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Rhizobium yantingense sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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A Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, H66T, was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (purple siltstone) which was found in Yanting, Sichuan Province of China. Cells of strain H66T were motile with peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain H66T belongs to the genus Rhizobium. It closely relates to Rhizobium huautlense SO2T (98.1 %), Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T (98.0 %), and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum ALA10B2T (98.0 %). Analysis of housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD showed low levels of sequence similarity (<92.0 %) between strain H66T and other recognized Rhizobium species. The predominant components of cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c) and C16:0. The G + C content of strain H66T was 60.3 mol%. Strain H66T is described as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.3 % to 40.0 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Rhizobium and unique phenotypic characteristics. The name Rhizobium yantingense sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is H66T (=CCTCCAB 2014007T= LMG 28229T).
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Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, Z29T, was isolated from the surface of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain Z29T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. The similarities of the 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Z29T and other type strains of established species in the genus Chitinophaga ranged from 92.7 to 98.2%. The main fatty acids of strain Z29T were iso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0 and iso-C17:0. It also contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the major respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the main polyamine. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, unknown phospholipids, and unknown glycolipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain Z29T was 51.3 mol%. Phenotypic properties and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain Z29T with the genus Chitinophaga. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 14.6% to 29.8%) to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain Z29T should represent a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga longshanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z29T (= CCTCC AB 2014066 T= LMG 28237 T).
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Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov., a mineral weathering bacterium isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain A33(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The strain grew optimally at 30 ºC, pH 7.0 and with 3% NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of the strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed it was most closely related to Arthrobacter woluwensis (98.4%), Arthrobacter humicola (97.5%), Arthrobacter globiformis (97.4%), Athrobacter oryzae (97.3%) and Arthrobacter cupressi (97.0%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0 and MK-9(H2) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and three glycolipids. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3?, based on L-Lys-L-Ala, and cell-wall sugars were galactose and mannose. The genomic G+C content of strain A33(T) was 66.8 mol%. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A33(T) and recognized species of the genus Arthrobacter and many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain A33(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A33(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014069(T) =DSM 28237(T)).
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Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov., isolated from weathered rock surface.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (potassic trachyte) surfaces collected from Nanjing (Jiangsu, China). Cells of strain JN246T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile. Strain JN246T was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JN246T belonged to the genus Chitinophaga and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729T (98.5 %), Chitinophaga terrae KP01T (96.8 %), and Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53T (96.3 %). The major respiratory quinine was MK-7 and the major polyamine was homospermidine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c, C16:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 3-OH, C14:O, C16:0 3-OH, C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c (summed feature 3), and C13:1. The polar lipid profile of strain JN246T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain JN246T was 48.8 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 22.6 % to 42.4 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Chitinophaga and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain JN246T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN246T (= CCTCC AB 2014201 T= JCM 30026 T).
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Paenibacillus susongensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and aerobic bacterial strain, designated M327T, was isolated from the weathered surfaces of rock (mica schist) from Susong, Anhui Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M327T belonged to the genus Paenibacillus in the family Bacillaceae. It was most closely related to Paenibacillus terrigena A35T (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus selenitireducens ES3-24T (98.3%). Strain M327T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall and MK-7 as the major menaquinone. The main fatty acids of strain M327T were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipid, and unknown lipid. The total DNA G+C content of strain M327T was 48.6 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.6 % to 33.1 %) to these type strains of species of the genus Paenibacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain M327T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus susongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is M327T (=CCTCC AB 2014058T =LMG 28236 T =JCM 19951 T).
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Cohnella nanjingensis sp. nov., an extracellular polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, strain D45(T), was isolated from soil in Nanjing, China. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0?% NaCl (w/v). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed similarities lower than 97?% with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7, with MK-6 present as a minor component; anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipids of strain D45(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids, four phospholipids, two glycolipids, one aminolipid and two lipids. The DNA G+C content was 59.5 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization of the isolate with two reference strains showed relatedness values of 33.4?% with Cohnella ginsengisoli DSM 18997(T) and 25.8?% with Cohnella thermotolerans DSM 17683(T). The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data supported the classification of strain D45(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D45(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2014067(T)?=?DSM 28246(T)).
