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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sulforaphane reduction of testicular apoptotic cell death in diabetic mice is associated with the upregulation of Nrf2 expression and function.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Diabetes-induced testicular cell death is due predominantly to oxidative stress. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor in controlling the antioxidative system and is inducible by sulforaphane (SFN). To test whether SFN prevents diabetes-induced testicular cell death, an insulin-defective stage of type 2 diabetes (IDS-T2DM) was induced in mice. This was accomplished by feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 mo to induce insulin resistance and then giving one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia while age-matched control mice were fed a normal diet (ND). IDS-T2DM and ND-fed control mice were then further subdivided into those with or without 4-mo SFN treatment. IDS-T2DM induced significant increases in testicular cell death presumably through receptor and mitochondrial pathways, shown by increased ratio of Bax/Bcl2 expression and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8 without significant change of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Diabetes also significantly increased testicular oxidative damage and inflammation. All of these diabetic effects were significantly prevented by SFN treatment with upregulated Nrf2 expression. These results suggest that IDS-T2DM induces testicular cell death presumably through caspase-8 activation and mitochondria-mediated cell death pathways and also by significantly downregulating testicular Nrf2 expression and function. SFN upregulates testicular Nrf2 expression and its target antioxidant expression, which was associated with significant protection of the testis from IDS-T2DM-induced germ cell death.
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Alpha-2-macroglobulin as a radioprotective agent: a review.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Radiation is an important modality in cancer treatment, and eighty percent of cancer patients need radiotherapy at some point during their clinical management. However, radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restricts the therapeutic doses of radiation that can be delivered to tumours and thereby limits the effectiveness of the treatment. The use of radioprotectors represents an obvious strategy to obtain better tumour control using a higher dose in radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical efficacy owing to their inherent toxicity and high cost. Hence, the development of radioprotective agents with lower toxicity and an extended window of protection has attracted a great deal of attention, and the identification of alternative agents that are less toxic and highly effective is an absolute necessity. Recent studies have shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2M) possesses radioprotective effects. ?2M is a tetrameric, disulfide-rich plasma glycoprotein that functions as a non-selective inhibitor of different types of non-specific proteases and as a carrier of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. ?2M induces protein factors whose interplay underlies radioprotection, which supports the idea that ?2M is the central effector of natural radioprotection in the rat. Pretreatment with ?2M has also induced a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage and the complete restoration of liver and body weight. Mihailovi? et al. concluded that the radioprotection provided by ?2M was in part mediated through cytoprotection of new blood cells produced in the bone marrow; these authors also indicated that an important aspect of the radioprotective effect of amifostine was the result of the induction of the endogenous cytoprotective capability of ?2M. The radioprotective effects of ?2M are possibly due to antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory functions, as well as the maintenance of homeostasis, and enhancement of the DNA repair and cell recovery processes. This review is the first to summarise the observations and elucidate the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of ?2M. The lacunae in the existing knowledge and directions for future research are also addressed.
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Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were further separated into three groups according to their motifs, which will help future functional researches. Surprisingly, no pheromone receptor was identified in the two Dendrolimus species, which may indicate a special pheromone identification mechanism in Dendrolimus. Our work allows for further functional studies of pheromones and host volatile recognition genes, and give novel candidate targets for pest management.
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Soluble Expression of Bladder Cancer Biomarker Matrix Metalloproteinase 1.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) has been shown as a novel unique biomarker of bladder cancer in urine. MMP1 can only be detected using conventional and time-consuming methods, such as ELISA and Western. Refolded MMP1 has been achieved and used in probe screen for many years, while there is no clinical application for MMP1 detection until now. Soluble expression of MMP1 is necessary in urine detection.
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Selective expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand mediated by microRNA suppresses renal carcinoma growth.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common types among kidney cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) strongly induces apoptosis in RCC. However, TRAIL therapy also leads to hepatotoxicity. To improve the biosafety, we inserted miRNA response elements (MREs) of miR-138, miR-199, and miR-122 into an adenoviral vector, Ad-TRAIL-3MREs, to restrict TRAIL expression within RCC cells. Luciferase assays showed that MREs can regulate the expression of exogenous gene in RCC cells. Ad-TRAIL-3MREs selectively expressed TRAIL and induce apoptosis in RCC cells, but not in normal cells. MTT assays revealed that Ad-TRAIL-3MREs reduced viability of RCC cells without cytotoxicity to normal cells. Ad-TRAIL-3MREs suppressed the growth of ACHN tumors and exerted no hepatotoxicity in vivo. Collectively, we generated a TRAIL-expressing adenoviral vector under the regulation of MREs. This miRNA-based gene therapy may be a promising strategy for RCC treatment.
