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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Cellular and humoral immunity in preterm infants of different gestational ages.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the characteristics of immune function in newborn infants of different gestational ages.
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[Molluscicidal effect comparison between TDS and MNSC in field].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To compare the molluscicidal effects between "Luo-wei" (TDS), a plant molluscicide in 4 percent, and metaldehyde and niclosamide (MNSC) in the field.
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Whitefly Parasitoids: Distribution, Life History, Bionomics, and Utilization.
Annu. Rev. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Whiteflies are small hemipterans numbering more than 1,550 described species, of which about 50 are agricultural pests. Adults are free-living, whereas late first to fourth instars are sessile on the plant. All known species of whitefly parasitoids belong to Hymenoptera; two genera, Encarsia and Eretmocerus occur worldwide, and others are mostly specific to different continents. All parasitoid eggs are laid in-or in Eretmocerus, under-the host. They develop within whitefly nymphs and emerge from the fourth instar, and in Cales, from either the third or fourth instar. Parasitized hosts are recognized by conspecifics, but super- and hyperparasitism occur. Dispersal flights are influenced by gender and mating status, but no long-range attraction to whitefly presence on leaves is known. Studies on En. formosa have laid the foundation for behavioral studies and biological control in general. We review past and ongoing studies of whitefly parasitoids worldwide, updating available information on species diversity, biology, behavior, tritrophic interactions, and utilization in pest management. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 60 is January 07, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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The prognostic value of preoperative NLR, d-NLR, PLR and LMR for predicting clinical outcome in surgical colorectal cancer patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Accumulating evidences indicate cancer-triggered inflammation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Systematic inflammatory response biomarkers are considered as potential prognostic factors for improving predictive accuracy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (d-NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte- to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were investigated and compared in 205 surgical CRC patients. ROC curve was applied to determine thresholds for four biomarkers, and their prognostic values were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curve, univariate and multivariate COX regression models. Moreover, a number of risk factors were used to form nomograms for evaluating risk of survival, and Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used to evaluate predictive accuracy. Results showed that elevated NLR was significantly associated with diminished recurrent-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in surgical CRC patients. Moreover, multivariate COX analysis identified elevated NLR as an independent factor for poor RFS (P < 0.001, HR 2.52, 95 % CI 1.65-3.83), OS (P < 0.001, HR 2.73, 95 % CI 1.74-4.29) and CSS (P < 0.001, HR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.72-4.46). Additionally, predictive nomograms including NLR for RFS, OS and CSS could be more effective in predicting RFS (c-index: 0.810 vs. 0.656), OS (c-index: 0.809 vs. 0.690) and CSS (c-index: 0.802 vs. 0.688) in surgical CRC patients, respectively. These findings indicate that preoperative elevated NLR can be considered as an independent prognostic biomarker for RFS, OS and CSS. Nomograms containing NLR provide improved accuracy for predicting clinical outcomes in surgical CRC patients under surgery resection.
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Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp.
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Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.
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Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3?mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method.
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Exogenous abscisic acid alleviates zinc uptake and accumulation in Populus?×?canescens exposed to excess zinc.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study whether exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) mediates the responses of poplars to excess zinc (Zn). Populus?×?canescens seedlings were treated with either basal or excess Zn levels and either 0 or 10 ?m ABA. Excess Zn led to reduced photosynthetic rates, increased Zn accumulation, induced foliar ABA and salicylic acid (SA), decreased foliar gibberellin (GA3 ) and auxin (IAA), elevated root H2 O2 levels, and increased root ratios of glutathione (GSH) to GSSG and foliar ratios of ascorbate (ASC) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) in poplars. While exogenous ABA decreased foliar Zn concentrations with 7?d treatments, it increased levels of endogenous ABA, GA3 and SA in roots, and resulted in highly increased foliar ASC accumulation and ratios of ASC to DHA. The transcript levels of several genes involved in Zn uptake and detoxification, such as yellow stripe-like family protein 2 (YSL2) and plant cadmium resistance protein 2 (PCR2), were enhanced in poplar roots by excess Zn but repressed by exogenous ABA application. These results suggest that exogenous ABA can decrease Zn concentrations in P.?×?canescens under excess Zn for 7?d, likely by modulating the transcript levels of key genes involved in Zn uptake and detoxification.
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[Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants with hypoxic respiratory failure].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the safety and efficacy of low-concentration inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in the treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) among premature infants.
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Calpain-2 contributes to neuropathic pain following motor nerve injury via up-regulating interleukin-6 in DRG neurons.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Motor nerve injury by L5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) initiates interleukin-6 (IL-6) up-regulation in primary afferent system contributing to neuropathic pain. However, the early upstream regulatory mechanisms of IL-6 after L5-VRT are still unknown. Here, we monitored both the activity of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease suggested as one of the earliest mediators for cytokine regulation, and the expression of IL-6 in bilateral L4-L6 dorsal root ganglias (DRGs) soon after L5-VRT. We found that the protein level of calpain-2 in DRGs, but not calpain-1 was increased transiently in the first 10min(-1)h ipsilaterally and 20min(-1)h contralaterally after L5-VRT, long before mechanical allodynia was initiated (5-15h ipsilaterally and 15h(-1)d contralaterally). The early activation of calpain evaluated by the generation of spectrin breakdown products (SBDP) correlated well with IL-6 up-regulation in bilateral DRGs. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that almost all the calpain-2 positive neurons expressed IL-6, indicating an association between calpain-2 and IL-6. Inhibition of calpain by pre-treatment with MDL28170 (25mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the rat mechanical allodynia and prevented the early up-regulation of IL-6 following L5-VRT. Addition of exogenous calpain-2 onto the surface of left L5 DRG triggered a temporal allodynia and increased IL-6 in bilateral DRGs simultaneously. Taken together, the early increase of calpain-2 in L5-VRT rats might be responsible for the induction of allodynia via up-regulating IL-6 in DRG neurons.
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B7-H1-expressing antigen-presenting cells mediate polarization of protumorigenic Th22 subsets.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Classical IL-22-producing T helper cells (Th22 cells) mediate inflammatory responses independently of IFN-? and IL-17; however, nonclassical Th22 cells have been recently identified and coexpress IFN-? and/or IL-17 along with IL-22. Little is known about how classical and nonclassical Th22 subsets in human diseases are regulated. Here, we used samples of human blood, normal and peritumoral liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to delineate the phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional relevance of various Th22 subsets. Three nonclassical Th22 subsets constituted the majority of all Th22 cells in human liver and HCC tissues, although the classical Th22 subset was predominant in blood. Monocytes activated by TLR2 and TLR4 agonists served as the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that most efficiently triggered the expansion of nonclassical Th22 subsets from memory T cells and classical Th22 subsets from naive T cells. Moreover, B7-H1-expressing monocytes skewed Th22 polarization away from IFN-? and toward IL-17 through interaction with programmed death 1 (PD-1), an effect that can create favorable conditions for in vivo aggressive cancer growth and angiogenesis. Our results provide insight into the selective modulation of Th22 subsets and suggest that strategies to influence functional activities of inflammatory cells may benefit anticancer therapy.
