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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Treatment of calcaneal fractures by fixation of Kirschner needle and thread cancellous bone screw through sinus tarsi interstice].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To explore the effect of fixation of Kirschner needle and thread cancellous bone screw through the sinus tarsi interstice for the treatment of calcaneal fractures.
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[Time-evolution study on the cation exchange in the process of reinforcing slip soil by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In the present paper, the time evolution study on slip soils treated by different proportions of ionic soil stabilizer (ISS) water solution was conducted by the LIBS system and the relationship between the cation exchange and such engineering properties of reinforcing soil as plasticity index, cohesive force and coefficient of compressibility were analyzed. The results showed that the cation exchange velocity of the proportion of 1:200 ISS reinforcing soil is the fastest among the three proportions (1:100, 1:200 and 1:300) and the modification effect of engineering performance index is quite obvious. These studies provide an experimental basis for the ISS applied to curing project, and monitoring geotechnical engineering performance by LIBS technology also provides a new way of thinking for the curing project monitoring.
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Endocrine Pathology: SS08-1 PRIMARY MESENCHYMAL TUMOR OF ADRENAL.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Primary mesenchymal tumor of adrenal is very rare. We present a case of adrenal mesenchymal tumor. A 48-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to hospital presenting symptom of distension and pain at the left upper quadrant of the abdomen for one year. Computed tomography images showed a circumscribed mass at the left adrenal region which measured about 9?×?12?cm. Macroscopy, a nodular mass in the left adrenal gland with an capsule was13?×?10?×?8?cm in size, and the cut surface of which was soft, grayish white and yellow, with cystic change and hemorrhage in some areas, a little cortex at the periphery remained. Histopathology, compact short spindle, oval and polygonal tumour cells arranged in sheets, partly, in haemangiopericytomatous pattern. The tumour cells were uniform with ovoid pale-staining nuclei and inconspicucous nucleoli. Cytoplasm was sparse and cell borders were indistinct. Mitotic figures were about 2-3/10?HPF.Focally, necrosis and degeneration could be found. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells were positive for CD117, vimentin, CD99, Bcl-2 and EMA. While Keratin, Dog-1, CD34, ?-inhibin and calretinin et al. were negative. The patient is survival now 4.5 years after adrenalectomy without any therapy, but there has been a local recurrence since last year.
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The relationship between circulating TRAIL and endothelial dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is associated with atherosclerosis. Subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT) is associated with the increased prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we hypothesized that circulating TRAIL levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in sHT patients. Two hundred and four patients with newly diagnosed sHT and 52 healthy subjects were recruited. Circulating TRAIL concentration was measured by an ELISA, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. The mean value of circulating TRAIL in newly diagnosed sHT patients was 67.2 pg/ml, which was lower than that in controls (78.5 pg/ml, p < 0.001). By dividing the distribution of FMD levels into quartiles, TRAIL levels were increased gradually with the increase of FMD levels (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum TRAIL levels were independently associated with FMD (p = 0.007). By logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for lower FMD levels was reduced by 12.1 % per 1 pg/ml increase in serum TRAIL concentration after adjustment for multivariate metabolic factors [OR (95 % CI); 0.879 (0.721-0.973)]. Circulating TRAIL level decreased in newly diagnosed sHT patients and is positively associated with endothelial function, suggesting that circulating TRAIL level may be a protective marker of endothelial function in sHT patients.
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Age-dependent expression of duodenal cytochrome B561, divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin 1 and hephaestin in the duodenum of rats.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The body's requirement for iron is different at different developmental stages. However, the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent iron metabolism are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the expression of iron transport proteins in the duodenum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at five different age stages.
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Mitochondrial ferritin, a new target for inhibiting neuronal tumor cell proliferation.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) has a significant effect on the regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial iron levels. However, because of the deficiency of iron regulatory elements (IRE) in FtMt's gene sequence, the exact function of FtMt remains unclear. In the present study, we found that FtMt dramatically inhibited SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and tumor growth in nude mice. Interestingly, excess FtMt did not adversely affect the development of drosophila. Additionally, we found that the expression of FtMt in human normal brain tissue was significantly higher than that of neuroblastoma, but not higher than that of neurospongioma. However, the expression of transferrin receptor 1 is completely opposite. We therefore hypothesized that increased expression of FtMt may negatively affect the vitality of neuronal tumor cells. Therefore, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms of FtMt's inhibitory effects on neuronal tumor cell proliferation. As expected, FtMt overexpression disturbed the iron homeostasis of tumor cells and significantly downregulated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Moreover, FtMt affected cell cycle, causing G1/S arrest by modifying the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE, Cdk2, Cdk4 and p21. Remarkably, FtMt strongly upregulated the expression of the tumor suppressors, p53 and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), but dramatically decreased C-myc, N-myc and p-Rb levels. This study demonstrates for the first time a new role and mechanism for FtMt in the regulation of cell cycle. We thus propose FtMt as a new candidate target for inhibiting neuronal tumor cell proliferation. Appropriate regulation of FtMt expression may prevent tumor cell growth. Our study may provide a new strategy for neuronal cancer therapy.
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Associations of a polymorphism in the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) gene and ICAM1 serum levels with migraine in a Chinese Han population.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To investigate the associations of a polymorphism in the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) gene, and ICAM1 serum levels, with migraine and migraine subtypes in a Han Chinese population.
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IL-10 detection in murine B cells: pros and cons of the different techniques.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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With the recently increased understanding of the roles of B cells in immune response and autoimmune pathogenesis, various techniques have been used for the detection of IL-10 production in B cells. In this chapter, we describe several commonly used methods for the effective detection of IL-10 in B cells at both mRNA and protein levels, including quantitative PCR analysis, intracellular staining of IL-10 by flow cytometry, ELISA assay for secreted IL-10 detection, and ELISPOT assay of enumerating IL-10-producing B cells. Moreover, we provide a detailed protocol for the detection of IL-10-producing B cells in situ by immunofluorescence microscopy. Together, the application of these described methods for the detection of IL-10 will facilitate the characterization of B cell subsets with regulatory functions and enhance our current understanding on the critical roles of B cells in immune response and autoimmune development.
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Mechanistic Origin of Chemoselectivity in Thiolate-Catalyzed Tishchenko Reactions.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The thiolate-catalyzed Tishchenko reaction has shown high chemoselectivity for the formation of double aromatic-substituted esters. In the present study, the detailed reaction mechanism and, in particular, the origin of the observed high chemoselectivity, have been studied with DFT calculations. The catalytic cycle mainly consisted of three steps: 1,2-addition, hydride transfer, and acyl transfer steps. The calculation results reproduce the experimental observations that 4-chlorobenzaldehyde acts as the hydrogen donor (carbonyl part in the ester product), while 2-methoxybenzaldehyde acts as the hydrogen acceptor (alcohol part in the product). The two main factors are responsible for such chemoselectivity: 1)?in the rate-determining hydride transfer step, the para-chloride substituent facilitates the hydride-donating process by weakening the steric hindrance, and 2)?the ortho-methoxy substituent facilitates the hydride-accepting process by stabilizing the magnesium center (by compensating for the electron deficiency).