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Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov., a rock-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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A novel type of rock-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (tuff) surface collected from Dongxiang (Jiangxi, eastern China). Cells of strain G19(T) were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G19(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22(T) (97.4%) and Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T) (97.1%). The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain G19(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 49.4% to 55.0%) to these type strains of species of the genus Bacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain G19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G19(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2013273(T)?= JCM 19454(T)).
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Sphingomonas yantingensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from purplish paddy soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from purplish soils collected from Yanting (Sichuan, southwestern China). Cells of strain 1007T were Gram-negative and rod-shaped, motile and yellow-pigmented. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30°C and pH 7.0. The genomic G+C content of strain 1007T was (67 ± 0.7) mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1007T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas pruni IFO 15498T (97.3%), Sphingomonas mali IFO 15500T (97.2%), Sphingomonas japonica KC7T (97.2%) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS-26T (97.0%). This affiliation of strain 1007T to the genus Sphingomonas was confirmed by the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, sphingoglycolipid, C14:0 2-OH and by the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The main cellular fatty acids included summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1?7c or C18:1?6c) and C16:0. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.1% to 58.7%) to these type species of the genus Sphingomonas and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain 1007T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas yantingensis is proposed. The type strain is 1007T (=DSMZ 27244T=JCM 19201T=CCTCC AB 2013146T).
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Myroides xuanwuensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TH-19T, was isolated from a forest soil sample in Jiangsu province, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain TH-19T was shown to belong to the genus Myroides, a member of Bacteroidetes, and was related to Myroides odoratimimus LMG 4029T (98.7% similarity to the type strain), Myroides profundi D25T (98.2%), and Myroides marinus JS-08T (97.5%). Strain TH-19T contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the predominant menaquinone, and the dominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:03-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain TH-19T was 37.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain TH-19T with Myroides odoratimimus JCM 7460T, Myroides profundi D25T and Myroides marinus JS-08T were below 70%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is suggested that strain TH-19T represents a novel species of the genus Myroides, for which the name Myroides xuanwuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH-19T (=CCTCC AB 2013145T=JCM 19200T).
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Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.
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Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JN53T, was isolated from the surfaces of weathered rock (potassic trachyte) from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Strain JN53T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JN53T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01T (97.3% 16S r RNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729T (96.3%). Strain JN53T contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polymine. The main fatty acids of strain JN53T were iso-C15:0, C16:1?5c, C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, and C16:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G + C content of strain JN53T was 49.7 mol%. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Chitinophaga and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain JN53T from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate JN53T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga. The name Chitinophaga jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is JN53T (=CCTCC AB 2013166 T = JCM 19354 T).
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Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov., a ?-proteobacterium isolated from the surface of potassium-bearing rock.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile with one polar flagellum ?-proteobacterium, designated strain SBZ3-12(T), was isolated from surfaces of weathered potassic trachyte. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was most closely related to Dyella japonica XD53(T) (97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Dyella terrae JS14-6(T) (97.7%), Dyella soli JS12-10(T) (97.5%) and Dyella koreensis BB4(T) (97.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain SBZ3-12(T) was 64.0 mol%. In addition, iso-C(17:1)?9c, iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0) were the major cellular fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SBZ3-12(T) and recognized species of the genus Dyella and the many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain SBZ3-12(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella jiangningensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SBZ3-12(T) (?=CCTCC AB 2012160(T)?=KACC 16539(T)?=DSM 26119(T)).
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Isoptericola nanjingensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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A Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain H17T, was isolated from a soil sample from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. The organism grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and with 3?% NaCl (w/v). Strain H17T contained L-Lys-D-Asp as the cell-wall peptidoglycan type and galactose, xylose and mannose as the whole-cell sugars. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The total polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol, phosphoglycolipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. The menaquinone was MK9(H4). Mycolic acids were not detected. The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of this strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed 97.8-99.6?% similarity to recognized species of the genus Isoptericola. The low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to other species of the genus Isoptericola and the many phenotypic properties that distinguished strain H17T from recognized species of this genus demonstrated that isolate H17T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Isoptericola. The name Isoptericola nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is H17T (=DSM 24300T=CCTCC AB 2011005T).
