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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 108 cells g-1 viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish.
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[Refractory cytopenia of children and acquired aplastic anemia: a clinical and pathological study of 130 cases].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the clinical characteristics and histopathological morphology features of bone marrow biopsies between refractory cytopenia of children (RCC) and acquired aplastic anemia (AAA) to facilitate the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of RCC and AAA.
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Mussel-inspired one-step adherent coating rich in amine groups for covalent immobilization of heparin: hemocompatibility, growth behaviors of vascular cells, and tissue response.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Heparin, an important polysaccharide, has been widely used for coatings of cardiovascular devices because of its multiple biological functions including anticoagulation and inhibition of intimal hyperplasia. In this study, surface heparinization of a commonly used 316L stainless steel (SS) was explored for preparation of a multifunctional vascular stent. Dip-coating of the stents in an aqueous solution of dopamine and hexamethylendiamine (HD) (PDAM/HD) was presented as a facile method to form an adhesive coating rich in primary amine groups, which was used for covalent heparin immobilization via active ester chemistry. A heparin grafting density of about 900 ng/cm(2) was achieved with this method. The retained bioactivity of the immobilized heparin was confirmed by a remarkable prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for about 15 s, suppression of platelet adhesion, and prevention of the denaturation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The Hep-PDAM/HD also presented a favorable microenvironment for selectively enhancing endothelial cell (EC) adhesion, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO), and at the same time inhibiting smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and proliferation. Upon subcutaneous implantation, the Hep-PDAM/HD exhibited mitigated tissue response, with thinner fibrous capsule and less granulation formation compared to the control 316L SS. This number of unique functions qualifies the heparinized coating as an attractive alternative for the design of a new generation of stents.
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The relationship between DRD2 gene polymorphisms (C957T and C939T) and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Schizophrenia is a common, complex multi-factorial psychiatric disorder. Many studies have reported associations between the C957T and C939T polymorphisms in Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia, but results are inconsistent. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically summarize the possibility. We included 13 articles involving 3079 schizophrenia cases and 3851 healthy controls. Positive associations were found between C957T polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in C vs. T (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.09-1.46, Praw=0.002, PFDR=0.005) and CC+CT vs. TT (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.25-1.73, Praw<0.001, PFDR<0.001). When stratified by race, a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia was observed in Caucasians, but not in Asians. No association between C939T polymorphism and schizophrenia was found in overall or Asian population. Our study suggested that C957T of DRD2 gene polymorphism is likely to be a risk factor for schizophrenia, especially in Caucasian.
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Functional divergence of the miRNA transcriptome at the onset of drosophila metamorphosis.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. To date, the emergence of miRNAs and their patterns of sequence evolution have been analyzed in great detail. However, the extent to which miRNA expression levels have evolved over time, the role different evolutionary forces play in shaping these changes, and whether this variation in miRNA expression can reveal the interplay between miRNAs and mRNAs remain poorly understood. This is especially true for miRNA expressed during key developmental transitions. Here, we assayed miRNA expression levels immediately before (?18BPF [18 h before puparium formation]) and after (PF) the increase in the hormone ecdysone responsible for triggering metamorphosis. We did so in four strains of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species. In contrast to their sequence conservation, approximately 25% of miRNAs analyzed showed significant within-species variation in male expression levels at ?18BPF and/or PF. Additionally, approximately 33% showed modifications in their pattern of expression bias between developmental timepoints. A separate analysis of the ?18BPF and PF stages revealed that changes in miRNA abundance accumulate linearly over evolutionary time at PF but not at ?18BPF. Importantly, ?18BPF-enriched miRNAs showed the greatest variation in expression levels both within and between species, so are the less likely to evolve under stabilizing selection. Functional attributes, such as expression ubiquity, appeared more tightly associated with lower levels of miRNA expression polymorphism at PF than at ?18BPF. Furthermore, ?18BPF- and PF-enriched miRNAs showed opposite patterns of covariation in expression with mRNAs, which denoted the type of regulatory relationship between miRNAs and mRNAs. Collectively, our results show contrasting patterns of functional divergence associated with miRNA expression levels during Drosophila ontogeny.
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Stathmin is a marker of progression and poor prognosis in esophageal carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Stathmin, also called oncoprotein 18, is a founding member of the family of microtubule-destabilizing proteins that play a critical role in the regulation of mitosis. At the same time stathmin has been recognized as one of responsible factors in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess stathmin status, its correlations with clinicopathological parameters and its role as a progosnostic marker in EC patients. The protein and mRNA levels of stathmin were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization in 100EC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. mRNA and protein expression of stathmin in three EC cell lines(EC9706, ECa109, EC1 commonly used in research) were also analyzed using immunocytochemistry, western blot and in situ hybridization. The prognostic value of Stathmin expression within the tumor tissues were assessed by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. We showed that stathmin expression was significantly higher in EC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. High stathmin immunostaining score in the EC was positively correlated with tumor differentiation, Tumor invasion, Lymph node metastases, and TNM stage. In addition, we demonstrated that three EC cell lines examined, were constitutively expressing a high level of stathmin. Of those, EC-1 showed the strongest mRNA and protein expression for the stathmin analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that significantly longer 5-year survival rate was seen in EC patients with high Stathmin expression, compared to those with low expression of Stathmin expression. Furthermore, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that Stathmin was an independent factors affecting the overall survival probability. In conclusion, our data provide a basis for the concept that stathmin might be associated with EC development and progression.. High levels of Stathmin expression in the tumor tissues may be a good prognostic marker for patients with EC.
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Cotton KNL1, encoding a class II KNOX transcription factor, is involved in regulation of fibre development.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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In this study, the GhKNL1 (KNOTTED1-LIKE) gene, encoding a classical class II KNOX protein was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhKNL1 was preferentially expressed in developing fibres at the stage of secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis. GhKNL1 was localized in the cell nucleus, and could interact with GhOFP4, as well as AtOFP1, AtOFP4, and AtMYB75. However, GhKNL1 lacked transcriptional activation activity. Dominant repression of GhKNL1 affected fibre development of cotton. The expression levels of genes related to fibre elongation and SCW biosynthesis were altered in transgenic fibres of cotton. As a result, transgenic cotton plants produced aberrant, shrunken, and collapsed fibre cells. Length and cell-wall thickness of fibres of transgenic cotton plants were significantly reduced compared with the wild type. Furthermore, overexpression and dominant repression of GhKNL1 in Arabidopsis resulted in a reduction in interfascicular fibre cell-wall thickening of basal stems of transgenic plants. Complementation revealed that GhKNL1 rescued the defective phenotype of Arabidopsis knat7 mutant in some extent. These data suggest that GhKNL1, as a transcription factor, participates in regulating fibre development of cotton.
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Activation of PPAR-? inhibits differentiation of rat osteoblasts by reducing expression of connective tissue growth factor.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Long-term treatment with an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? is associated with bone fractures in the clinical practice. However, the mechanisms underlying the fractures are not fully understood. This study was aimed to examine the effect of rosiglitazone (an agonist of PPAR-?) of different doses on the proliferation, differentiation, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1)-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in primary rat osteoblasts in vitro. Osteoblasts were isolated from newly born SD rats and treated with different doses of rosiglitazone (0-20 ?mol/L). The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts were measured by MTT assay and NPP assay, respectively. The expression of CTGF was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that most isolated osteoblasts displayed strong alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and treatment with different doses of rosiglitazone did not affect their proliferation, but significantly inhibited the differentiation of osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with different doses of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the TGF-?1-induced CTGF mRNA transcription and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in rat osteoblasts. It was concluded that the activation of PPAR-? may inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts by reducing the TGF-?1-induced CTGF expression in vitro.