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MT1-MMP is not a good prognosticator of cancer survival: evidence from 11 studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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MT1-MMP exhibits diverse expressions in patients with cancer and could be considered as potential prognostic biomarker of cancer. We performed a meta-analysis aiming to provide more sufficient evidence that MT1-MMP expression is associated with poor overall survival in several types of cancers. We systematically searched the studies from databases and carefully identified based on eligibility criteria. The association between MT1-MMP expression and overall survival in cancers was estimated using Review Manager. A total of 11 literatures which included 1,918 cancer patients were combined in the final analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that MT1-MMP overexpression was associated with an unfavorable overall survival and the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) was 2.46 (95 % CI 1.75-3.47). From subgroup analyses, we identified that MT1-MMP was an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer and gastric cancer, and HRs (95 % CI) were 3.73 (95 % CI 2.67-5.21) and 2.46 (95 % CI 1.69-3.59), respectively. In conclusion, MT1-MMP is a potential prognostic factor in human cancers.
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[Synthesis and antitumor activity of S-hexyl(heptyl) substituted ethanethioate derivatives].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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To simplify the macrocyclic fragment and to modify the zinc binding group of the natural product apicidin, two series of S-hexyl (heptyl) ethanethioate derivatives were designed and synthesized. Twenty-six compounds were synthesized and confirmed with 1H NMR, IR, MS and HR-MS spectrum, which were not reported. Take vorinostat as control, their antiporliferative activities against cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HL-60, were tested with MTT assay or trypan blue staining method. Generally in both series it was found that, the chiral carbon atom at 7 position is not necessary, compounds II-1, II-3, II-6 and II-13 showed good activity on HL-60 cells in vitro, with the IC50 values less than 10 micromol x L(-1). II-7 and II-8 showed stronger activity against MCF-7 than Vorinostat, with the IC50 of 3.19 and 6.29 micromol x L(-1), respectively.
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Glycocaulis albus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic dimorphic prosthecate bacterium isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Two novel bacterial strains, SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2, which shared 99.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other, were isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil in Shengli Oilfield, eastern China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, aerobic, mesophilic and moderately halophilic. They could grow chemoheterotrophically with oxygen as an electron acceptor. Morphologically, cells were typical Caulobacteria-type dimorphic prosthecate bacteria. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 were 61.8 mol% and 61.6 mol% respectively. Strain SLG210-30A1(T) had Q10 as the predominant respiratory ubiquinone, and C16?:?0 (28.4?%), C17?:?0 (11.6?%), C18?:?0 (22.1?%) and C18?:?1?7c (14.0?%) as the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids of the two isolates were some glycolipids, a lipid, a phospholipid, an aminoglycolipid and an aminophospholipid (all unidentified). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 showed the highest similarities with Glycocaulis abyssi MCS 33(T) (99.8-99.9?%), but low sequence similarities (<94.7?%) with type strains of other members of the family Hyphomonadaceae. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness of G. abyssi MCS 33(T) to strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 was 37.4±4.4?% and 36.1±1.1?%, respectively. Based on different physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic characteristics, strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 represent a novel species of the genus Glycocaulis. The name Glycocaulis albus is therefore proposed with strain SLG210-30A1(T) (?=?LMG 27741(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12766(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Glycocaulis is also provided.
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[Screening active components in compound danshen based on PXR-CYP3A4: an experimental study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To screen active components in Compound Danshen (CD) based on pregnane X receptor-cytochrome P450 3A4 (PXR-CYP3A4).
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Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Dopa-Responsive Dystonia Patient With a Novel Mutation of Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase 1 Gene.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Dopa-responsive dystonia is a rare hereditary movement disorder caused by mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene. This disease typically manifests in dystonia, with marked diurnal fluctuation and a dramatic response to levodopa. However, growth retardation in dopa-responsive dystonia has rarely been reported, and the etiology of short stature is not clarified. Here, we report a 14-year-old patient with extremities dystonia and short stature. Treatment with levodopa relieved his symptoms and resulted in a height increase. We also investigated the mutation in GCH1 and the etiology of short stature in this case. Sequence analysis of GCH1 revealed a novel mutation (c.695G>T). Laboratory examinations and imaging confirmed the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. We conclude that our case reveals a rare feature for dopa-responsive dystonia and suggests a possible pathogenic link between growth hormone deficiency and dopa-responsive dystonia. We recommend levodopa as the first choice for treating dopa-responsive dystonia in children with growth hormone deficiency.
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Functional relevance for multiple sclerosis-associated genetic variants.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of central nervous system. Many genetic variants associated with MS have been identified by genome-wide association studies, but functional mechanism underlying the associations is largely unclear. Utilizing the publically available datasets, we carried out gene relationships among implicated loci (GRAIL) analyses to search for MS-associated SNPs/genes. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) analyses were conducted to identify eQTL SNPs/target genes. Further, functional prediction for SNP, differential gene expression, and functional annotation clustering analyses for gene were conducted to explore their functional relevance to MS. Among the 284 identified MS-associated SNPs (P?
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Interface energy effect on the dispersion relation of nano-sized cylindrical piezoelectric/piezomagnetic composites.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Interface between the constituents plays an important role in the non-destructive detection of smart piezoelectric/piezomagnetic devices. The propagation of SH waves in nano-sized cylindrically multiferroic composites consisting of a piezoelectric layer and a piezomagnetic central cylinder is investigated, and the size-dependent dispersion relation with interface effect is derived. The general solutions of decoupled governing equation in different regions are expressed by using Bessel functions, and the unknown coefficients are determined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the inner interface with negligible thickness and the outer surface of the structure. Through the numerical examples of dispersion relation, it is found that the interface around the nano-cylinder may remarkably reduce the phase velocity, depending on the combination of the value of thickness ratio and the surface condition. The interface shows different effect on the first and second modes of dispersion relation.
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Reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which synthesize estradiol and inactivate dihydrotestosterone constitute major and concerted players in ER+ breast cancer cells.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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The reductive 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases which catalyze the last step in estrogen activation for estrogen dependent breast cancer cells were studied. Their biological function and the effects of their inhibition for cancer cell proliferation were demonstrated. The multidisciplinary study involves enzyme catalysis, sex-hormone and cell cycle regulation, as well as cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Reductive 17?-HSD1, -7 and -12 were studied in the main breast cancer epithelial cells MCF-7 and T47D. Modification of estradiol and 5?-dihydrotestosterone concentrations was monitored by ELISA assay while corresponding cell viability measured by MTT assay. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Dual activity of estradiol activation and 5?-dihydrotestosterone reduction by 17?-HSD1 and -7 was critical for breast cancer cell (T47D and MCF-7) viability. Cell viability was decreased by 35.8%±1.6% in T47D cells after simultaneously knocking down 17?-HSD1 and -7. MCF-7 cell viability was decreased by 29.3%±4.2% using a combination of siRNAs and inhibitors. By knocking down 17?-HSD7, we have provided the first demonstration of the significant role of this enzyme in the stimulation of breast cancer cell viability as a result of its high activity on androgen reduction with positive feedback on estradiol production. A further decrease in cell viability was not observed with additional knockdown of 17?-HSD12 after 17?-HSD1 and 7. Breast cancer cell cycle progression was impeded to enter the S phase from G0-G1 after knocking down 17?-HSD1 and -7. In summary, this is the first demonstration that the dual activity in estrone activation and 5?-dihydrotestosterone reduction are the functional basis of reductive 17?-HSDs in breast cancer cells. 17?-HSD1 and -7 are principal reductive 17?-HSDs and major players in the viability of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. Combined targeting of these enzymes may be potential for molecular therapy of such cancer.