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Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.
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Toward statistical modeling of saccadic eye-movement and visual saliency.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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In this paper, we present a unified statistical framework for modeling both saccadic eye movements and visual saliency. By analyzing the statistical properties of human eye fixations on natural images, we found that human attention is sparsely distributed and usually deployed to locations with abundant structural information. This observations inspired us to model saccadic behavior and visual saliency based on super-Gaussian component (SGC) analysis. Our model sequentially obtains SGC using projection pursuit, and generates eye movements by selecting the location with maximum SGC response. Besides human saccadic behavior simulation, we also demonstrated our superior effectiveness and robustness over state-of-the-arts by carrying out dense experiments on synthetic patterns and human eye fixation benchmarks. Multiple key issues in saliency modeling research, such as individual differences, the effects of scale and blur, are explored in this paper. Based on extensive qualitative and quantitative experimental results, we show promising potentials of statistical approaches for human behavior research.
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LNK1 and LNK2 are transcriptional coactivators in the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Transcriptional feedback loops are central to the architecture of eukaryotic circadian clocks. Models of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock have emphasized transcriptional repressors, but recently, Myb-like REVEILLE (RVE) transcription factors have been established as transcriptional activators of central clock components, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR5 (PRR5) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1). We show here that NIGHT LIGHT-INDUCIBLE AND CLOCK-REGULATED1 (LNK1) and LNK2, members of a small family of four LNK proteins, dynamically interact with morning-expressed oscillator components, including RVE4 and RVE8. Mutational disruption of LNK1 and LNK2 function prevents transcriptional activation of PRR5 by RVE8. The LNKs lack known DNA binding domains, yet LNK1 acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast and in planta. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that LNK1 is recruited to the PRR5 and TOC1 promoters in planta. We conclude that LNK1 is a transcriptional coactivator necessary for expression of the clock genes PRR5 and TOC1 through recruitment to their promoters via interaction with bona fide DNA binding proteins such as RVE4 and RVE8.
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Long-Term Potentiation at Spinal C-Fiber Synapses: a Target for Pathological Pain.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Long-term potentiation (LTP), referring to a lasting increase in efficacy of synaptic transmission, is a common mechanism of memory storage in central nervous system (CNS). LTP at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn is considered as a synaptic model of pathological pain, as the spinal LTP is only induced by noxious electrical and natural stimuli but not by innoxious ones and LTP-inducible stimulation is capable of leading to lasting behavioral signs of pathological pain in human and in animals. The molecular mechanisms of spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses are similar to hippocampal LTP in following aspects. Induction of LTP depends on postsynaptic Ca2+ rise resulting from opening of N-methyl-D-aspartate channels (NMDA) and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), and Ca2+ release from intracellular store; Early-phase LTP (<3h) needs activation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), phospholipase C (PLC) and release of nitric oxide (NO); Late-phase LTP (>3h) is dependent on de novo protein synthesis; Activation of either dopamine D1 receptors or PKA, and extrogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or ATP directly induces late-phase LTP. Therefore, the drugs targeting at the above molecules may impair memory function of hippocampus. The striking difference between hippocampal LTP and spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses is that activation of glial cells and the over-expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-beta (IL-1?), inhibit LTP in hippocampus, but promote LTP in spinal dorsal horn. The drugs targeting at the neuroinflammatory process may not only attenuate pathological pain but also improve memory in hippocampus.
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Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of chalcone derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A novel series of chalcone derivatives (4a-8d) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the inhibition activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The logP values of the compounds were shown to range from 1.49 to 2.19, which suggested that they were possible to pass blood brain barriers in vivo. The most promising compound 4a (IC50: 4.68?mol/L) was 2-fold more potent than Rivastigmine against AChE (IC50: 10.54?mol/L) and showed a high selectivity for AChE over BuChE (ratio: 4.35). Enzyme kinetic study suggested that the inhibition mechanism of compound 4a was a mixed-type inhibition. Meanwhile, the result of molecular docking showed its potent inhibition of AChE and high selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
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[Effects of leukotriene D4 on proliferation and migration of lung epithelial A549 cells in vitro].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To investigate the effects of cysteinyl leukotriene ?CysLT? receptor agonist leukotriene D4 ?LTD4? on proliferation and migration in lung epithelial A549 cells.
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[Effects of the water channel aquaporin 4 deficiency on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To evaluate the effect of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice.
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Msi1 promotes tumor growth and cell proliferation by targeting cell cycle checkpoint proteins p21, p27 and p53 in cervical carcinomas.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Musashi RNA-binding protein1 (Msi1), a member of the RNA-binding protein family, has been reported to be a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in some cancers, its function in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we found Msi1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, and over-expressing Msi1 in cervical cancer cells enhanced tumor formation and cell proliferation and accelerated cells into the S phase. Whereas, down-regulating Msi1 by shRNA in cervical cancer cells inhibited tumor formation and cell proliferation and slowed cell into the S phase, suggesting that Msi1 might act as cell cycle regulator. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the negative correlation between Msi1 and p21, p27 and p53, suggesting that Msi1 might regulate these cycle regulators in cervical cancer. Moreover, the expression of the p21, p27 and p53 proteins were down-regulated in Msi1 overexpressing cervical cancer cells and up-regulated in shMsi1 cervical cancer cells. Luciferase assays and RNA-protein binding assays confirmed that Msi1 could bind to the mRNA 3'UTRs of p21, p27 and p53 and suppress the translation of these proteins. Our findings provide new evidence that Msi1 might promote cell proliferation by accelerating the cell cycle by directly targeting p21, p27 and p53.