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Effect of (131)I gelatin microspheres on hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice and its distribution after intratumoral injection.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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In this study, we investigated the effect of (131)I gelatin microspheres ((131)I-GMSs) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in nude mice (Balb/c) and the biodistribution of (131)I-GMSs after intratumoral injection. The treatment group and control group animals received intratumoral injections of 1 mCi (131)I-GMSs and GMSs unlabeled (131)I, respectively. The size of the implanted tumor was measured once a week for 8 weeks, and the survival time was calculated from the day of injection to 64 days post-injection. Another 35 animals received intratumoral injections of 0.2 mCi (131)I-GMSs and were subject to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on days 1, 8, 16, 24 and 32 post-injection. Samples of various organs were collected and used to calculate tissue concentrations on days 1, 4, 8, 16 and 24. Free thyroxine (FT4) in fetal bovine serum was tested to evaluate thyroid function. The tumors were collected for histological examination. (131)I-GMSs produced a pronounced reduction in HepG2 tumor volume, and the overall survival was 73.3% in the treatment group and only 13.3% in the control group (P < 0.001). Tissue radioactivity concentration measurements and SPECT demonstrated that the injected (131)I-GMSs mainly accumulated within the tumors. The concentration of FT4 was stable during the observation period. The microspheres could be observed by histological methods on day 32. (131)I-GMSs suppressed the growth of HepG2 in the nude mice and were retained in the tumor for a long period of time after injection. Direct intratumoral injection of (131)I-GMSs offers a promising modality for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Platelet-derived growth factor-? expression in rabbit models of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), one of the serious types of stroke incurred by bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, occurs when brains are deprived of oxygen by various factors, particularly an interruption to the blood supply or a ruptured aneurysm. Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is one of the most common complications of SAH. It has been proposed that platelet?derived growth factor (PDGF) is involved in CVS. The aim of the present study was to analyze expression of PDGF in rabbit models of CVS. Post-SAH CVS rabbit models were created using endovascular puncture and employed to analyze the expression patterns of PDGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the creation of the rabbit model of CVS induced using endovascular puncture was successful and demonstrated the double phase changes observed in human CVS. The acute stage started at 12 h post-SAH with narrowing of the vascular lumen diameter. This narrowing appeared again on the seventh day in delayed CVS alongside increased thickness of vessel walls. PDGF-? expression was observed in vascular smooth muscle cells of the rabbit models. PDGF-? was expressed as early as 3 h post-SAH, it was evident after 1 day and reached a peak in 7 days, suggesting that PDGF-? is involved in the early stages of CVS. In the current study, it was confirmed that PDGF-? expression was present in the rabbit models of CVS, which may aid the elucidation of the pathogenesis of CVS, and also provide useful information for diagnosis and treatment of CVS.
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Genomic insights into the serine protease gene family and expression profile analysis in the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most destructive rice plant pests in Asia. N. lugens causes extensive damage to rice by sucking rice phloem sap, which results in hopper burn (complete death of the rice plants). Despite its importance, little is known about the digestion, development and defense mechanisms of this hemimetabolous insect pest. In this study, we aim to identify the serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes, which form a large family in eukaryotes, due to the potential for multiple physiological roles. Having a fully sequenced genome for N. lugens allows us to perform in-depth analysis of the gene structures, reveal the evolutionary relationships and predict the physiological functions of SP genes.
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Exposure to AT1 receptor autoantibodies during pregnancy increases susceptibility of the maternal heart to postpartum ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women with a history of preeclampsia have a two-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. It is not known whether or not this risk is associated with angiotensin II receptor type 1 autoantibody (AT1-AA), an agonist acting via activation of AT1 receptor (AT1R), which is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The objective of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that AT1-AA exposure during pregnancy may change the maternal cardiac structure and increase the susceptibility of the postpartum heart to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In the present study, we first established a preeclampsia rat model by intravenous injection of AT1-AA extracted from the plasma of rats immunized with AT1R, observed the susceptibility of the postpartum maternal heart to IRI at 16 weeks postpartum using the Langendorff preparation, and examined the cardiac structure using light and transmission electron microscopy. The modeled animals presented with symptoms very similar to the clinical symptoms of human preeclampsia during pregnancy, including hypertension and proteinuria. The left ventricular weight (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in AT1-AA treatment group were significantly increased as compared with those of the control group (p < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in final weight between the two groups. AT1-AA acting on AT1R not only induced myocardial cell hypertrophy, mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorganization and collagen accumulation in the interstitium but affected the left ventricular (LV) function and delayed recovery from IRI. In contrast, co-treatment with AT1-AA + losartan completely blocked AT1-AA-induced changes in cardiac structure and function. These data indicate that the presence of AT1-AA during pregnancy was strongly associated with the markers of LV geometry changes and remodeling, and increased the cardiac susceptibility to IRI in later life of postpartum maternal rats.
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Expressional difference, distributions of TGF-?1 in TGF-?1 knock down transgenic mouse, and its possible roles in injured spinal cord.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a multi-functional cytokine implicated in many aspects of mammalian wound healing and scar tissue formation. However, few experiments have so far addressed the potential biological effects of TGF-?1 in the nervous system after injury, in addition to the immune system. In the present study, expressional silencing TGF-?1 was achieved by selecting predesigning hairpins targeting mouse TGF-?1 genes. Four homozygous transgenic offspring were generated and designed as Founder 90, Founder 12, Founder 41 and Founder 46. The down-regulated rates of TGF-?1 in different transgenic mice were also determined. To investigate the potential roles of TGF-?1, we observed changes in the neurological behavior of TGF-?1-knockdown (TGF-?1-kd) mice after spinal cord transection (SCT). Moreover, mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, NF-?B and TNF, were also detected in nucleate cells from blood by real-time PCR. Consequently, different TGF-?1 expressions were detected in multiple tissues, and protein levels of TGF-?1 decreased at different rates relative to that of wild type (WT) ones. The levels of TGF-?1 proteins in TGF-?1-kd mice decreased at most by 57% in Founder 90, which showed a significant recovery in Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores after SCT compared with that of WT. However, expressions of immune relative genes showed no dramatic difference compared with WT ones. This study is the first to generate TGF-?1 down regulated mice and determine the possible roles of TGF-?1 in vivo in different conditions.
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A comparison of the life-history traits between diapause and direct development individuals in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In order to understand the differences of life-history traits between diapause and direct development individuals in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the development time, body size, growth rate, and adult longevity were investigated between the two populations, which were induced under 12:12 L:D and 16:8 L:D photoperiods, respectively, at 20, 22, and 25°C. The results indicated that the larval development time, pupal weight, adult weight, and growth rate were significantly different between diapause and direct developing individuals. The diapause developing individuals had a significantly higher pupal and adult weight and a longer larval time compared with direct developing individuals. However, the growth rate in diapause developing individuals was lower than that in the direct developing individuals. Analysis by GLM showed that larval time, pupal and adult weight, and growth rate were significantly influenced by both temperature and developmental pathway. The pupal and adult weights were greater in males than females in both developmental pathways, exhibiting sexual size dimorphism. The dimorphism in adult weight was more pronounced than in pupal weight because female pupae lost more weight at metamorphosis compared to male pupae. Protogyny was observed in both developmental pathways. However, the protogyny phenomenon was more pronounced at lower temperatures in direct developing individuals, whereas it was more pronounced in diapause developing individuals when they experienced higher temperatures in their larval stage and partial pupal period. The adult longevity of diapause developing individuals was significantly longer than that of direct developing individuals. The results reveal that the life-history strategy was different between diapause and direct developing individuals.
