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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Construction of dentate bonded TiO2-CdSe heterostructures with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties: versatile labels toward photoelectrochemical and electrochemical sensing.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A facile synthetic route for TiO2-CdSe heterostructures was proposed based on dentate binding of TiO2 to carboxyl. Carboxyl functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CF-CdSe QDs) were successfully bonded onto TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), which could significantly improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of TiO2 NPs. This is ascribed to the fact that CdSe QDs with a narrow band gap could be stimulated under visible light irradiation, and the energy levels of TiO2 NPs and CF-CdSe QDs are aligned with an electrolyte solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images revealed the heterostructures of the TiO2-CdSe composites. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis exhibited that the prepared TiO2-CdSe heterostructures have improved light absorption, charge separation efficiency and electron transfer ability in the visible light region. TiO2-CdSe heterostructures were used as versatile labels for fabrication of PEC and electrochemical immunosensors, and human immune globulin G (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. The immunosensor showed high sensitivity, a low detection limit and a wide linear range, which could be applied in practical serum sample analysis. The constructed TiO2-CdSe heterostructures would have potential applications in photocatalysis, aptasensors, cytosensors and other areas of nanotechnology.
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New tricycloalternarenes from fungus Alternaria sp.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Two new tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2), together with five known derivatives (3-7), were isolated from the culture of marine fungus Alternaria sp. The structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic approach ((1)H, (13)C NMR, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) and the low-temperature (100 K) single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The antimicrobial assays of tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2) were tested.
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Antibacterial epipolythiodioxopiperazine and unprecedented sesquiterpene from Pseudallescheria boydii, a beetle (coleoptera)-associated fungus.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Pseudallescheria boydii residing in the gut of coleopteran (Holotrichia parallela) larva produces four new epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) boydines A-D (3-6) and two novel sesquiterpene boydenes A (7) and B (10), in addition to bisdethiobis(methylthio)-deacetylaranotin (1), bisdethiodi(methylthio)-deacetylapoaranotin (2), AM6898 A (8) and ovalicin (9). The structure elucidation was accomplished by a combination of spectral methods with quantum chemical calculations of optical rotations and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Boydine B (4) was shown to be active against the clinical strains Bifidobacterium sp., Veillonella parvula, Anaerostreptococcus sp., Bacteroides vulgatus and Peptostreptococcus sp. with an MIC range of 0.2-0.8 ?M, and the pharmacophore 3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethyl-5-oxooct-6-enoyl chain of 4 was shown to have (2R,3S,4S)-configurations. Boydene A (7) possessed an unprecedented carbon skeleton, suggesting an unusual biochemistry that allows an intramolecular Aldol addition in the fungus. Collectively, the finding may inspire the discovery of new antibacterial agents and the understanding on biosyntheses of polythiodioxopiperazine and sesquiterpene metabolites.
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Oligostilbenoids with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity from Dipterocarpus alatus.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the stem wood of Dipterocarpus alatus led to the isolation and characterization of four new oligostilbenoids, dipterocarpols A-D (1-4), together with two known resveratrol oligomers, hopeahainol (5) and hopeafuran (6). The structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D?NMR, and high-resolution MS. The absolute configurations were determined by NOESY and CD spectra. Dipterocarpol A (1) and hopeahainol A (5) showed moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 8.28?µM and 11.28?µM, respectively. Furthermore, the discovery of compound 3 gave the first evidence that the biosynthetic origin of resveratrol aneuploids is related to the loss of a half resveratrol unit by oxidative cleavage.
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High Feasibility of Liquid-Based Cytological Samples for Detection of EGFR Mutations in Chinese Patients with NSCLC.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) could predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the detection of EGFR mutation is frequently challenging in clinical practice for the lack of tumor tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of performing EGFR mutation testing on various types of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples.
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Curvulamine, a new antibacterial alkaloid incorporating two undescribed units from a curvularia species.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus) derived Curvularia sp. IFB-Z10 produces curvulamine as a skeletally unprecedented alkaloid incorporating two undescribed extender units. Curvulamine is more selectively antibacterial than tinidazole and biosynthetically unique in the new extenders formed through a decarboxylative condensation between an oligoketide motif and alanine.
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Candidate Pathway-Based GWAS Identifies Novel Associations of Genomic Variants in the Complement System Associated with Coronary Artery Disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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-Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain <20% of heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD), thus many risk variants remain missing for CAD. Identification of new variants may unravel new biological pathways and genetic mechanisms for CAD. To identify new variants associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway.
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[Study on two different aromas styles of tobacco from Guizhou by characteristics spectroscopic methods].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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This paper made use of three-dimensional fluorescence and ultraviolet-absorption spectrum to analyze the spectral characteristics of etroleum ether extract from Guizhou flue-cured tobacco and the overall characteristic spectral information of tobacco chemical substances were obtained. The three dimensional fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of each petroleum ether extract of flue-cured tobacco from different areas are generally similar, but their intensity is different. There have three characteristic peaks in three dimensional fluorescence spectra: I: Ex/Em = 297/326 nm, II: Ex/Em = 250/330 nm, III: Ex/Em = 225/336 nm respectively and meanwhile the order of these peaks intensity is I > III > II. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum in 300-300 nm range presents four characteristic absorption peaks, whose maximum absorption wavelength are 329, 419, 445 and 419 nm respectively. Meanwhile, in accord with the relative intensity of characteristic peaks, it is known that there exist differences in the relative contents of the total chemical substances obtained from different flavor styles of the flue-cured tobacco. The clustering analysis results of three-dimensional fluorescence intensity score (D) and intensity ratio (R) show that in a certain range of distance coefficient, the flue-cured tobacco from different regions in Guizhou can be clearly divided into two classes "mildly sweet "and "alcohol sweet ". The classification can be well achieved in the smaller distance coefficient according to the ratio cluster of fluorescence intensity instead of the score cluster of fluorescence intensity. The method of three-dimensional fluorescence was better than that of ultraviolet-visible spectrometry in the matter of the clustering characteristic.
