAO, infarct volume and neurological deficits were evaluated. Meanwhile, the activity of NF-?B and the levels of its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected at 24 h after pMCAO. Our results showed that chronic metformin preconditioning significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits at 24 and 96 h after pMCAO. It also suppressed brain NF-?B activity, which was accompanied by a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and induced nitric oxide synthase in the peri-infarct regions at 24 h after pMCAO. Moreover, the microgliosis and astrocytosis induced by pMCAO were also ameliorated by chronic metformin preconditioning. Collectively, the present study provides the first evidence that suppression of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent one potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotection of chronic metformin preconditioning. In addition, our findings suggest that metformin, a first-line drug for glycemic control, has a practical clinical use for stroke prevention and treatment.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Although most neurodegenerative diseases have been closely related to aberrant accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins in neurons, understanding their pathogenesis remains incomplete, and there is no treatment to delay the onset or slow the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. The availability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in recapitulating the phenotypes of several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases marks the new era in in vitro modeling. The iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in these diseases and provides a novel human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics. Modeling human diseases using iPSCs has created novel opportunities for both mechanistic studies as well as for the discovery of new disease therapies. In this review, we introduce iPSC-based disease modeling in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, we discuss the implementation of iPSCs in drug discovery associated with some new techniques.
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Lactoferrin Promotes Early Neurodevelopment and Cognition in Postnatal Piglets by Upregulating the BDNF Signaling Pathway and Polysialylation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Lactoferrin (Lf) is a sialic acid (Sia)-rich, iron-binding milk glycoprotein that has multifunctional health benefits. Its potential role in neurodevelopment and cognition remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that Lf may function to improve neurodevelopment and cognition, the diet of postnatal piglets was supplemented with Lf from days 3 to 38. Expression levels of selected genes and their cognate protein profiles were quantitatively determined. The importance of our new findings is that Lf (1) upregulated several canonical signaling pathways associated with neurodevelopment and cognition; (2) influenced ~10 genes involved in the brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in the hippocampus and upregulated the expression of polysialic acid, a marker of neuroplasticity, cell migration and differentiation of progenitor cells, and the growth and targeting of axons; (3) upregulated transcriptional and translational levels of BDNF and increased phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein, CREB, a downstream target of the BDNF signaling pathway, and a protein of crucial importance in neurodevelopment and cognition; and (4) enhanced the cognitive function and learning of piglets when tested in an eight-arm radial maze. The finding that Lf can improve neural development and cognition in postnatal piglets has not been previously described.
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Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Ginkgo Biloba for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Background: Research into Ginkgo biloba has been ongoing for many years, while the benefit and adverse effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 for cognitive impairment and dementia has been discussed controversially. Objective: To discuss new evidence on the clinical and adverse effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 for cognitive impairment and dementia. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and other relevant databases were searched in March 2014 for eligible randomized controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba EGb761 therapy in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia. Results: Nine trials met our inclusion criteria. Trials were of 22-26 weeks duration and included 2,561 patients in total. In the meta-analysis, the weighted mean differences in change scores for cognition were in favor of EGb761 compared to placebo (-2.86, 95%CI -3.18; -2.54); the standardized mean differences in change scores for activities in daily living (ADLs) were also in favor of EGb761 compared to placebo (-0.36, 95%CI -0.44; -0.28); Peto OR showed a statistically significant difference from placebo for Clinicians' Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale (1.88, 95%CI 1.54; 2.29). All these benefits are mainly associated with EGb761 at a dose of 240 mg/day. For subgroup analysis in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms, 240 mg/day EGb761 improved cognitive function, ADLs, CGIC, and also neuropsychiatric symptoms with statistical superiority than for the whole group. For the Alzheimer's disease subgroup, the main outcomes were almost the same as the whole group of patients with no statistical superiority. Finally, safety data revealed no important safety concerns with EGb761. Conclusions: EGb761 at 240 mg/day is able to stabilize or slow decline in cognition, function, behavior, and global change at 22-26 weeks in cognitive impairment and dementia, especially for patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms.
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Roughness in lattice ordered effect algebras.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Many authors have studied roughness on various algebraic systems. In this paper, we consider a lattice ordered effect algebra and discuss its roughness in this context. Moreover, we introduce the notions of the interior and the closure of a subset and give some of their properties in effect algebras. Finally, we use a Riesz ideal induced congruence and define a function e(a, b) in a lattice ordered effect algebra E and build a relationship between it and congruence classes. Then we study some properties about approximation of lattice ordered effect algebras.
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IL12/23 p40 inhibition ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-associated neuropathology and spatial memory in SAMP8 mice.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Progressively increased proinflammatory status is a major characteristic of the aging process and associated with age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD). However, the regulation and role of common proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23, in the aged brain are still unclear. Using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) model, we screened the cerebral expression of IL-12/23 in 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old mice and observed that their levels in the brain were upregulated during aging. To further examine whether the heightened activation of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to age-related brain dysfunction, we employed direct in vivo infusion of nonviral small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down the common IL-12/23 signaling subunit p40 in the brain. We found that these p40-deficient mice had significantly decreased cerebral amyloid-? levels, reduced synaptic and neuronal loss, and reversed cognitive impairments. Furthermore, in vivo delivery of a neutralizing p40-specific antibody likewise ameliorated AD-associated pathology and cognitive deficits in SAMP8 mice. Thus, our data indicate that the upregulated cerebral IL-12/23 during aging is involved in age-associated brain dysfunction and point to the modulation of IL-12/23 signaling molecule p40 as a promising strategy for the development of an AD therapy.