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Leukemia propagating cells rebuild an evolving niche in response to therapy.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Residence of cancer-propagating cells (CPCs) within preferential microenvironmental niches has a major part in evading therapy. However, the nature of niches involved and the mechanisms protecting CPCs remain largely unknown. We addressed these issues in mouse transplantation models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). When the engrafted leukemic cells substantially damaged adjacent microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM), after chemotherapy small foci of CPCs were retained, surrounded by sheaths of supporting cells that comprise a protective niche. We investigated patients' BM biopsies and found evidence of a similar process in patients receiving induction therapy. The efficacy of chemotherapy was enhanced by interfering with the niche formation or function. We therefore identified a therapy-induced niche that protects CPCs.
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Higher efficacy of dietary DHA provided as a phospholipid than as a triglyceride for brain DHA accretion in neonatal piglets.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) occur in foods primarily in the natural lipid classes, triacylglycerols (TAGs) or phospholipids (PLs). We studied the relative efficacy of the neural omega-3 DHA provided in formula to growing piglets as a dose of (13)C-DHA bound to either TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC). Piglets were assigned to identical formula-based diets from early life and provided with TAG-(13)C-DHA or PC-(13)C-DHA orally at 16 days. Days later, piglet organs were analyzed for (13)C-DHA and other FA metabolites. PC-(13)C-DHA was 1.9-fold more efficacious for brain gray matter DHA accretion than TAG-(13)C-DHA, and was similarly more efficacious in gray matter synaptosomes, retina, liver, and red blood cells (RBCs). Liver labeling was greatest, implying initial processing in that organ followed by export to other organs, and suggesting that transfer from gut to bloodstream to liver in part drove the difference in relative efficacy for tissue accretion. Apparent retroconversion to 22:5n-3 was more than double for PC-(13)C-DHA and was more prominent in neural tissue than in liver or RBCs. These data directly support greater efficacy for PC as a carrier for LCPUFAs compared with TAG, consistent with previous studies of arachidonic acid and DHA measured in other species.
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Activation of BV2 microglia by lipopolysaccharide triggers an inflammatory reaction in PC12 cell apoptosis through a toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Microglia play an important role in neuronal protection and damage. However, the molecular and cellular relationship between microglia and neurons is unclear. We carried out a prospective study to detect that activation of BV2 microglia induced PC12 cell apoptosis in vitro through the TLR4/adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. BV2 microglia were treated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 h. Western blot was utilized to detect the expression of TLR4 and the downstream signaling pathway. The level of inflammatory mediator was quantified using a specific ELISA kit. The supernatant of 10 ?g/ml LPS-treated BV2 cells was used as conditioned medium (CM). PC12 cells were co-culture with CM for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and cell apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. BV2 microglia were treated with 10, 20, or 30 ?g/ml LPS for 24 h. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-?B significantly increased. When PC12 cells were co-cultured with CM for 24 h, cell viability decreased. CM up-regulated the Bax level and down-regulated the Bcl-2 protein level in PC12 cells. PC12 cells pretreated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) for 30 min, significantly alleviated CM-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. These results suggest that BV2 microglia activated by LPS triggered TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway that induced the release of IL-1? and could participate in the PC12 cells injury.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.
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Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-?-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus).
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-?-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn? (zinc adequate control, 42.3 ?g/g zinc), and Zn? (zinc deficient, 2.5 ?g/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn? control versus Zn? group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn? control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic ?? desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn? group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn? group compared to the Zn? group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation.
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Interventional therapy for human breast cancer in nude mice with 131I gelatin microspheres (¹³¹I-GMSs) following intratumoral injection.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 131I gelatin microspheres (131I-GMS) on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in nude mice and the biodistribution of 131I-GMSs following intratumoral injections.
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Arabidopsis drought-induced protein Di19-3 participates in plant response to drought and high salinity stresses.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Di19 (drought-induced protein19) family is a novel type of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger proteins. In this study, Arabidopsis Di19-3 was functionally characterized. The experimental results revealed that AtDi19-3 is a transcriptional activator, and could bind to the TACA(A/G)T sequence. AtDi19-3 expression in plants was remarkably induced by NaCl, mannitol and abscisic acid (ABA). T-DNA insertion mutation of AtDi19-3 results in an increase in plant tolerance to drought and high salinity stresses and ABA, whereas overexpression of AtDi19-3 leads to a drought-, salt- and ABA-sensitive phenotype of the transgenic plants. In the presence of NaCl, mannitol or ABA, rates of seed germination and cotyledon greening in Atdi19-3 mutant were higher, but in AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic plants were lower than those in wild type. Roots of Atdi19-3 mutant seedlings were longer, but those of AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic seedlings were shorter than those of wild type. Chlorophyll and proline contents in Atdi19-3 mutant were higher, but in AtDi19-3 overexpression seedlings were lower than those in wild type. Atdi19-3 mutant showed greater drought-tolerance, whereas AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic plants exhibited more drought-sensitivity than wild type. Furthermore, expression of the genes related to ABA signaling pathway was altered in Atdi19-3 mutant and AtDi19-3 transgenic plants. These data suggest that AtDi19-3 may participate in plant response to drought and salt stresses in an ABA-dependent manner.
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Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.
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[Effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion neuron on excitability of wide dynamic range neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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The aim of the paper is to study the effect of spontaneous firing of injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron in chronic compression of DRG (CCD) model on excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron in rat spinal dorsal horn. In vivo intracellular recording was done in DRG neurons and in vivo extracellular recording was done in spinal WDR neurons. After CCD, incidence of spontaneous discharge and firing frequency enhanced to 59.46% and (4.30 ± 0.69) Hz respectively from 22.81% and (0.60 ± 0.08) Hz in normal control group (P < 0.05). Local administration of 50 nmol/L tetrodotoxin (TTX) on DRG neuron in CCD rats decreased the spontaneous activities of WDR neurons from (191.97 ± 45.20)/min to (92.50 ± 30.32)/min (P < 0.05). On the other side, local administration of 100 mmol/L KCl on DRG neuron evoked spontaneous firing in a reversible way (n = 5) in silent WDR neurons of normal rats. There was 36.36% (12/33) WDR neuron showing after-discharge in response to innocuous mechanical stimuli on cutaneous receptive field in CCD rats, while after-discharge was not seen in control rats. Local administration of TTX on DRG with a concentration of 50 nmol/L attenuated innocuous electric stimuli-evoked after-discharge of WDR neurons in CCD rats in a reversible manner, and the frequency was decreased from (263 ± 56.5) Hz to (117 ± 30) Hz (P < 0.05). The study suggests that the excitability of WDR neurons is influenced by spontaneous firings of DRG neurons after CCD.