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Thyroid disease in Chinese girls with Turner syndrome.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in Turner syndrome (TS) and the association between thyroid autoantibodies (TAA), thyroid dysfunction, age, and karyotype. Methods: Sixty-nine girls with TS were divided into two groups according to being TAA-positive or TAA-negative. TAA and thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by immunochemiluminescence. Results: One third (23/69) of the girls were TAA positive, with antibody prevalence increasing with age. Of the TAA-positive girls, seven were hypothyroid and three hyperthyroid. Compared with the TAA-negative group, the girls in the TAA-positive group were significantly older (p<0.05). For those who were TAA positive, 26.3% of patients were 5-10 years old, 37.1% 10-15 years old, and 62.5% above the age of 15 years. Conclusion: Chinese girls with TS are prone to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, especially those older than 5 years, and routine thyroid testing is advocated thereafter on a yearly basis. There was no specific association between the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease and TS karyotypes.
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[Research on the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of sodium sulfide nonahydrate and its application in monosodium glutamate detecting].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of sodium sulfide was studied and the structure vibration information was obtained. The raman characteristic peak at 472 cm(-1) was selected to evaluate enhanced effects. Gold colloid was used as active substrate, The relationship between gold nanoparticle size and enhanced efficiency was analysised and the optimum size for SERS is 97 nm. The surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra of sodium sulfide at different concentrations were also presented. The results indicated that SERS spectra of sodium sulfide can be found even the concentration reach 10(-6) g x mL(-1). The performance of active substrate is related with the ratio of sample and gold colloid. In the real situation, 1 g monosodium glutamate was added to 10mL sodium sulfide solution with different concentration and then SERS spectra of these samples were collected respectively. The lever of qualitative detection can reach 10mg x kg(-1). And due to the simple procedure in sample preparation, this method is of great potential in on-line qualitative detection.
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Monodispersed Ag nanoparticles as catalyst: preparation based on crystalline supramolecular hybrid of decamethylcucurbit[5]uril and silver ions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Monodispersed silver nanoparticles (Ag(0) NPs) have been first prepared on the basis of a postsynthesis via mild reduction from a new crystalline supramolecular hybrid solid assembled from Ag(+) ions and decamethylcucurbit[5]uril (Me10CB[5]). Uniform growth of nearly spherical Ag(0) NPs with an average size of ca. 4.4 nm was observed on the organic Me10CB[5] support to form Ag@Me10CB[5] composite material. The as-synthesized composite material was characterized by a range of physical measurements (PXRD, TGA, XPS, ICP, TEM, etc.) and was further exploited as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of various nitrophenols in the presence of NaBH4. The kinetics of the reduction process was monitored under various experimental conditions. The Ag@Me10CB[5] composite material showed excellent catalytic performance over the reduction reactions and remained active after several consecutive cycles.
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Halodurantibacterium flavum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Non-phototrophic Bacterium Isolated from an Oil Production Mixture.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Three Gram-negative bacterial strains, DQW12E6-69-1(T), DQW12E61-22-1, and DQW12E6-22-1-1, were isolated from an oil production mixture from Daqing Oilfield, northeastern China. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains formed a stable cluster different from the known genus in Rhodobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. In addition, they were most closely related to species in genera Pararhodobacter, Rhodobacter ,and Rhodobaca with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 95.1-95.9 %. Cells of the three strains were aerobic; they do not require salt to grow but are resistant to high salinity. They could conduct chemoorganoheterotrophic growth on various carbon sources, with non-phototrophic growth observed. The genomic DNA G+C contents of the strains DQW12E6-69-1(T), DQW12E6-22-1-1, and DQW12E61-22-1 were 63.8, 63.7, and 63.6 mol%, respectively. The predominant respiratory ubiquinone of DQW12E6-69-1(T) was Q-10, and the major fatty acids were C18:1 ?7c, C18:0, and C10:0 3-OH. Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic reaction center gene pufM were not detected. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified glycolipid, and unidentified phospholipid. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strains DQW12E6-69-1(T), DQW12E61-22-1, and DQW12E6-22-1-1 represent a novel genus and a novel species of the family Rhodobacteraceae. The name Halodurantibacterium flavum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed with strain DQW12E6-69-1(T) (=LMG 27742(T) = CGMCC 1.12756(T)) as the type strain.
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Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov., A Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from the Benthic Sediment of South China Sea.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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An aerobic, Gram-staining negative, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain, SS011A0-7#2-2(T), was isolated from the sediment of South China Sea with the depth of 1,500 m. Optimum growth occurred at pH 8.0, 30 °C, and 6 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) did not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll a or carotenoid, neither possess photosynthesis genes. Its genome DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. It contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1 ?7c (52.3 %) as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified phospholipid, and unidentified aminolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it was closely related to Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS 107(T) and Roseovarius pacificus 81-2(T) in Rhodobacteraceae, with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 96.5, 95.7, and 95.6 %, respectively. However, the phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was a member of the genus Seohaeicola. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was moderately halophilic which was different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), and it showed the enzyme activities and carbon source spectrum significantly different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T). As its physiological and chemotaxinomic properties were different from those of Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Seohaecola. The name Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) (=LMG 27733(T) = CGMCC 1.12759(T)) as the type strain.
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Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical angiopathy.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Irisin is a newly identified myokine that can promote energy expenditure and alleviate insulin-resistance in animal model. It has been established that insulin resistance is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesize that circulating irisin levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
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Th17 cells play a critical role in the development of experimental Sjogren's syndrome.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Although Th17 cells have been increasingly recognised as an important effector in various autoimmune diseases, their function in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains largely uncharacterised. This study aims to determine the role of Th17 cells in the development of experimental SS (ESS).
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Productive replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells modulates innate immune response.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) closely resembled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in disease manifestation as rapidly progressive acute pneumonia with multi-organ dysfunction. Using monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), we discovered fundamental discrepancies in the outcome of MERS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-infection. First, MERS-CoV productively infected Mo-DCs while SARS-CoV-infection was abortive. Second, MERS-CoV induced significantly higher levels of IFN-?, IP-10, IL-12, and RANTES expression than SARS-CoV. Third, MERS-CoV-infection induced higher surface expression of MHC class II (HLA-DR) and the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 than SARS-CoV-infection. Overall, our data suggests that the dendritic cell can serve as an important target of viral replication and a vehicle for dissemination. MERS-CoV-infection in DCs results in the production of a rich combination of cytokines and chemokines, and modulates innate immune response differently from that of SARS-CoV-infection. Our findings may help to explain the apparent discrepancy in the pathogenicity between MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.