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CyberKnife Treatment for Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma of the Ilium in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm that mainly affects infants. KHE rarely develops in adolescents and adults. These tumors tend to be locally invasive, but are not known to produce distant metastases. Numerous treatment modalities are available for KHE, but the optimal therapy is unknown.
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Sensitive and portable detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells using the personal glucose meter.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Using the personal glucose meter, a portable sensor was fabricated to assay telomerase activity and study the telomerase inhibitor AZT. Hence, it provided a promising approach for the detection of enzyme activity and diagnosis of cancer.
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[Erythromycin for improving enteral nutrition tolerance in adult critical patients: a systematic review and Meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To systematically review the efficacy and safety of erythromycin on enteral nutrition (EN) tolerance in adult critical care patients.
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The ameliorative effects of exogenous melatonin on grape cuttings under water-deficient stress: antioxidant metabolites, leaf anatomy, and chloroplast morphology.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Grapes are an important economic crop and are widely cultivated around the world. Most grapes are grown in arid or semi-arid regions, and droughts take a heavy toll in grape and wine production areas. Developing effective drought-resistant cultivation measures is a priority for viticulture. Melatonin, an indoleamine, mediates many physiological processes in plants. Herein, we examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve the resistance of wine grape seedlings grown from cuttings to polyethylene glycol-induced water-deficient stress. The application of 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) markedly inhibited the growth of cuttings, caused oxidative stress and damage from H2 O2 and O2?-, and reduced the potential efficiency of Photosystem II and the amount of chlorophyll. Application of melatonin partially alleviated the oxidative injury to cuttings, slowed the decline in the potential efficiency of Photosystem II, and limited the effects on leaf thickness, spongy tissue, and stoma size after application of PEG. Melatonin treatment also helped preserve the internal lamellar system of chloroplasts and alleviated the ultrastructural damage induced by drought stress. This ameliorating effect may be ascribed to the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, and increased amount of osmoprotectants (free proline). We conclude that the application of melatonin to wine grapes is effective in reducing drought stress.
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Comparison of active and passive targeting of doxorubicin for somatostatin receptor 2 positive tumor models by octreotide-modified HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Abstract Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), specifically over-expressed on many tumor cells, is a potential receipt for active targeting in cancer therapy. In the present study, octreotide (Oct), which had high affinity to SSTR2, was attached to N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymeric system to enhance the antitumor efficiency of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Two kinds of cell lines (HepG2 and A549), which overexpress SSTR2, were chosen as cell models. Compared with non-modified conjugates, Oct-modified conjugates exhibited superior cytotoxicity and intracellular uptake on both HepG2 and A549 cell lines. This might be due to the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, the in vivo biodistribution and antitumor activity evaluations showed that Oct modification significantly improved the tumor accumulation and antitumor efficacy of HPMA copolymer conjugates in SSTR2 over-expressed Kunming mice bearing H22 tumor xenografts. In summary, Oct-modified HPMA polymer-DOX conjugates might be a promising system for the treatment of SSTR2 over-expressed cancers.
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[Using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to study the spatial distribution of As and Hg in orchard soils].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Aqua regia digestion, double channels-atomic fluorescence spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of As and Hg in orchard soils of Qixia City - the main apple production area of Shandong province. Validate The detection limitation, accuracy and precision of the method were validated, the spatial distribution was analyzed, and the characteristics of As and Hg pollution in Qixia orchard soils were assessed. The results showed that the range of As concentration in Qixia soils is between 2.79 and 20.93 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 10.59 mg x kg(-1), the range of Hg concentration in Qixia soil is between 0.01 and 0.79 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 0.12 mg x kg(-1). The variation of As concentration in soils is small, whereas that of Hg concentration is large. Frequency distribution graphics of As and Hg showed that the concentration of As in soils is according with the normal distribution approximately and the concentrations are mostly between 7 and 15 mg x kg(-1), the concentration of Hg in soil isn't according with the normal distribution and the concentrations are mostly between 0.03 and 0.21 mg x kg(-1). The correlations between the concentrations of As or Hg in soils and the nutrient are not significant and there is no significant correlation even between As and Hg. Based on the environmental technical terms for green food production area, the As concentration in orchard soil of Qixia City is at clean level, but there are 4.76% of sample points with Hg pollution index exceeding 1, and this should be attracted the attention of the administrators.
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Upregulation of TREM2 Ameliorates Neuropathology and Rescues Spatial Cognitive Impairment in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene is a recently identified susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD), as its low-frequency variants increase the risk of this disease with an odds ratio similar to that of an APOE ?4 allele. To date, the expression and biologic functions of TREM2 under AD context remain largely unknown. Using APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic model of AD, we showed that TREM2 was upregulated in microglia during disease progression. For the first time, we provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that this upregulation was attributed to the increased amyloid-? (A?)1-42 levels in the brain. By knockdown and overexpression of TREM2 in cultured primary microglia, we revealed that TREM2 modulated microglial functions under AD context, as it facilitated A?1-42 phagocytosis and inhibited A?1-42-triggered proinflammatory responses. Meanwhile, this modulation was dependent on DAP12, the adapter protein of TREM2. More importantly, overexpression of TREM2 in the brain of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice markedly ameliorated AD-related neuropathology including A? deposition, neuroinflammation, and neuronal and synaptic losses, which was accompanied by an improvement in spatial cognitive functions. Taken together, our data suggest that the upregulation of TREM2 serves as a compensatory response to A?1-42 and subsequently protects against AD progression by modulation of microglia functions. These findings provide insights into the role of TREM2 in AD pathogenesis, and highlight TREM2 as a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
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Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.