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[Effects and safety of varying doses of guizhi fuling capsule in patients with primary dysmenorrhea: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To evaluate the effects and safety of varying doses of Guizhi Fuling capsule on treating primary dysmenorrhea. From August 2010 to March 2011, 240 subjects (aged 18-30) with primary dysmenorrheal, were enrolled in 8 sites. They were randomized into Guizhi Fuling capsule high dose group, low dose group and placebo control group, 80 cases in each group. These patients were treated for three consecutive menstrual cycles, then were followed up in another three consecutive menstrual cycles. Visual analogue scales (VAS) was used to determine the pain intensity. During the treatment, the high-, low-dose and placebo groups efficiency on pain relief are 68.42%, 67.57% and 47.89% respectively. Guzhi Fuling (included high- and low- dose group) significantly relieves the pain compared to placebo. In follow-up, Guzhi Fuling groups are still superior to the placebo group (73.68%, 72.97% and 53.52%). During the treatment, pain duration reduces 57.88% in high dose group, while 46.17% in low dose group, and 30.40% in placebo group. In follow-up, pain lasting time decrease 67.93%, 53.56%, 47.46%, respectively. Guizhi Fuling significantly reduces the pain duration compared to placebo and high-dose is better than low-dose. The efficacy of Guzhi Fuling (high- and low-dose) displays certain dosage-effect relationship. Among these group, no serious adverse event was reported. Guizhi Fuling capsule at high or low dose significantly relieves the pain, improves symptoms, reduces the duration of pain, and has a better overall treatment effect and long-term treatment effect in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.
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Selective and sensitive detection of intracellular O2(•-) using Au NPs/cytochrome c as SERS nanosensors.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensor was developed by modifying oxidized cytochrome c (Cyt c) on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for the sensitive and selective determination of intracellular superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)). On the basis of the differences in the SERS spectra between the oxidized and reduced form of Cyt c, this nanosensor could be employed to investigate O2(•-) concentration by measuring the SERS spectra of the reduced Cyt c. Using this SERS nanosensor, a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-8) M for O2(•-) could be attained. Additionally, the selectivity of the SERS nanosensor for O2(•-) was examined, showing that other reactive oxygen species (ROS) and biologically relevant species did not influence the detection of O2(•-). More importantly, the nanosensor could be delivered to the living HeLa and normal human liver cells and permitted the concentration of O2(•-) to be monitored in real time and in a noninvasive manner, which indicates that this nanosensor will be suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of O2(•-) in biosystems, thus leading to a greater understanding of oxidative-stress-related diseases at a cellular level.
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VhuD facilitates electron flow from H2 or formate to heterodisulfide reductase in Methanococcus maripaludis.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Flavin-based electron bifurcation has recently been characterized as an essential energy conservation mechanism that is utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea to generate low-potential electrons in an ATP-independent manner. Electron bifurcation likely takes place at the flavin associated with the ? subunit of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrA). In Methanococcus maripaludis the electrons for this reaction come from either formate or H2 via formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) or Hdr-associated hydrogenase (Vhu). However, how these enzymes bind to HdrA to deliver electrons is unknown. Here, we present evidence that the ? subunit of hydrogenase (VhuD) is central to the interaction of both enzymes with HdrA. When M. maripaludis is grown under conditions where both Fdh and Vhu are expressed, these enzymes compete for binding to VhuD, which in turn binds to HdrA. Under these conditions, both enzymes are fully functional and are bound to VhuD in substoichiometric quantities. We also show that Fdh copurifies specifically with VhuD in the absence of other hydrogenase subunits. Surprisingly, in the absence of Vhu, growth on hydrogen still occurs; we show that this involves F420-reducing hydrogenase. The data presented here represent an initial characterization of specific protein interactions centered on Hdr in a hydrogenotrophic methanogen that utilizes multiple electron donors for growth.
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[Analysis on effectiveness of platelet transfusion in 1786 patients].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was aimed to observe and analyze the effectiveness of platelet transfusion. The platelet count of 1786 patients before transfusion and on 20-24 hours after transfusion was determined by using Auto-Hematology Analyzer, the percent platelet recovery (PPR) was calculated, the platelet transfusion efficiency (PTE) was evaluated by PPR and hemorrhage presentation after platelet transfusion, and the PTE was statistically analyzed according to disease cause, transfusion frequency, platelet type and once transfusion amount. The results showed that the total PTE of 1786 patients was 52.5%. The comparison of PTE among groups of disease cause showed that PTE in luekemia and aplastic anemia(AA) was lowest, as compared with that of other diseases (P < 0.05), while PTE in operation group was highest. The comparison of PTE among groups of transfusion frequency revealed also statistical difference (P < 0.01), meanwhile PTE decreased with increasing of transfusion frequency. The comparison of PTE among groups of platelet type (platelet phoresis or platelet concentrate) showed statistical difference (P < 0.01). The comparison of PTE among groups of platelet concentrate of once transfusion amount showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the PTE closely relates with disease cause of patients, moreover transfusion frequency also associates with PTE, the more frequency of transfusion, the higher possibility of transfusion refractoriness. The PTE of platelet pheresis is obviously superior to that of platelet concentrate, while PTE of platelet concentrate not significantly relates with once adequate or not.
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A sample selection strategy to boost the statistical power of signature detection in cancer expression profile studies.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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In case-control profiling studies, increasing the sample size does not always improve statistical power because the variance may also be increased if samples are highly heterogeneous. For instance, tumor samples used for gene expression assay are often heterogeneous in terms of tissue composition or mechanism of progression, or both; however, such variation is rarely taken into account in expression profiles analysis. We use a prostate cancer prognosis study as an example to demonstrate that solely recruiting more patient samples may not increase power for biomarker detection at all. In response to the heterogeneity due to mixed tissue, we developed a sample selection strategy termed Stepwise Enrichment by which samples are systematically culled based on tumor content and analyzed with t-test to determine an optimal threshold for tissue percentage. The selected tissue-percentage threshold identified the most significant data by balancing the sample size and the sample homogeneity; therefore, the power is substantially increased for identifying the prognostic biomarkers in prostate tumor epithelium cells as well as in prostate stroma cells. This strategy can be generally applied to profiling studies where the level of sample heterogeneity can be measured or estimated.
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Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the populations genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.
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[Effects of Choukrouns platelet-rich fibrin on human gingival fibroblasts proliferation, migration and type I collagen secretion].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) biological behavior such as proliferation, migration and collagen-I expression.
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Abnormal expression of Toll-like receptor 4 is associated with susceptibility to ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. This study aimed to determine its precise role in this pathogenic state and the related signaling pathway.
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Propofol inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced human gastric epithelial cell injury by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in normal human gastric epithelial (GES-1) cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro, and the effect of propofol on injured GES-1 cells as well as its possible mechanism. Before H/R induction, GES-1 cells were preconditioned with fat emulsion, propofol, or epigallocatechin gallate. Then cell viability, cell apoptosis, and related molecules in the cells were analyzed under experimental conditions. We found that propofol 50 ?mol/L markedly inhibited the H/R injury under hypoxia 1.5 h/reoxygenation 2 hours by promoting GES-1 cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. The TLR4 signal may be involved in the protective effect of propofol against H/R injury. The malondialdehyde contents and superoxide dismutase activities were recovered under propofol preconditioning. In summary, propofol preconditioning may exert a protective effect on H/R injury in GES-1 cells and the mechanism may be via inhibition of the activated TLR4 signal under H/R conditions.