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[Study on inhibitory effects and mechanism of lipophilic components in Salvia miltiorrhiza on angiogenesis in vitro].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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In this study, the human umbilical vein endothelial cell model was used to study the regulating effect of lipophilic components in Salvia miltiorrhiza on angiogenesis, and explore its possible mechanism. The cell model was established to determine the effect of lipophilic components in S. miltiorrhiza on the proliferative activity and migration capacity of endothelial cells. Then the realtime fluorescence quantification PCR technology was applied to detect the changes in the gene expressions of angiogenesis-related cytokines VEGF-A, VEGF-C and MMP-9. The results showed that 5 mg x L(-1) lipophilic components in S. miltiorrhiza could inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, and reduce the expression of VEGF-A and MMP-9 genes. It indicated that lipophilic components in S. miltiorrhiza may inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells by inhibiting the expression of VEGF-A and MMP-9 genes, so as to show the inhibitory effect on angiogenesis.
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[Viral etiologies of hospitalized pneumonia patients aged less than five years in six provinces, 2009-2012].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To analyze the viral etiologies of hospitalized pneumonia patients aged less than five years in six provinces during 2009-2012, and to describe the seasonality of the detected viral etiologies.
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Efficacy of first-line chemotherapy affects the second-line setting response in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver mutations and many receive therapies beyond first-line. Second- line chemotherapy has been disappointing both in terms of response rate and survival and we know relatively little about the prognostic factors.
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[Altered effective connectivity of insula in nicotine addiction].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the changes of effective connectivity associated with insula in different nicotine addiction sessions so as to understand its role and function.
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The characteristics of a novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Acinetobacter junii YB.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A novel heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium was isolated from activated sludge and was identified as Acinetobacter junii YB. The strain exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification ability at a broad range of ammonium loads and had the capability to utilize hydroxylamine, nitrite and nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. Based on the nitrogen removal and enzyme assay, the nitrogen removal pathway was speculated to be achieved through heterotrophic nitrification coupled with aerobic denitrification. In addition, single-factor experiments showed that efficient heterotrophic nitrification and growth of strain YB occurred with succinate as the carbon source, pH 7.5, 37 °C, and high C/N ratio and dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, the new isolate showed capacities for aggregation and hydrophobicity. Regular variations of the flocculating ability and relative hydrophobicity were observed during the whole cultivation. The ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification and cell aggregation demonstrated the great potential of the strain YB for future applications.
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Fumigaclavines D-H, new ergot alkaloids from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Ergot alkaloids are toxins which are produced biotechnologically on an industrial scale. The chemical investigation of endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus resulted in the isolation of five new ergot alkaloids named fumigaclavines D-H (2-6), along with three known analogues, fumigaclavine C (1), festuclavine (7), and fumigaclavine A (8). Their structures were unequivocally elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses in association with X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Fumigaclavines D-H are interesting clavine-type ergot alkaloids featuring a reverse prenyl moiety at C-2, with 1-4, 6, and 8 bearing additional substituents, e.g., an OH or OAc group at C-9. Compounds 2, 4, and 6-8 showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a panel of anaerobic microorganisms, of which compounds 4 and 6 were the most active against Veillonella parvula with an MIC=16 µg/mL compared to that (0.12 µg/mL) of tinidazole, co-assayed as a positive reference.
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A new cytochalasin from endophytic Phomopsis sp. IFB-E060.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To study the chemical constituents of the solid culture of the endophyte Phomopsis sp. IFB-E060 in Vatica mangachapoi.
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Diaporine, a novel endophyte-derived regulator of macrophage differentiation.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Diaporine (1), an unprecedented symmetric polyketide, was characterized from the endophytic fungus. The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Diaporine can inhibit significantly the differentiation of macrophages and has potential to induce conversion from the M2 to the M1 phenotype, in addition to regulation of the TLR4-MAPK signal pathway and PPAR? activity.
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Cytotoxic and antimicrobial flavonoids from Cryptocarya concinna.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Five new flavonoids, cryptoconones A-E (1-5), along with six known compounds (6-11), were isolated from the stems of Cryptocarya concinna. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, and the absolute configurations were determined via circular dichroism spectra and X-ray crystal analysis. The cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of these compounds were also evaluated. Compounds 9 and 10 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against HCT116, HT-29, SW480, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 6.25 to 9.35 µM. Compounds 8 and 11 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusarium moniliforme and Botrytis cinerea, respectively, with the same minimum inhibitory concentration of 5 µg/mL.
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Design, fabrication, and characterization of archaeal tetraether free-standing planar membranes in a PDMS- and PCB-based fluidic platform.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) isolated from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius contains exclusively bipolar tetraether lipids, which are able to form extraordinarily stable vesicular membranes against a number of chemical, physical, and mechanical stressors. PLFE liposomes have thus been considered appealing biomaterials holding great promise for biotechnology applications such as drug delivery and biosensing. Here we demonstrated that PLFE can also form free-standing "planar" membranes on micropores (?100 ?m) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin films embedded in printed circuit board (PCB)-based fluidics. To build this device, two novel approaches were employed: (i) an S1813 sacrificial layer was used to facilitate the fabrication of the PDMS thin film, and (ii) oxygen plasma treatment was utilized to conveniently bond the PDMS thin film to the PCB board and the PDMS fluidic chamber. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we found that the dielectric properties of PLFE planar membranes suspended on the PDMS films are distinctly different from those obtained from diester lipid and triblock copolymer membranes. In addition to resistance (R) and capacitance (C) that were commonly seen in all the membranes examined, PLFE planar membranes showed an inductance (L) component. Furthermore, PLFE planar membranes displayed a relatively large membrane resistance, suggesting that, among the membranes examined, PLFE planar membrane would be a better matrix for studying channel proteins and transmembrane events. PLFE planar membranes also exhibited a sharp decrease in phase angle with the frequency of the input AC signal at ?1 MHz, which could be utilized to develop sensors for monitoring PLFE membrane integrity in fluidics. Since the stability of free-standing planar lipid membranes increases with increasing membrane packing tightness and PLFE lipid membranes are more tightly packed than those made of diester lipids, PLFE free-standing planar membranes are expected to be considerably stable. All these salient features make PLFE planar membranes particularly attractive for model studies of channel proteins and transmembrane events and for high-throughput drug screening and artificial photosynthesis. This work can be extended to nanopores of PDMS thin films in microfluidics and eventually aid in membrane-based new lab-on-a-chip applications.
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[Analysis of effect on infectious diseases outbreak detection performance by classifying provinces for moving percentile method].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Providing evidences for further modification of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) via analyzing the outbreak detection performance of Moving Percentile Method (MPM) by optimizing thresholds in different provinces.
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[Comparing the performance of temporal model and temporal-spatial model for outbreak detection in China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System, 2011-2013, China].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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For providing evidences for further modification of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) by comparing the early-warning performance of the temporal model and temporal-spatial model in CIDARS.