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Mechanism study of cellular uptake and tight junction opening mediated by goblet cell-specific trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Modifying nanoparticles with targeting peptides which can specifically bind to intestinal epithelium was recently suggested as a strategy to further enhance their ability for the oral delivery of macromolecular drugs. However, few studies were focused on comprehensive understanding of the uptake and transport processes as well as the underlying molecular signaling pathways mediated by the ligand modification. In the present study, the mechanisms of cellular uptake and the tight junction opening associated with the trimethyl chitosan based nanoparticles (M-NPs) and their goblet cell-targeting CSK (CSKSSDYQC) peptide modified nanoparticles (CSK-M-NPs) were investigated. Compared with single ion cross-linked nanoparticles (S NPs), M-NPs and CSK-M-NPs, prepared with multiple agents, exhibited superior stability which could effectively protect drugs against the degradation of trypsin. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were involved in the intracellular uptake of both M-NPs and CSK-M-NPs on Caco-2/HT29-MTX cocultured cells. However, CSK peptide modification could further induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the NPs. Intriguingly, most endocytosis subpathways have been altered after CSK peptide modification. Moreover, the opening of epithelial tight junctions was investigated at both protein and gene levels. The results indicated that both M-NPs and CSK-M-NPs could transiently and reversibly open the epithelial tight junctions via the C-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent pathway. However, CSK peptide modification enabled a more rapid opening and recovering of the tight junctions. In all, the enhanced uptake and transport capacity of nanoparticles after CSK peptide modification may be attributed to the alteration of internalization pathways and the stronger ability of opening tight junctions.
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Aberrant promoter methylation of the CHD1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Cadherin-1 (CHD1), as an invasion suppressor gene, could suppress tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various tumors, but reduced CHD1 levels, resulting from epigenetic silencing, are common in poorly differentiated, advanced stage carcinomas. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between promoter methylation of CHD1 and breast cancer. Relevant studies were retrieved from the Web of Science (1945?~?2013), the Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2013), PubMed (1966?~?2013), EMBASE (1980?~?2013), CINAHL (1982?~?2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982?~?2013) using a systematic literature search. Results were summarized by meta-analyses, conducted using the STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated. In the present meta-analysis, 9 cohort studies with a total of 425 patients with breast cancer were included. Our meta-analysis results demonstrated that the frequency of CHD1 promoter methylation in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues, adjacent tissues, and benign tissues (cancer tissue vs. normal tissue OR?=?30.87, 95 % CI?=?16.76?~?56.86, P?
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Efficacy and safety of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The role of currently available drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been controversial, with some national formularies restricting their use, and health economists questioning whether the small clinical effects are economically worthwhile.
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Association of IL-12A and IL-12B polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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As a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-12 is recently found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the relations of three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-12A (rs2243115 and rs568408) and IL-12B (rs3212227) with late-onset AD (LOAD) risk in a Northern Han Chinese cohort containing 1133 patients and 1158 healthy controls. Our findings indicated that these SNPs in IL-12A and IL-12B can individually and jointly contribute to LOAD risk in Han Chinese, implying that the genes encoding IL-12 subunits represent novel genetic risk factors for LOAD susceptibility.
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Subacute effect of decabromodiphenyl ethane on hepatotoxicity and hepatic enzyme activity in rats.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Information regarding decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) effects on hepatotoxicity and metabolism is limited. In the present study, Wistar rats were given oral DBDPE at different doses. DBDPE induced oxidative stress, elevated blood glucose levels, increased CYP2B2 mRNA, CYP2B1/2 protein, 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD) activity, and induced CYP3A2 mRNA, CYP3A2 protein, and luciferin benzylether debenzylase (LBD) activity. UDPGT activity increased with its increasing exposure levels, suggesting that oral DBDPE exposure induces drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats via the CAR/PXR signaling pathway. The induction of CYPs and co-regulated enzymes of phase II biotransformation may affect the homeostasis of endogenous substrates, including thyroid hormones, which may, in turn, alter glucose metabolism.
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Lactoferrin up-regulates intestinal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors BDNF, UCHL1 and alkaline phosphatase activity to alleviate early weaning diarrhea in postnatal piglets.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development and maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study, we supplemented postnatal piglets with an Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285 mg/kg/day from 3 to 38 days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase (UCHL1) and, to a lesser extent, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in the duodenum (P<.05). Piglets in the high and low Lf group had 30% and 7% larger jejunal crypts compared with the control group (P<.05). Escherichia coli 16S rRNA copy number per gram of ascending colon contents was significantly reduced (P=.001), while the copy number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. was not affected. In addition, Lf increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity (P<.05) and delayed the onset of food transitional diarrhea, reducing its frequency and duration (P<.05). The incidence of diarrhea in the high and low Lf groups was decreased 54% and 15%, respectively, compared with the control group (P=.035). In summary, these findings provide new evidence that dietary Lf supplementation up-regulated gene expression of BDNF and UCHL1, decreased the colon microbiota of E. coli, improved gut maturation and reduced early weaning diarrhea in piglets. The molecular basis underlying these findings suggests that Lf may enhance gut development and immune function by providing new insight into the gut-brain-microbe axis that has not been previously reported.
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CR1 in Alzheimer's Disease.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The complement component receptor 1 gene (CR1), which encodes a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein, has recently been identified as one of the most important risk genes for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). In this article, we reviewed the recent evidence concerning the role of CR1 in LOAD. First, we introduced the structure, localization and physiological function of CR1 in humans. Afterward, we summarized the relation of CR1 polymorphisms with LOAD risk. Finally, we discussed the possible impact of CR1 on the pathogenesis of AD including amyloid-? pathology, tauopathy, immune dysfunction and glial-mediated neuroinflammation. We hope that a more comprehensive understanding of the role that CR1 played in AD may lead to the development of novel therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of AD.