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The low expression of Dmrt7 is associated with spermatogenic arrest in cattle-yak.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Dmrt7 is a member of the DM domain family of genes. Dmrt7 deficiency is also a strong candidate as a cause for male cattle-yak infertility, as it is regarded as essential for male spermatogenesis, between the pachynema and diplonema stages. In our study, the coding region sequence of yak and cattle-yak Dmrt7 was cloned by molecular cloning techniques, and the sequence, conserved domains, functional sites, and secondary and tertiary structures of the Dmrt7-encoded protein were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The coding region sequences of the Dmrt7 gene, encoding 370 amino acids, were consistent in yak and cattle-yak. The protein encoded by yak and cattle-yak Dmrt7 contains a DM domain. We detected Dmrt7 mRNA expression in testis, but not in any other tissue. Dmrt7 mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in testis of cattle and yak than that in cattle-yak (p < 0.01). Histological analysis indicated that seminiferous tubules in male cattle-yak were highly vacuolated and contained primarily Sertoli cells and spermatogonia, while those of cattle and yak contained abundant primary spermatocytes. Male cattle-yak testis contained a significantly larger number of apoptotic cells than those in cattle and yak assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The accumulation of SCP3-positive spermatocytes indicated the arrest of spermatogenesis at the pachynema stage in the cattle-yak. These results suggest low levels of Dmrt7 expression lead to male sterility in cattle-yak. The molecular function of Dmrt7 and the regulation of its expression warrant need to be examined in future studies.
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Dkk2/Frzb in the dermal papillae regulates feather regeneration.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Avian feathers have robust growth and regeneration capability. To evaluate the contribution of signaling molecules and pathways in these processes, we profiled gene expression in the feather follicle using an absolute quantification approach. We identified hundreds of genes that mark specific components of the feather follicle: the dermal papillae (DP) which controls feather regeneration and axis formation, the pulp mesenchyme (Pp) which is derived from DP cells and nourishes the feather follicle, and the ramogenic zone epithelium (Erz) where a feather starts to branch. The feather DP is enriched in BMP/TGF-? signaling molecules and inhibitors for Wnt signaling including Dkk2/Frzb. Wnt ligands are mainly expressed in the feather epithelium and pulp. We find that while Wnt signaling is required for the maintenance of DP marker gene expression and feather regeneration, excessive Wnt signaling delays regeneration and reduces pulp formation. Manipulating Dkk2/Frzb expression by lentiviral-mediated overexpression, shRNA-knockdown, or by antibody neutralization resulted in dual feather axes formation. Our results suggest that the Wnt signaling in the proximal feather follicle is fine-tuned to accommodate feather regeneration and axis formation.
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A universal gene carrier platform for treatment of human prostatic carcinoma by p53 transfection.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Our previous work showed that a charge-reversal layer-by-layer nanosystem, PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS, effectively facilitates cellular uptake of siRNA and enhances the silencing efficacy of MDR1 siRNA. Here, the plasmid loading capacity of this vehicle was examined using EGFP-N1, and the plasmid release profile was determined in response to pH changes. The cytotoxicity of the EGFP-N1/PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS complex against HeLa and 293T cells was almost negligible. PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS efficaciously delivered the plasmids EGFP-N1 (encoding green fluorescent protein) and pGL3.0 (encoding luciferase) into 293T and HeLa cells, thus verifying the universality of PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS as a gene carrier. The results of an inverted fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry (FCM) and western blotting methods demonstrated that PC-3 prostate cancer cells treated with EGFP-p53/PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS expressed higher levels of GFP than cells treated with EGFP-p53/PEI. Furthermore, PC-3 cells treated with EGFP-p53/PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS showed reduced cellular viability and increased nuclear fragmentation, consistent with elevated p53 expression. Propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometric assays were conducted to demonstrate that EGFP-p53/PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS elevated the level of apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Western blotting and caspase activation studies revealed that EGFP-p53/PEI/PAH-Cit/AuNP-CS complexes may induce PC-3 apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3.
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A retrospective study of temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to surgical treatment of mandibular condylar fractures.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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We investigated the incidence of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) after open operations for fractures of the mandibular condyle, and analysed possible risk factors in a total of 385 patients with 492 condylar fractures who had been operated on in our department from 2001 to 2010. Sixteen patients developed postoperative ankylosis of the TMJ with 26 joints (5%) affected during a follow-up of 6 months-10 years. Of the 492 condylar fractures, the most common ones that were associated with postoperative ankylosis were those of the condylar head (20/248), followed by the condylar neck (6/193). Subcondylar fractures did not cause postoperative ankylosis (0/51). Among the 16 patients with postoperative ankylosis, 13 had associated anterior mandibular fractures. Long-screw (bicortical screw) fixation of fractures of the condylar head seemed to be associated with a lower incidence of postoperative ankylosis than fixation by miniplate and wire or removal of the fractured fragment. The articular discs were damaged in all ankylosed joints, and the remaining fractured fragment was found in 10 ankylosed joints after fractures of the condylar head. The results suggest that fractures of the condylar head are more prone to lead to postoperative ankylosis of the TMJ, and that the possible risk factors seem to include the technique used for fixation and damage to the disc, together with an anterior mandibular fracture with the fractured fragment remaining.
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Mass spectrometry-based serum peptide profiling in hepatocellular carcinoma with bone metastasis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To investigate the potential of serum peptides as a diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bone metastasis.
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Human 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (3?-HSD3): the V54L mutation restricting the steroid alternative binding and enhancing the 20?-HSD activity.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Human 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (3?-HSD3) has an essential role in the inactivation of 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Notably, human 3?-HSD3 shares 97.8% sequence identity with human 20-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) and there is only one amino acid difference (residue 54) that is located in their steroid binding pockets. However, 20?-HSD displays a distinctive ability in transforming progesterone to 20?-hydroxy-progesterone (20?-OHProg). In this study, to understand the role of residue 54 in the steroid binding and discrimination, the V54L mutation in human 3?-HSD3 has been created. We have solved two crystal structures of the 3?-HSD3·NADP(+)·Progesterone complex and the 3?-HSD3 V54L·NADP(+)·progesterone complex. Interestingly, progesterone adopts two different binding modes to form complexes within the wild type enzyme, with one binding mode similar to the orientation of a bile acid (ursodeoxycholate) in the reported ternary complex of human 3?-HSD3·NADP(+)·ursodeoxycholate and the other binding mode resembling the orientation of 20?-OHProg in the ternary complex of human 20?-HSD·NADP(+)·20?-OHProg. However, the V54L mutation directly restricts the steroid binding modes to a unique one, which resembles the orientation of 20?-OHProg within human 20?-HSD. Furthermore, the kinetic study has been carried out. The results show that the V54L mutation significantly decreases the 3?-HSD activity for the reduction of DHT, while this mutation enhances the 20?-HSD activity to convert progesterone.