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[The implement performance of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System in 2011-2013].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To analyze the implement performance of China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) of 31 provinces in mainland China, and to provide the evidences for further promoting the application and improvement of this system.
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[Research progress of three-dimensional printing technique in joint surgery].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To summarize the application status of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique in joint surgery and look forward to the future research directions.
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Brain aging and AD-like pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Numerous epidemiological studies have linked diabetes mellitus (DM) with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether or not diabetic encephalopathy shows AD-like pathology remains unclear.
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Ultrasensitive dual amplification sandwich immunosensor for breast cancer susceptibility gene based on sheet materials.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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A new electrochemical dual amplification sandwich immunosensor (DASI) was designed for ultrasensitive and accurate detection of the breast cancer susceptibility gene based on the combination of N-doped graphene, hydroxypropyl chitosan and Co3O4 mesoporous nanosheets. N-doped graphene has better electroconductibility than traditional graphene. It is an ideal electrochemical material with a large specific surface area and low resistance. Hydroxypropyl chitosan replaces the pure chitosan in immobilization of the sensor to achieve the sensitivity increase. Co3O4 mesoporous nanosheets can enhance the effective area of the immunoreaction. This kind of dual amplification sandwich immunosensor was first used for the detection of the breast cancer susceptibility gene. It has a wide linear response range of 0.001-35 ng mL(-1) and a minimum detection limit of 0.33 pg mL(-1). It was demonstrated that the stability, selectivity and reproducibility of the sensor were acceptable. The fabricated immunosensor shows great potential applications in early disease diagnosis.
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A cadherin-like protein from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a putative Cry1Ac receptor.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In S. exigua, ingestion of Cry1Ac reduces larval growth, shortens lifespan, and decreases copulation and oviposition of the adults. Cadherin-like protein SeCad1b in S. exigua has recently been published. Here, we tested whether SeCad1b mediates the negative effects of Cry1Ac. We identified three potential Cry toxin binding regions in SeCad1b, i.e., (879) EIAIQITDTNN(889) , (1357) SLLTVTI(1363) , and (1436) GVISLNFQ(1443) . We expressed and purified a truncated cadherin, rSeCad1bp, and its interspecific homologue, rHaBtRp, from H. armigera that contain the putative toxin binding regions. Using a toxin overlay assay, we found that rSeCad1bp specifically binds to biotinylated Cry1Ac in a dose-dependent manner. We also discovered that an addition of rSeCad1bp and rHaBtRp enhances the suppression of larval growth by Cry1Ac, although rSeCad1bp is less suppressive than rHaBtRp. Finally, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SeCad1b reduced approximately 80% of the target gene and significantly alleviated the negative effect of CrylAc on larval growth. We infer that the? S. exigua SeCad1b is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac.
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RNA interference-mediated knockdown of three putative aminopeptidases N affects susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According to a phylogenetic analysis, these two novel SeAPNs, along with the four SeAPN isoforms already described, belong to six different clades. All the six SeAPNs share similar structural features. From N- to C-terminus a signal peptide, a gluzincin aminopeptidase motif, a zinc binding/gluzincin motif, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor sequence are located. The six Seapn genes were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut. Ingestion during four consecutive days of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting Seapn1, Seapn2, Seapn3, Seapn4, Seapn5 and Seapn6 significantly reduced corresponding mRNA levels by 55.6%, 45.5%, 43.2%, 56.8%, 45.4%, and 46.0% respectively, compared with those recorded in control larvae fed on non-specific dsRNA (dsegfp). When the larvae that previously ingested phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, dsegfp-, or six dsSeapns-overlaid diets were then exposed to a diet containing Cry1Ca, the larval mortalities were 71.2%, 69.3%, 52.0%, 77.2%, 43.3%, 62.0%, 65.4% and 53.8% respectively recorded after 6days. ANOVA analysis revealed that the larvae previously fed on dsSeapn1-, dsSeapn3-, and dsSeapn6-overlaid diets had significantly lower mortalities than those previously ingested PBS-, dsegfp-, dsSeapn2-, dsSeapn4- and dsSeapn5-overlaid diets. Thus, these results suggest that SeAPN1, SeAPN3 and SeAPN6 may be candidate receptors for Cry1Ca in S. exigua.
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Nanosheet Au/Co3O4-based ultrasensitive nonenzymatic immunosensor for melanoma adhesion molecule antigen.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Highly sensitive and enzyme-free detection of melanoma adhesion molecule antigen (CD146) remains a challenge in clinical diagnosis. The prepared immunosensor, based on amination graphene (GS-NH2) and mesoporous nano-Co3O4 sheet combined with gold nanoparticles (Au/Co3O4), exhibited significantly increased electron transfer, high sensitivity and stability to CD146. Au/Co3O4 can increase the contact surface between the antibody and Au nanoparticles attached on Co3O4 than mesoporous Co3O4 only. And the mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheet can capture more biomolecules to enhance the sensitivity due to the large effective specific area. Amperometric i-t curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the recognition of CD146. This novel immunosensor, works well over a broad linear range of 0.01-15ng/mL, with a low detection limit of 3.4pg/mL (S/N=3). The immunosensor was evaluated for the determination of human serum sample, and received a satisfactory result. The developed immunosensor provides a promising approach for clinical research and diagnostic applications.
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Simultaneous electrochemical immunosensor based on water-soluble polythiophene derivative and functionalized magnetic material.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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A novel, sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous determination of squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCC-Ag) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for the combined diagnosis of cervical cancer was designed. The amplification strategy for electrochemical immunoassay was based on poly[3-(1,1'-dimethyl-4-piperidine-methylene) thiophene-2,5-diylchloride] (PDPMT-Cl) and functionalized mesoporous ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs). PDPMT-Cl dispersed in chitosan solution with enhanced electrical conductivity and solubility was used as matrices to immobilize the first antibodies. Different redox probes (thionine (Th) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fca)) functionalized Fe3O4 NPs incubated with two kinds of secondary antibodies to fabricate the labels. Using an electrochemical analysis technique, two well-separated peaks were generated by Th and Fca, making the simultaneous detection of two analytes on the electrode possible. Under optimized conditions, this method showed wide linear ranges of three orders of magnitude with the detection limits of 4 pg mL(-1) and 5 pg mL(-1), respectively. The disposable immunosensor possessed excellent clinical value in cervical cancer screening as well as convenient point-of-care diagnostics.