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Molecular characterization, expression pattern, and ligand-binding property of three odorant binding protein genes from Dendrolimus tabulaeformis.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play important roles in insect olfactory processes. The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) is a serious economic pest in China, and the pheromones of this species have been identified to monitor their presence. However, the molecular mechanisms by which D. tabulaeformis perceive pheromones and host volatiles remain unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized three new OBPs, including one pheromone binding protein (PBP1) and two general odor binding proteins (GOBPs), from antennal cDNA of D. tabulaeformis. The deduced amino acid sequences of DtabPBP1, DtabGOBP1, and DtabGOBP2 revealed mature proteins of 140, 147, and 140 amino acids, respectively. Each has six cysteine residues in conserved positions relative to other known OBPs. Amino-acid alignments indicated that the two GOBPs are more conserved (DtabGOBP1 is 52.9-67.4 % identical to orthologs from other Lepidoptera, and DtabGOBP2 is 55.2-81.8 % identical) than the PBP (32.5-46.0 %). Real-time PCR indicated tissue- and sex-specific expression patterns of the three genes. DtabPBP1 was mainly expressed in the antennae of males, whereas female antennae had only 1.09 % the expression in male antennae. Both DtabGOBP1 and DtabGOBP2 were more highly expressed in antennae than in other tissues, while DtabGOBP1 was more abundant in male antennae and DtabGOBP2 in female antennae. In addition, the binding specificities of the three proteins were investigated, and all three OBPs exhibited high binding affinities for the pheromone component (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr). This suggests a role in binding pheromone for GOBPs, as well as PBP1, in D. tabulaeformis.
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Percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus ureteroscopic lithotomy for large (>15?mm) impacted upper ureteral stones in different locations: is the upper border of the fourth lumbar vertebra a good indication for choice of management method?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Abstract To determine whether treatment of patients with large (>15?mm) impacted upper ureteral stones depended on stone location, we prospectively evaluated the therapeutic outcomes, complications, safety, and effectiveness of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopic lithotomy (URSL) in patients with stones higher and lower than the upper border of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Of the 174 patients analyzed, 83 (47.7%) underwent PCNL and 91 (52.3%) underwent URSL; all patients were followed up 1 month later and every 6 months for 18 months. Mean operation time (108.76±19.36 vs. 63.56±16.38 minutes, p<0.05) and postoperative hospital stay (2.49±1.23 vs. 5.36±1.98 days, p<0.05) were significantly longer in the PCNL than in the URSL group. The overall stone-free rates after 1 month were 96.4% and 75.8%, respectively, differing significantly for stones higher (97.8% vs. 57.5%, p<0.05) but not lower (94.7% vs. 90.2%) than the upper border of the fourth lumbar vertebra. The stone-retropulsion rate of URSL differed significantly for stones higher and lower than the upper border of the 4th lumbar vertebra (47.5% vs. 9.8%, p<0.05). Postprocedural complication rates were comparable in the URSL and PCNL groups, although the rate of auxiliary or salvage procedures was higher in the URSL group. The efficiency quotients (EQ) for PCNL and URSL were 0.93 and 0.59, respectively, with EQs in the URSL group differing significantly for stones higher and lower than the upper border of the fourth lumbar vertebra (0.40 vs. 0.82, p<0.05). Our findings indicate that treatment of impacted upper ureteral stones is dependent on stone location relative to the upper border of the fourth lumbar vertebra. URSL is unsuitable for stones at a higher location, whereas URSL and PCNL were equally effective for stones at a lower location.
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Antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of the web-spinning sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).