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The protective effect of microRNA-320 on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat model.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The primary objective of this study investigated the role of microRNA-320 (miR-320) on left ventricular remodeling in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and we intended to explore the myocardial mechanism of miR-320-mediated myocardium protection. We collected 120 male Wistar rats (240-280 g) in this study and then randomly divided them into three groups: (1) sham surgery group (sham group: n=40); (2) ischemia-reperfusion model group (I/R group: n=40); and (3) I/R model with antagomir-320 group (I/R+antagomir-320 group: n=40). Value changes of heart function in transesophageal echocardiography were recorded at various time points (day 1, day 3, day 7, day 15 and day 30) after surgery in each group. Myocardial sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and examined with optical microscope. The degree of myocardial fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and qRT-PCR methods were used to measure the apoptosis rate and to determine the miR-320 expression levels in myocardial tissues. Transesophageal echocardiography showed that the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and ±dp/dtmax in the I/R group were obviously lower than those in the sham group, while the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) value was higher than that in the sham group. The values of LVEF, LVFS, LVSP and ±dp/dtmax showed a gradual decrease in the I/R group, while the LVEDP value showed an up tendency along with the extension of reperfusion time. The H&E staining revealed that rat myocardial tissue in the I/R group presented extensive myocardial damage; for the I/R+antagomir-320 group, however, the degree of damage in myocardial cells was obviously better than that of the I/R group. The Sirius Red staining results showed that the degree of myocardial fibrosis in the I/R group was more severe along with the extension of the time of reperfusion. For the I/R+antagomir-320 group, the degree of myocardial fibrosis was less severe than that in the I/R group. Tissues samples in both the sham and I/R+antagomir-320 groups showed a lower apoptosis rate compared to I/R group. The qRT-PCR results indicated that miR-320 expression in the I/R group was significantly higher than that in both the sham and I/R+antagomir-320 groups. The expression level of miR-320 is significantly up-regulated in the rat model of myocardial I/R injury, and it may be implicated in the prevention of myocardial I/R injury-triggered left ventricular remodeling.
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Elevation of brain magnesium prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Profound synapse loss is one of the major pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease, which might underlie memory impairment. Our previous work demonstrates that magnesium ion is a critical factor in controlling synapse density/plasticity. Here, we tested whether elevation of brain magnesium, using a recently developed compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
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Postconditioning with sevoflurane protects against focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury involving mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel and mitochondrial permeability transition pore.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Postconditioning with sevoflurane has been shown to protect against focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) play roles in the neuroprotection of postconditioning with sevoflurane.
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[Surveillance of schistosomiasis japonica in potential endemic areas in Hubei Province from 2008 to 2012].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To explore the potential key risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission in potential endemic areas so as to provide the evidence for setting up the prediction and surveillance systems of schistosomiasis outbreak epidemic.
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Over-expression of P2X7 receptors in spinal glial cells contributes to the development of chronic postsurgical pain induced by skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Many patients suffer from chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) following surgery, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present work, with use of the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model, the role of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in spinal glial cells in the development of CPSP was evaluated. Consistent with previous reports, we found that SMIR decreased the ipsilateral 50% paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), lasting for at least 2weeks. No injury was done to L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and no axonal or Schwann cell damage at the retraction site in the saphenous nerve was observed 7days after SMIR. The results of immunofluorescence showed that both microglia and astrocytes were activated in the spinal dorsal horn following SMIR. In addition, both P2X7Rs and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were up-regulated following SMIR. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that the up-regulated P2X7R immunoreactivity was mainly located in microglia, and to a lesser extent in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Intrathecal delivery of specific P2X7R antagonist BBG (10?M in 10?l volume) or A438079 (10?M in 10?l volume), started 30min before the surgery and once daily thereafter for 7days, prevented the mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal injection of BBG inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and the up-regulation of TNF-? induced by SMIR. These data suggest that P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn might mediate the development of CPSP via activation of glial cells and up-regulation of TNF-?.
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Synthesis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Mannich base derivatives flavokawain B.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A novel series of flavokawain B derivatives, chalcone Mannich bases (4-10) were designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for the inhibition activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biological results revealed that four compounds displayed potent activities against AChE with IC50 values below 20?M. Moreover, the most promising compound 8 was 2-fold more active than rivastigmine, a well-known AChE inhibitor. The logP values of 4-10 were around 2 which indicated that they were sufficiently lipophilic to pass blood brain barriers in vivo. Enzyme kinetic study suggested that the inhibition mechanism of compound 8 was a mixed-type inhibition. Meanwhile, the molecular docking showed that this compound can both bind with the catalytic site and the periphery of AChE.
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[Application of enhanced CT in the differential diagnosis of peritonsillar abscess and intratonsillar abscess].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To explore the application of enhanced CT in the differential diagnosis and treatment of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and intratonsillar abscess (ITA).
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Long-term survival after enucleation of a giant esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Less than 1% occurs in the esophagus. Surgery is the primary treatment for patients with GISTs. We report a 29-year-old male was admitted after the detection of a posterior mediastinal mass during work-up with routine examination. He did not have any disease-related symptoms. The physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomographic scan, the barium esophagogram and endoscopic esophageal ultrasound showed benign neoplasm. The patient was performed an enucleation surgery through the right posterolateral thoracotomy. The pathology revealed a 13.0 cm × 12.0 cm × 5.0 cm mass. The tumor was CD117 (C-kit), PDGFRA and DOG1 positive. These findings were consistent with a GIST of the esophagus. So the diagnosis of GIST of esophagus was confirmed. The pathological diagnosis of low grade of GIST of esophagus was confirmed. The patient has no evidence of recurrence and is in good clinical conditions up-to date, five years after surgery.
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The discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline effect: effect of bioconcentration.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Toxic ratio TR is a valuable tool in the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline effect. Although some authors realized that internal effect concentration or critical body residual (CBR) calculated from bioconcentration factor (BCF) should be used in the TR, the effect of BCF on the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline effect has not been investigated. In this paper, 951 acute toxicity data to fish (LC50) and 1088 BCFs were used to investigate the relationship between TR and BCF. The results showed that some compounds identified as reactive compounds exhibit excess toxicity, but some do not. BCF is closely related to TR and can significantly affect the TR value. The real excess toxicity which is used to identify reactive chemicals from baseline should be based on the toxic ratio of internal effect concentrations, rather than on the ratio of external effect concentrations, TR. The use of LC50 alone to determine TR can result in errors in TR because toxicokinetics (as estimated by the BCF) are ignored. The foundation in the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline effect is based on the linear relationship between log BCF and hydrophobicity expressed as log KOW. However, log BCF is not linearly related with log KOW for all the compounds. The BCFs with log KOW >7 or <0 are either overestimated or underestimated by the linear baseline BCF model. Parallel lines are observed from calculated log CBR values for baseline and less inert compounds. The log BCF values overestimated or underestimated by log KOW from the baseline BCF model can result in mis-prediction and mis-classification among baseline, less inert and reactive compounds.