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Host suitability comparison between the MEAM1 and AsiaII 1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci in cotton-growing zones of Pakistan.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex. In Pakistan, members of the complex, MEAM1 and AsiaII 1, are the predominant species infesting cotton. The biology of the two on cotton, collard, cucumber and tomato was studied.
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Fumigaclavine C activates PPAR? pathway and attenuates atherogenesis in ApoE-deficient mice.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To develop alternative therapeutic strategy that reduces hypercholesterolemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis, we investigate if fumigaclavine C (FC), an indole alkaloid in structure, has anti-atherosclerosis function, and if so, what is the mechanism involved.
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Efficiency of plant induced volatiles in attracting Encarsia formosa and Serangium japonicum, two dominant natural enemies of whitefly Bemisia tabaci in China.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a globally distributed and most destructive pest to agriculture. Owing to increasing chemical resistance, a long-lasting strategy to manage this pest must involve biological control. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) usually play a profoundly important role in the foraging behaviour of natural enemies. Here, the effects of HIPVs from Chinese broccoli on the foraging behaviour of two dominant natural enemy species of B. tabaci in China, Encarsia formosa and Serangium japonicum, were investigated using a four-arm olfactometer, and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) was used to induce plant volatiles to mimic the damage of the herbivore pest.
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What are the precursor and early lesions of peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma?
Int J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is divided into distal, perihilar, and intrahepatic CCs (ICCS), and are further subdivided into large bile duct ICC and peripheral ICC. In distal and perihilar CC and large duct ICC, biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm (IPN) have been proposed as precursor lesions. Peripheral ICC, bile duct adenoma (BDA), biliary adenofibroma (BAF), and von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs) are reportedly followed by development of ICCs. Herein, we surveyed these candidate precursor lesions in the background liver of 37 cases of peripheral ICC and controls (perihilar CC, 34 cases; hepatocellular carcinoma, 34 cases and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma, 25 cases). In the background liver of peripheral ICC, BDA and BAF were not found, but there were not infrequently foci of BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts (32.4% and 10.8%, resp.). VMCs were equally found in peripheral CCs and also control CCs. In conclusion, BDA, BAF, and VMCs are a possible precursor lesion of a minority of peripheral CCs, and BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts may also be related to the development of peripheral ICC. Further pathologic studies on these lesions are warranted for analysis of development of peripheral ICCs.
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An antibacterial metabolite from Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae F2.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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In searching for symbionts derived from bioactive natural products, six sulfureous diketopiperazines designated as lasiodiplines A-F (1-6) were characterized from the culture of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae F2, previously residing in the apparently normal flower of Illigera rhodantha (Hernandiaceae). Identification of structures was accomplished by a combination of spectroscopic and computational approaches, in conjunction with the low-temperature (100K) single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. Lasiodipline E (5) was demonstrated to be antibacterial against the clinical strains Streptococcus sp., Bacteroides vulgates, Peptostreptococcus sp. and Veillonella parvula, respectively, with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.12-0.25 ?g/mL. In addition, compounds 4 and 6 exemplify two unusual architectures of natural cyclodipeptides, signifying the unique biochemical characteristics of the producing fungus.
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Enhanced production of fumigaclavine C by ultrasound stimulation in a two-stage culture of Aspergillus fumigatus CY018.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Stimulation by physical means including ultrasound is important to cell morphology and the product yield. In this work, the effect of ultrasound on the production of fumigaclavine C (FC), a conidiation-associated alkaloid with strong anti-inflammatory activity, was investigated in a newly developed two-stage culture of Aspergillus fumigatus CY018. The optimum ultrasonication conditions consisted of exposing cultures (at 12h of growth phase) to 10-min repeated irradiation (4 times) with a 24-h interval at the fixed power (500 W). Under this condition, FC production reached 118.09 mg/L, which was 89% higher than the control and much higher than previous reported values. Morphological analysis demonstrated that mycelia morphology from ultrasonication was in the form smaller and looser pellets as compared to that of the control. In addition, conidia that is closely related to FC biosynthesis were significantly increased after ultrasound stimulation, with 3 folds of that from the control.
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Regulation of CARD8 expression by ANRIL and association of CARD8 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2043211 (p.C10X) with ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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ANRIL has long been considered as the strongest candidate gene at the 9p21 locus, robustly associated with stroke and coronary artery disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study works to elucidate such a mechanism.
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Autophagy may promote carcinoma cell invasion and correlate with poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The role of autophagy in cholangiocarcinoma is poorly understood. This study investigated its involvement in cholangiocarcinoma, focusing on carcinoma cell invasion and prognostic significance using cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, CCKS1 and HuCCT1, and human tissues of hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Nutrient starvation induced the expression of LC3-II and the formation of LC3 puncta in both CCKS1 and HuCCT1, suggesting the occurrence of autophagy. The induction of autophagy was accompanied by the increased expression of an autophagy-related protein, Ambra1, in the cells. Under starvation conditions, the invasive activity of both cells was significantly increased, and a lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, attenuated this increased invasive activity. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), known as an inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the invasive activity of both cells, and chloroquine also significantly reduced TGF-?1-induced cell invasion. Immunohistochemical staining using cholangiocarcinoma tissues showed that the expression of Ambra1 positively correlated with the expression of Snail, one of the major transcriptional factors of EMT. In addition, overexpression of Ambra1 significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival rate of the patients. These results suggest that the occurrence of autophagy may be associated with a malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma, and autophagy is possibly involved in EMT-related cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion.
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De novo sequencing-based transcriptome and digital gene expression analysis reveals insecticide resistance-relevant genes in Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ladybird Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) is one of most important natural enemies of aphids in China. This species is threatened by the extensive use of insecticides but genomics-based information on the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance is limited. Hence, we analyzed the transcriptome and expression profile data of P. japonica in order to gain a deeper understanding of insecticide resistance in ladybirds. We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology and short reads. A total of 27,243,552 reads were generated. These were assembled into 81,458 contigs and 33,647 unigenes (6,862 clusters and 26,785 singletons). Of the unigenes, 23,965 (71.22%) have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr) protein database from NCBI, using BLASTX, with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). We examined COG, GO and KEGG annotations to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles between two insecticide resistant strains. When compared with an insecticide susceptible profile, a total of 4,692 genes were significantly up- or down- regulated in a moderately resistant strain. Among these genes, 125 putative insecticide resistance genes were identified. To confirm the DGE results, 16 selected genes were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study is the first to report genetic information on P. japonica and has greatly enriched the sequence data for ladybirds. The large number of gene sequences produced from the transcriptome and DGE sequencing will greatly improve our understanding of this important insect, at the molecular level, and could contribute to the in-depth research into insecticide resistance mechanisms.