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Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.
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Design and evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles modified with peptide ligand for oral delivery of protein drugs.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Designing feasible and effective peptide ligand modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to improve oral bioavailability of protein drugs and evaluating the influence of mucus remains important. In the present work, two kinds of peptide ligand modified SLNs loaded with salmon calcitonin (sCT), namely, sCT CSK-SLNs and sCT IRQ-SLNs, were prepared by coupling the peptide ligand CSKSSDYQC (CSK) which was reported to show affinity with goblet cells, or IRQRRRR (IRQ), a cell penetrating peptide, to polyoxyethylene (40) stearate (SA-PEG2000). Compared with unmodified SLNs, CSK or IRQ modified SLNs with better drug protection ability could facilitate the internalization of drug on Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells and permeation in excised rat duodenum mucosa. The internalization mechanism of two kinds of peptide ligand modified SLNs was mainly active transport via both clathrin- and caveolae-dependent endocytosis. Although mucus was an impediment to the transport of SLNs, the peptide ligand modified SLNs still showed improved drug absorption. The absolute bioavailability of sCT CSK-SLNs (12.41±3.65%) and sCT IRQ-SLNs (10.05±5.10%) raised to 2.45-fold and 1.98-fold compared with unmodified SLNs (5.07±0.54%), implying the feasibility and effectiveness of CSK and IRQ peptide modification for the enhancement of the oral bioavailability of protein drugs. In summary, the nanoparticles modified with CSK or IRQ peptide ligand could be the potential carriers for the transport of protein drugs across intestinal barriers.
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Hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles for sustained siRNA delivery and gene silencing.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The development of controlled-release nanoparticle (NP) technologies has great potential to further improve the therapeutic efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi), by prolonging the release of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for sustained, long-term gene silencing. Herein, we present an NP platform with sustained siRNA-release properties, which can be self-assembled using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers and lipids. The hybrid lipid-polymer NPs showed excellent silencing efficacy, and the temporal release of siRNA from the NPs continued for over one month. When tested on luciferase-expressed HeLa cells and A549 lung carcinoma cells after short-term transfection, the siRNA NPs showed greater sustained silencing activity than lipofectamine 2000-siRNA complexes. More importantly, the NP-mediated sustained silencing of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) generates more effective tumor cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo than the lipofectamine complexes. We expect that this sustained-release siRNA NP platform could be of interest in both fundamental biological studies and clinical applications.
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[Clinical analysis of acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis during pregnancy and postpartum period].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To describe the characteristics of acute pancreatitis during pregnancy and postpartum.
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CyberKnife radiotherapy for malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the chest wall: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, but rarely originates in the chest wall. Surgical resection is considered to be the most reliable treatment, however, no consensus has been reached concerning the best treatment for unresectable MFH. The current study presents the case of a 77-year-old male with MFH of the chest wall. The patient developed a painless mass and intermittent fever over a four-month period. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a large inhomogeneous lesion in the right chest wall, which was subsequently diagnosed via biopsy as a MFH. Since the tumor was an unresectable mass, CyberKnife(®) radiotherapy was conducted. Following the treatment, a marked reduction in the tumor size was observed with a tolerable level of toxicity. The sequencing analysis also revealed an in-frame deletion (delE746-A750) in exon 19 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Based on this result, gefitinib was administered to the patient at a dose of 250 mg/day.
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Temsirolimus attenuates tauopathy in vitro and in vivo by targeting tau hyperphosphorylation and autophagic clearance.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In a variety of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and some types of Parkinson's disease, tau protein is abnormally hyperphosphorylated by several kinases and eventually aggregates to form neurofibrillary tangles, a neurotoxic pathological characteristic that closely correlates with cognitive impairments. Hence, targeting hyperphosphorylated tau protein has now been considered as a valid therapeutic approach for these neurodegenerative tauopathies. As a newly developed analog of rapamycin, temsirolimus was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Recent findings suggested that temsirolimus also provided beneficial effects in animal models of Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, two neurodegenerative diseases caused by accumulation of aberrant proteins within brain. To date, the therapeutic potentials of temsirolimus in neurodegenerative tauopathies have not been determined. Herein, we demonstrated for the first time that temsirolimus treatment effectively enhanced autophagic clearance of hyperphosphorylated tau in okadaic acid-incubated SH-SY5Y cells and in brain of P301S transgenic mice. Meanwhile, we showed that inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, the most important tau kinase, might contribute to the temsirolimus-induced reduction of tau hyperphosphorylation in these two tauopathy models. More importantly, temsirolimus administration rescued spatial learning and memory impairments in P301S transgenic mice. These findings highlight temsirolimus administration as a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative tauopathies.
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Temsirolimus promotes autophagic clearance of amyloid-? and provides protective effects in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Accumulation of amyloid-? peptides (A?) within brain is a major pathogenic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy, an important intracellular catabolic process, is involved in A? clearance. Here, we investigated whether temsirolimus, a newly developed compound approved by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for renal cell carcinoma treatment, would promote autophagic clearance of A? and thus provide protective effects in cellular and animal models of AD. HEK293 cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP695 (HEK293-APP695) were treated with vehicle or 100nM temsirolimus for 24h in the presence or absence of 3-methyladenine (5mM) or Atg5-siRNA, and intracellular A? levels as well as autophagy biomarkers were measured. Meanwhile, APP/PS1 mice received intraperitoneal injection of temsirolimus (20mg/kg) every 2 days for 60 days, and brain A? burden, autophagy biomarkers, cellular apoptosis in hippocampus, and spatial cognitive functions were assessed. Our results showed that temsirolimus enhanced A? clearance in HEK293-APP695 cells and in brain of APP/PS1 mice in an autophagy-dependent manner. Meanwhile, temsirolimus attenuated cellular apoptosis in hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, which was accompanied by an improvement in spatial learning and memory abilities. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that temsirolimus promotes autophagic A? clearance and exerts protective effects in cellular and animal models of AD, suggesting that temsirolimus administration may represent a new therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. Meanwhile, these findings emphasize the notion that many therapeutic agents possess pleiotropic actions aside from their main applications.
