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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Unidirectional invisibility in a two-layer non-PT-symmetric slab.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Recently, unidirectional invisibility has been demonstrated in parity-time (PT) symmetric periodic structures and has attracted great attention. Nevertheless, fabrication of a complex periodic structure may not be practically easy. In this paper, a simple two-layer non-PT-symmetric slab structure is proposed to realize unidirectional invisibility. We numerically show that in such conventional structure consisting of two slabs with different real parts of refractive indices, unidirectional invisibility can be achieved as proper imaginary parts of refractive indices and thicknesses of the slabs are satisfied. Moreover, the unidirectional invisibility can be converted to unidirectional reflection when the imaginary parts of the refractive indices are tuned to their odd symmetric forms.
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Photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of small SinSm? (n = 1,2; m = 1-4) clusters.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Binary cluster anions composed of silicon and sulfur elements, SinSm(-) (n = 1,2; m = 1-4), were investigated by using photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The vertical detachment energies and the adiabatic detachment energies of these clusters were obtained from their photoelectron spectra. The electron affinity of SiS molecule is determined to be 0.477 ± 0.040 eV. The results show that the most stable structures of the anionic and neutral SinSm (n = 1,2; m = 1-4) clusters prefer to adopt planar configurations except that the structures of Si2S4(-) and Si2S2 are slightly bent.
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Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoGen (-) (n=2-11) Clusters: Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Density Functional Calculations.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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A series of cobalt-doped germanium clusters, CoGen (-/0) (n=2-11), are investigated by using anion photoelectron spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations. For both anionic and neutral CoGen (n=2-11) clusters, the critical size of the transition from exo- to endohedral structures is n=9. Natural population analysis shows that there is electron transfer from the Gen framework to the Co atom at n=7-11 for both anionic and neutral CoGen clusters. The magnetic moments of the anionic and neutral CoGen clusters decrease to the lowest values at n=10 and 11. The transfer of electrons from the Gen framework to the Co atom and the minimization of the magnetic moments are related to the evolution of CoGen structures from exo- to endohedral.
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[Clinical application of tidal breathing lung function test in 1-4 years old children with wheezing diseases].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To study the clinical significance of tidal breathing lung function test in 1-4 years old children with wheezing diseases.
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Eyes on the bodies: An eye tracking study on deployment of visual attention among females with body dissatisfaction.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Visual attentional bias has important functions during the appearance social comparisons. However, for the limitations of experimental paradigms or analysis methods in previous studies, the time course of attentional bias to thin and fat body images among women with body dissatisfaction (BD) has still been unclear. In using free reviewing task combined with eye movement tracking, and based on event-related analyses of the critical first eye movement events, as well as epoch-related analyses of gaze durations, the current study investigated different attentional bias components to body shape/part images during 15s presentation time among 34 high BD and 34 non-BD young women. In comparison to the controls, women with BD showed sustained maintenance biases on thin and fat body images during both early automatic and late strategic processing stages. This study highlights a clear need for research on the dynamics of attentional biases related to body image and eating disturbances.
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Toll-like receptor 7 variations are associated with the susceptibility to HCV infection among Chinese females.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) play a crucial role in provoking an immune response in HCV infection. We aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR7, including rs179009, rs179010 and rs179012, affect the outcomes of HCV infection among the Chinese population. A total of 1767 Chinese Han individuals were enrolled. The distribution of SNP frequencies among three groups with different outcomes of HCV infection was assessed, including healthy controls, cases with spontaneous clearance and cases with viral persistence. Then TLR7 mRNA expression and the production of IFN-? and IL-6 after TLR7 agonist Imiquimod stimulation in vitro were determined. Our results suggested that rs179009 GG genotype was significantly associated with a higher risk of the susceptibility to HCV infection among female subjects (OR=2.42, 95% CI=1.24-4.71, P=0.01). Haplotype GCG was significantly associated with a high risk for HCV susceptibility (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.11-2.03, P=0.01) as compared with the reference haplotype ACG among females. In the functional research of rs179009, a lower IFN-? level was observed in GG genotype than in AA genotype (P=0.032). Our data indicate that TLR7 rs179009 GG genotype and haplotype GCG were associated with an increased risk of the susceptibility to HCV infection among Chinese females, which may be due to the impaired IFN-? response.
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[The unique reflection spectra and IR characteristics of golden-color seawater cultured pearl].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A comparative study on the natural-color golden seawater cultured pearls and the treated-color golden seawater cultured pearls were carried out by UV-Vis reflectance spectra. Furthermore, the frequency variations of v3, v1 , v2 and v4 bands of the aragonites (a crystal form of calcium carbonate) with the positions of nacreous layer and nucleus in natural or treated-color golden-color seawater cultured pearls were firstly systematically measured. The results showed that: (1) based on the results of UV-Vis reflectance spectra of natural or treated-color golden seawater cultured pearls, interestingly, it was firstly found that the natural-color golden one displays slight varied UV-Vis reflection spectra because of its different surface microstructure located on the outer nacreous layer. Meanwhile, according to the characteristic of UV-Vis reflectance spectra of treated-color golden ones, the treated-color ones were firstly classified to four categories. (2) The frequency of v2 band of aragonite in nacreous layer of natural-color or treated-color golden pearls was greater than the other one from theirs corresponding nucleus, namely A clear blue shift was observed in the former. But the other bands were not altered in the positions of nacreous layer and nucleus, and had the same valves with synthetic aragonites. Additionally, the location of absorption bands of aragonite in nacreous layer of natural or treated-color golden pearls had no frequency shift, which indicates that the behavior of color-treating had no effect on the crystal structure of golden pearls.