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Effect of photoperiod and temperature on the intensity of pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Bull. Entomol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The intensity of pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was investigated under both laboratory and natural conditions. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 11:13, LD 12:12 and LD 13:11 at 20, 22 and 25 °C to 25 °C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause the rearing day length of 11 h evoked greater intensity of diapause than did 12 and 13 h at 25 °C; whereas the rearing temperature of 25 °C evoked more intense diapause than did 20 and 22 °C under LD 11:13. By transferring diapausing pupae induced under LD 12:12 at 20 and 22 °C to six temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C combined with LD 15:9 to terminate diapause, the duration of diapause was significantly shortened from 146 days at 18 °C to 24 days at 31 °C, showing that high temperatures significantly accelerate diapause development. Furthermore, the duration of diapause was significantly longer at the rearing temperature of 22 °C than that at 20 °C when the diapause-terminating temperatures were 20 and 22 °C. Chilling at 5 °C did not shorten the duration of diapause but lengthened it when chilling period was included. However, chilling plays an important role in synchronizing adult emergence. Rearing temperature of 22 °C also evoked more intense diapause than did 20 °C in most chilling treatments. When the overwintering pupae were transferred at different times from natural temperatures to 25 °C, it was found that the earlier the transfer took place, the earlier the adults emerged when the time spent under natural conditions was included. However, cool temperatures before March showed an enhanced effect on diapause development at 20 °C, suggesting that the high diapause-terminating temperature can offset the effect of chilling on diapause development. The result of diapause termination under natural conditions suggests that the developmental threshold for post-diapause development in H. armigera should be around 17.5 °C.
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Cotton PRP5 gene encoding a proline-rich protein is involved in fiber development.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Proline-rich proteins contribute to cell wall structure of specific cell types and are involved in plant growth and development. In this study, a fiber-specific gene, GhPRP5, encoding a proline-rich protein was functionally characterized in cotton. GhPRP5 promoter directed GUS expression only in trichomes of both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants with overexpressing GhPRP5 displayed reduced cell growth, resulting in smaller cell size and consequently plant dwarfs, in comparison with wild type plants. In contrast, knock-down of GhPRP5 expression by RNA interference in cotton enhanced fiber development. The fiber length of transgenic cotton plants was longer than that of wild type. In addition, some genes involved in fiber elongation and wall biosynthesis of cotton were up-regulated or down-regulated in the transgenic cotton plants owing to suppression of GhPRP5. Collectively, these data suggested that GhPRP5 protein as a negative regulator participates in modulating fiber development of cotton.
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Geographic variation in diapause induction and termination of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Overwintering diapause in Helicoverpa armigera, a multivoltine species, is controlled by response to photoperiod and temperature. Photoperiodic responses from 5 different geographical populations showed that the variation in critical photoperiod for diapause induction was positively related to the latitudinal origin of the populations at 20, 22 and 25°C. Diapause response to photoperiod and temperature was quite different between northern and southern populations, being highly sensitive to photoperiod in northern populations and temperature dependence in southern populations. Diapause pupae from southern population showed a significantly shorter diapause duration than from northern-most populations when they were cultured at 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C; by contrast, overwintering pupae from southern populations emerged significantly later than from northern populations when they were maintained in natural conditions, showing a clinal latitudinal variation in diapause termination. Diapause-inducing temperature had a significant effect on diapause duration, but with a significant difference between southern and northern populations. The higher rearing temperature of 22°C evoked a more intense diapause than did 20°C in northern populations; but a less intense diapause in southern population. Cold exposure (chilling) is not necessary to break the pupal diapause. The higher the temperature, the quicker the diapause terminated. Response of diapause termination to chilling showed that northern populations were more sensitive to chilling than southern population. All results demonstrate that H. armigera is not genetically homogeneous throughout its range, but rather is composed of distinct populations genetically adapted to local environmental conditions despite the potential for gene flow via seasonal migration of adults.
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Synergistic antitumor activity of reversine combined with aspirin in cervical carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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A recent report showed that reversine treatment could induce murine myoblasts dedifferentiation into multipotent progenitor cells and inhibit proliferation of some tumors, and other reports showed that apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells could be induced by aspirin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the synergistic antitumor effects of reversine and aspirin on cervical cancer. The inhibition rate of reversine and aspirin on cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and U14) was determined by MTT method, cell cycle of HeLa and U14 cells was analyzed by FACS, mitochondrial membrane potential of HeLa and U14 was detected using a JC-1 kit. HeLa and U14 colony formation was analyzed by soft agar colony formation assay. The expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2/Bax, cyclin D1 and p21 was detected by qRT-PCR and Western Blotting. Moreover, tumor weight and tumor volume was assessed using a murine model of cervical cancer with U14 cells subcutaneously (s.c.) administered into the neck, separately or combined with drug administration via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. The inhibition rate of cells in the combination group (10 ?mol/L reversine, 10 mmol/L aspirin) increased significantly in comparison to that when the drugs were used alone (P < 0.05); moreover, this combination could synergistically inhibit the proliferation of five cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, U14, Siha, Caski and C33A). In the therapeutic mouse model, tumor weight and tumor volume of cervical cancer bearing mice was more reduced when compared with the control agents (P < 0.05) in tumor-bearing mice. The combination of reversine and aspirin exerts synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis induction on cervical cancers cells.
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Ubiquinone-quantum dot bioconjugates for in vitro and intracellular complex I sensing.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted increasing interest in bioimaging and sensing. Here, we report a biosensor of complex I using ubiquinone-terminated disulphides with different alkyl spacers (QnNS, n = 2, 5 and 10) as surface-capping ligands to functionalise CdSe/ZnS QDs. The enhancement or quenching of the QD bioconjugates fluorescence changes as a function of the redox state of QnNS, since QDs are highly sensitive to the electron-transfer processes. The bioconjugated QnNS-QDs emission could be modulated by complex I in the presence of NADH, which simulates an electron-transfer system part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an in vitro and intracellular complex I sensor. Epidemiological studies suggest that Parkinsons patients have the impaired activity of complex I in the electron-transfer chain of mitochondria. We have demonstrated that the QnNS-QDs system could aid in early stage Parkinsons disease diagnosis and progression monitoring by following different complex I levels in SH-SY5Y cells.
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TLR4 signaling is involved in the protective effect of propofol in BV2 microglia against OGD/reoxygenation.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Propofol exhibits neuroprotective effects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a considerable role in the induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses. The purposes of this study are to investigate the effect of propofol on the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation (OGD/R) BV2 microglia and to explore the role of TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway in the neuroprotective effects of propofol. BV2 microglia were placed into an airtight chamber and in glucose-free medium for OGD/reoxygenation. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay. TLR4 and its downstream signaling molecules, MyD88 and NF-?B expressions were detected by Western blotting. Level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) in culture medium was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BV2 microglia apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. We found that pretreatment with propofol significantly alleviated the hypoxic injury in BV2 microglia. Propofol inhibited upregulation of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-?B expressions in BV2 microglia exposed to OGD/reoxygenation. Propofol pretreatment also significantly reduced the production of TNF-? and apoptosis in OGD/reoxygenation BV2 microglia. The results indicated that TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway contributed to neuroprotection of propofol to microglia exposed to OGD/reoxygenation.