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Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway is involved in cystic proliferation of cholangiocytes of the PCK rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The polycystic kidney (PCK) rat is an animal model of Caroli's disease as well as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). The signaling pathways involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are aberrantly activated in ARPKD. This study investigated the effects of inhibitors for the cell signaling pathways including mTOR on cholangiocyte proliferation of the PCK rat. Cultured PCK cholangiocytes were treated with rapamycin and everolimus [inhibitors of mTOR complex 1 (mTOC1)], LY294002 [an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)] and NVP-BEZ235 (an inhibitor of PI3K and mTORC1/2), and the cell proliferative activity was determined in relation to autophagy and apoptosis. The expression of phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-Akt, and PI3K was increased in PCK cholangiocytes compared to normal cholangiocytes. All inhibitors significantly inhibited the cell proliferative activity of PCK cholangiocytes, where NVP-BEZ235 had the most prominent effect. NVP-BEZ235, but not rapamycin and everolimus, further inhibited biliary cyst formation in the three-dimensional cell culture system. Rapamycin and everolimus induced apoptosis in PCK cholangiocytes, whereas NVP-BEZ235 inhibited cholangiocyte apoptosis. Notably, the autophagic response was significantly induced following the treatment with NVP-BEZ235, but not rapamycin and everolimus. Inhibition of autophagy using siRNA against protein-light chain3 and 3-methyladenine significantly increased the cell proliferative activity of PCK cholangiocytes treated with NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, treatment of the PCK rat with NVP-BEZ235 attenuated cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts, whereas renal cyst development was unaffected. These results suggest that the aberrant activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway is involved in cystic proliferation of cholangiocytes of the PCK rat, and inhibition of the pathway can reduce cholangiocyte proliferation via the mechanism involving apoptosis and/or autophagy.
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[Effect of Wnt signaling suppression on gefitinib in non small cell lung cancer cell lines].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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To explore the effect of Wnt signaling suppression on proliferation of non small cell lung cancer to gefitinib, and its related mechanisms.
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Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Objective: We examined pregnant womens likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed "Contagion" to understand cultural influences on message perception. Methods: Pregnant women ages 18-50 participated in a randomized message framing study from September 2011 through May 2012 that included exposure to intervention or control messages, coupled with questionnaire completion. Venue-based sampling was used to recruit racial and ethnic minority female participants at locations throughout Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate key outcomes. Results: The study population (n = 261) included many lower income (? $20?000/yearly household earnings) pregnant participants (69.2%, n = 171) inclusive of Black/African Americans (88.5%, n = 230), Hispanic/Latinas (7.3%, n = 19), and Other/Multicultural women (4.2%, n = 11). Both gain [OR = 2.13, 90% CI: (1.120, 4.048)] and loss-frame messages [OR = 2.02, 90% CI: (1.083, 3.787)] were significantly associated with infant influenza vaccination intention compared with the control condition. Intention to immunize against influenza during pregnancy had a strong effect on intent to immunize infants [OR = 10.83, 90%CI: (4.923, 23.825)]. Those who had seen the feature film "Contagion" (n = 54, 20.69%) viewed gain- and loss-framed messages as appealing (x (2) = 6.03, p = 0.05), novel (x (2) = 6.24, p = 0.03), and easy to remember (x (2) = 16.33, p = 0.0003). Conclusions: In this population, both gain- and loss-framed messages were positively associated with increased maternal intent to immunize infants against influenza. Message resonance was enhanced among those who saw the film "Contagion." Additionally, history of immunization was strongly associated with infant immunization intention. :
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Serum cytokine levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: correlation with clinical outcome of erlotinib treatment.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Serum expression of cytokines may provide information about the clinical outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum cytokine levels and the clinical outcome of erlotinib treatment in a second or third line setting in patients with advanced NSCLC.
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SC-514, a selective inhibitor of IKK? attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and NF-?B activation.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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The RANKL-induced NF-?B signaling pathway is essential for osteoclastogenesis. This study aims to identify specific inhibitors targeting NF-?B signaling pathway, which might serve as useful small molecule inhibitors for the treatment and alleviation of osteoclast-mediated bone lytic diseases. By screening for compounds that selectively inhibit RANKL-induced NF-?B activation in RAW264.7 cells as monitored by luciferase reporter gene assay, we identified SC-514, a specific inhibitor of IKK?, as a candidate compound targeting osteoclastogenesis. SC-514 dose-dependently inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with an IC50 of <5?M. At high concentrations, SC-514 (?12.5?M) induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, SC-514 specifically suppressed NF-?B activity owing to delayed RANKL-induced degradation of I?B? and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate that SC-514 impairs RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and NF-?B activation. Thus, targeting IKK? by SC-514 presents as a potential treatment for osteoclast-related disorders such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone loss.
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Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The better than the Beatles problem, the cautious regulator problem, the throw money at it tendency and the basic researchbrute force bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.
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Enhanced production of Fumigaclavine C in liquid culture of Aspergillus fumigatus under a two-stage process.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Fumigaclavine C (FC) produced by Aspergillus fumigatus is a conidiation associated ergot alkaloid with strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, its wide application has been severely limited by low FC production from submerged culture. In this work, a novel two-stage culture process by combining shake culture with static culture was proposed to enhance the production of FC. After the process optimization, the FC production reached 62.7mg/L, which was significantly higher than ever report. For scaling up this new culture process, the gas-liquid interfacial area per unit volume (Agas-liq) was identified as the key factor. The results showed that in a combined stirred-static bioreactor system, a maximum FC production (58.97mg/L) was obtained at an Agas-liq value of 1.30cm(2)/mL. These results demonstrated that two-stage culture is an efficient strategy to enhance FC production and the information obtained will be useful to production of this powerful bioactive compound on a large scale.
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[Dynamic accumulation of dry substance and active components in root of Peucedanum praeruptorum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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To study the dynamic accumulation regulation of dry substance and four coumarin constituents in root of Peucedanum praeruptorum, so to provide the basis for optimal harvest time.