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Feasibility of ?-Sheet Breaker Peptide-H102 Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease Based on ?-Amyloid Hypothesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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?-amyloid hypothesis is the predominant hypothesis in the study of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This hypothesis claims that aggregation and neurotoxic effects of amyloid ? (A?) is the common pathway in a variety of etiological factors for Alzheimer's disease. A? peptide derives from amyloid precursor protein (APP). ?-sheet breaker peptides can directly prevent and reverse protein misfolding and aggregation in conformational disorders. Based on the stereochemical structure of A?1-42 and aggregation character, we had designed a series of ?-sheet breaker peptides in our previous work and screened out a 10-residue peptide ?-sheet breaker peptide, H102. We evaluated the effects of H102 on expression of P-tau, several associated proteins, inflammatory factors and apoptosis factors, and examined the cognitive ability of APP transgenic mice by behavioral test. This study aims to validate the ?-amyloid hypothesis and provide an experimental evidence for the feasibility of H102 treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
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Expression of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 and monocarboxylate transporter 8 in the rat placental barrier and the compensatory response to thyroid dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thyroid hormones (THs) must pass from mother to fetus for normal fetal development and require the expression of placental TH transporters. We investigate the compensatory effect of placental organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) on maternal thyroid dysfunction. We describe the expressions of these two transporters in placental barriers and trophoblastic cell populations in euthyroidism and thyroid dysfunction resulting from differential iodine nutrition at gestation day (GD) 16 and 20, that is, before and after the onset of fetal thyroid function. Immunohistochemistry revealed that in the blood-placenta barrier, these two TH transporters were strongly expressed in the villous interstitial substance and were weakly expressed in trophoblast cells. Levels of Oatp1c1 protein obviously increased in the placental fetal portion during maternal thyroid deficiency at GD16. Under maternal thyroid deficiency after the production of endogenous fetal TH, quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of Oatp1c1 occurred along with up-regulation of Mct8 in trophoblast cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM); this was consistent with the protein levels in the fetal portion of the placenta. In addition, decreased D3 mRNA at GD16 and increased D2 mRNA on two gestational days were observed in trophoblast cells with thyroid dysfunction. However, levels of Oatp1c1 mRNA at GD16 and D3 mRNA at GD20 were too low to be detectable in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, placental Oatp1c1 plays an essential compensatory role when the transplacental passage of maternal THs is insufficient at the stage before the fetal TH production. In addition, the coordinated effects of Oatp1c1, Mct8, D2 and D3 in the placental barrier may regulate both transplacental TH passage and the development of trophoblast cells during thyroid dysfunction throughout the pregnancy.
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Dissecting the molecular mechanism of ionizing radiation-induced tissue damage in the feather follicle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex morphology. We find that IR induces defects in feather formation in a dose-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed at 5 Gy. A transient, reversible perturbation of feather growth was induced at 10 Gy, leading to defects in the feather structure. This perturbation became irreversible at 20 Gy. Molecular and cellular analysis revealed P53 activation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the pathobiology. IR also induces patterning defects in feather formation, with disrupted branching morphogenesis. This perturbation is mediated by cytokine production and Stat1 activation, as manipulation of cytokine levels or ectopic Stat1 over-expression also led to irregular feather branching. Furthermore, AG-490, a chemical inhibitor of Stat1 signaling, can partially rescue IR-induced tissue damage. Our results suggest that the feather follicle could serve as a useful model to address the in vivo impact of the many mechanisms of IR-induced tissue damage.
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A comparative study of antitumor activities and DNA cleavage on a class of dehydroabietylamine derivatives.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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A series of novel dehydroabietylamine derivatives containing tricyclic diterpene structures were synthesized. The antitumor activities of these compounds against L02, Hey-1B and HepG2 cells were investigated. Significant activity was discovered forfourteen analogs. Meanwhile these compounds exhibit DNA cleavage activities on plasmid DNA (Escherichia coli), which depend on the Schiff base structure and the substituent of the aromatic moiety. Our findings present further information on the relationship between the chemical structure, biological function and DNA cleavage characteristics.
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Chaperone heat shock protein 70 in nucleus accumbens core: a novel biological target of behavioural sensitization to morphine in rats.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Drug addiction is a major public health issue, yet the underlying adaptation of neural networks by drugs of abuse is not fully understood. We have previously linked chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to drug-induced adaptations. Focusing on the NAc core and shell, the present study aims to provide further findings for our understanding of the relation between behavioural sensitization to morphine and Hsp70 at transcriptional and functional levels in rats. Firstly, we delineated the characteristics of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.). Secondly, Hsp70 protein expression in the NAc core was time- and dose-relatedly induced during the development of behavioural sensitization to a single morphine exposure in rats, and Pearson analysis indicated a positive correlation between behavioural sensitization and Hsp70 expression in NAc core. Thirdly, at the transcriptional level, intra-NAc core injection of the specific heat shock factor-I (HSF-I) inhibitor N-Formyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzylidine-?-butyrolactam (KNK437) suppressed Hsp70 expression and the development of behavioural sensitization, while the HSF-I specific inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) promoted both of them. Interestingly, intra-NAc shell injection of KNK437 or GGA did not affect the development of behavioural sensitization. Finally, both the functional inhibition of Hsp70 ATPase activity by methylene blue (MB), and the antagonism of Hsp70 substrate binding site (SBD) activity by pifithrin-? (PES) impaired the development of behavioural sensitization when they were microinjected into the NAc core. Taken together, the critical involvement of chaperone Hsp70 in behavioural sensitization to morphine identifies a biological target for long-lasting adaptations with relevance to addiction.
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[A novel TaqMan® MGB probe for specifically detecting Streptococcus mutans].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To design a new TaqMan® MGB probe for improving the specificity of Streptococcus mutanss detection.
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Serum melatonin is an alternative index of Parkinsons disease severity.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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The protective potential of melatonin (MLT) in Parkinsons disease (PD) is the subject of considerable controversy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate serum MLT levels in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rats and patients with PD. Blood samples were collected from rats at 10:00AM and from patients with PD and healthy subjects between 8:00-10:00AM. Serum MLT levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results revealed that the morning serum MLT levels either in 6-OHDA-induced hemi-parkinsonian rats or patients with PD were significantly higher than that of control group. Our results also demonstrate that serum MLT levels are correlated with severity of PD according to H & Y scale.
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Variations of IGHMBP2 Gene Was Not the Major Cause of Han Chinese Patients With Non-5q-Spinal Muscular Atrophies.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1), a notably common form of non-5q-spinal muscular atrophy, can be confused with infantile spinal muscular atrophy and is characterized by the early onset of diaphragmatic palsy and predominantly distal muscle weakness. The defective gene, immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2), is located on chromosome 11q13-q21. In this study, we screened the IGHMBP2 gene in 53 unrelated Han Chinese non-5q-spinal muscular atrophy patients and 100 healthy controls. Two novel mutations (c.711+1G>C and c.1817G>A) and 5 nucleotide polymorphisms (c.57T>C, c.1554C>T, c.1914G>A, c.2080C>T, and c.2270G>C) were identified. However, only 1 patient harbored the compound heterozygous mutations (c.711+1G>C, c.1817G>A). Furthermore, the homozygous c.2636C>A (p.T879 K) variation, which has been included as a mutation in the Human Gene Mutation Database, was found both in patients and healthy individuals. In conclusion, the IGHMBP2 gene was not found to be a major causative gene linked to Han Chinese non-5q-spinal muscular atrophy patients.