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Non-Viral Methods For Generating Integration-Free, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were created from mouse fibroblasts by induced expression of Yamanaka factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. This technique has quickly resulted in an exponential increase in the amount of pluripotency studies, and has provided a valuable tool in regenerative medicine. At the same time, many methodologies to generate iPS cells have been reported, and are comprised mainly of viral methods and non-viral methods. Although viral methods may not be applicable for clinical applications, various non-viral methods have been reported in recent years, including DNA vector-based approaches, transfection of mRNA, transduction of reprogramming proteins, and use of small molecule compounds. This review summarizes and evaluates these non-viral methods.
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[Case-control study on the modified ilioinguinal incision of anterior approach for the treatment of pelvic and acetabular fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To study modified ilioinguinal approach through the retrospective analysis on the surgical treatment of 63 patients with pelvic and acetabular fractures through anterior approach.
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Functional RsaI/PstI polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2E1 contributes to bladder cancer susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) might be involved in the development of bladder cancer. However, previous studies of any association between CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism and bladder cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we performed a more precise estimation of the relationship by a meta-analysis based on the currently available evidence from the literature.
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Glucocorticoid Receptor ? Acts as a Co-activator of T-Cell Factor 4 and Enhances Glioma Cell Proliferation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We previously reported that glucocorticoid receptor ? (GR?) regulates injury-mediated astrocyte activation and contributes to glioma pathogenesis via modulation of ?-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism behind cross-talk between GR? and ?-catenin/TCF in the progression of glioma. Here, we reported that GR? knockdown reduced U118 and Shg44 glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that GR? knockdown decreased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity without affecting ?-catenin/TCF complex. Both GR? and GR? directly interact with TCF-4, while only GR? is required for sustaining TCF/LEF activity under hormone-free condition. GR? bound to the N-terminus domain of TCF-4 its influence on Wnt signaling required both ligand- and DNA-binding domains (LBD and DBD, respectively). GR? and TCF-4 interaction is enough to maintain the TCF/LEF activity at a high level in the absence of ?-catenin stabilization. Taken together, these results suggest a novel cross-talk between GR? and TCF-4 which regulates Wnt signaling and the proliferation in gliomas.
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Sex-specific association between X-linked Toll-like receptor 7 with the outcomes of hepatitis C virus infection.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) senses hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and drives the host specific innate and adaptive immune response. The aim of this study was to estimate the distributions of TLR7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs179019 and rs3853839, as well as the effect of TLR7 gene variants on TLR7 mRNA expression and cytokine production in response to TLR7 agonist in vitro. TLR7 SNP genotyping was performed among a Chinese sample population of 418 patients with persistent HCV infection, 317 patients with HCV spontaneous clearance, and 989 healthy controls. TLR7 mRNA expression and TLR7-specific IFN-? and IL-6 secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, derived from 60 healthy individuals in vitro, were then quantified. We identified the association of TLR7 rs3853839C allele, haplotype CC and haplotype AC (rs179019/rs3853839) with protection against HCV persistence in Chinese females (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.81, P=0.01 for rs3853839 GC; OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.11-0.75, P=0.01 for rs3853839 CC; OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.38-0.77, P<0.01 for haplotype CC; OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.10-0.88, P=0.03 for haplotype AC). In addition, the rs3853839 CC genotype among female carriers had significantly low TLR7 mRNA expression (P=0.006 for GG vs. CC, P=0.021 for GC vs. CC), along with decreased IFN-? (P=0.002 for GG vs. CC, P=0.021 for GC vs. CC) and increased antiviral IL-6 production (P=0.002 for GG vs. CC, P=0.030 for GC vs. CC), after treatment with Imiquimod in vitro. The cytokine profile among rs3853839 CC genotype female carriers may indicate a pronounced protective effect against persistent HCV infection. The functional polymorphism of TLR7 rs3853839C allele was found to be sex-specific and associated with protection against HCV persistence among Chinese females, which may be due to specific IFN-? and IL-6 secretion profiles.
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Cell-secreted flavins bound to membrane cytochromes dictate electron transfer reactions to surfaces with diverse charge and pH.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The variety of solid surfaces to and from which microbes can deliver electrons by extracellular electron transport (EET) processes via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) expands the importance of microbial respiration in natural environments and industrial applications. Here, we demonstrate that the bifurcated EET pathway of OM c-Cyts sustains the diversity of the EET surface in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 via specific binding with cell-secreted flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin (RF). Microbial current production and whole-cell differential pulse voltammetry revealed that RF and FMN enhance EET as bound cofactors in a similar manner. Conversely, FMN and RF were clearly differentiated in the EET enhancement by gene-deletion of OM c-Cyts and the dependency of the electrode potential and pH. These results indicate that RF and FMN have specific binding sites in OM c-Cyts and highlight the potential roles of these flavin-cytochrome complexes in controlling the rate of electron transfer to surfaces with diverse potential and pH.