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Human embryonic stem cells and macroporous calcium phosphate construct for bone regeneration in cranial defects in rats.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an exciting cell source as they offer an unlimited supply of cells that can differentiate into all cell types for regenerative medicine applications. To date, there has been no report on hESCs with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds for bone regeneration in vivo. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate hESCs for bone regeneration in vivo in critical-sized cranial defects in rats; and (ii) determine the effects of cell seeding and platelets in macroporous CPC on new bone and blood vessel formation. hESCs were cultured to yield mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which underwent osteogenic differentiation. Four groups were tested in rats: (i) CPC control without cells; (ii) CPC with hESC-derived MSCs (CPC+hESC-MSC); (iii) CPC with hESC-MSCs and 30% human platelet concentrate (hPC) (CPC+hESC-MSC+30% hPC); and (iv) CPC+hESC-MSC+50% hPC. In vitro, MSCs were derived from embryoid bodies of hESCs. Cells on CPC were differentiated into the osteogenic lineage, with highly elevated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions, as well as mineralization. At 12weeks in vivo, the groups with hESC-MSCs and hPC had three times as much new bone as, and twice the blood vessel density of, the CPC control. The new bone in the defects contained osteocytes and blood vessels, and the new bone front was lined with osteoblasts. The group with 30% hPC and hESC-MSCs had a blood vessel density that was 49% greater than the hESC-MSC group without hPC, likely due to the various growth factors in the platelets enhancing both new bone and blood vessel formation. In conclusion, hESCs are promising for bone tissue engineering, and hPC can enhance new bone and blood vessel formation. Macroporous CPC with hESC-MSCs and hPC may be useful for bone regeneration in craniofacial and orthopedic applications.
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Effects of energy status and diet on Bdnf expression in the ventromedial hypothalamus of male and female rats.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Sex differences exist in the regulation of energy homeostasis in response to calorie scarcity or excess. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the anorexigenic neuropeptides regulating energy homeostasis. Expression of Bdnf mRNA in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is closely associated with energy and reproductive status. We hypothesized that Bdnf expression in the VMH was differentially regulated by altered energy balance in male and female rats. Using dietary intervention, including fasting-induced negative energy status and high-fat diet (HFD) feeding-induced positive energy status, along with low-fat diet (LFD) feeding and HFD pair-feeding (HFD-PF), effects of diets and changes in energy status on VMH Bdnf expression were compared between male and female rats. Fasted males but not females had lower VMH Bdnf expression than their fed counterparts following 24-hour fasting, suggesting that fasted males reduced Bdnf expression to drive hyperphagia and body weight gain. Male HFD obese and HFD-PF non-obese rats had similarly reduced expression of Bdnf compared with LFD males, indicating that dampened Bdnf expression was associated with feeding a diet high in fat instead of increased adiposity. Decreased BDNF signaling during HFD feeding would increase a drive to eat and may contribute to diet-induced obesity in males. In contrast, VMH Bdnf expression was stably maintained in females when energy homeostasis was disturbed. These results suggest sex-distinct regulation of central Bdnf expression by diet and energy status.
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A modified intranasal endoscopic excision for nasal vestibular cyst in China.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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This study aimed to improve the surgical removal procedure for nasal vestibular cysts. Twenty-three patients with nasal vestibular cysts underwent surgical removal of the cyst via a transoral sublabial approach and another 30 patients via a modified intranasal endoscopic excision method. The 30 patients were treated with local anesthesia and the roof of the cyst, which was firmly attached to the mucous membrane of the anterior floor of the nasal cavity, was removed transnasally with microdebrider. Bleeding of the opening was stopped by electric coagulation without nasal packing. Among the 30 consecutive patients who underwent the modified surgical procedure, all patients were successfully treated. The mean duration of surgery was 5.7 ± 2.6 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 3.5 ± 2.1 ml. All patients were outpatients. The mean hospital stay was 1 h. The mean total cost was 140. The visual analog scale scores of postoperative pain, pressure and nasal obstruction were 1, 0 and 1, respectively. The incidence rate of postoperative lip swelling or numbness was 0 %. Postoperative endoscopic findings revealed that the cyst was replaced by an air-containing sinus with a persistent opening at the anterolateral nasal floor. There was no recurrence during a mean follow-up of 18 months. The modified intranasal endoscopic excision is a simple, less invasive, low-cost and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of nasal vestibular cysts. It might change the pattern of treatment for nasal vestibular cysts in China.
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Fangchinoline inhibits cell proliferation via Akt/GSK-3beta/ cyclin D1 signaling and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Fangchinoline (Fan) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of Fan on cell growth and proliferation in breast cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that Fan inhibited cell proliferation in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk- 3beta/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Fan induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax (relative to Bcl-2), active caspase 3 and cytochrome-c. Fan significantly inhibited cell proliferation of MDA- MB-231 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Fan treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. Further analysis demonstrated that Fan decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3beta. In addition, Fan up-regulated active caspase3, cytochrome-c protein levels and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, accompanied by apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that Fan is a potential natural product for the treatment of breast cancer.
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Vasohibin?2 promotes proliferation in human breast cancer cells via upregulation of fibroblast growth factor?2 and growth/differentiation factor?15 expression.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Vasohibin?2 (VASH2) is an angiogenic factor, and has been previously reported to be a cancer?related gene, with cytoplasmic and karyotypic forms. In the current study VASH2 expression in human breast cancer tissue and adjacent non?cancerous tissue was investigated with immunohistochemistry. MCF?7 and BT474 human breast cancer cells were transfected with lentiviral constructs to generate in vitro VASH2 overexpression and knockdown models. In addition, BALB/cA nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with transfected cells to generate in vivo models of VASH2 overexpression and knockdown. The effect of VASH2 on cell proliferation was investigated using a bromodeoxyuridine assay in vitro and immunohistochemistry of Ki67 in xenograft tumors. Growth factors were investigated using a human growth factor array, and certain factors were further confirmed by an immunoblot. The results indicated that the expression level of cytoplasmic VASH2 was higher in breast cancer tissues with a Ki67 (a proliferation marker) level of ?14%, compared with tissues with a Ki67 level of <14%. VASH2 induced proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Four growth factors activated by VASH2 were identified as follows: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), growth/differentiation factor?15 (GDF15), insulin?like growth factor?binding protein (IGFBP)3 and IGFBP6. FGF2 and GDF15 may contribute to VASH2?induced proliferation. The current study identified a novel role for VASH2 in human breast cancer, and this knowledge suggests that VASH2 may be a novel target in breast cancer treatment.
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Marine phytoplankton motility sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip for high-throughput pollutant toxicity assessment.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A microfluidic chip was designed to assess the toxicity of pollutants in a high-throughput way by using marine phytoplankton motility as a sensor signal. In this chip, multiple gradient generators (CGGs) with diffusible chambers enable large scale of dose-response bioassays to be performed in a simple way. Two mobile marine phytoplankton cells were confined on-chip and stimulated by 8 concentrations (generated by CGG) of Hg, Pb, Cu and phenol singly, as well as Cu and phenol jointly. CASA system was used to characterize motility by motile percentage (%MOT), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP) and straight line velocity (VSL). In all cases, dose-dependent inhibitions of motility were observed. In the present system, only 2h was needed to predict EC50. Thus, the developed microfluidic chip device was proved to be useful as a rapid/simple and high-throughput test method in marine pollution toxicity assessment.