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BRG1 variant rs1122608 on chromosome 19p13.2 confers protection against stroke and regulates expression of pre-mRNA-splicing factor SFRS3.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1122608 on chromosome 19p13.2 and in the BRG1/SMARCA4 gene was previously associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD and ischemic stroke are both associated with atherosclerosis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that rs1122608 is associated with ischemic stroke. Further studies were used to identify the most likely mechanism by which rs1122608 regulates atherosclerosis. For case-control association studies, two independent Chinese Han GeneID cohorts were used, including a Central cohort with 1,075 cases and 2,685 controls and the Northern cohort with 1,208 cases and 824 controls. eQTL and real-time RT-PCR analyses were used to identify the potential candidate gene(s) affected by rs1122608. The minor allele T of SNP rs1122608 showed significant association with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in the Central GeneID cohort (adjusted P adj = 2.1 × 10(-4), OR 0.61). The association was replicated in an independent Northern GeneID cohort (P adj = 6.00 × 10(-3), OR 0.69). The association became more significant in the combined population (P adj = 7.86 × 10(-5), OR 0.73). Allele T of SNP rs1122608 also showed significant association with a decreased total cholesterol level (P adj = 0.013). Allele T of rs1122608 was associated with an increased expression level of SFRS3 encoding an mRNA splicing regulator, but not with the expression of BRG1/SMARCA4 or LDLR (located 36 kb from rs1122608). Increased expression of SFSR3 may decrease IL-1? expression and secretion, resulting in reduced risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. This is the first study that demonstrates that rs1122608 confers protection against ischemic stroke and implicates splicing factor SFSR3 in the disease process.
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Antitumor effects of naturally occurring oligomeric resveratrol derivatives.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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This study was designed to evaluate and characterize the molecular basis of antitumor activity of naturally occurring resveratrol (RES; 3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) derivatives. The compounds were isolated from plants in previous studies and characterized spectroscopically. The antitumor activities of 31 RES derivatives, including dimers, trimers, and tetramers of RES, were evaluated using cell-based assays and validated on a murine model. Several trimeric and a tetrameric stilbenoids induced tumor cell apoptosis or growth arrest of several tumor cell lines with IC50 values (2.8-19.7 ?M), significantly lower than that of RES (IC50>70 ?M). Using pauciflorol B (PauB) as an example, we showed that the compound induced apoptosis p53 dependently, inducing p53 accumulation and p53-modulated gene expression in cells with wild-type p53, but not in those with nonfunctional p53. Reexpression of p53 in p53-null cells rescued cell death response. In parallel, the MAPK/p38 was activated and critical for PauB-induced killing. Interestingly, activation of p38 in p53 deficient cells was sufficient to drive cells into senescence via the p16-pRb pathway. Finally, PauB dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth on nude mice. Naturally occurring trimeric and tetrameric stilbenoids are potent antitumor agents. Those compounds exert antitumor effect through p53-dependent induction of apoptosis or senescence.
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Polyketides from the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. IFB3lp-2.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Chemical study of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. (strain no. IFB3lp-2) yielded three new polyketides (1-3), together with nine known compounds. All of the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxic, antiviral, and acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Regretfully, no compounds showed any significant activity in these assays.
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[Expression of IL-27 in multiple myeloma and its cell lines].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To study the expression and significance of IL-27 in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and in the supernatant of MM cell lines U266 and RPMI8226 cells culture medium.
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A Spodoptera exigua cadherin serves as a putative receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin and shows differential enhancement of Cry1Ca and Cry1Ac toxicity.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Crystal toxin Cry1Ca from Bacillus thuringiensis has an insecticidal spectrum encompassing lepidopteran insects that are tolerant to current commercially used B. thuringiensis crops (Bt crops) expressing Cry1A toxins and may be useful as a potential bioinsecticide. The mode of action of Cry1A is fairly well understood. However, whether Cry1Ca interacts with the same receptor proteins as Cry1A remains unproven. In the present paper, we first cloned a cadherin-like gene, SeCad1b, from Spodoptera exigua (relatively susceptible to Cry1Ca). SeCad1b was highly expressed in the larval gut but scarcely detected in fat body, Malpighian tubules, and remaining carcass. Second, we bacterially expressed truncated cadherin rSeCad1bp and its interspecific homologue rHaBtRp from Helicoverpa armigera (more sensitive to Cry1Ac) containing the putative toxin-binding regions. Competitive binding assays showed that both Cry1Ca and Cry1Ac could bind to rSeCad1bp and rHaBtRp, and they did not compete with each other. Third, Cry1Ca ingestion killed larvae and decreased the weight of surviving larvae. Dietary introduction of SeCad1b double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) reduced approximately 80% of the target mRNA and partially alleviated the negative effect of Cry1Ca on larval survival and growth. Lastly, rSeCad1bp and rHaBtRp differentially enhanced the negative effects of Cry1Ca and Cry1Ac on the larval mortalities and growth of S. exigua and H. armigera. Thus, we provide the first lines of evidence to suggest that SeCad1b from S. exigua is a functional receptor of Cry1Ca.
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The IL-33-ST2L pathway is associated with coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The effects of interleukin-33 (IL-33) on the immune system have been clearly demonstrated; however, in cardiovascular diseases, especially in coronary artery disease (CAD), these effects have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigate the genetic role of the IL-33-ST2L pathway in CAD. We performed three-stage case-control association analyses on a total of 4,521 individuals with CAD and 4,809 controls via tag SNPs in the genes encoding IL-33 and ST2L-IL-1RL1. One tag SNP in each gene was significantly associated with CAD (rs7025417(T) in IL33, padj = 1.19 × 10(-28), OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.31-1.47; rs11685424(G) in IL1RL1, padj = 6.93 × 10(-30), OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.32-1.48). Combining significant variants in two genes, the risk for CAD increased nearly 5-fold (padj = 8.90 × 10(-21), OR = 4.98, 95% CI: 3.56-6.97). Traditional risk factors for CAD were adjusted for the association studies by SPSS with logistic regression analysis. With the two variants above, both located within the gene promoter regions, reporter gene analysis indicated that the rs7025417 C>T and rs11685424 A>G changes resulted in altered regulation of IL33 and IL1RL1 gene expression, respectively (p < 0.005). Further studies revealed that the rs7025417 genotype was significantly associated with plasma IL-33 levels in the detectable subjects (n = 227, R(2) = 0.276, p = 1.77 × 10(-17)): the level of IL-33 protein increased with the number of rs7025417 risk (T) alleles. Based on genetic evidence in humans, the IL-33-ST2L pathway appears to have a causal role in the development of CAD, highlighting this pathway as a valuable target for the prevention and treatment of CAD.