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Schwann cell transplantation and descending propriospinal regeneration after spinal cord injury.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor ability of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate causes very limited functional recovery. Schwann cells (SCs) have been widely explored as promising donors for transplantation to promote axonal regeneration in the CNS including the spinal cord. Compared with other CNS axonal pathways, injured propriospinal tracts display the strongest regenerative response to SC transplantation. Even without providing additional neurotrophic factors, propriospinal axons can grow into the SC environment which is rarely seen in supraspinal tracts. Propriospinal tract has been found to respond to several important neurotrophic factors secreted by SCs. Therefore, the SC is considered to be one of the most promising candidates for cell-based therapies for SCI. Since many reviews have already appeared on topics of SC transplantation in SCI repair, this review will focus particularly on the rationale of SC transplantation in mediating descending propriospinal axonal regeneration as well as optimizing such regeneration by using different combinatorial strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury.
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Evaluating the therapeutic dose distribution of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck with cone-beam computed tomography image: a methodological study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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An approximate correction method for the CT value-electron density curve of CBCT was established, through comparison and fitting with FBCT images, and applied to evaluate the therapeutic dose of IMRT. The precision of using CBCT for plan calculation was validated by comparing the dose distribution between CBCT- and FBCT-based IMRT plans. Also setup deviations were simulated to evaluate the ability of the CBCT-based calculation for detecting the dose errors caused by positioning deviation. The gamma comparison between CBCT- and FBCT-based dose computations showed that the pass rates of (2%, 2?mm) criteria were better than 97.60 ± 0.83% and 97.74 ± 2.08% in the phantom and 10 NPC cases. When setup deviation was introduced into CBCT-based dose calculation, the gamma pass rate significantly decreased while the volumetric doses of the targets and some normal organs exhibited different changes compared to the original plan. Our results validated the above CT value-electron density correction which reduced the difference between CBCT- and FBCT-based IMRT plan calculation for NPC to less than 2%. Online CBCT-based dose calculation can be used to reflect and evaluate the dose distribution discrepancy caused by setup deviation and structure changes during the treatment, ensuring more effective quality control of IMRT treatment.
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Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters for in vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry.
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Grafted Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: A Contributor to Glial Repair after Spinal Cord Injury.
Neuroscientist
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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In the CNS, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglias are involved in not only development but also pathology such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Glial cells play dual roles (negative vs. positive effects) in these processes. After SCI, detrimental effects usually dominate and significantly retard functional recovery, and curbing these effects is critical for promoting neurological improvement. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) represent a new therapeutic approach for SCI by enabling improved sensory and motor functions in animal models. Although transdifferentiation to spinal neurons was poor, because of their pleiotropic nature, the protective effects of BMSCs are broad and are primarily mediated through modulation of transdifferentiation into host spinal glial components. Transplantation of BMSCs can positively alter the spinal microenvironment and enhance recovery. The objective of this review is to discuss these and other related mechanisms. Since BMSCs transplantation has been applied in other clinical fields, we hope to provide useful clues for the clinical application of BMSCs to treat the SCI in the near future.
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Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for stage IVA/IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma : Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure in an endemic area in China.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the mode of relapse patterns and survival of 209 patients with stage IVA and IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Expression of bcl-2 and p53 in induction of esophageal cancer cell apoptosis by ECRG2 in combination with cisplatin.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To investigate the mechanisms of induction of apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells by esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) in combination with cisplatin (DDP).
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Inhibition of G protein-coupled P2Y2 receptor induced analgesia in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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ATP and P2X receptors play important roles in the modulation of trigeminal neuropathic pain, while the role of G protein-coupled P2Y? receptors and the underlying mechanisms are less clear. The threshold and frequency of action potentials, fast inactivating transient K+ channels (IA) are important regulators of membrane excitability in sensory neurons because of its vital role in the control of the spike onset. In this study, pain behavior tests, QT-RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and patch-clamp recording, were used to investigate the role of P2Y? receptors in pain behaviour.
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Cytosolic phospholipase A2 protein as a novel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ), an important isoform of PLA2 that mediates the release of arachidonic acid, plays a role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI).
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Lignans from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides inhibited Ang II-stimulated extracellular matrix biosynthesis in mesangial cells.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Tree bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., (commonly well-known as "Du-zhong" in China), has been used to treat hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic fibrosis and renal injury. This study aims to investigate the effects of lignans extracted from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. on Ang II-induced proliferation and extracellular matrix biosynthesis in rat mesangial cells.
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Effect of ECRG2 in combination with cisplatin on the proliferation and apoptosis of EC9706 cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of esophageal cancer-related gene 2 (ECRG2) protein in combination with cisplatin (DDP) on the proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to examine the effects of ECRG2 alone and ECRG2 in combination with DDP on the proliferation of EC9706 esophageal cancer cells. Hoechst 33258 staining was performed to analyze the effects of ECRG2 alone and ECRG2 in combination with DDP on apoptosis in the EC9706 cells. The expression levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) mRNA and protein were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The results from the MTT assay revealed that ECRG2 inhibited the proliferation of EC9706 cells and that ECRG2 in combination with DDP had a greater inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effects were time- and concentration-dependent, within a certain range of concentrations. The Hoechst 33258 staining results demonstrated that the number of apoptotic cells following treatment with ECRG2 in combination with DDP for 24 h was higher than that following treatment with ECRG2 alone for the same duration. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR results revealed that the expression levels of Bax mRNA and protein were upregulated in cells treated with ECRG2 in combination with DDP compared with those in cells treated with ECRG2 alone. Thus, ECRG2 in combination with DDP had an enhanced inhibitory effect on EC9706 cell proliferation compared with that of ECRG2 alone, and an increased inductive effect on EC9706 cell apoptosis, possibly due to the upregulation of the expression of Bax.