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Lapatinib inhibits the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and synergistically interacts with 5-fluorouracil in patient-derived xenograft models.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Lapatinib is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human EGFR-2 (HER2) tyrosine kinase domains. To explore the potential utility of lapatinib for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we examined the expression profiles of EGFR and HER2 in tumor tissues and in paired adjacent non-neoplastic tissues from patients with ESCC. We evaluated the antitumor effects of lapatinib alone or in combination with oxaliplatin or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on a panel of primary ESCC cells in vitro with various levels of EGFR and HER2 expression. The in vivo effect of lapatinib alone or in combination with oxaliplatin or 5-FU was evaluated using a primary ESCC xenograft model. EGFR was overexpressed in 80.9% (76/94) of the ESCC samples, while 24.5% (23/94) of the samples overexpressed HER2. EGFR and HER2 co-overexpression was detected in 22.3% of samples (21/94). In vitro, the primary ESCC cells were more sensitive to lapatinib combined with 5-FU or oxaliplatin than to lapatinib alone. Lapatinib in combination with 5-FU had more potent antitumor effects in the primary ESCC xenograft model, and markedly reduced the phosphorylation of EGFR and HER2, compared with lapatinib alone or in combination with oxaliplatin. These data indicate that lapatinib has activity in EGFR- and/or HER2-expressing ESCC primary cells, and that lapatinib in combination with 5-FU may be a promising treatment strategy for patients with ESCC.
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Socio-economic and psychosocial determinants of smoking and passive smoking in older adults.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To determine the associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with active and passive smoking in older adults.
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Cotton GalT1 encoding a putative glycosyltransferase is involved in regulation of cell wall pectin biosynthesis during plant development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are a group of highly glycosylated proteins that are found throughout the plant kingdom. To date, glycosyltransferases that glycosylate AGP backbone have remained largely unknown. In this study, a gene (GhGalT1) encoding a putative ?-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) was identified in cotton. GhGalT1, belonging to CAZy GT31 family, is the type II membrane protein that contains an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal galactosyltransferase functional domain. A subcellular localization assay demonstrated that GhGalT1 was localized in the Golgi apparatus. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhGalT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in hypocotyls, roots, fibers and ovules. Overexpression of GhGalT1 in Arabidopsis promoted plant growth and metabolism. The transgenic seedlings had much longer primary roots, higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthetic efficiency, the increased biomass, and the enhanced tolerance to exogenous D-arabinose and D-galactose. In addition, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions showed that pectin was changed in the transgenic plants, compared with that of wild type. Three genes (GAUT8, GAUT9 and xgd1) involved in pectin biosynthesis were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic lines. These data suggested that GhGalT1 may be involved in regulation of pectin biosynthesis required for plant development.
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Investigating electron-transfer processes using a biomimetic hybrid bilayer membrane system.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Here we report a protocol to investigate the electron-transfer processes of redox-active biomolecules in biological membranes by electrochemistry using biomimetic hybrid bilayer membranes (HBMs) assembled on gold electrodes. Redox-active head groups, such as the ubiquinone moiety, are embedded in HBMs that contain target molecules, e.g., nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). By using this approach, the electron-transfer processes between redox molecules and target biomolecules are mediated by mimicking the redox cycling processes in a natural membrane. Also included is a procedure for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to confirm the electrochemically induced conformational changes of the target biomolecules in the HBMs. In addition, each step in constructing the HBMs is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The time required for the entire protocol is ?12 h, whereas the electrochemical measurement of electron-transfer processes takes less than 1 h to complete.
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Single-molecule DNA detection using a novel SP1 protein nanopore.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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SP1 protein as a new type of biological nanopore is described and is utilized to distinguish single-stranded DNA at the single-molecule level. Using the SP1 nanopore to investigate single molecule detection broadens the existing research areas of pore-forming biomaterials from unsymmetrical biological nanopores to symmetrical biological nanopores. This novel nanopore could provide a good candidate for single-molecule detection and characterization of biomaterial applications.
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Molecular diagnosis and prognostic significance of lymph node micrometastasis in patients with histologically node-negative non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Lymph node metastasis is a major prognostic factor in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, 30-40 % rate of recurrence after performing complete resection in node-negative patients suggests that their nodal staging is suboptimal. We aimed to evaluate the molecular diagnosis and prognostic significance of lymph node micrometastasis in patients with node-negative NSCLC. Primary tumor samples from 62 patients with resected stage I-IIB NSCLC were screened for fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and CDKN2A mRNA deletion using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The molecular alternations were found in tumors of 49 patients. A total of 269 lymph nodes from these 49 NSCLC patients with FHIT or/and CDKN2A deletion tumors were examined. Fifteen positive-control nodes and ten negative-control nodes were also analyzed for FHIT and CDKN2A mRNA deletion. Thirty-nine (22 %) and 22 (18 %) lymph nodes from the 49 patients with FHIT and CDKN2A mRNA deletion in primary tumor had FHIT and CDKN2A mRNA deletion, respectively. The types of FHIT and CDKN2A mRNA deletion in lymph nodes were identical with those in their primary tumors. By combination of two markers, 16 patients (32.7 %) were found to have nodal micrometastasis. Survival analysis showed that patients with nodal micrometastasis had reduced disease-free survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.002) rates. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that nodal micrometastasis was an independent predictor for worse prognosis. Thus, the detection of lymph node micrometastasis by FHIT and CDKN2A mRNA deletion RT-PCR will be helpful to predict the recurrence and prognosis of patients with completely resected stage I-IIB NSCLC.
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Direct interactions between bidensovirus BmDNV-Z proteins and midgut proteins from the virus target Bombyx mori.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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In this study we aimed to identify the protein-protein interactions between Bombyx mori midgut and the bidensovirus BmDNV-Z via a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. To achieve this we constructed a Gal4 activation domain fusion library that expresses the host genes and Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion bait vectors that express BmDNV-Z genes. Y2H assay revealed 15 potential interactions between host and viral proteins. To verify the interactions, we modified and reconstructed a pair of bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) vectors and achieved the co-expressions of the candidate host genes and viral genes in insect culture cells. The BiFC assay confirmed the specificity of the interactions including B. mori 35 kDa protease and two BmDNV-Z proteins encoded by VD1-ORF2 and VD2-ORF1; B. mori transgelin and BmDNV-Z protein encoded by VD2-ORF3; and B. mori serine protease precursor and BmDNV-Z encoded by VD2-ORF3 in vitro. Our findings revealed that the specific host midgut proteins are involved in the interactions between B. mori and BmDNV-Z, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of BmDNV-Z infection.
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No association between TGFB1 polymorphisms and late radiotherapy toxicity: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) protein may be multifunctional and related to the development of fibrosis, induction of apoptosis, extracellular signaling and inhibition of proliferation in response to radiation-induced DNA damage. Several studies have investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TGFB1 gene and risk of late radiation-induced injury of normal tissue, but the conclusions remain controversial.
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Development of in situ gelling and bio adhesive 5-Fluorouracil enema.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophils concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU.
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Real-time monitoring of the aging of single plasmonic copper nanoparticles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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We demonstrate that the continuous real-time monitoring of the growth and surface oxidation process of single Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrate by dark-field microscopy (DFM) and plasmon resonance Rayleigh scattering (PRRS) spectroscopy is possible.
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Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main bioactive compounds in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antimutagenic and anticancer properties. In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum Ait was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, extraction temperature and extraction time, on extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid. The optimal extraction conditions were 95% ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid at 1:20, and extraction for 10 min at 40°C under ultrasonic irradiation. Under the optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 6.3 ± 0.25 and 9.8 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum.
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CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-Cytochrome c bioconjugates for selective intracellular O2?? sensing.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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We demonstrate that the coupling system of negatively capped CdSe/ZnS QDs with an oxidized Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is capable of the fluorescent imaging of a superoxide radical (O(2)??) with high sensitivity and specificity in living cells, without interference from other Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or relevant intracellular components.