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[Activation of mTOR in maldeveloped balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons of type II focal cortical dysplasia].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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To investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase was abnormally activated in maldeveloped balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with refractory epilepsy.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted 1,2,3-benzotriazines and pyrido[3,2-d]-1,2,3-triazines as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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A novel series of substituted 1,2,3-benzotriazines and pyrido[3,2-d]-1,2,3-triazines were synthesized. The abilities of these compounds to inhibit the VEGFR-2 kinase activity and the proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were determined. 6-Methoxy-4-substituted-1,2,3-benzotriazines and 4-substituted-6-chloro-pyrido[3,2-d]-1,2,3-triazines have the abilities of inhibiting the VEGFR-2 kinase activity, but only the 4-substituted-6-chloro-pyrido[3,2-d]-1,2,3-triazines exhibit good growth inhibitory effects on MVECs. Compound 6-chloro-4-(3-trifluoromethylanilino)-pyrido[3,2-d][1,2,3]triazin (11d) is less half active than PTK787 to inhibit the VEGFR-2 kinase activity, but is more active than PTK787 to inhibit the growth of MVECs. The potential binding modes of 6d, 11d, and CTZ12 in complex with their putative intracellular target, VEGFR-2, were predicted using Surflex-Dock.
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[The combined effects of beta-sheet breaker and hUCMSC on APP transgenic mice].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To study the effect of combining the injection of beta-sheet breaker H102 with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) on APP transgenic mice behavior, P-tau, apoptosis and the expression of relevant enzymes in the brain.
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Contrast agent suppresses endothelium-dependent arterial dilation after digital subtraction angiography procedure in patients with diabetic foot.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Recent studies showed that contrast agents can induce renal injury. Thus, the present study was designed to assess whether the contrast agents used during digital subtraction angiography (DSA) procedure can damage endothelium. Fow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD) was measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 7 days after DSA in 198 subjects with diabetic foot. We also measured the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Compared with baseline (3.60 ± 0.47 %), FMD at 1 day decreased (2.74 ± 0.47 %), and increased significantly from 1 to 3 days (p < 0.01), and returned to baseline level at 7 days after DSA. The plasma TBARS increased at 1 day and decreased from 1 to 3 days (p < 0.01), and returned to baseline level at 7 days after DSA. CRP, IL-6, and TNF-? had similar changes before and after DSA procedure. FMD was significantly correlated to vWF, IL-6, TNF-?, CRP, and TBARS (p < 0.01). A negative correlation between contrast volume and FMD, positive correlation between contrast volume and vWF, TBARS, CRP, IL-6 at 1 or 3 days after DSA exist in diabetic group (p < 0.05). Contrast medium suppresses FMD, probably through an increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals and inflammation although adequate hydration was given in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, an effective prophylaxis should allow to prevent this complication.
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[Research on the incompatibility of Radix adenophorae, Radix glehniae combined with Veratrum nigrum L. by uniform designed toxicity assay].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To study the toxicity changes of different proportions of Radix Adenophorae, Radix Glehniae combined with Veratrum nigrum L., thus providing acute toxicity data and investigating whether decoction factors were correlated with toxicity.
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[Clinical efficacies of inhaled corticosteroids plus theophylline in the treatment of bronchial asthma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To explore the therapeutic efficacies of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus low-dose theophylline for moderate bronchial asthma.
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[Effect of shenfu injection on CYP450s of rat liver].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The paper is to report the study of the effect of Shenfu injection on the enzyme activity of liver CYP450 and its mRNA level of rat liver. Microsome of rat liver was prepared after intravenous administration of Shenfu injection for 7 days. The enzyme activity was quantified by Cocktail method. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11 and CYP3A1 in the liver was detected by RT-PCR. Shenfu injection obviously induced the enzyme activities of CYP2B and CYP2C. Meantime Shenfu injection decreased the enzyme activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A. The mRNA levels of CYP2B and CYP2C were also induced in rats treated with Shenfu injection. But it obviously inhibited the mRNA level of CYP1A2 and CYP3A. Since the enzyme activity and mRNA level were obviously changed after administration, the potential effect of drug-drug interaction should be concerned.
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[Application of phosphates and phosphonates prodrugs in drug research and development].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Based on the character of the molecular structure, the prodrugs of phosphates and phosphonates were divided into two categories. The first is the drug which contained the phosphate group, introducing protected groups to increase lipophilicity and improve bioavailability. The other one is the drug which had no phosphate group, introducing the phosphate group into molecules to enhance the solubility, regulate the distribution coefficient and enhance the drug-like property. This review focuses on the application of phosphates and phosphonates in drug research and development based on improvement of physico-chemical property, drug safety and the pharmacokinetics.
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The synthesis of novel taxoids for oral administration.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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A group of novel taxoids, with modifications at C-7, C-10, C-3 and C-14 positions of paclitaxel, was synthesized in order to improve their biological profile by decreasing their affinity with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and increasing cellular permeability. Most of the new taxoids demonstrated the similar potent cytotoxic activities in MCF-7 human tumor cell line as paclitaxel in vitro. In the permeability assay with monolayers of Caco-2 cells, most of the compounds demonstrated an increased trans-cellular transport in A-to-B direction in comparison with paclitaxel. Among them the compounds T-13, T-15 and T-26 showed the highest permeability, and with efflux ratios better than that of ortataxel. The interaction of the compounds T-13 and T-26 with P-gp was evaluated using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-multidrug resistance-1(MDR1) and MDCK-wild-type (WT). The results indicated that T-13 and T-26 were poor substrates for P-gp and possessed inhibiting effects of P-gp mediated efflux. It was thus clear that simultaneous modifications at the C-7, C-10 and C-3 positions of paclitaxel significantly impaired its interactions with P-gp and interfered with P-gp mediated efflux.
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Will weight loss cause significant dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy?
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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This study aimed to quantify dosimetric effects of weight loss for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Overall, 25 patients with NPC treated with IMRT were enrolled. We simulated weight loss during IMRT on the computer. Weight loss model was based on the planning computed tomography (CT) images. The original external contour of head and neck was labeled plan 0, and its volume was regarded as pretreatment normal weight. We shrank the external contour with different margins (2, 3, and 5mm) and generated new external contours of head and neck. The volumes of reconstructed external contours were regarded as weight during radiotherapy. After recontouring outlines, the initial treatment plan was mapped to the redefined CT scans with the same beam configurations, yielding new plans. The computer model represented a theoretical proportional weight loss of 3.4% to 13.7% during the course of IMRT. The dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) of primary gross tumor volume and clinical target volume significantly increased by 1.9% to 2.9% and 1.8% to 2.9% because of weight loss, respectively. The dose to the PTV of gross tumor volume of lymph nodes fluctuated from -2.0% to 1.0%. The dose to the brain stem and the spinal cord was increased (p < 0.001), whereas the dose to the parotid gland was decreased (p < 0.001). Weight loss may lead to significant dosimetric change during IMRT. Repeated scanning and replanning for patients with NPC with an obvious weight loss may be necessary.
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HPLC-DAD method for comprehensive quality control of Semen Strychni.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Semen Strychni is the seed of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae). Its quality control procedure remains an issue since previous reports only focused on Strychnos alkaloids. To the best of our knowledge, chlorogenic acid (a phenolic acid) and loganin (an iridoid glycoside) are selected for the first time as marker constituents of quality control for Semen Strychni because of their bioactive activity correlating with therapeutic effects.