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Delivery of growth factors using a smart porous nanocomposite scaffold to repair a mandibular bone defect.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Implantation of a porous scaffold with a large volume into the body in a convenient and safe manner is still a challenging task in the repair of bone defects. In this study, we present a porous smart nanocomposite scaffold with a combination of shape memory function and controlled delivery of growth factors. The shape memory function enables the scaffold with a large volume to be deformed into its temporal architecture with a small volume using hot-compression and can subsequently recover its original shape upon exposure to body temperature after it is implanted in the body. The scaffold consists of chemically cross-linked poly(?-caprolactone) (c-PCL) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The highly interconnected pores of the scaffold were obtained using the sugar leaching method. The shape memory porous scaffold loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was also fabricated by coating the calcium alginate layer and BMP-2 on the surface of the pore wall. Under both in vitro and in vivo environmental conditions, the porous scaffold displays good shape memory recovery from the compressed shape with deformed pores of 33 ?m in diameter to recover its porous shape with original pores of 160 ?m in diameter. In vitro cytotoxicity based on the MTT test revealed that the scaffold exhibited good cytocompatibility. The in vivo micro-CT and histomorphometry results demonstrated that the porous scaffold could promote new bone generation in the rabbit mandibular bone defect. Thus, our results indicated that this shape memory porous scaffold demonstrated great potential for application in bone regenerative medicine.
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TNF-?-mediated JNK activation in the dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Bortezomib (BTZ) is a frequently used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma and hematological neoplasms. The mechanism by which the administration of BTZ leads to painful peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we first determined that the administration of BTZ upregulated the expression of TNF-? and phosphorylated JNK1/2 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rat. Furthermore, the TNF-? synthesis inhibitor thalidomide significantly blocked the activation of both isoforms JNK1 and JNK2 in the DRG and attenuated mechanical allodynia following BTZ treatment. Knockout of the expression of TNF-? receptor TNFR1 (TNFR1 KO mice) or TNFR2 (TNFR2 KO mice) inhibited JNK1 and JNK2 activation and decreased mechanical allodynia induced by BTZ. These results suggest that upregulated TNF-? expression may activate JNK signaling via TNFR1 or TNFR2 to mediate mechanical allodynia following BTZ treatment.
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Oviposition preference, larval performance and adaptation of Trichoplusia ni on cabbage and cotton.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Most female herbivores ensure to lay eggs where their offspring can develop successfully. The oviposition preferences of females affect strategies in pest management. In this study, the performance of two cohorts of Trichoplusia ni larvae on cabbage and cotton (after they had been transferred from their original host plants) were investigated. The preferences of female moth ovipositing and larval feeding on these two host plants were observed. The results indicated that plants significantly affected oviposition preference of the female adults and development and survival of larvae of T. ni. All females preferred to lay eggs on cabbage than cotton regardless from which host they originated. The detrimental effects of cotton on the development and survival of T. ni larvae originated from cabbage (CaTn) increased with the increase of the larval age when they were transferred. In addition, the host plant change did not significantly affect the development and survival of larvae of T. ni originating from cotton (CoTn). Larvae of CaTn preferred cabbage plants as compared to cotton plants, whereas larvae of CoTn did not show a significant choice. Although the adult females preferred laying eggs on cabbage, they did not show preferences between cotton and cabbage in a Y-tube olfactometer test. The hypothesis of oviposition preference and performance of larvae was supported by the results of CaTn, whereas they not supported by those from CoTn. Based on these results, the strategy to manage this serious pest was discussed.
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Expression of Bcl-2 and NF-?B in brain tissue after acute renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To investigate the effect of acute renal ischemia reperfusion on brain tissue.
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Three one-dimensional coordination polymers based on 1,1'-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-2,2'-bi-1H-benzimidazole and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br and I).
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A new 2,2'-bi-1H-benzimidazole bridging organic ligand, namely 1,1'-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-2,2'-bi-1H-benzimidazole, C26H20N6, L or (I), has been synthesized and used to create three new one-dimensional coordination polymers, viz. catena-poly[[dichloridomercury(II)]-?-1,1'-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-2,2'-bi-1H-benzimidazole], [HgCl2(C26H20N6)]n, (II), and the bromido, [HgBr2(C26H20N6)]n, (III), and iodido, [HgI2(C26H20N6)]n, (IV), analogues. Free ligand L crystallizes with two symmetry-independent half-molecules in the asymmetric unit and each L molecule resides on a crytallographic inversion centre. In structures (II)-(IV), the L ligand is also positioned on a crystallographic inversion centre, whereas the Hg centre resides on a crystallographic twofold axis. Compound (I) adopts an anti conformation in the solid state and forms a two-dimensional network in the crystallographic bc plane via ?-? and C-H...? interactions. The three Hg(II) coordination complexes, (II)-(IV), have one-dimensional zigzag chains composed of L and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br and I), and the Hg(II) centres are in a distorted tetrahedral [HgX2N2] coordination geometry. Complexes (III) and (IV) are isomorphous, whereas complex (II) displays an interesting conformational difference from the others, i.e. a twist in the flexible bridging ligand.
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Prognostic Value of Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR in Various Cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long non-coding RNA has been involved in cancer progression, and high HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is thought to be a poor prognostic indicator in tumorigenesis of multiple types of cancer. Hence, the present study further reveals its prognostic value in tumor malignancy. A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was carried out to select literatures relevant to the correlation between HOTAIR expression levels and clinical outcome of various tumors. Overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were subsequently analyzed. Data from studies directly reporting a hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value as well as survival curves were pooled in the current meta-analysis. A total of 2255 patients from 19 literatures almost published in 2011 or later were included in the analysis. The results suggest that HOTAIR was highly associated with HR for OS of 2.33 (95%CI?=?1.77-3.09, Pheterogeneity?=?0.016). Stratified analyses indicate that elevated levels of HOTAIR appears to be a powerful prognostic biomarker for patients with colorectal cancer (HR?=?3.02, 95CI%?=?1.84-4.95, Pheterogeneity?=?0.699) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (HR?=?2.24, 95CI%?=?1.67-3.01, Pheterogeneity?=?0.711), a similar effect was also observed in analysis method and specimen, except for ethnicity. In addition, Hazard ratios for up-regulation of HOTAIR for MFS, RFS, and DFS were 2.32 (P<0.001), 1.98 (P?=?0.369), and 3.29 (P?=?0.001), respectively. In summary, the high level of HOTAIR is intimately associated with an adverse OS in numerous cancers, suggesting that HOTAIR may act as a potential biomarker for the development of malignancies.