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Acute metformin preconditioning confers neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischaemia by pre-activation of AMPK-dependent autophagy.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Recent clinical trials report that metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) used to treat type 2 diabetes, significantly reduces the risk of stroke by actions that are independent of its glucose-lowering effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here, we tested the possibility that acute metformin preconditioning confers neuroprotection by pre-activation of AMPK-dependent autophagy in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO).
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Aberrant interhemispheric functional coordination in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
Metab Brain Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Aberrant brain functional connectivity has been considered as the important mechanism underlying minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); however, little is known about the change in interhemispheric connection in MHE patients. Twenty patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and MHE and 15 healthy controls were included in this study and underwent the resting-state fMRI scanning and diffusion tensor imaging. The functional connectivity between symmetric interhemispheric voxels was computed by a technique called voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), in which the time series for each voxel in one hemisphere was correlated with that of its homotopic voxel. Diffusion tensor imaging was conducted to measure the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in corpus callosum (CC). Compared with controls, MHE patients showed decreased regional VMHC in medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gryus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. MHE patients had significant decreased FA value in CC genu and CC splenium and increased MD value in CC genu. Pearson correlation analyses showed that the VMHC in anterior cingulate gyrus/medial frontal gyrus was correlated with FA/MD values of CC genu. These findings may suggest aberrant interhemispheric coordination in MHE and may provide new insight into the disease-related mechanisms.
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Ulinastatin for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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To investigate the efficacy and safety of ulinastatin for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and those with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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Genetic variation in BIN1 gene and Alzheimer's disease risk in Han Chinese individuals.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified the bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) gene as the most important genetic susceptibility locus in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) after apolipoprotein E for individuals of European ancestry. To further characterize this association and to isolate the variants within BIN1 contributing to LOAD in Han Chinese individuals, we conducted a 2-step design study in our cohort of 1133 LOAD patients and 1159 control subjects. Sequencing analysis identified 44 variants within BIN1. Follow-up genotyping analysis revealed that a novel missense mutation P318L appeared to exert risk effect for development of LOAD; and rs67327804 was also significantly associated with LOAD risk even after adjusting for age, gender, and apolipoprotein E ?4 status. Haplotype analysis confirmed that the "GA" haplotype derived from single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rs67327804 and rs1060743 showed a 1.4-fold increased risk of LOAD. Our findings provided the first independent evidence that variants in BIN1 were significantly associated with LOAD in Han Chinese individuals.
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Exciton characteristics in graphene epoxide.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Exciton characteristics in graphene epoxide (GE) are investigated by density functional theory with quasi-particle corrections and many-body interactions. The nature of the exciton is influenced by epoxide content and detailed geometric configurations. Two kinds of excitons are identified in GE: Frenkel-like exciton originated from the sp(2) carbon cluster and charge-transfer exciton formed by localized states involving both oxygen and carbon atoms. The unusual blue shift associated with the Frenkel-like exciton leaking is highlighted. One scaling relationship is proposed to address the power-law dependence of Frenkel-like exciton binding strength on its size. The charge-transfer exciton appears in GE samples with the high oxygen coverage. Particularly, the exciton in GE structures exhibits long lifetime by analyzing both radiative and nonradiative decay processes. This study sheds light on the potential applications of GE-based structures with attractive high quantum yield in light emission and optoelectronic technology.
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Ischemic Preconditioning Provides Neuroprotection by Induction of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Autophagy in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) increases cerebral tolerance to the subsequent ischemic exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy contributed to the neuroprotection of IPC in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with vehicle, compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) and then were subjected to IPC induced by a 10-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Afterward, the brain AMPK activity and autophagy biomarkers were measured. At 24 h after IPC, permanent cerebral ischemia was induced in these rats, and infarct volume, neurological deficits as well as cell apoptosis were evaluated 24 h later. We demonstrated that IPC activated AMPK and induced autophagy in the brain, which was accompanied by a reduction of infract volume, neurological deficits, and cell apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. Meanwhile, the IPC-induced autophagy was inhibited by compound C while the neuroprotection of IPC was abolished by compound C or 3-MA. These findings suggest that AMPK-mediated autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection of IPC, highlighting AMPK as a therapeutic target for stroke prevention and treatment.
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CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.
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Angiotensin-(1-7) induces cerebral ischaemic tolerance by promoting brain angiogenesis in a Mas/eNOS-dependent pathway.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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As a newer component of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)?] has been shown to facilitate angiogenesis and protect against ischaemic damage in peripheral tissues. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in brain angiogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) could promote angiogenesis in brain, thus inducing tolerance against focal cerebral ischaemia.