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Characterization of ACC deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from copper-tolerant plants and their potential in promoting the growth and copper accumulation of Brassica napus.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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One hundred Cu-resistant-endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cu-tolerant plants grown on Cu mine wasteland, of which, eight Cu-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria were obtained based on the ACC deaminase activity of the bacteria and characterized with respect to metal resistance, production of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as well as siderophores and mineral phosphate solubilization. Ralstonia sp. J1-22-2, Pantoea agglomerans Jp3-3, and Pseudomonas thivervalensis Y1-3-9 with higher ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 213 to 370 ?M ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1)h(-1)) were evaluated for promoting plant growth and Cu uptake of rape grown in quartz sand containing 0, 2.5, and 5 mg kg(-1) of Cu in pot experiments. The eight bacteria were found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal resistance characteristics, to show different levels of ACC deaminase activity and to produce indole acetic acid. Seven bacteria produced siderophores and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Pot experiments showed that inoculation with the strains (J1-22-2, Jp3-3, and Y1-3-9) was found to increase the biomass of rape. Increases in above-ground tissue Cu contents of rape cultivated in 2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) of Cu-contaminated substrates varied from 9% to 31% and from 3 to 4-fold respectively in inoculated-rape plants compared to the uninoculated control. The maximum Cu uptake of rape was observed after inoculation with P. agglomerans Jp3-3. The results show that metal-resistant and plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria play an important role in plant growth and Cu uptake which may provide a new endophytic bacterial-assisted phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated environment.
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Characterization of bacterial community inhabiting the surfaces of weathered bricks of Nanjing Ming city walls.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Nanjing Ming city wall, one of the important historic heritages in China, has greatly suffered weathering. Microbes play an important role in the weathering of historic buildings. However, little is known about the microbial community inhabiting naturally weathered brick minerals and their roles in the mineral weathering. To examine the associations between microorganisms and brick weathering process, we compare the phylogenetic diversity, abundance, community structure, and specific functional groups of bacteria existing in weathered bricks by using a coupled approach involving cultivation-independent analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as cultivation-based analysis of Si-releasing bacteria. DGGE and sequence analyses show that the bacterial communities were different along a weathering gradient and the abundance of bacterial communities positively and significantly correlates with the extent of brick weathering. Laboratory brick mineral dissolution experiments indicate that bacteria isolated from the surfaces of weathered brick were very effective in enhancing brick dissolution. Phylogenetic analyses show that the weathered bricks were inhabited by specific functional groups of bacteria (Bacillus, Massillia, Brevibacillus, Glacialice, Acinetobacter, Brachysporum, and Achromobacter) that contribute to the brick weathering.
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Characterization of lead-resistant and ACC deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria and their potential in promoting lead accumulation of rape.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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Forty-nine lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from metal-tolerant Commelina communis plants grown on lead and zinc mine tailing, of which, seven 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-producing endophytic bacteria were initially obtained and characterized with respect to heavy metal resistance and production of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as well as siderophores. Two isolates (Q2BJ2 and Q2BG1) showing higher ACC deaminase activity were evaluated for promoting plant growth and Pb uptake of rape grown in quartz sand containing 0 and 100 mg kg(-1) of Pb in pot experiments. The seven Pb-resistant and ACC deaminase-producing endophytic bacterial isolates were found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal resistance characteristics and to show different levels of ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 12.8 ?M ?-KB mg(-1) h(-1) to 121 ?M ?-KB mg(-1) h(-1)). Among the seven isolates, six isolates produced indole acetic acid, whilst five isolates produced siderophores. In experiments involving rape plants grown in quartz sand containing 100 mg kg(-1) of Pb, inoculation with the isolates resulted in the increased dry weights of above-ground tissues (ranging from 39% to 71%) and roots (ranging from 35% to 123%) compared to the uninoculated control. Increases in above-ground tissue Pb contents of rape cultivated in 100 mg kg(-1) of Pb-contaminated substrates varied from 58% to 62% in inoculated-rape plants compared to the uninoculated control.