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Antitumor and scavenging radicals activities of some polyphenols related to dehydroabietylamine derivatives.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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A novel series of polyphenols 4-9 were synthesized by the reaction of catechol with dehydroabietylamine derivatives. The antitumor activities of these compounds against L02 and HepG2 cells were investigated. Among them, compounds 4, 5, and 9 can inhibit HepG2 cells viability, but have lower inhibitory effect on L02 cells in the same concentration, indicating their potential for further development. Meanwhile, the novel series of polyphenols exhibited stronger radical-scavenging activities than the control groups.
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A new polyketide from Diaporthe sp. SXZ-19, an endophytic fungal strain of Camptotheca acuminate.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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A new polyketide named (1R,2E,4S,5R)-1-[(2R)-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-4,5-dihydroxy-hex-2-en-1-yl(2E)-2-methylbut-2-enoate (1), along with eight known polyketide including one monoterpene (2), three linear furanopolyketides (3-5) and four lovastatin analogues (6-9), was isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Diaporthe sp. SXZ-19 of Camptotheca acuminate. The chemical structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including FT-ICR-MS, IR and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The in vitro cytotoxicity of 1 against the human colon cancer cell line HCT 116 was evaluated but showed no evident activity.
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Multiple polymorphisms within the PLCE1 are associated with esophageal cancer via promoting the gene expression in a Chinese Kazakh population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Although recent genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) identified a susceptibility locus in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) in Chinese Han populations, few studies further confirmed these findings in pure Kazakh population in which there are higher incidence and mortality of ESCC. Here, we investigated the potential associations between 19 SNPs of PLCE1 and susceptibility to ESCC in 222 cases and 326 controls from a pure ethnic population of Kazakh. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the PLCE1 expression levels and evaluate their association with PLCE1 polymorphism. We found that only 4 SNPs (rs753724, rs11187842, rs2274223, and rs12263737) with moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) confer significantly increased risk of ESCC, with the ORs ranging from 1.43 to 2.04, and there was a risk allele dose-dependent increase in ESCC risk (P-trend=0.043). Especially, the risk effects of rs2274223 were more evident in poor differentiation and advanced clinical stages of Kazakh ESCC. Additionally, the significantly lowest PLCE1 mRNA expression was found in the KYSE-150 cell line having no risk alleles compared with other three cell lines having risk alleles, and the normal tissues of both homozygous mutant type of PLCE1 rs12263737 and rs2274223 had a higher PLCE1 staining score than that of homozygous wild type. Our findings suggested that genetic variants in PLCE1 might serve as candidate markers for Kazakh ESCC susceptibility, and these LD variants might influence ESCC risk individually and jointly by promoting the messenger RNA and protein expression of the gene.
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Finite element analysis of three zygomatic implant techniques for the severely atrophic edentulous maxilla.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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A variety of zygomatic implantation techniques currently exist; however, a consensus regarding the most suitable method has not yet been reached.
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Acquisition of thin coronal sectional dataset of cadaveric liver.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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To obtain the thin coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver by using digital freezing milling technique.
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[Screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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In order to study effects of ginseng on the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, screening of pregnane X receptor activation from ginsenosides was performed by reporter assay. Based on PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines, 13 ginsenosides were screened for pregnane X receptor activation by reporter assays, and RIF as the positive control. The effect of ginsenosides Rg1 onCYP3A4 mRNA expression was also investigated by RT-PCR. The PXR-CYP3A stable translation cell lines had good response to RIF, and the EC50 is 2.51 micro mol x L(-1). When the condition of final concentration was 10 micromol x L(-1), ginsenoside F2 and protopanaxatriol had moderate inductive effects on PXR. Panaxotriol, Rg2, pseudoginsenoside F11, Rg1, ginsenoside and Rb3 had inhibitory effects on PXR. Ginsenoside Rf1, Rg3, Rh2 and protopanaxdiol had no obvious effects on PXR. Rg1 down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation of pregnane X receptor by ginsenosides may influence the metabolism of drug belong to CYP3A4 substrate, and cause ginseng-drug interactions.
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[Tumor suppressor role of chromatin-remodeling factor ARID1A].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The mammalian SWI/SNF complex is one of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, development and tumor suppression. ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A) is a large subunit of SWI/SNF complex, and also an ARID family member with non- sequence-specific DNA binding activity. ARID1A is a tumor suppressor gene which is frequently mutated in many cancers, such as ovarian, bladder and gastric cancers. ARID1A can suppress cell proliferation through the up-regulation of p21 and the down-regulation of E2F-responsive genes. These findings on ARID1A and its role of tumor suppression contribute to understanding the mechanism of cancer development and developing new therapy for cancer.It is introduced in the review that ARID1A basic characteristic, related to cancer development, and biological role for full understanding of ARID1A.
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Is it necessary to repeat CT imaging and replanning during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Our aim was to evaluate the volumetric and dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the necessity of replanning.
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Overexpression of PLCE1 in Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: implications in cancer metastasis and aggressiveness.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Three recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese Han populations have identified an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) susceptibility locus within phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) gene, which encodes a phospholipase involved in intracellular signaling. The expressed PLCE1 in ESCC, however, are inconsistent. This study examined PLCE1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) from 110 ethnic Kazakh ESCC patients and 50 from adjacent normal esophageal tissues (NETs). The expressed PLCE1 was localized in cytoplasm, especially in the peripheral layers of cancer cell nests, which was significantly higher in tumors than in NETs (p < 0.001). Increased expression of PLCE1 was correlated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (p = 0.015) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003) in patients with ESCC. Of the 110 patients, we examined 50 paired ESCC tissues and corresponding NETs by quantitative RT-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and the mean mRNA level of PLCE1 in ESCC was 1.85-fold higher compared with those in corresponding NETs (p = 0.0012). Meanwhile, 4 of 5 ESCC cell lines also showed elevated expression of PLCE1 mRNA. Furthermore, elevated expression of PLCE1 mRNA in Kazakh ESCC was associated with its immunoreactivity (? = 0.297, p = 0.040), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), and advanced TNM stages of ESCC (p = 0.013). To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that PLCE1 overexpression correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stages of Kazakh ESCC, implicating a role of PLCE1 in cancer metastasis and aggressiveness in ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC. Furthermore, the current findings may warrant investigations into whether inhibiting PLCE1 could be a strategy for targeted anticancer therapy particularly for Kazakh ESCC.
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MicroRNA-29 family, a crucial therapeutic target for fibrosis diseases.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approximately 20-nucleotides single-stranded endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs have recently been known to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Fibrosis is the leading cause of organ dysfunction in diseases and results from an imbalance in the turnover of extracellular matrix components. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that miR-29 family participates in the development of liver fibrosis, renal fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis. In this review, we are discussing the comprehensive role of miR-29 family in moderating profibrotic effect and its potential as therapeutic approach to fibrosis diseases.
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Comparison of Chinese and white Bolton standards at age 13.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To create a combined male-female Chinese Bolton standard for age 13 and to compare it to the combined Bolton standard for white 13 year olds.