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Effect of total dose and fraction size on survival of patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy: A phase 2, single-center, randomized controlled trial.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The optimal model of total dose and fraction size for patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) remains unclear. The authors designed a randomized phase 2 clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of 2 different models, with the objective of determining an optimal model.
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Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates NANOG expression via the stat3 pathway.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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HCV Core plays a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aberrant expression of NANOG has been observed in many types of human malignancies. However, relationship between Core and NANOG has not been clarified. In this study, we found that Core is capable of up-regulating NANOG expression. Core-induced NANOG expression was accompanied by enforced expression of phosphorylated stat3 protein and was attenuated by inhibition of stat3 phosphorylation. ChIP showed that phosphorylated stat3 directly binds to the NANOG promoter. Core-induced NANOG expression resulted in enhanced cell growth and cell cycle progression. Knockdown of NANOG blocked the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phases and inhibited the cyclin D1 expression. Our findings provide a new insight into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis by HCV infection.
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Smallest fullerene-like silicon cage stabilized by a V(2) unit.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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We conducted a combined anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study on V2Si20 cluster. Our results show that the V2Si20 cluster has an elongated dodecahedron cage structure with a V2 unit encapsulated inside the cage. It is the smallest fullerene-like silicon cage and can be used as building block to make cluster-assembled materials, such as pearl-chain style nanowires.
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Thermal methane activation by La(6)O(10)(-) cluster anions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The first example of a metal oxide cluster anion, La6 O10 (-) that can activate methane under ambient conditions is reported. This reaction is facilitated by the oxygen-centered radical (O(-?) ) and follows the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. The La6 O10 (-) has a high vertical electron detachment energy (VDE=4.06?eV) and a high symmetry (C4v ).
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IL-21 acts as a promising therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus by regulating plasma cell differentiation.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Plasma cells, which secrete auto-antibodies, are considered to be the arch-criminal of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, but there are many cytokines involved in inducing the differentiation of B-cell subsets into plasma cells. Here, we emphasize IL-21, which has emerged as the most potent inducer of plasma cell differentiation. In this review, we focused on the promoting effects of IL-21 on plasma cell differentiation and discuss how these effects contribute to B cell-mediated autoimmune disease.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 4 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.58.
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Blockade of ICAM-1 improves the outcome of polymicrobial sepsis via modulating neutrophil migration and reversing immunosuppression.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a key adhesion molecule mediating neutrophil migration and infiltration during sepsis. But its role in the outcome of sepsis remains contradictory. The current study was performed to investigate the role of anti-ICAM-1 antibody in the outcome of polymicrobial sepsis and sepsis-induced immune disturbance. Effect of anti-ICAM-1 antibody on outcome of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was evaluated by the survival analysis, bacterial clearance, and lung injury. Its influence on neutrophil migration and infiltration, as well as lymphocyte status, in thymus and spleen was also investigated. The results demonstrated that ICAM-1 mRNA was upregulated in lung, thymus, and spleen of CLP mice. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody improved survival and bacterial clearance in CLP mice and attenuated lung injury. Migration of neutrophils to peritoneal cavity was enhanced while their infiltration into lung, thymus, and spleen was hampered by ICAM-1 blockade. Anti-ICAM-1 antibody also prevented sepsis-induced apoptosis in thymus and spleen. Positive costimulatory molecules including CD28, CD80, and CD86 were upregulated, while negative costimulatory molecules including PD-1 and PD-L1 were downregulated following anti-ICAM-1 antibody administration. In conclusion, ICAM-1 blockade may improve outcome of sepsis. The rationale may include the modulated neutrophil migration and the reversed immunosuppression.
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Knockdown of NANOG enhances chemosensitivity of liver cancer cells to doxorubicin by reducing MDR1 expression.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major reasons for the failure of liver cancer chemotherapy, and its suppression may increase the efficacy of chemotherapy. NANOG plays a key role in the regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Recent studies reported that NANOG was abnormally expressed in several types of tumors, indicating that NANOG is related to tumor development. However, the correlation between NANOG and liver cancer chemoresistance remains uncertain. In this study, RNA interfere technology was employed to knock down NANOG expression in HepG2 human liver cancer cells. We found that the knockdown of NANOG expression in NANOG siRNA-transfected HepG2 cells resulted in decreased colony formation rate and cell migration compared to control HepG2 cells. In addition, HepG2 cells were treated with doxorubicin to evaluate the chemosensitivity to doxorubicin. We found that the doxorubicin sensitivity of HepG2 cells was increased with downregulation of NANOG expression. The expression of MDR1 at both mRNA and protein levels was decreased in HepG2 cells when NANOG was knocked down. These findings suggest that the knockdown of NANOG in HepG2 human cells resulted in decreased MDR1 expression and increased doxorubicin sensitivity, and NANOG could be used as a novel potential therapeutic target to reverse multidrug resistance of liver cancer.