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An efficient preparation of mulberroside a from the branch bark of mulberry and its effect on the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A bioactive ingredient in an ethanol extract from the branch bark of cultivated mulberry Husang-32 (Morus multicaulis Perr.) was isolated using a macroporous resin column. The primary component, which was purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), was identified as mulberroside A (MA) by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. In total, 4.12 g MA was efficiently extracted from one kilogram of mulberry bark. The enzymatic analysis showed that MA inhibited the generation of dopachrome by affecting the activities of monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase in vitro. This analysis indicated that MA and oxyresveratrol (OR), which is the the aglycone of mulberroside A, exhibited strong inhibition of the monophenolase activity with IC50 values of 1.29 µmol/L and 0.12 µmol/L, respectively. However, the former showed weaker inhibitory activity than the latter for diphenolase. For the monophenolase activity, the inhibitory activity of MA and OR was reversible and showed mixed type 1 inhibition. Additionally, the inhibition constant KI (the inhibition constant of the effectors on tyrosinase) values were 0.385 µmol/L and 0.926 µmol/L, respectively, and the KIS (the inhibition constants of the enzyme-substrate complex) values were 0.177 µmol/L and 0.662 µmol/L, respectively. However, MA showed competitive inhibition of diphenolase activity, and KI was 4.36 µmol/L. In contrast, OR showed noncompetitive inhibition and KI?=?KIS?=?2.95 µmol/L. Taken together, these results provide important information concerning the inhibitory mechanism of MA on melanin synthesis, which is widely used in whitening cosmetics.
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Up-regulation of 91H promotes tumor metastasis and predicts poor prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play widespread roles in gene regulation and cellular processes. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) are not yet well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of lncRNA 91H expression in CRC and evaluate its clinical significance and biological roles in the development and progression of CRC.
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In Silico target fishing: addressing a "Big Data" problem by ligand-based similarity rankings with data fusion.
J Cheminform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ligand-based in silico target fishing can be used to identify the potential interacting target of bioactive ligands, which is useful for understanding the polypharmacology and safety profile of existing drugs. The underlying principle of the approach is that known bioactive ligands can be used as reference to predict the targets for a new compound.
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A robust nonlinear observer for a class of neural mass models.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new method of designing a robust nonlinear observer is presented for a class of neural mass models by using the Lur'e system theory and the projection lemma. The observer is robust towards input uncertainty and measurement noise. It is applied to estimate the unmeasured membrane potential of neural populations from the electroencephalogram (EEG) produced by the neural mass models. An illustrative example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.
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Deciphering the mechanism of ?-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in wheat to the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) can induce plant resistance to a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, BABA-induced plant resistance to insects is less well-studied, especially its underlying mechanism. In this research, we applied BABA to wheat seedlings and tested its effects on Sitobion avenae (F.). When applied as a soil drench, BABA significantly reduced weights of S. avenae, whereas foliar spray and seed treatment had no such effects. BABA-mediated suppression of S. avenae growth was dose dependent and lasted at least for 7 days. The aminobutyric acid concentration in phloem sap of BABA-treated plants was higher and increased with BABA concentrations applied. Moreover, after 10 days of treatment, the aminobutyric acid content in BABA-treated plants was still higher than that in control treatment. Sitobion avenae could not discriminate artificial diet containing BABA from standard diet, indicating that BABA itself is not a deterrent to this aphid. Also S. avenae did not show preference for control plants or BABA-treated plants. Consistent with choice test results, S. avenae had similar feeding activities on control and BABA-treated plants, suggesting that BABA did not induce antifeedants in wheat seedlings. In addition, aminobutyric acid concentration in S. avenae feeding on BABA-treated plants was significantly higher than those feeding on control plants. Sitobion avenae growth rate was reduced on the artificial diet containing BABA, indicating that BABA had direct toxic effects on this aphid species. These results suggest that BABA application reduced S. avenae performance on wheat seedlings and the mechanism is possibly due to direct toxicity of high BABA contents in plant phloem.
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Stability analysis of nonlinear systems with slope restricted nonlinearities.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The problem of absolute stability of Lur'e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.
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Posttraumatic stress disorder and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida hurricanes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is a paucity of research investigating the relationship of community-level characteristics such as collective efficacy and posttraumatic stress following disasters. We examine the association of collective efficacy with probable posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health personnel nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. The collected data were used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder and collective efficacy measured at both the individual and zip code levels. The majority of participants were female (80.42%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years); 73.91% were European American, 13.25% were African American, and 8.65% were Hispanic. Using multi-level analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with a lower likelihood of having posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88-0.98; and OR = 0.94, CI = 0.92-0.97, respectively), even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristic variables, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Higher levels of community-level collective efficacy and individual-level collective efficacy were also associated with significantly lower posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity (b =?-0.22, p<0.01; and b =?-0.17, p<0.01, respectively), after adjusting for the same covariates. Lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with communities with higher collective efficacy. Programs enhancing community collective efficacy may be an important part of prevention practices and possibly lead to a reduction in the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster.
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Visual recognition of fishmeal and meat and bone meal using temperature-dependent two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectroscopy.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) in recognizing the authenticity and purity of fishmeal (FM) and meat and bone meal (MBM), which are both complex mixtures with high similarity. Twenty FM samples and 20 MBM samples were obtained and examined. Temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained using a Spectrum 400 spectrometer from 20 °C to 60 °C with an interval of 10 °C. Wavelet transform (Daubechies 5 wavelet with five levels) and baseline correction were applied to the temperature-dependent spectra in the wave range of 6000-5400 cm(-1). A 2D-COS synchronous map was calculated and scaled to the range between -1 and 1. A correlation coefficient was employed to quantitatively evaluate the visual differences of synchronous maps. The results show minor differences in NIR spectral absorbency of FM and MBM, and such differences are caused by appropriate temperature perturbation and enlarged by the 2D-COS method. The sensitive wave range is found in the area of 5800-5400 cm(-1). FM and MBM have observable pattern differences in the synchronous maps. Further quantitative evaluation of synchronous maps confirms correct recognizing results. Temperature-dependent 2D-COS is capable of recognizing the authenticity and purity of highly similar FM and MBM samples.
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Development and Reproductive Potential of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on Selected Wild Crucifer Species.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an oligophagous insect that primarily feeds on members of the family Cruciferae. The development, survival, and reproductive potential of P. xylostella were studied on eight wild cruciferous species: Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, Cardamine hirsuta L., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz, Thlaspi arvense L., and Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Developmental durations of immatures from egg to adult emergence differed significantly among the plant species, with the longest period recorded on C. macrophylla (20.8 d) and the shortest on R. indica (15.8 d). The female pupae of P. xylostella reared on C. leucantha and T. arvense were lighter (4.2 and 4.3 mg/pupa) than those reared on other hosts (5.2-6.5 mg/pupa), and the male pupae from T. arvense were the lightest (3.1 mg/pupa) among all colonies. Survival from egg to adult emergence ranged from 95.7% on R. indica to 48.8% on T. arvense. The longevity (10.1 d) of P. xylostella female and the oviposition period (7.7 d) were the longest when larvae fed R. indica than those that fed on other wild hosts. Female adults of P. xylostella from O. violaceus, C. macrophylla, and Ca. bursa-pastoris had higher fecundity (305-351 eggs/female) than from other wild host plants, whereas that from R. indica had the lowest fecundity (134 eggs/female). C. hirsuta was the best wild host plant for P. xylostella because of the highest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.2402), whereas T. arvense was the least favorable hosts with the lowest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.1577). The results from this study will be useful for interpretation of the performance and population dynamics of P. xylostella on wild hosts and cultivated cruciferous vegetables.