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Genetic diversity and characterization of heavy metal-resistant-endophytic bacteria from two copper-tolerant plant species on copper mine wasteland.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
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The diversity of endophytic bacteria from the copper-tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens and Commelina communis was evaluated by using cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the Cu-resistant isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were predominant among the Cu-resistant isolates. Sequence analysis from the 16S rDNA clone libraries of the two plant roots revealed sequences of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes,Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Gammaproteobacteria was predominant in the two 16S rDNA clone libraries. Thirty-two endophytic bacteria were isolated and characterized with respect to heavy metal resistance and production of plant growth-promoting factors. In experiments involving rape plants grown in vermiculite containing 4 mg kg(-1) of Cu, inoculation with the isolates was found to increase the dry weights of roots (ranging from 132% to 155%) and above-ground tissues (ranging from 71% to 83%) compared to the uninoculated control. Increase in above-ground tissue Cu content varied from 63% to 125% in inoculated-rape plants cultivated in Cu-contaminated substrate compared to the uninoculated control.
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Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils.
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Effects of root inoculation with bacteria on the growth, Cd uptake and bacterial communities associated with rape grown in Cd-contaminated soil.
J. Hazard. Mater.
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Two metal-resistant and plant growth-promoting bacteria (Burkholderia sp. J62 and Pseudomonas thivervalensis Y-1-3-9) were evaluated for their impacts on plant growth promotion, Cd availability in soil, and Cd uptake in rape (Brassica napus) grown in different level (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1)) of Cd-contaminated soils. The impacts of the bacteria on the rape-associated bacterial community structures were also evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of bacterial DNA extracted from the root interior and rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected at day 60 after inoculation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to have a comparative analysis of DGGE profiles. Inoculation with live bacteria not only significantly increased root (ranging from 38% to 86%), stem (ranging from 27% to 65%) and leaf (ranging from 23% to 55%) dry weights and water-extractive Cd contents (ranging from 59% to 237%) in the rhizosphere soils of the rape but also significantly increased root (ranging from 10% to 61%), stem (ranging from 41% to 57%) and leaf (ranging from 46% to 68%) total Cd uptake of rape compared to the dead bacterial-inoculated controls. DGGE and sequence analyses showed that the bacteria could colonize the rhizosphere soils and root interiors of rape plants. DGGE-CCA also showed that root interior and rhizosphere and bulk soil community profiles from the live bacteria-inoculated rape were significantly different from those from the dead bacteria-inoculated rape respectively. These results suggested that the bacteria had the potential to promote the growth and Cd uptake of rape and to influence the development of the rape-associated bacterial community structures.
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Association of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase p22phox gene 549C>T polymorphism with coronary artery disease.
Chin. Med. J.
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The p22phox is a critical component of the superoxide-generating vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Several polymorphisms in p22phox gene are studied for their association with cardiovascular diseases. However, no publication is available to assess the relation of 549C > T polymorphism in p22phox gene to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. This study was to investigate the effect of the p22phox gene 549C > T polymorphism on CAD risk.
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Assessment of bacterial communities and characterization of lead-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of metal-tolerant Chenopodium ambrosioides grown on lead-zinc mine tailings.
Chemosphere
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Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soils of metal tolerant and accumulating Chenopodium ambrosioides grown in highly and moderately lead-zinc mine tailings contaminated-soils as well as the adjacent soils with low metal contamination were characterized by using cultivation-independent and cultivation techniques. A total of 69, 73, and 83 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) having 84.8-100% similarity with the closest match in the database were detected among high, moderate, and low-contamination soil clone libraries, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value in the range of 4.06-4.30. There were 9, 10, and 14 bacterial genera specific to high, moderate, and low metal-contaminated soil clone libraries, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Pb-resistant isolates belonged to 8 genera. Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter were predominant among the isolates. Most of the isolates (82-86%) produced indole acetic acid and siderophores. More strains from the highly metal-contaminated soil produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase than the strains from the moderately and lowly metal-contaminated soils. In experiments involving canola grown in quartz sand containing 200 mg kg(-1) of Pb, inoculation with the isolated Paenibacillus jamilae HTb8 and Pseudomonas sp. GTa5 was found to significantly increase the above-ground tissues dry weight (ranging from 19% to 36%) and Pb uptake (ranging from 30% to 40%) compared to the uninoculated control. These results show that C. ambrosioides harbor different metal-resistant bacterial communities in their rhizosphere soils and the isolates expressing plant growth promoting traits may be exploited for improving the phytoextraction efficiency of Pb-polluted environment.
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