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Meta-analysis identifies robust association between SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 on chromosome 1q41 and coronary artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Several large-scale meta-GWAS identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 in the MIA3 gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the European ancestry populations. However, three follow-up replication studies in the Chinese populations yielded inconsistent results. In order to unequivocally determine whether SNP rs17465637 is associated with CAD, we performed an independent case control association study in the Chinese Han population and a follow-up large scale meta-analysis for SNP rs17465637. Our study included 2503 CAD patients and 2920 non-CAD controls of the Chinese Han origin. A significant association was found between SNP rs17465637 and CAD (P = 0.01, OR = 1.11). Meta-analysis included 7263 CAD patients and 8347 controls combined from five Asian populations. The association between SNP rs17465637 and CAD became highly significant (P = 4.97 × 10(-5), OR = 1.11). Similar analysis also identified significant association between SNP rs17465637 and MI (2424 cases vs. 6,536controls; P = 5.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.10). We conclude that SNP rs17465637 in MIA3 is indeed a genetic risk factor for CAD across different ethnic populations.
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Discovery of a New Class of Immunosuppressants from Trichothecium roseum Co-inspired by Cross-Kingdom Similarity in Innate Immunity and Pharmacophore Motif.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The limited selection of immunosuppressants in the clinic hampers the efficient management of immune disorders such as rejections after organ transplantations. However, the search for new immunosuppressive compounds remains random and creates inevitably financial and laborious wastes. Herein, we present an immunity-inspired discovery strategy that rationally allows an efficient identification of immunosuppressive compounds from the endophyte culture, as exemplified by the new peptide trichomide A. This compound exerts its immunosuppressive action more selectively than cyclosporin A. It was found that trichomide A decreases the expression of Bcl-2, increases the expression of Bax, and has a small or negligible effect on the expressions of p-Akt, CD25, and CD69. Our study strengthens the idea that the cross-kingdom similarity in immunity among living things could provide a shorter route towards the identification of natural products valuable for the development of new immunosuppressants.
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Participation of peribiliary glands in biliary tract pathophysiologies.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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To investigate the roles of peribiliary glands around the bile ducts in the pathophysiology of the biliary tract.
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Molecular characterization of a short peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-S) from Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and its role in triggering proPO activity.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are non-specific immune molecules of insects, and vertebrates etc., but are not present in plants and nematodes. In the current experiment, a PGRP DNA sequence (2,910 bp containing four exons) was identified from genomic DNA library of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and a full-length cDNA programming PGRP was cloned (designed as OfPGRP-S) with an open reading frame of 579 bp, having 192 amino acid. This inferred amino acid sequence showed maximum similarity to known lepidopteran PGRPs. Quantitative real-time PCR investigation disclosed the level of mRNA of OfPGRP-S to be constitutively expressed in the whole developmental stages and with higher expression in the mature larvae. Even more the OfPGRP-S was mainly expressed in immune capable organs i.e., fat body and midgut, and was strongly induced by injecting gram-positive bacteria i.e., Staphylococus aureus. Recombinant protein OfPGRP-S could bind to S. aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis which enhance proPO activation in the presence of these microbes. The results indicated that OfPGRP-S is an inducible protein acting as a receptor-type PGRP for enhancing the proPO activation on exposure to bacteria.
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[Evaluation of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of hilar and mediastinal tumors].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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To explore the diagnostic values of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with hilar and mediastinal tumors.
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Effects of destruxins on free calcium and hydrogen ions in insect hemocytes.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Destruxins, cyclohexadepsipeptidic mycotoxins isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, inhibit innate insect immunity. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, the effects of destruxins on changes in free calcium and hydrogen ions in the hemocytes of Exolontha serrulata, Bombyx mori and the Spodoptera litura SL-1 cell line were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). An instant Ca(2+) influx of hemocytes induced by destruxins A and B (DA and DB) was recorded. The DA/DB-dependent Ca(2+) influx was not influenced by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitors 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB) and U73122. It also had an apparently different LSCM profile from that of the ionomycin-dependent Ca(2+) influx. However, the instant Ca(2+) influx was not seen in the SL-1 cells; on the contrary, a slow, moderate enhancement of intracellular Ca(2+) was observed. Meanwhile, an instant intracellular free H(+) decrease aroused by DA and DB was found. DB at 20 ?mol/L and DA at 690 ?mol/L significantly reduced intracellular free H(+) levels. Furthermore, the vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) inhibitor bafilomycin A1 had obvious effects on the decreases of intracellular free H(+) in hemocytes. These results suggest that the mechanism of DA/DB-dependent Ca(2+) influx is perhaps not related to Ca(2+) channels and ionophores; rather, the intracellular free H(+) decrease might be due to V-ATPase inhibition.
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Validation of reference genes for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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L. decemlineata is an exotic invasive insect pest, and invaded in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China in the 1990s from Kazakhstan. It is a notorious defoliator of potato throughout most of the northern Xinjiang in current, and often causes extremely large yield losses of potato.
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New flavonol and diterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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One new flavonol, chlorflavonin A (1), four new diterpenoids, aspergiloids E-H (3, 5-7), together with eight known compounds (2, 4, 8-13) were isolated from solid fermentation of Aspergillus sp. (strain no. YXf3), an endophytic fungus from Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were determined through detailed spectroscopic analysis combined with comparison of NMR spectra data with reported ones. All of them were screened on cytotoxicity against KB, SGC-7901, SW1116, and A549 cell lines; compounds 4, 9-11 exhibited moderate activities with IC50 values ranging from 6.74 to 46.64 µM.
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Actinotetraoses I-K: tetrasaccharide metabolites produced by an insect-derived actinobacteria, Amycolatopsis sp. HCa1.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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An isolate of rare actinobacteria strain Amycolatopsis sp. HCa1 obtained from the gut of grasshopper produced seven different metabolites in vitro. The metabolites isolated from its mycelia cakes were characterized by NMR and MS analyses. Actinotetraose hexatiglate (or tigloside; 1) with nonreducing glucotetraose skeleton was isolated as a major constituent; three new tetrasaccharide derivatives actinotetraoses I-K (2-4, resp.) and three known actinotetraoses A-C (5-7, resp.) were also isolated.