Micron
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Acantholyda posticalis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is an important pine pest with a world-wide distribution. To clarify the olfactory receptive mechanism of A. posticalis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and distribution of antennal sensilla of adults from two sites in China. The antennae were filiform, and the flagella comprised 32-35 flagellomeres. Six sensillum types were found. Sensilla chaetica were straight setae with sharply pointed tips and without dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla trichodea were characterized by a parallel-grooved wall and one terminal pore and were innervated by four dendrites at the base. Sensilla basiconica I possessed longitudinally grooved surfaces and multiple terminal pores, with five dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla basiconica II not only had a distinct terminal pore but also had numerous tiny wall pores and many dendritic branches within the sensillum lymph. Sensilla coeloconica had deep longitudinal grooves, one terminal pore and six dendrites, while sensilla campaniformia were thick-walled with a terminal opening and sensory nerve bundles in the lumen. Sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea were most abundant and distributed over the entire antennae, while s. basiconica I and II, s. coeloconica, and s. campaniformia were restricted to the ventral flagellar surfaces. Although the shape and structure of antennae were similar in males and females, females had significantly longer antennae than males, and males had significantly more s. basiconica I than females. We compared the morphology and structure of these sensilla to other Hymenoptera and discussed their possible functions.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by increasing prohibitin protein expression in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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The major purpose in our study was to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats and determine further whether the protective effect is mediated by modulation of prohibitin protein expression. Gentamicin was injected intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 8 days to induce nephrotoxicity. The effect of acute and chronic treatment of sodium butyrate on nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin was assessed. Various doses of sodium butyrate (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min prior to the daily gentamicin injection. Histological analysis was used to evaluate the lesions in kidney after gentamicin administration. Expression of prohibitin was evaluated with immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that gentamicin treatment for 8 consecutive days significantly increased in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which indicated nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. In addition, chronic treatment with NaBu significantly attenuated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by increasing activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical studies in gentamicin-induced rats also demonstrated an increase in the levels of inducible prohibitin after treatment with sodium butyrate. Our results indicated that sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, decreased gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing renal antioxidant enzymes activity and the expression of prohibitin protein.
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Ursolic acid induces apoptosis via Akt/NF-?B signaling suppression in T24 human bladder cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The Akt/NF-?B pathway is involved in numerous anti?apoptotic and drug resistance events which occur in various types of bladder cancer. The present study investigated the role of ursolic acid in the regulation of anti-apoptotic Akt and NF-?Bp65 signaling. T24 human bladder cancer cells were treated with ursolic acid at final concentrations of 12.5, 25 or 50 µmol/l for 48 h. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The results showed that anti-apoptotic phospho-Akt1 (pAkt1), phospho-I?B? (pI?B?), NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 were inhibited and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated in a dose?dependent manner. A 50 µmol/l dose of ursonic acid decreased the mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 0.17 (8.9/52.6)-fold and 0.22 (9.5/42.3)?fold, respectively. The pro-apoptotic caspase-3 mRNA expression levels were upregulated 4.78 (38.7/8.1)-fold. The anti-apoptotic pAkt1, pI?B?, NF-?Bp65 and Bcl-2 protein levels were downregulated to 5.1 (blot grayscales vs. control at 32.3), 3.2 (vs. 24.2), 8.5 (vs. 45.1) and 9.2 (vs. 40.3). The protein levels of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 were upregulated to 20.7 (vs. 4.7). The proliferative activity of T24 cells treated with 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 µmol/l ursolic acid was significantly reduced compared with that of control cells (83.8, 56.2 and 31.5 vs. 97.6%, respectively, P<0.05 for each). In conclusion, ursolic acid is important in inducing apoptosis via the suppression of Akt/NF-?B signaling in T24 human bladder cancer cells and this occurs in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid may therefore serve as a naturally occurring candidate drug for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.
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Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of urolithiasis in patients with scoliosis.
Int Surg
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We examined the surgical outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in scoliotic patients with complicating urolithiasis. Two patients with scoliosis were hospitalized for MPNCL due to upper tract urolithiasis. Calyx puncture was performed in the prone position under ultrasonographic guidance. The renal access route was established using a set of 8F to 16F dilators, and a transpyelic ballistic lithotriptor was used to fragment the calculi. The stone burdens in the 2 patients were 410 mm(2) and 500 mm(2). The entire operative time was 40 to 70 minutes, and the mean time of establishing percutaneous access was 20 minutes. The calculi were completely removed by single-session pneumatic lithotripsy. The 2 patients recovered from MPCNL uneventfully, and the follow-up radiologic examinations identified no stone residual or recurrence. MPCNL is a minimally invasive modality that is effective and safe for the treatment of urolithiasis in patients with scoliosis.