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Microwave-assisted extraction of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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In this paper, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of oxymatrine from Sophora flavescens were studied by HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature, and extraction time on the extraction efficiencies of oxymatrine were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions were 60% ethanol, a 20:1 (v/v) ratio of liquid to material and extraction for 10 min at 50 °C under 500 W microwave irradiation. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of oxymatrine was 14.37 mg/g. The crude extract obtained could be used as either a component of some complex traditional medicines or for further isolation and purification of bioactive compounds. The results, which indicated that MAE is a very useful tool for the extraction of important phytochemicals from plant materials, should prove helpful for the full utilization of Sophora flavescens.
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A cotton mitogen-activated protein kinase (GhMPK6) is involved in ABA-induced CAT1 expression and H(2)O(2) production.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is one of the major and evolutionally conserved signaling pathways and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress and developmental signals in plants. Here, we identified one gene, GhMPK6, encoding an MAPK protein in cotton. GFP fluorescence assay demonstrated that GhMAPK6 is a cytoplasm localized protein. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA accumulation of GhMPK6 was significantly promoted by abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression of GhMPK6 gene in the T-DNA insertion mutant atmkk1 (SALK_015914) conferred a wild-type phenotype to the transgenic plants in response to ABA. Under ABA treatment, cotyledon greening/expansion in GhMPK6 transgenic lines and wild type was significantly inhibited, whereas the atmkk1 mutant showed a relatively high cotyledon greening/expansion ratio. Furthermore, CAT1 expression and H(2)O(2) levels in leaves of GhMPK6 transgenic lines and wild type were remarkably higher than those of atmkk1 mutant with ABA treatment. Collectively, our results suggested that GhMPK6 may play an important role in ABA-induced CAT1 expression and H(2)O(2) production.
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A phase I pilot trial of MUC1-peptide-pulsed dendritic cells in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The objectives of this study were to assess the toxicity and immunological response induced by the intra-dermal (i.d.) administration of MUC1-peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Patients with recurrent lesions or metastasis after surgery, and immunohistochemistry positive for MUC1 were treated in cohorts that received 3-6 × 10(6) DCs i.d. for three or four vaccines. Each vaccine was composed of autologus DCs pulsed with MUC1-peptide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that harvested 2 weeks after the second immunization were compared with PBMCs obtained before treatment for immunological response. Serial ELISPOT assays of PBMCs for antitumor reactivity were performed. Three patients received all four vaccines, and four patients received three vaccines. These patients were evaluable for toxicity and immunological monitoring. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities associated with the vaccines or major evidence of autoimmunity. Interferon-? and granzyme B ELISPOT assay reactivity increased significantly in 2 of 7 patients (P < 0.05). The administration of MUC1-peptide-pulsed DCs is non-toxic and capable of inducing immunological response to tumor antigen MUC1 in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Additional studies are necessary to improve tumor rejection responses.
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The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK) significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001), and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.
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Coenzyme?Q functionalized CdTe/ZnS quantum dots for reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used for fluorescent imaging in cells. In particular, surface functionalized QDs are of interest, since they possess the ability to recognize and detect the analytes in the surrounding nanoscale environment based on electron and hole transfer between the analytes and the QDs. Here we demonstrate that fluorescence enhancement/quenching in QDs can be switched by electrochemically modulating electron transfer between attached molecules and QDs. For this purpose, a number of redox-active coenzyme Q (CoQ) disulfide derivatives [CoQC(n)S](2) were synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths (n=1, 5, and 10). The system supremely sensitive to NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and superoxide radical (O(2)(.)(-)), and represents a biomimetic electron-transfer system, modeling part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The results of our in situ fluorescence spectroelectrochemical study demonstrate that the reduced state of [CoQC(n)S](2) significantly enhanced the fluorescence intensity of CdTe/ZnS QDs, while the oxidized state of the CoQ conjugates quench the fluorescence to varying degrees. Fluorescence imaging of cells loaded with the conjugate QD-[CoQC(n)S](2) displayed strikingly differences in the fluorescence depending on the redox state of the capping layer, thus introducing a handle for evaluating the status of the cellular redox potential status. Moreover, an MTT assay (MTT=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) proved that the cytotoxicity of QDs was significantly reduced after immobilization by CoQ derivatives. Those unique features make CoQ derivatived QDs as a promising probe to image redox coenzyme function in vitro and in vivo.
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Diagnosis of prostate cancer using differentially expressed genes in stroma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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More than one million prostate biopsies are performed in the United States every year. A failure to find cancer is not definitive in a significant percentage of patients due to the presence of equivocal structures or continuing clinical suspicion. We have identified gene expression changes in stroma that can detect tumor nearby. We compared gene expression profiles of 13 biopsies containing stroma near tumor and 15 biopsies from volunteers without prostate cancer. About 3,800 significant expression changes were found and thereafter filtered using independent expression profiles to eliminate possible age-related genes and genes expressed at detectable levels in tumor cells. A stroma-specific classifier for nearby tumor was constructed on the basis of 114 candidate genes and tested on 364 independent samples including 243 tumor-bearing samples and 121 nontumor samples (normal biopsies, normal autopsies, remote stroma, as well as stroma within a few millimeters of tumor). The classifier predicted the tumor status of patients using tumor-free samples with an average accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) whereas classifiers trained with sets of 100 randomly generated genes had no diagnostic value. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for categorizing the presence of tumor in patients when a prostate sample is derived from near the tumor but does not contain any recognizable tumor.
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Diversity distributions of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes and their ligands in the Chinese Shaanxi Han population.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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In the present study, 17 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes and KIR ligands (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] -A and -B) were detected by using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method in 104 unrelated healthy Han individuals living in Shaanxi province, China. The observed carrier frequencies of the 12 KIR genes ranged from 0.14 to 0.96. KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DP1 and 3DP1 were found to be present in every individual. A total of 51 different KIR gene profiles were identified, in which 11 gene profiles exclusively belonged to the study population. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the studing population and its neighboring ethnic groups was constructed using the observed carrier frequencies of 13 KIR loci. The phylogenetic tree shows that the Shaanxi Han population, Han populations in different regions, Yi, Japanese, and Koreans were in the same cluster. KIR/HLA relationships show that KIR3DS1(-)/3DL1(+)/Bw4(+) was the most common association in the population. In conclusion, the present study findings reveal the high polymorphism of KIRs in the Shaanxi Han population, demonstrate the KIR/HLA association in the study population, and enrich the KIR and HLA gene resources. The obtained KIR data will further the understanding of genetic relationships among populations in different geographic areas, and assist in answering questions regarding KIR/HLA relationships.
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A rugged and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of BMS-790052 in plasma.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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To support toxicokinetic assessments, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of BMS-790052 in rat, dog, monkey, rabbit and mouse K(2)EDTA plasma. The drug was isolated from buffered samples using ISOLUTE C8 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) plates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Atlantis dC18 analytical column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 5 ?m) with detection accomplished using an API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer in positive ion electrospray and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The standard curves, which ranged from 5.00 to 2000 ng/mL for BMS-790052, were fitted to a 1/x(2) weighted linear regression model. The intra-assay precision (%CV) and inter-assay precision (%CV) were within 8.5%, and the assay accuracy (%Dev) was within ±7.1 for rat, dog, monkey, rabbit and mouse K(2)EDTA plasma. This accurate, precise, and selective SPE/LC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied to analyze several thousands of non-clinical study samples.