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Retrospective analysis of 234 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with distant metastasis at initial diagnosis: therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the independent prognostic factors and optimize the treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with distant metastasis at initial diagnosis.
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Control of Drosophila blood cell activation via Toll signaling in the fat body.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Toll signaling pathway, first discovered in Drosophila, has a well-established role in immune responses in insects as well as in mammals. In Drosophila, the Toll-dependent induction of antimicrobial peptide production has been intensely studied as a model for innate immune responses in general. Besides this humoral immune response, Toll signaling is also known to activate blood cells in a reaction that is similar to the cellular immune response to parasite infections, but the mechanisms of this response are poorly understood. Here we have studied this response in detail, and found that Toll signaling in several different tissues can activate a cellular immune defense, and that this response does not require Toll signaling in the blood cells themselves. Like in the humoral immune response, we show that Toll signaling in the fat body (analogous to the liver in vertebrates) is of major importance in the Toll-dependent activation of blood cells. However, this Toll-dependent mechanism of blood cell activation contributes very little to the immune response against the parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina boulardi, probably because the wasp is able to suppress Toll induction. Other redundant pathways may be more important in the defense against this pathogen.
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Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7) is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640) which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98) all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.
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[The clinic research of the modified laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly in the treatment of children with hematologic diseases].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To summarize the experience and characteristics of the modified laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly in the treatment of children with hematologic disease.
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Involvement of phosphatidate phosphatase in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Lipid biosynthesis is essential for eukaryotic cells, but the mechanisms of the process in microalgae remain poorly understood. Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase or 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerols and inorganic orthophosphates. This reaction is integral in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, the mRNA level of the PAP isoform CrPAP2 in a species of Chlamydomonas was found to increase in nitrogen-free conditions. Silencing of the CrPAP2 gene using RNA interference resulted in the decline of lipid content by 2.4%-17.4%. By contrast, over-expression of the CrPAP2 gene resulted in an increase in lipid content by 7.5%-21.8%. These observations indicate that regulation of the CrPAP2 gene can control the lipid content of the algal cells. In vitro CrPAP2 enzyme activity assay indicated that the cloned CrPAP2 gene exhibited biological activities.
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[Comparison of Cookgas and Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway with fiberoptic bronchoscope in anticipated difficult airway management].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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To compare the clinical effectiveness of fiberoptic bronchoscope(FOB)-guided intubation through the Cookgas intubating laryngeal airway(CILA)and the Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway(FT-LMA)in the management of anticipated difficult airways.
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[Anesthesia management of laparoscopic radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder surgery with a robotic-assisted surgical system].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To summarize anesthesia management of laparoscopic radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder surgery with a robotic surgical system.
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[Cnb1 involved in cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Serine/Threonine-specific calcineurin (CN) is highly conserved in eukaryotes, which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, CN exists as a heterodimer composed by catalytic subunit Ppb1 and regulatory subunit Cnb1. Deletion of cnb1+ reduced the growth rate of cells, and caused a chained phenotype, and had delay in cytokinesis. In cytokinesis, Cnb1 could form CN complex with Ppb1 and could colocalize and constrict with the contractile ring at division plane. Tubulin could cross the septum in cnb1? strain, suggesting that the septum is not fully matured. These results suggest Cnb1 might be involved in maturation of septum. The signals of septins in cnb1? strain were also analyzed. Septins include Spn1, Spn2, Spn3, and Spn4. Septins help to guide hydrolytic enzymes for septum degrada-tion. Eighty percent of cnb1? cells lacked the signals of Spn2 or Spn3 at septum, and twenty percent of cnb1? cells lacked the signals of Spn1 or Spn4 at septum. The reduction of the septin signals was not due to impaired transcription of septins, since the protein levels of septins in the cnb1? cells were not decreased. These results imply that Cnb1 might regulate the stability of septin ring in a transcription-independent manner. In general, our study showed that Cnb1 contributes to the maturation of septum and the stability of septin ring and is important in the cytokinesis.
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[Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and beta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of non-vavular hypertensive atrial fibrillation patients].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To determine the mRNA expressions of PPARalpha and PPARbeta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of non-vavular hypertensive atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and elucidate its possible role in the pathogenesis of AF.
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Holotransferrin enhances selective anticancer activity of artemisinin against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Artemisinin, also termed qinghaosu, is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine artemesia annua L. (the blue-green herb) in the early 1970s, which has been confirmed for effectively treating malaria. Additionally, emerging data prove that artemisinin exhibits anti-cancer effects against many types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, etc. Artemisinin becomes cytotoxic in the presence of ferrous iron. Since iron influx is high in cancer cells, artemisinin and its analogs selectively kill cancer cells with increased intracellular iron concentrations. This study is aimed to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and determine the effect of holotransferrin, which increases the concentration of ferrous iron in cancer cells, combined with artemisinin on the anticancer activity. MTT assay was used for assessing the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin. The induction of apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation in SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and colony formation assay, respectively. The results showed that artemisinin at various concentrations significantly inhibited growth, colony formation and cell viability of SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.05), likely due to induction of apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Of interest, it was found that incubation of artemisinin combined with holotransferrin sensitized the growth inhibitory effect of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.01). Our data suggest that treatment with artemisinin leads to inhibition of viability and proliferation, and apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, we observed that holotransferrin significantly enhanced the anti-cancer activity of artemisinin. This study may provide a potential therapeutic choice for liver cancer.