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The Genetic Variation of ARRB2 is Associated with Late-onset Alzheimer's Disease in Han Chinese.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Emerging evidence indicates that ?-arrestin 2, an important regulator of G protein coupled receptors, is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ?-arrestin 2 gene (ARRB2) variation and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD). A total of 1132 LOAD patients and 1158 healthy controls from the Han Chinese population were included in this study. Initially, four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3786047, rs16954146, rs1045280 and rs2271167) were selected by consulting the Han Chinese from Beijing genotype data in HapMap database. Considering the fact that these four SNPs were located in one haplotype block and any two of them were in almost complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1, r(2)?0.897), we chose rs1045280 (a coding- synonymous variant) that covered all the common genetic variations in ARRB2 with r(2)?0.8 as the tag SNP (tSNP) for the subsequent genotyping. Our results showed that the minor allele of rs1045280 was associated with an increased LOAD risk after adjusting for age, gender, educational level, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 status under dominant (OR=1.291; 95% CI: 1.063-1.568; Bonferroni-corrected P=0.03) and additive (OR=1.269; 95% CI: 1.069-1.507; Bonferroni- corrected P=0.018) models. Meanwhile, when these data were stratified by APOE ?4 status, this association was evident only in APOE ?4 carriers (OR=1.617; 95% CI: 1.01-2.588; P=0.045). In summary, this study provide the first evidence that the tSNP of ARRB2 significantly increases LOAD risk in Han Chinese, suggesting ARRB2 may represent a susceptibility gene for LOAD.
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Silence of STIM1 attenuates the proliferation and migration of EPCs after vascular injury and its mechanism.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To investigate the effect of stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1) knockdown on the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) after vascular injury and its mechanism.
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Merging of metal nanoparticles driven by selective wettability of silver nanostructures.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The welding and sintering of nanomaterials is relevant, for example, to form electrical contacts between metallic particles in printed electronic devices. Usually the welding of nanoparticles is achieved at high temperatures. Here we find that merging of two different metals, silver and gold nanoparticles, occurs on contact at room temperature. The merging process was investigated by experimental and molecular dynamics simulations. We discovered that the merging of these particles is driven by selective wettability of silver nanoparticles, independent of their size and shape (spheres or rods); silver behaves as a soft matter, whereas gold as a hard surface being wetted and retaining its original morphology. During that process, the silver atoms move towards the surface of the Au nanoparticles and wrap the Au nanoparticles in a pulling up-like process, leading to the wetting of Au nanoparticles.
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Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in?situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.
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Textured fluorapatite bonded to calcium sulphate strengthen stomatopod raptorial appendages.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Stomatopods are shallow-water crustaceans that employ powerful dactyl appendages to hunt their prey. Deployed at high velocities, these hammer-like clubs or spear-like devices are able to inflict substantial impact forces. Here we demonstrate that dactyl impact surfaces consist of a finely-tuned mineral gradient, with fluorapatite substituting amorphous apatite towards the outer surface. Raman spectroscopy measurements show that calcium sulphate, previously not reported in mechanically active biotools, is co-localized with fluorapatite. Ab initio computations suggest that fluorapatite/calcium sulphate interfaces provide binding stability and promote the disordered-to-ordered transition of fluorapatite. Nanomechanical measurements show that fluorapatite crystalline orientation correlates with an anisotropic stiffness response and indicate significant differences in the fracture tolerance between the two types of appendages. Our findings shed new light on the crystallochemical and microstructural strategies allowing these intriguing biotools to optimize impact forces, providing physicochemical information that could be translated towards the synthesis of impact-resistant functional materials and coatings.
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Thrombocytopenia is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome mortality: an international study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early detection of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) has the potential to improve the prognosis of critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, no reliable biomarkers are currently available for accurate early detection of ARDS in patients with predisposing conditions.
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Classification of cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy and healthy subjects using resting-state attention-related network analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Attention deficit is an early and key characteristic of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and has been used as indicator for MHE detection. The aim of this study is to classify the cirrhotic patients with or without MHE (NMHE) and healthy controls (HC) using the resting-state attention-related brain network analysis.
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Effect of intergenerational and intragenerational support on perceived health of older adults: a population-based analysis in rural China.
Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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The family, together with the individual and society, and the state and market are the three pillars of well-being and social security over the life course, with responsibility for the health of older adults.
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[Impact of the waist circumference change on new onset of diabetes in the population with impaired fasting glucose].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To explore the impact of the waist circumference change on new onset diabetes (NOD) in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) population.
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[Effect of inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Effects of single and mixed inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils were investigated. Significant synergistic effects on the stabilization of Zn and Cu were observed with the mixed inorganic amendments of KH2PO4 and Ca(OH)2 in the laboratory test. In the field test, the stabilization ratios of Zn, Cu and Cd were 41.8%, 28.2% and 48.4%, respectively, with the dosage of 0.5 kg x m(-2). The growth of peanut was inhibited by the addition of the inorganic amendments. Meanwhile, the uptake of heavy metals was reduced in peanut.
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Penetratin Derivative-Based Nanocomplexes for Enhanced Intestinal Insulin Delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Sufficient mucosal permeability is the bottleneck problem in developing an efficient intestinal delivery system of insulin. Cell-penetrating peptide-based nanocomplexes for the enhanced mucosal permeation of insulin were developed in this study. Penetratin, a cell-penetrating peptide was site-specifically modified with a bis-?-cyclodextrin group. Insulin-loaded nanocomplexes were prepared by self-assembly using penetratin or its bis-?-cyclodextrin modified derivative (P-bis-CD). A stronger intermolecular interaction and higher complex stability were observed for P-bis-CD nanocomplexes than the penetratin nanocomplexes. P-bis-CD nanocomplexes were significantly more efficient for the permeation of insulin as compared to the penetratin nanocomplexes both in vitro and in situ. Interestingly, different cellular internalization mechanisms were observed for the two nanocomplexes. In diabetic rats, intestinal administration of P-bis-CD nanocomplexes resulted in a prominent hypoglycemic effect which lasted for 6 h with maximum inhibitory rate at 60%. The relative pharmacological availability and bioavailability of P-bis-CD nanocomplexes were 10.6% and 7.1%, which were 3.0-fold and 2.3-fold higher than that of penetratin nanocomplexes, respectively. In addition, no sign of toxicity was observed after 7 consecutive days of administration of P-bis-CD nanocomplexes with endotoxin. These results demonstrated that P-bis-CD was a promising epithelium permeation enhancer for insulin and suggested that the chemical modification of cell penetration peptides was a feasible strategy to enhance their potential.