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An OFF-ON fluorescent probe for Zn2+ based on a GFP-inspired imidazolone derivative attached to a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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A green fluorescent protein chromophore inspired chemosenor for Zn(2+) was designed and synthesized. A Zn(2+) specific fluorescence enhancement was observed due to restricted rotation between the 1,10-phenanthroline and imidazolone moieties.
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[Preparation and biological characteristics of a new doxorubicin-gelatin-microspheres for hepatic artery embolization].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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To prepare a new doxorubicin-gelatin-microspheres (DR-GMs) suitable for hepatic artery chemoembolization.
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Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of herbal and tea infusions.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components in these beverages were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. The high correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds could be one of the main components responsible for antioxidant activities of these beverages. Generally, these beverages had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, and could be important dietary sources of antioxidant phenolics for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
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Genetic polymorphism analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Chinese Uygur population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed in natural killer cells and subsets of T lymphocytes. They regulate these cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and other ligands presented by target cells. KIR gene frequencies and haplotype distributions have been shown to differ significantly between populations from different geographical regions and ethnic origins, which relates to functional variations in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 15 KIR genes (KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, ID, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in 120 unrelated healthy individuals of the Uygur population living in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China. All individuals were typed positive for the four framework loci KIR3DL3, 2DL4, 3DL2 and KIR3DP1, while activating genes (KIR2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5 and KIR3DS1) indicated some variation in this population. KIR3DS1 was found in a higher frequency in the studied population than in other groups from China. Linkage disequilibrium among KIR genes displayed a wide range. ?(2) analysis, conducted among non-ubiquitous genes, based on the KIR gene frequency data from our study population and previously published population data, revealed significant differences in the KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5, and 3DS1 genes. A neighbor-joining phylogenic tree, built using the observed carrier frequencies data of 13 KIR loci (KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5, and 3DS1), showed relationships between the population studied and other previously reported populations. The present study can therefore be valuable for enriching the ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool, for population origin studies and for KIR-related clinical practice.
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Liver X receptor (LXR) mediates negative regulation of mouse and human Th17 differentiation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Th17 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells with an important role in clearing certain bacterial and fungal pathogens. However, they have also been implicated in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Exposure of naive CD4+ T cells to IL-6 and TGF-? leads to Th17 cell differentiation through a process in which many proteins have been implicated. We report here that ectopic expression of liver X receptor (LXR) inhibits Th17 polarization of mouse CD4+ T cells, while LXR deficiency promotes Th17 differentiation in vitro. LXR activation in mice ameliorated disease in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, whereas LXR deficiency exacerbated disease. Further analysis revealed that Srebp-1, which is encoded by an LXR target gene, mediated the suppression of Th17 differentiation by binding to the E-box element on the Il17 promoter, physically interacting with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) and inhibiting Ahr-controlled Il17 transcription. The putative active site (PAS) domain of Ahr and the N-terminal acidic region of Srebp-1 were essential for this interaction. Additional analyses suggested that similar LXR-dependent mechanisms were operational during human Th17 differentiation in vitro. This study reports what we believe to be a novel signaling pathway underlying LXR-mediated regulation of Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmunity.
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Synthesis of silver nanowires and their applications in the electrochemical detection of halide.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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A silver nanowires modified platinum (Ag NWs/Pt) electrode was developed for simultaneous and selective determination of chloride, bromide and iodide ions by cyclic voltammetry in aqueous solutions. Silver nanowires were synthesized by an l-cysteine-assisted poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)-mediated polyol route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to investigate the prepared nanowires. The intrinsic high surface area and the fast electron transfer rate ascribed from the nanowire structure could further improve halide detection performance. The determination was based on measurement of the well-separated oxidation peak currents of respective silver halides formed on the surface of silver during an anodic potential sweep. The concentration range was linear from 50 ?M to 20.2mM for bromide and iodide and 200 ?M to 20.2mM for chloride, and the sensitivity was 0.059 ?A/mM, 0.042 ?A/mM and 0.032 ?A/mM for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 in each case. The Ag NWs/Pt electrode offered a useful platform for the development of a highly sensitive halide sensor.
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Dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by rare earth metal trifluoromethanesulfonates in organic solvents.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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The catalytic dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was investigated by using various rare earth metal trifluoromethanesulfonates, that is, Yb(OTf)(3), Sc(OTf)(3), Ho(OTf)(3), Sm(OTf)(3), Nd(OTf)(3) as catalysts in DMSO. It is found that the catalytic activity increases with decreasing ionic radius of rare earth metal cations. Among the examined catalysts, Sc(OTf)(3) exhibits the highest catalytic activity. Fructose conversion of 100% and a HMF yield of 83.3% are obtained at 120°C after 2h by using Sc(OTf)(3) as the catalyst. Moreover, the catalytic dehydration of fructose was also carried out in different solvents, for example, DMA, 1,4-dioxane, and a mixture of PEG-400 and water. The results show that among the solvents DMSO is the most efficient in promoting the dehydration of fructose to HMF, and no rehydration byproducts such as levulinic acid and formic acid are detected.
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Genetic diversities of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs of a Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group in Lhasa.
Int. J. Legal Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.
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In silico estimates of tissue components in surgical samples based on expression profiling data.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Tissue samples from many diseases have been used for gene expression profiling studies, but these samples often vary widely in the cell types they contain. Such variation could confound efforts to correlate expression with clinical parameters. In principle, the proportion of each major tissue component can be estimated from the profiling data and used to triage samples before studying correlations with disease parameters. Four large gene expression microarray data sets from prostate cancer, whose tissue components were estimated by pathologists, were used to test the performance of multivariate linear regression models for in silico prediction of major tissue components. Ten-fold cross-validation within each data set yielded average differences between the pathologists predictions and the in silico predictions of 8% to 14% for the tumor component and 13% to 17% for the stroma component. Across independent data sets that used similar platforms and fresh frozen samples, the average differences were 11% to 12% for tumor and 12% to 17% for stroma. When the models were applied to 219 arrays of "tumor-enriched" samples in the literature, almost one quarter were predicted to have 30% or less tumor cells. Furthermore, there was a 10.5% difference in the average predicted tumor content between 37 recurrent and 42 nonrecurrent cancer patients. As a result, genes that correlated with tissue percentage generally also correlated with recurrence. If such a correlation is not desired, then some samples might be removed to rebalance the data set or tissue percentages might be incorporated into the prediction algorithm. A web service, "CellPred," has been designed for the in silico prediction of sample tissue components based on expression data.
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Regulation of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by natural product compound berberine.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we showed that BBR was efficacious in the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through novel regulatory mechanisms involving pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. BBR inhibited differentiation of Th17 cells and, to a lesser degree, Th1 cells through direct actions on the JAK/STAT pathway, whereas it had no effect on the relative number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. In addition, BBR indirectly influenced Th17 and Th1 cell functions through its effect on the expression and function of costimulatory molecules and the production of IL-6, which was attributable to the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in CD11b(+) APCs. BBR treatment completely abolished the encephalitogenicity of MOG(35-55)-reactive Th17 cells in an adoptive transfer EAE model, and the same treatment significantly inhibited the ability of MOG(35-55)-reactive Th1 cells to induce EAE. This study provides new evidence that natural compounds, such as BBR, are of great value in the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases.
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