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Midlife Trends in Activities and Disability.
J Aging Health
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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This is the first analysis that demonstrates empirically the likely tie between activities (time spent) and disability (health-related difficulty in activities). We compare trends in activities and disability for Americans ages 55 to 69 in recent years, and assess cross-sectional linkages of activities and disability.
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Prostate cancer originating in basal cells progresses to adenocarcinoma propagated by luminal-like cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The relationship between the cells that initiate cancer and the cancer stem-like cells that propagate tumors has been poorly defined. In a human prostate tissue transformation model, basal cells expressing the oncogenes Myc and myristoylated AKT can initiate heterogeneous tumors. Tumors contain features of acinar-type adenocarcinoma with elevated eIF4E-driven protein translation and squamous cell carcinoma marked by activated beta-catenin. Lentiviral integration site analysis revealed that alternative histological phenotypes can be clonally derived from a common cell of origin. In advanced disease, adenocarcinoma can be propagated by self-renewing tumor cells with an androgen receptor-low immature luminal phenotype in the absence of basal-like cells. These data indicate that advanced prostate adenocarcinoma initiated in basal cells can be maintained by luminal-like tumor-propagating cells. Determining the cells that maintain human prostate adenocarcinoma and the signaling pathways characterizing these tumor-propagating cells is critical for developing effective therapeutic strategies against this population.
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Combinatorial Pharmacophore Modeling of Organic Cation Transporter 2 (OCT2) Inhibitors: Insights into Multiple Inhibitory Mechanisms.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is responsible for the entry step of many drugs in renal elimination, of which the changing activity may cause unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To develop drugs with favorable safety profile and provide instruction for rational clinical drug administration, it is of great interest to investigate the multiple mechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. In this study, we designed a combinatorial scheme to screen the optimum combination of pharmacophores from a pool of hypotheses established based on 162 OCT2 inhibitors. Among them, one single pharmacophore hypothesis represents a potential binding mode that may account for one unique inhibitory mechanism, and the obtained pharmacophore combination describes the multimechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. The final model consists of four individual pharmacophores, i.e., DHPR18, APR2, PRR5 and HHR4. Given a query ligand, it is considered as an inhibitor if it matches at least one of the hypotheses, or a noninhibitor if it fails to match any of four hypotheses. Our combinatorial pharmacophore model performs reasonably well to discriminate inhibitors and noninhibitors, yielding an overall accuracy around 0.70 for a test set containing 81 OCT2 inhibitors and 218 noninhibitors. Intriguingly, we found that the number of matched hypotheses was positively correlated with inhibition rate, which coincides with the pharmacophore modeling result of P-gp substrate binding. Further analysis suggested that the hypothesis PRR5 was responsible for competitive inhibition of OCT2, and other hypotheses were important for interaction between the inhibitor and OCT2. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by OCT2 was proposed.
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CD8(+) Tc-lymphocytes immunodeviation in peripheral blood and airway from patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and changes after short-term smoking cessation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Cigarette smoke induces an acute but persisting inflammation in peripheral blood and airway in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and CD8(+) Tc-lymphocytes are considered as a key role in this process. We aimed to investigate the Tc-lymphocytes immunodeviation in system and local airway of COPD patients and changes of the immunodeviation after short-term smoking cessation.
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Magnesium L-threonate prevents and restores memory deficits associated with neuropathic pain by inhibition of TNF-?.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Clinical studies have shown that about two-thirds of patients with chronic pain suffer from short-term memory (STM) deficits and an effective drug for treatment of the neurological disorder is lacking at present.
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Identification of novel small molecules as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus by structure-based virtual screening.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/NS4A serine protease is essential for viral replication, which is regarded as a promising drug target for developing direct-acting anti-HCV agents. In this study, sixteen novel compounds with cell-based HCV replicon activity ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 ?M (IC50) were successfully identified by means of structure-based virtual screening. Compound 5 and compound 11, with an IC50 of 3.0 ?M and 5.1 ?M, respectively, are the two most potent molecules with low cytotoxicity.
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The resistance and correlation analysis to three species of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on 10 wheat varieties or lines.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Winter wheat resistance is an efficient and environmentally friendly means to controlling aphids. By using principal component analysis and correlation analysis, we evaluated the resistance of 10 winter wheat varieties or lines from three countries to the following three aphid species: Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum. The data show that Batis was susceptible to Si. avenae and R. padi, but had adverse effect on the development of Sc. graminum; Astron was advantageous to WG and r(m) of Si. avenae and R. padi, but not to Sc. graminum; Amigo was resistant to Sc. graminum and R. padi, but susceptible to Si. avenae; 98-10-35 was resistant to Si. avenae and R. padi, but not to Sc. graminum; 98-10-30 was adverse to growth and fecundity of Si. avenae, but better for Sc. graminum and R. padi; Xiaoyan22 was susceptible to Sc. graminum, but not to R. padi; Ww2730 were resistant to Si. avenae, but susceptible to Sc. graminum; 186tm was susceptible to R. padi, but caused high mortality for Si. avenae and Sc. graminum. Correlation analysis suggests the wheat varieties or lines that were resistant to Si. avenae were always resistant to R. padi, but susceptible to Sc. graminum. However, the overall similarities in resistance classifications were not because of the same phenotypic characters of the wheat varieties or lines. We conclude that the wheat varieties or lines had specific different resistances to the three aphid species, and the resistant traits (antibiosis) can be defined at two or more hierarchical levels. There was even a stronger "trade-off" for the comparison of Si. avenae versus Sc. graminum and R. padi versus Sc. graminum.
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Operating characteristics of the PTSD checklist in a military primary care setting.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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The Department of Defense (DoD) is implementing universal behavioral health screening for all DoD health-care beneficiaries presenting to military primary care clinics. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) is used for the identification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the operating characteristics of the PCL-C remain unstudied in this population. This study examined the operating characteristics of the PCL-C in a sample of 213 patients from 3 Washington, D.C., area military primary care clinics. Blinded raters independently assessed PTSD using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993) as the diagnostic criterion standard. The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that PCL-C scores accounted for 92% of the area under the curve. A PCL-C score of 31 optimized sensitivity (0.93) and specificity (0.90), and the multilevel likelihood ratio was 5.50 (95% confidence interval [2.26, 13.37]). Internal consistency (0.97) and test-retest reliability (0.87 after a median 13 days) were strong. Results suggest that a PCL-C score of 31 is the optimal cutoff score for use in a military primary care setting serving active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. These findings offer military primary care providers preliminary data to interpret PCL-C scores and to inform treatment decisions as part of routine clinical practice.