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[Estimation of chlorophyll content in apple tree canopy based on hyperspectral parameters].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The hyperspectral reflectance of apple tree canopy during spring shoots stopping growth period was measured using ASD FieldSpec3 field spectrometer. Original spectral data were processed in deviation forms, and significant spectrum parameters correlated with chlorophyll content were found out with correlation analysis. The best vegetation indices were chosen and the apple canopy chlorophyll content estimation model was established by analyzing vegetation index of two-band combination in the sensitive region 400-1 350 nm. The result showed that (1) The sensitive band region of apple canopy chlorophyll content is 400-1 350 nm. (2) The vegetation index CCI(D(794)/D(763)) can commendably estimate the apple canopy chlorophyll content. (3) The model with CCI(D(794)/D(763)) as the independent variables was determined to be the best for chlorophyll content prediction of apple tree canopy. Therefore, using hyperspectral technology can estimate apple canopy chlorophyll content more rapidly and accurately, and provides a theoretical basis for rapid apple tree canopy nutrition diagnosis and growth monitoring.
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[Analysis of sensitive spectral bands for burning status detection using hyper-spectral images of Tiangong-01].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To obtain the sensitive spectral bands for detection of information on 4 kinds of burning status, i. e. flaming, smoldering, smoke, and fire scar, with satellite data, analysis was conducted to identify suitable satellite spectral bands for detection of information on these 4 kinds of burning status by using hyper-spectrum images of Tiangong-01 (TG-01) and employing a method combining statistics and spectral analysis. The results show that: in the hyper-spectral images of TG-01, the spectral bands differ obviously for detection of these 4 kinds of burning status; in all hyper-spectral short-wave infrared channels, the reflectance of flaming is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status, and the reflectance of smoke is the lowest; the reflectance of smoke is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status in the channels corresponding to hyper-spectral visible near-infrared and panchromatic sensors. For spectral band selection, more suitable spectral bands for flaming detection are 1 000.0-1 956.0 and 2 020.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for identifying smoldering are 930.0-1 000.0 and 1 084.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for smoke detection is in 400.0-920.0 nm; for fire scar detection, it is suitable to select bands with central wavelengths of 900.0-930.0 and 1 300.0-2 400.0 nm, and then to combine them to construct a detection model.
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An ultrasensitive aptameric sensor for proteins based on hyperbranched rolling circle amplification.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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A novel fluorescent aptameric sensor for thrombin has been developed by combination of the high amplification efficiency of HRCA and the specific function of aptameric recognition.
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Citrate-induced aggregation of conjugated polyelectrolytes for Al(3+)-ion-sensing assays.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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This work shows the sodium citrate induced efficient interpolymer ?-stacking aggregation of the planar cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[{9,9-bis[6-(N,N-trimethylamino)hexyl]-2,7-fluorenyleneethynylene}-alt-co-(1,4-phenylene)] dibromide (PFE) in aqueous solution, which results in the self-quenching of fluorescence. Using the citrate-induced aggregation properties of PFE and the strong chelation ability of citrate with aluminum ions (Al(3+)), a sensitive and selective Al(3+)-ion detection assay in aqueous solution was developed through monitoring of the fluorescence recovery of PFE. The fluorescence intensity recovery of PFE depends on the concentration of Al(3+) ions, and linear fluorescence recovery was observed in the range of 0.5-9 ?M. The limit of detection of this assay is 0.37 ?M. Its simplicity and rapidity mean this assay shows promise for the real-time detection of Al(3+).
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NLRP3 polymorphisms are associated with late-onset Alzheimers disease in Han Chinese.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The innate immunity and inflammatory response plays an important role in AD pathogenesis. Recently, a wealth of information linking the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome to Alzheimers disease (AD) pathogenesis has emerged. Considering the pivotal role of NLRP3 in the inflammatory process and in AD, we hypothesized that variations in NLRP3 gene may also affect susceptibility to AD. Three selected functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NLRP3 gene (rs2027432, rs10754558, rs35829419) were genotyped in 1133 late-onset AD (LOAD) patients and 1159 healthy controls in a large Northern Han Chinese population. Among them, the 5-flanking rs2027432 polymorphism seemed to be most associated with LOAD risk even after adjusting for age, gender, and ApoE ?4 status. For rs10754558, the genotype frequency differed significantly only in ApoE ?4 carriers. On the other hand, the minor A allele of rs35829419 (Q705K) polymorphism appeared to exert a protective effect against the development of LOAD. Our data support the notion that genetic variation in NLRP3 gene may contribute to LOAD risk in Northern Han Chinese.
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[Hyperspectral estimation of kalium content in apple florescence canopy based on fuzzy recognition].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The objective of the present paper is fast and nondestructive estimate of kalium content using ASD FieldSpec3 spectrometer determined hyperspectral data in apple florescence canopy. According to detection of hyperspectral data of the apple florescence canopy and kalium content data at laboratory in Qixia city of experimental orchards in 2008 and 2009, the correlation analysis of hyperspectral reflectance and its eleven transforms with kalium content was proceeded. The biggest correlation coefficient as independent variable and the estimation model of kalium content were established based on fuzzy recognition algorithms. The model was tested by sample inspection in 2008 and verified by data in 2009. The results showed that the correlation is less for the original spectral reflectance (R) and its reciprocal(1/R), logarithm (lgR), square root (R1/2) and the kalium content, but it is enhanced obviously for their first derivative and second derivative. The correlation coefficient(r) of kalium content estimating model y = 11.344 5h + 1.309 7 is 0.985 1, the total root mean square difference (RMSE) is 0.355 7 and F statistics is 3 085.6. The average relative error of measured values and estimated values for 24 inspection sample is 9.8%, estimation accuracy is 90.2% and verification accuracy is 83.3% utilizing test data in 2009. It was showed that this model is more stable by estimating apple florescence canopy of kalium content and the model precision is able to meet the needs of production.