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OsPOP5, a prolyl oligopeptidase family gene from rice confers abiotic stress tolerance in Escherichia coli.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The prolyl oligopeptidase family, which is a group of serine peptidases, can hydrolyze peptides smaller than 30 residues. The prolyl oligopeptidase family in plants includes four members, which are prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC3.4.21.26), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV, EC3.4.14.5), oligopeptidase B (OPB, EC3.4.21.83), and acylaminoacyl peptidase (ACPH, EC3.4.19.1). POP is found in human and rat, and plays important roles in multiple biological processes, such as protein secretion, maturation and degradation of peptide hormones, and neuropathies, signal transduction and memory and learning. However, the function of POP is unclear in plants. In order to study POP function in plants, we cloned the cDNA of the OsPOP5 gene from rice by nested-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with Mw ? 67.29 kD. In order to analyze the protein function under different abiotic stresses, OsPOP5 was expressed in Escherichia coli. OsPOP5 protein enhanced the tolerance of E. coli to high salinity, high temperature and simulated drought. The results indicate that OsPOP5 is a stress-related gene in rice and it may play an important role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress.
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Association of interleukin-18 gene polymorphisms with the outcomes of hepatitis C virus infection in high-risk Chinese Han population.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Interleukin 18 (IL-18) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with the outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Americans, Indians and Europeans. We aimed to investigate whether the association can be replicated in Chinese Han population. Three IL-18 variants, -656G>T, -137G>C and +105A>C, were genotyped in three independent Han cohorts consisting of 552 cases and 784 controls. By using logistic regression analysis and multiple testing, haplotype GCC were associated with a protection from susceptibility to HCV. After stratified analysis, both the carriage of -137C allele in the older or hemodialysis subgroup and the carriage of +105C allele in the younger subgroup were found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of HCV susceptibility. By using logistic regression analysis and multiple testing for the resolution of HCV infection, our study showed that +105C allele and haplotype GGC displayed a negative effect on HCV persistence. After stratified analysis, a significantly decreased risk for HCV persistence was found in +105C allele in the subgroups of young, male or female, drug user or hemodialysis and HCV-1 or HCV mixed genotype. No significant association was observed between -656G>T and the outcomes of HCV infection. Our results demonstrated that the carriage of -137C allele, +105C allele, haplotype -656G/-137C/+105C and haplotype -656G/-137G/+105C of IL-18 gene may contribute to better outcomes of HCV infection in high-risk Chinese Han population.
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Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations of AgSi(n)- (n = 3-12) clusters.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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We investigated the structural evolution and electronic properties of AgSi(n)(-) (n = 3-12) clusters using anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The vertical detachment energies and adiabatic detachment energies of AgSi(n)(-) (n = 3-12) clusters were estimated from their photoelectron spectra. The structures of the AgSi(n)(-) (n = 3-12) clusters were tentatively assigned based on the comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The studies show that the structures of AgSi(n)(-) (n = 3-12) clusters are dominated by exohedral structures with the Ag atom occupying the low coordinated sites. No endohedral structure has been found for AgSi(n)(-) clusters with n ? 12.
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[Expression and role of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and explore its relationships between VEGI expression, pathologic grade and tumor staging.
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[The relationship between centric relation-maximum intercuspation disharmony and temporomandibular dysfunction in class II patients].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To investigate the relationship between the degree of displacement of centric relation-maximum intercuspation (CR-MI) and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in Class II patients.
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Photodynamic therapy for high-grade dysplasia of bile duct via a choledochoscope.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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When a distal common bile duct neoplasm is at the stage of carcinoma in situ or high-grade dysplasia, it is difficult for the surgeon to decide whether to perform pancreaticoduodenectomy. Here we describe a patient with a progressive dysplastic lesion in the common bile duct, which developed from moderate-high to high-grade dysplasia in approximately 2 mo. The patient refused major surgery. Therefore, endoscopic-assisted photodynamic therapy was performed. The result at follow-up using a trans-T-tube choledochoscope showed that the lesion was completely necrotic. This report is the first to describe the successful treatment of high-grade dysplasia of the distal bile duct using photodynamic therapy via a choledochoscope.
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Overexpression of miR-122 promotes the hepatic differentiation and maturation of mouse ESCs through a miR-122/FoxA1/HNF4a-positive feedback loop.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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microRNA-122 is the only identified liver-specific miRNA and plays a crucial role in liver development, maintenance of hepatic homeostasis as well as tumourigenesis. In our previous differentiation of ESCs into hepatocytes, microRNA-122 (miR-122) was expressed at a relatively low level. Here, we aim to elucidate the effect and underlying mechanisms of miR-122 during differentiation of ESCs into hepatocytes.
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[Roles of Cookgas and Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway for anticipated difficult tracheal intubation].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To compare the clinical effectiveness of blind intubation through the Cookgas intubating laryngeal airway(CILA) or Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway(FT-LMA) for anticipated difficult tracheal intubation.