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Absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine samples from Wuzhishan miniature pigs orally administered with Buyang Huanwu decoction.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, is composed of seven commonly used Chinese herbs-Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos, Persicae Semen and Pheretima. To determine the main absorptive constituents and the metabolites of BYHWD in vivo, urine samples from Wuzhishan (WZS) miniature pigs orally administered with BYHWD (13.6 g crude drugs/kg) were collected to investigate the characteristic compounds. By comparing the high-performance liquid chromatography of a drug-containing urine sample with that of a drug-free sample, 17 characteristic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of a drug-containing urine sample by column chromatography. Their structures, including 11 isoflavanoids, 2 pterocarpanoids and 4 isoflavonoids, were identified by spectroscopic means. Of the 17 compounds, 8 (1-8) were new compounds with the following structures: 3S-7,3,4-trihydroxyisoflavan-3-O-?-D-glucuronide (1), 3S-7,3,4-trihydroxyisoflavan-4-O-?-D-glucuronide (2), 3S-7,2,4-trihydroxyisoflavan-2-O-?-D-glucuronide (3), 3R-7,2-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyisoflavan-2-O-?-D-glucuronide (4), 3R-7,2-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyisoflavan-2-O-?-D-glucuronide-6?-methyl ester (5), 3R-7,2-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-?-D-glucuronide-6?-methyl ester (6), 3R-7,2,3-trihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavan-3-O-?-D-glucuronide-6?-methyl ester (7), and 3S-7,4,5-trihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyisoflavan-5-O-?-D-glucuronide (8). Based on the possible relationship and metabolic pathways of the 17 compounds in vivo, 3R-7,2-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyisoflavan (isomucronulatol, 11), 6aR,11aR-3-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan (methylnissolin, astrapterocarpan, 13), 7,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone (calycosin, 16) and 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone (formononetin, 17) were thought to be the most important absorptive original isoflavonoid constituents of BYHWD in vivo, which underwent reactions of glucuronidation, hydroxylation, demethylation and reduction. The other 13 compounds were deduced to be their metabolites.
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New alkaloid from Streptomyces koyangensis residing in Odontotermes formosanus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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A new alkaloid was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of a termite-associated Streptomyces koyangensis BY-4. The structure of 1 was elucidated by using MS, NMR, electronic circular dichroism data, and computational approaches. Compound 1 showed weak antimicrobial activities against a panel of test microbes.
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A laboratory evaluation of medicinal herbs used in china for the treatment of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9? ? g/mL and 20.6? ? g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3? ? g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD.
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Cytotoxic constitutents from Cryptocarya maclurei.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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A phytochemical study of Cryptocarya maclurei led to isolation of five flavanones, cryptogiones G-H, and a polyketide, cryptomaclurone. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by CD methods. A putative biosynthetic pathway to them is proposed. Cytotoxicity of these compounds evaluated against KB, SGC-7901 and SW 1116 cancer cell lines, with only cryptomaclurone exhibiting moderate cytotoxicity (IC50 28.2, 28.4 and 16.4?M, respectively).
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Evidence for horizontal transmission of secondary endosymbionts in the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a globally distributed pest composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. At least seven species of endosymbiont have been found infecting some or all members of the complex. The origin(s) of the associations between specific endosymbionts and their whitefly hosts is unknown. Infection is normally vertical, but horizontal transmission does occur and is one way for new infections to be introduced into individuals. The relationships between the different members of the cryptic species complex and the endosymbionts have not been well explored. In this study, the phylogenies of different cryptic species of the host with those of their endosymbionts were compared. Of particular interest was whether there was evidence for both coevolution and horizontal transmission. Congruence was observed for the primary endosymbiont, Portiera aleyrodidarum, and partial incongruence in the case of two secondary endosymbionts, Arsenophonus and Cardinium and incongruence for a third, Wolbachia. The patterns observed for the primary endosymbiont supported cospeciation with the host while the patterns for the secondary endosymbionts, and especially Wolbachia showed evidence of host shifts and extinctions through horizontal transmission rather than cospeciation. Of particular note is the observation of several very recent host shift events in China between exotic invader and indigenous members of the complex. These shifts were from indigenous members of the complex to the invader as well as from the invader to indigenous relatives.
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p-Terphenyl and diterpenoid metabolites from endophytic Aspergillus sp. YXf3.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Six new p-terphenyl derivatives, named 4?-deoxy-3-hydroxyterphenyllin (1), 4?-deoxy-5-desmethyl-terphenyllin (2), 5-desmethylterphenyllin (3), 4?-deoxycandidusin A (4), 4,5-dimethoxycandidusin A (5), and terphenolide (6), four new diterpenoids with norcleistanthane (aspergiloid A (12) and aspergiloid B (13)), cleistanthane (aspergiloid C (14)), and isopimarane (aspergiloid D (15)) type skeletons, and five known p-terphenyl compounds (7-11) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 9 displayed moderate neuraminidase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values ranging from 4.34 to 9.17 ?M.
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Medium optimization for enhanced co-production of two bioactive metabolites in the same fermentation by a statistical approach.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2011
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This paper describes improved optimization method that combines the one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), Plackett-Burman design, and the response surface method (RSM), which were used to optimize the medium for the production of fumigaclavine C (FC) and helvolic acid (HA) from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 simultaneously. The ideal carbon and nitrogen sources for the two compounds were assessed initially via the one-factor-at-a-time method. Three key cultivation factors (pH, phosphate, and inoculum size) were chosen based on the results of Plackett-Burman design, and subsequently optimized by the central composite design. The two metabolites were amply afforded when the cultivation was carried out with the inoculum size of 2.45% at pH 4.2 and 28°C for 19 days in the medium containing (g/l): mannitol 50, sodium succinate 5.4, NaNO? 2, MgSO?·7H?O 0.3, FeSO?·7H?O 0.01, and KH?PO? 0.67. The highest yields of FC and HA achieved herein were 17.26 and 16.88 mg/l. This work might be the first endeavor leading to the improved simultaneous production of two complex active metabolites with a single strain.
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Fully substituted unsaturated lactones from endophytic Myrothecium sp.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Two new ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactones, myrolactones A (1) and B (2), were characterized from the culture broth of the Myrothecium sp. IFB-E106 isolated from the roots of Vatica mangachapoi Blauco. The absolute configuration was determined by the computational electronic circular dichroism approach. Myolactone B showed neuraminidase inhibitory activity with the IC(50) value of 13.95 ?M.
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Neuraminidase inhibitory polyketides from the marine-derived fungus Phoma herbarum.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Two new polyketides, arthropsadiol C (1) and massarilactone H (2), together with six known derivatives (3-8) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Phoma herbarum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D?NMR techniques. Compounds 2, 4, 5, and 8 showed moderate neuraminidase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values ranging from 4.15 to 9.16?µM.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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