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Autophagy in aging and neurodegenerative diseases: implications for pathogenesis and therapy.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, share a common cellular and molecular pathogenetic mechanism involving aberrant misfolded protein or peptide aggregation and deposition. Autophagy represents a major route for degradation of aggregated cellular proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Emerging studies have demonstrated that up-regulation of autophagy can lead to decreased levels of these toxic aggregate-prone proteins, and is beneficial in the context of aging and various models of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of autophagy is crucial to the development of strategies for therapy. This review will discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of autophagy and its important role in the pathogenesis of aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and the ongoing drug discovery strategies for therapeutic modulation.
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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 knockdown exacerbates aging-related neuroinflammation and cognitive deficiency in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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As a major characteristic of aging process, neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of several aging-related diseases including Alzheimers disease (AD). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a newly identified risk gene for AD, which regulates inflammatory process in peripheral tissues via modulating the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM2 in aging-related neuroinflammation, cognitive deficiency, and AD-like neuropathology is unclear so far. Here, we detected the protein levels of TREM2 in brain of 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and observed that TREM2 levels were increased during aging process. We then knocked down TREM2 expression in brain of SAMP8 mice by nonviral RNA interference and found a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin (IL)-6, which was accompanied by a reduction in IL-10. Meanwhile, more obvious neuronal and synaptic losses and cognitive impairment were observed. These findings indicate that TREM2 may play a protective role against aging-related neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment.
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Genetic variation in PICALM and Alzheimers disease risk in Han Chinese.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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The current study was conducted to investigate the association of phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein gene (PICALM) with late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) risk in Han Chinese. We first sequenced PICALM for variants in a small sample (n = 100), and the selected variants were then genotyped in a larger cohort (n = 2292). Sequencing analysis identified 16 variants within PICALM including 5 new variants with extreme low frequency in the northern Han Chinese population. However, in the subsequent genotyping, none showed a significant association with LOAD risk after Bonferroni correction. These findings implicate that PICALM might not play a major role in the genetic predisposition to LOAD in Han Chinese.
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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 variant is rare in late-onset Alzheimers disease in Han Chinese individuals.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Recent studies have reported that a rare mutation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2 [rs75932628-T]) has significantly increased the risk of late-onset Alzhemiers disease (LOAD) in European-descendent population. To date, no study has investigated the association between rare mutations of TREM2 and LOAD risk in non-European population. Here, we sequenced exon2 of TREM2 in the northern Han Chinese population consisting of 1133 patients with LOAD and 1159 control subjects. Although, 4 novel mutations (c.102G>A: Val34Val, c.330C>T: Cys110Cys, c.342T>C: His114His, and c.343G>A: Gly115Ser) were identified in patients with LOAD, none of them exhibited significant association with LOAD risk after Bonferroni correction. Most importantly, the previously reported rare variants in European-descendent population including rs75932628-T (predicted to cause an R47H substitution) were absent in our cohort. These findings suggest that mutations in exon2 of TREM2 were unlikely to play a key role in the susceptibility of LOAD in the northern Han Chinese population.
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CD33 in Alzheimers Disease.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The amyloid-beta peptide (A?) cascade hypothesis posits that A? accumulation is the fundamental initiator of Alzheimers disease (AD), and mounting evidence suggests that impaired A? clearance rather than its overproduction is the major pathogenic event for AD. Recent genetic studies have identified cluster of differentiation 33 (CD33) as a strong genetic locus linked to AD. As a type I transmembrane protein, CD33 belongs to the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins, mediating the cell-cell interaction and inhibiting normal functions of immune cells. In the brain, CD33 is mainly expressed on microglial cells. The level of CD33 was found to be increased in the AD brain, which positively correlated with amyloid plaque burden and disease severity. More importantly, CD33 led to the impairment of microglia-mediated clearance of A?, which resulted in the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings of CD33 that related with AD and discuss the levels and pathogenic roles of CD33 in this disease. Based on the contributing effects of CD33 in AD pathogenesis, targeting CD33 may provide new opportunities for AD therapeutic strategies.
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[Analysis of the risk factors for early death in acute severe traumatic cervical spinal cord injury].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To survey the risk factors for early death of patients with acute severe traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.
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Metal-organic frameworks-based biosensor for sequence-specific recognition of double-stranded DNA.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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A simple, cost-efficient, sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor is developed for sequence-specific recognition of duplex DNA (ds-DNA) in vitro using metal-organic framework (MOF) as the sensing platform. N,N-Bis(2-hydroxy-ethyl)dithiooxamidatocopper(II) (H(2)dtoaCu) was chosen as the example MOF, because it strongly chemisorbs the dye-labeled probe TFO (triplex-forming oligonucleotide), and quenches fluorescence from the dye. In the presence of target ds-DNA (the PPT of HIV RNA, a 16-bp ds-DNA sequence), the TFO could interact with the major groove in ds-DNA (via Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding) to form a rigid triplex structure, resulting in fluorescence recovery. The enhanced fluorescence signal has a relationship with the ds-DNA concentration, the detection limit is as low as 1.3 nmol L(-1) (S/N = 3) with good selectivity, which is lower than that based on a graphene oxide platform and electrochemical-DNA sensor.
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[The effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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To determine the effects of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.