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Inhibition of autophagy enhances apoptosis induced by the PI3K/AKT/mTor inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in renal cell carcinoma cells.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
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The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a key role in the development of the hypervascular tumor renal cell carcinoma (RCC). NVP-BEZ235 (NVP), a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, showed great antitumor benefit and provided a treatment strategy in RCC. In this study, we test the effect of NVP on survival rate, apoptosis and autophagy in the RCC cell line, 786-0. We also explore the hypothesis that NVP, in combination with autophagy inhibitors, leads to apoptosis enhancement in 786-0 cells. The results showed that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway proteins p-AKT and p-P70S6K were highly expressed in RCC tissue. We also showed that NVP inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and autophagy in RCC cells. The combination treatment of NVP with autophagy inhibitors enhanced the effect of NVP on suppressing 786-0 growth and induction of apoptosis. This study proposes a novel treatment paradigm where combining PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors and autophagy inhibitors lead to enhanced RCC cell apoptosis.
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Sexual dimorphism in antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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Insects rely heavily on olfaction to locate habitat, mates, and oviposition sites, while odorant molecules and the antennal olfactory sensory cells of insects are two indispensable components of olfactory response. Our previous work identified the sex pheromones and volatile compounds derived from host plant of Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu, a serious economic pest of pines in northern China. However, little is known about the olfactory system of D. tabulaeformis, especially in females. To make a better understanding of the D. tabulaeformis olfactory response, we investigated the structure, innervation, numbers, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae of male and female moth, based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The pinniform antennae of this moth bear five types of sensilla: trichoid (TS), basiconica (BS), styloconic (StS), and chaetica (ChS) sensilla, and belt-type structures (BTSs). The BTSs are hollow and are not chemical sensilla. The ChSs occur on the scape. StS contain dendrite sheaths and four dendrites containing microtubules in their cores. The BS contents are continuous with that in the subsegments. The TSs were sexually dimorphic and could be divided into 12 subtypes based on dendrite number and form. TS1-4 contained two, three, or four dendrites and were similar in both sexes. TS 5-8 and TS 9-12 occurred only on male and female antenna, respectively. We discussed the possible functions of these sensilla.
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External morphology of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) organ and ultrastructure of the sensilla.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
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In this article, we described the ultrastructure of the sensilla on the antenna, eyes, mouthparts, wings, legs, and external genitalia of female and male Trichogramma dendrolimi using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antenna possessed the most sensilla types. We found 13 types of sensilla on female antenna, which were trichoid sensilla (TS) type 1-4, chaetica sensilla (ChS) type 1-2, campaniform sensilla (CaS), falcate sensilla, placoid sensilla (PS) type 1-2, basiconic capitate peg sensilla (BCPS) type 1, coeloconic sensilla (CoS), and styloconic sensilla. Ten types of sensilla were found on the male antenna, some were the same as that on female T. dendrolimi antenna, such as TS types 1 and 3, CaS, PS type 1, BCPS type 1, and CoS, but TS types 5 and 6, ChS type 3, and BCPS 2 were specific to male T. dendrolimi antenna. The leg possesses eight types of sensilla and a kind of tympana structure. Four types of TSs were found on the wings. On the mouthparts, sensilla on the maxillary and labial palps were unique, including two TSs and one ChS. The ovipositor possesses three types of sensilla, and the copulatory organ possesses two types. The eyes had only one kind of TS. Furthermore, external morphology of antenna and external genitalia revealed distinct sexual dimorphisms. According to their morphology, the possible functions of these sensilla were discussed. These results may further our understanding of the sensory mechanisms of T. dendrolimi in response to infochemicals within the environment.
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Primary osteosarcoma of the ureter.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
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Primary osteosarcoma of the ureter is an extremely rare disease. Herein, the authors report a case of extraosseous osteosarcoma arising in the ureter of a 64-year-old woman. Ureteroscopy showed a papillary mass that protruded into and almost completely occluded the lumen. The tumor was successfully removed, and pathologic analysis identified mitotically active spindle cells and focal areas that contained osteoid. The tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin but negative for cytokeratin (CK), CK7, CK20 and leukocyte-common antigen, supporting a diagnosis of high-grade extraosseous osteosarcoma of the ureter. The patient recovered well from surgery and exhibited no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis 6 months after the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of primary osteosarcoma of the ureter.
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