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Effects of quercetin on the proliferation of breast cancer cells and expression of survivin in vitro.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Quercetin is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of quercetin on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the gene expression of survivin. The molecular mechanism underlying the antiproliferative effect of quercetin was also investigated. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of quercetin. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on proliferation was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and the inhibition rate was calculated. Cellular apoptosis was detected by immunocytochemistry and survivin mRNA expression levels were observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blot analysis was used to analyze changes in the expression levels of survivin protein. Quercetin induced the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells and inhibited the proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression levels of survivin were reduced as the concentration of quercetin increased. Quercetin inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells and promoted apoptosis by inducing G0/ G1 phase arrest. It also regulated the expression of survivin mRNA in MCF-7 cells, which may be the mechanism underlying its antitumor effect.
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Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of novel hybrid 2-phenyl-3-alkylbenzofuran and imidazole/triazole compounds.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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A series of novel hybrid compounds of 2-phenyl-3-alkylbenzofuran and imidazole or triazole were prepared and evaluated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. The results suggest that the 2-ethyl-imidazole ring, and substitution of the imidazolyl-3-position with a 2-bromobenzyl or naphthylacyl group, were vital for modulating inhibitory activity. In particular, hybrid compound 31 was found to be the most potent derivative with IC?? values of 0.08-0.55 ?M against five strains human tumor cell lines and was found to be more selective against breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and colon carcinoma (SW480) (IC?? values 40.8-fold and 40.1-fold lower than cisplatin (DDP)).
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A novel growth-promoting pathway formed by GDNF-overexpressing Schwann cells promotes propriospinal axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and partial recovery of function after spinal cord injury.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function.
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Assessment of respiration-induced motion and its impact on treatment outcome for lung cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This study presented the analysis of free-breathing lung tumor motion characteristics using GE 4DCT and Varian RPM systems. Tumor respiratory movement was found to be associated with GTV size, the superior-inferior tumor location in the lung, and the attachment degree to rigid structure (e.g., chest wall, vertebrae, or mediastinum), with tumor location being the most important factor among the other two. Improved outcomes in survival and local control of 43 lung cancer patients were also reported. Consideration of respiration-induced motion based on 4DCT for lung cancer yields individualized margin and more accurate and safe target coverage and thus can potentially improve treatment outcome.
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PET-based geometrical calibration of a pinhole SPECT add-on for an animal PET scanner.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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We developed SPECT imaging capability on an animal PET scanner to provide a cost effective option for animal SPECT imaging. The SPECT add-on sub-system was enabled by mechanically integrating a multiple-pinhole collimator in the PET detector ring. This study introduces a method to calibrate the geometrical parameters of the SPECT add-on using the PET imaging capability of the scanner. The proposed PET imaging-based calibration method consists of two steps: (1) paint the pinhole apertures of the collimator with a positron emitting radioactive solution; and (2) image the collimator inside the scanner in PET mode. The geometrical parameters of the multi-pinhole SPECT add-on can then be derived directly from a set of PET images by simple linear calculation and used in defining the SPECT system. The method was compared to our implementation of a SPECT calibration approach with model-based fitting of SPECT projection data. The procedure for carrying out the PET imaging-based calibration method is simpler and faster than that of our implementation of the SPECT model-based calibration method. Since it does not require model fitting, the uniqueness of the calibration result is warranted. Better quality SPECT images were reconstructed using the PET-derived calibration parameters rather than our implementation of the SPECT model-based calibration parameters. We conclude that the proposed PET imaging-based calibration method provides a highly effective means for enabling SPECT imaging on a PET scanner.
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Germacrone induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Previous studies have shown that STAT3 plays a vital role in the genesis and progression of cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway and germacrone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated with germacrone for 24 h, the protein expression of p-STAT3, STAT3, p-JAK2 and JAK2 was detected by Western Blotting, and RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of STAT3, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax at transcriptional levels. Besides that, HepG2 cells were pre-treated with AG490 or IL-6 for 2 h, and then incubated with germacrone for 24 h. The expression of p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, STAT3, p53, Bax and Bcl-2 was detected by Western blotting. The activity of HepG2 cells was tested by MTT assay. The apoptosis of HepG2 cells and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were flow cytometrically measured. The results showed that germacrone exposure decreased p-STAT3 and p-JAK2 and regulated expression of p53 and Bcl-2 family members at the same time. Moreover, IL-6 enhanced the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway and therefore attenuated the germacrone-induced apoptosis. Suppression of JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway by AG490, an inhibitor of JAK2, resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to germacrone exposure. We therefore conclude that germacrone induces apoptosis through the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway.
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Radiolabeling LyP-1 peptide and preliminary biodistribution evaluation in mice bearing MDA-MB-435 xenografts.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Recent studies have shown the LyP-1 peptide can home to either tumor lymphatics or the tumor cells and be internalized by targeted cells. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using Na(131)I labeled LyP-1 peptide as an imaging agent or a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in breast carcinoma and its metastasis.
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Comparative study on prophylactic irradiation to the whole neck and to the upper neck for patients with neck lymph node-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic irradiation volume to neck drainage areas for patients with N0 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
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Gantry angle-dependent correction of dose detection error due to panel position displacement in IMRT dose verification using EPIDs.