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Noninvasive urine-derived cell lines derived from neurological genetic patients.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Many major inherited neurological disorders are characterized by early childhood onset, high lethality rate, and the absence of effective treatments. A poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms of such disorders is partly because of the scarcity of patient-specific samples. In this study, we cultured the urine sediments of such patients, aiming to explore the capacity of urine cell cultures to obtain specimens from patients suffering from rare inherited neurological diseases. We collected fresh urine from a variety of neurogenetic patients; cultured the specimens; generated different urine cell lines; and classified these cell lines through morphology, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunofluorescence. We then used these cell lines to detect the affected genes in spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We successfully established cell lines from patients with spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, and Wilsons disease. All established cell lines consisted of urinary tract epithelial cells and podocytes, and had the same gene defects as the blood specimens. Urine cell culture is thus a new, simple, and noninvasive avenue for getting patient-specific samples not only for genetic diagnosis, but also for storing the samples from patients with rare neurological inherited diseases.
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CGRP-alpha application: a potential treatment to improve osseoperception of endosseous dental implants.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Dental implants have been used to restore missing teeth for several decades. However, the capacity of implants to feel the mechanical stimuli and transmit neural signals remains lower than that of natural teeth. The poor osseoperception of dental implants is due to the absence of periodontal ligaments and Ruffini-like endings as well as the secondary injury during the implant surgery and then the insufficient regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve fibers around the implants. It is a hot topic to improve the quantity and density of peripheral nerve fibers or mechanoreceptors around endosseous dental implants. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-alpha (?CGRP), a neuropeptide widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, is found to be upregulated in regenerating axons within injury zones and be capable of promoting local Schwann cells proliferation, which is critical for partnering during peripheral nerve regeneration. Moreover, researches show that ?CGRP is a potent vasodilator and a physiologic activator of bone formation. Thus, we hypothesize that local application of ?CGRP may promote peripheral nerve fibers regeneration during the bone healing progress after dental implant surgery, thus improve the osseoperception of dental implants.
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Enhanced production of CTGF and IL-11 from highly metastatic hepatoma cells under hypoxic conditions: an implication of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis to bone.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The biology underlying bone-specific metastasis (BM) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to further elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying HCC with BM.
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Interaction of Androst-5-ene-3?,17?-diol and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol with estrogen and androgen receptors: a combined binding and cell study.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Androst-5-ene-3?,17?-diol (ADIOL) and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (3?-DIOL), metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, are known to possess estrogenic properties. To better understand their hormonal action and roles in the proliferation of breast cancer (BC) cells, we studied their binding to sex-hormone receptors in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ZR-75-1 and T-47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human BC cells. The results demonstrated that estradiol (E2), ADIOL and 3?-DIOL stimulated the proliferation of ZR-75-1 and T-47D cells, but had no effect on ER-negative cells. In the presence of estradiol, ADIOL and 3?-DIOL inhibited the estrogen-stimulated BC cell growth. This inhibition was counteracted by anti-androgens, which were unable to affect the ADIOL and 3?-DIOL stimulatory effects in E2-free medium. On the other hand, in the presence of tamoxifen, ADIOL and 3?-DIOL showed an additional anti-proliferative activity on hormone-sensitive BC cells compared with tamoxifen treatment alone. These results are similar to previous reports obtained using MCF-7 cells, which confirmed that ADIOL and 3?-DIOL stimulated estrogen-dependent BC cell growth via ERs, but inhibited growth via androgen receptors (ARs). Several steroids bind to both ER and AR in a different preference and degree, i.e. E2>estrone (E1)>ADIOL>3?-DIOL>testosterone (T)>DHT for ER and DHT>T>3?-DIOL>ADIOL>E1>E2 for AR. The relative binding affinities of ADIOL, 3?-DIOL, and E2 corresponded well to their respective potential in stimulating cell proliferation of ZR-75-1 and T-47D cells in our results. The intrinsic relationship between cell proliferation effects and binding affinities for receptors of several steroids was revealed here by a combined binding and cell study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Synthesis and biological testing of steroid derivatives as inhibitors.
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Crystal Structures of Human Muscle Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase: Novel Quaternary States, Enhanced AMP Affinity, and Allosteric Signal Transmission Pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, is subject to metabolic regulation. The human muscle isozyme is significantly more sensitive towards the allosteric inhibitor, AMP, than the liver isoform. Here we report crystal structures and kinetic studies for wild-type human muscle Fru-1,6-Pase, the AMP-bound (1.6 Å), and product-bound complexes of the Q32R mutant, which was firstly introduced by an error in the cloning. Our high-resolution structure reveals for the first time that the higher sensitivity of the muscle isozyme towards AMP originates from an additional water-mediated, H-bonded network established between AMP and the binding pocket. Also present in our structures are a metaphosphate molecule, alternate conformations of Glu97 coordinating Mg(2+), and possible metal migration during catalysis. Although the individual subunit is similar to previously reported Fru-1,6-Pase structures, the tetrameric assembly of all these structures deviates from the canonical R- or T-states, representing novel tetrameric assemblies. Intriguingly, the concentration of AMP required for 50% inhibition of the Q32R mutant is increased 19-fold, and the cooperativity of both AMP and Mg(2+) is abolished or decreased. These structures demonstrate the Q32R mutation affects the conformations of both N-terminal residues and the dynamic loop 52-72. Also importantly, structural comparison indicates that this mutation in helix ?2 is detrimental to the R-to-T conversion as evidenced by the absence of quaternary structural changes upon AMP binding, providing direct evidence for the critical role of helix ?2 in the allosteric signal transduction.
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Dendritic cell immunoreceptor is a new target for anti-AIDS drug development: identification of DCIR/HIV-1 inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The HIV-1 pandemic continues to expand while no effective vaccine or cure is yet available. Existing therapies have managed to limit mortality and control viral proliferation, but are associated with side effects, do not cure the disease and are subject to development of resistance. Finding new therapeutic targets and drugs is therefore crucial. We have previously shown that the dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR), a C-type lectin receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), acts as an attachment factor for HIV-1 to DCs and contributes to HIV-1 transmission to CD4(+) T lymphocytes (CD4TL). Directly involved in HIV-1 infection, DCIR is expressed in apoptotic or infected CD4TL and promotes trans-infection to bystander cells. Here we report the 3D modelling of the extracellular domain of DCIR. Based on this structure, two surface accessible pockets containing the carbohydrate recognition domain and the EPS binding motif, respectively, were targeted for screening of chemicals that will disrupt normal interaction with HIV-1 particle. Preliminary screening using Raji-CD4-DCIR cells allowed identification of two inhibitors that decreased HIV-1 attachment and propagation. The impact of these inhibitors on infection of DCs and CD4TL was evaluated as well. The results of this study thus identify novel molecules capable of blocking HIV-1 transmission by DCs and CD4TL.
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[Etiology and prognosis of peripheral precocious puberty in children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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To study the causes and prognosis of peripheral precocious puberty.
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[Transcriptional activation of TMSG-1 by complex of KLF6 and Sp1].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To investigate the regulatory mechanism of the transcription of tumor metastasis suppressor gene TMSG-1.
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