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In silico prediction of cytochrome P450-mediated site of metabolism (SOM).
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Drug metabolism is a major consideration for modifying drug clearance and also a primary source for drug metabolite- induced toxicity. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are the major enzymes involved in drug metabolism and bioactivation, accounting for almost 75% of the total drug metabolism. Predicting the sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of drug-like molecules using in silico methods would be highly beneficial and time efficient. An ideal system would enable researchers to make a confident elimination decision based purely on the structure of a new compound. In this review, several tools and models for predicting probable site of metabolism (SOM) have been compared and discussed. The methods are generally based on enzyme structure, ligand structure, and combined methods. Although all the methods have certain accuracy and considerable progress has been made, the results of the calculations still need careful inspection.
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Aberrant right subclavian artery in video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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When performing video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy, the area at the level above the aortic and in the space between the esophagus and the spine, is usually regarded as a safe area for dissection of upper segment of thoracic esophagus. However, an aberrant right subclavian artery may appear in this area and lead to disastrous complications. We reported a case of aberrant artery encountered during video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy. In order to avoid iatrogenic damage to this artery, it was converted to thoracotomy.
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Epirubicin inhibits soluble CD25 secretion by Treg cells isolated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To investigate the effect of epirubicin on soluble CD25 (sCD25) secretion by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells isolated from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.
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Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimers disease mouse model.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Profound synapse loss is one of the major pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimers disease (AD) and might underlie memory impairment. Our previous work demonstrated that the magnesium ion is a critical factor in controlling synapse density/plasticity. Here, we investigated whether elevation of brain magnesium by the use of a recently developed compound, magnesium-l-threonate (MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. MgT treatment reduced A? plaque and prevented synapse loss and memory decline in the Tg mice. Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when given to the mice at the end stage of their AD-like pathological progression. To explore how elevation of brain magnesium ameliorates the AD-like pathologies in the brains of Tg mice, we studied molecules critical for APP metabolism and signaling pathways implicated in synaptic plasticity/density. In the Tg mice, the NMDAR/CREB/BDNF signaling was downregulated, whereas calpain/calcineurin/Cdk5 neurodegenerative signaling and ?-secretase (BACE1) expression were upregulated. MgT treatment prevented the impairment of these signaling pathways, stabilized BACE1 expression, and reduced soluble APP? and ?-C-terminal fragments in the Tg mice. At the molecular level, elevation of extracellular magnesium prevented the high-A?-induced reductions in synaptic NMDARs by preventing calcineurin overactivation in hippocampal slices. Correlation studies suggested that the protection of NMDAR signaling might underlie the stabilization of BACE1 expression. Our results suggest that elevation of brain magnesium exerts substantial synaptoprotective effects in a mouse model of AD and may have therapeutic potential for treating AD in humans.
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Computational methods for drug design and discovery: focus on China.
Trends Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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In the past decades, Chinas computational drug design and discovery research has experienced fast development through various novel methodologies. Application of these methods spans a wide range, from drug target identification to hit discovery and lead optimization. In this review, we firstly provide an overview of Chinas status in this field and briefly analyze the possible reasons for this rapid advancement. The methodology development is then outlined. For each selected method, a short background precedes an assessment of the method with respect to the needs of drug discovery, and, in particular, work from China is highlighted. Furthermore, several successful applications of these methods are illustrated. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of current major challenges and future directions of the field.
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Non-covalent interactions with aromatic rings: current understanding and implications for rational drug design.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and salt bridges, have been our primary focus in designing and optimizing drugs. Recently, there is mounting evidence that non-covalent interactions involving aromatic rings are also potent forces for the recognition between small drug-like compounds and their targets. Understanding of these interactions and their physical origin is of significant interest for improving the current drug design strategy. Hence, numerous efforts have been devoted to elucidating the structural, geometrical, energetic, and thermodynamic properties of these interactions, which include ?-?, cation-? and anion-?interactions. In this review, we established a framework to systematically understand the structural basis and physicochemical properties of the aromatic interactions at the binding interface of protein-ligand complexes. Firstly, we presented an introduction including the definition, universality, energy components, geometry conformations and substituent effects of these interactions. Secondly, we retrospected the widely employed computational approaches for studying these interactions, including quantum mechanical calculations and crystallographic data mining. Finally, we illustrated with several representative protein-ligand systems to show how the aromatic interactions contribute to the design and optimization of ligand in both affinity and specificity.
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[Sequence analysis of cisAB06, an ABO blood subtype].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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To investigate serological and genetic characteristics for an individual with cisAB06, an ABO blood subtype.
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Parental Iraq/Afghanistan deployment and child psychiatric hospitalization in the U.S. military.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Members of the US armed forces have been heavily deployed in support of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined the affect of a parents deployment to war on the rate of psychiatric hospitalization among their children.
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Enhanced functional connectivity between putamen and supplementary motor area in Parkinsons disease patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a surprisingly heterogeneous disorder with symptoms including resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. PD has been associated with abnormal task related brain activation in sensory and motor regions as well as reward related network. Although corticostriatal skeletomotor circuit dysfunction is implicated in the neurobiology of Parkinsons disease, the functional connectivity within this circuit at the resting state is still unclear for PD. Here we utilized resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the functional connectivity of striatum and motor cortex in 19 patients with PD and 20 healthy controls. We found that the putamen, but not the caudate, exhibited enhanced connectivity with supplementary motor area (SMA), using either the putamen or the SMA as the "seed region". Enhanced SMA-amygdala functional connectivity was also found in the PD group, compared with normal controls. Our findings highlight the key role of hyper-connected putamen-SMC circuit in the pathophysiology of PD.
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3.0 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver: quantification of choline.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To investigate the normal hepatic magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings choline/lipid2 (Cho/Lip2) associated with age and body mass index (BMI).
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Structure-based design and synthesis of C-1- and C-4-modified analogs of zanamivir as neuraminidase inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In order to exploit the 430-cavity in the active sites of neuraminidases, 22 zanamivir analogs with C-1 and C-4 modification were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against both group-1 (H5N1, H1N1) and group-2 neuraminidases (H3N2) were determined. Compound 9f exerts the most potency, with IC(50) value of 0.013, 0.001, and 0.09 ?M against H3N2, H5N1, and H1N1, which is similar to that of zanamivir (H3N2 IC(50) = 0.0014 ?M, H5N1 IC(50) = 0.012 ?M, H1N1 IC(50) = 0.001 ?M). Pharmacokinetic studies of compound 9f in rats showed a much longer plasma half-life (t(1/2)) than that of zanamivir following administration (po dose). Molecular modeling provided information about the binding model between the new inhibitors and neuraminidase, with the elongated groups at the C-1-position being projected toward the 430-loop region. This study may represent a novel starting point for the future development of improved antiflu agents.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.