Phys Med
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The purpose of this study was to measure the mechanical position displacement of three types of electronic portal image device (EPID) panels at different gantry angles and evaluate the impact of positional displacement on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose verification using an EPID.
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Assessment of hybrid rotation-translation scan schemes for in vivo animal SPECT imaging.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To perform in vivo animal single photon emission computed tomography imaging on a stationary detector gantry, we introduced a hybrid rotation-translation (HRT) tomographic scan, a combination of translational and limited angle rotational movements of the image object, to minimize gravity-induced animal motion. To quantitatively assess the performance of ten HRT scan schemes and the conventional rotation-only scan scheme, two simulated phantoms were first scanned with each scheme to derive the corresponding image resolution (IR) in the image field of view. The IR results of all the scan schemes were visually assessed and compared with corresponding outputs of four scan scheme evaluation indices, i.e. sampling completeness (SC), sensitivity (S), conventional system resolution (SR), and a newly devised directional spatial resolution (DR) that measures the resolution in any specified orientation. A representative HRT scheme was tested with an experimental phantom study. Eight of the ten HRT scan schemes evaluated achieved a superior performance compared to two other HRT schemes and the rotation-only scheme in terms of phantom image resolution. The same eight HRT scan schemes also achieved equivalent or better performance in terms of the four quantitative indices than the conventional rotation-only scheme. As compared to the conventional index SR, the new index DR appears to be a more relevant indicator of system resolution performance. The experimental phantom image obtained from the selected HRT scheme was satisfactory. We conclude that it is feasible to perform in vivo animal imaging with a HRT scan scheme and SC and DR are useful predictors for quantitatively assessing the performance of a scan scheme.
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Gloverins of the silkworm Bombyx mori: structural and binding properties and activities.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Gloverins are basic, glycine-rich and heat-stable antibacterial proteins (?14- kDa) in lepidopteran insects with activity against Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and a virus. Hyalophora gloveri gloverin adopts a random coil structure in aqueous solution but has ?-helical structure in membrane-like environment, and it may interact with the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Manduca sexta gloverin binds to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of LPS. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, there are four gloverins with slightly acidic to neutral isoelectric points. In this study, we investigate structural and binding properties and activities of B. mori gloverins (BmGlvs), as well as correlations between structure, binding property and activity. Recombinant BmGlv1-4 were expressed in bacteria and purified. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that all four BmGlvs mainly adopted random coli structure (>50%) in aqueous solution in regardless of pH, but contained ?-helical structure in the presence of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), smooth and rough mutants (Ra, Rc and Re) of LPS and lipid A. Plate ELISA assay showed that BmGlvs at pH 5.0 bound to rough mutants of LPS and lipid A but not to smooth LPS. Antibacterial activity assay showed that positively charged BmGlvs (at pH 5.0) were active against E. coli mutant strains containing rough LPS but inactive against E. coli with smooth LPS. Our results suggest that binding to rough LPS is the prerequisite for the activity of BmGlvs against E. coli.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO gene and their association with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is an excellent candidate to affect the fatness and growth-related traits in pig and cattle. The aim of this study was to reveal the association between FTO and growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of eight coding SNPs were detected, and four SNPs of them in exon 3 were further genotyped for association analysis in 442 rabbits from three breeds, including 248 New Zealand rabbits, 92 Ira rabbits, and 102 Champagne rabbits. Because there were significant differences for the allele and genotype frequencies among breeds, the association analysis was independently conducted in each breed only for these SNPs with minor allele frequency >5.0%. The results revealed that non-synonymous SNP c.499G>A (p.A167T) was significantly associated with body weight (BW) at 35, 70, and 84 days of age in New Zealand rabbits (P<0.01). The CC genotype of synonymous SNP c.660T>C was significantly associated with higher BW84, average daily weight gain, and intramuscular fat content of longissimus lumborum than TT and TC genotypes in Ira rabbits (P<0.05). There were no associations between the four SNPs and growth and meat quality traits in Champagne rabbits. Meanwhile, FTO SNPs were not associated with meat pH value. Our data indicated that FTO gene could be a candidate gene associated with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. However, the breed-specific effect should be carefully taken into consideration.
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Exercise training lowers the enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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It is well known that low-intensity exercise training (ExT) is beneficial to cardiovascular dysfunction in hypertension. The tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for control of blood pressure and sympathetic tone, has been demonstrated to be increased in hypertensive rats. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ExT on the increased glutamatergic input to the RVLM in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).
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Bis(2,2,2-nitrilo-triacetamide-?(3)O,N,O)nickel(II) dinitrate tetra-hydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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In the title compound, [Ni(C(6)H(12)N(4)O(3))(2)](NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, the Ni(II) cation is located on an inversion center and is N,O,O-chelated by two nitrilo-tris-(acetamide) mol-ecules in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The complex cations, nitrate anions and lattice water mol-ecules are connected by O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure.
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The molecular events involved in oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation induced by the conditioned medium from b104 neuroblastoma cells.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The conditioned medium from B104 neuroblastoma cells (B104CM) induces proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in vitro. However, the molecular events that occur during B104CM-induced proliferation of OPCs has not been well clarified. In the present study, using OPCs immunopanned from embryonic day 14 Sprague-Dawley rat spinal cords, we explored the activation of several signaling pathways and the expression of several important immediate early genes (IEGs) and cyclins in OPCs in response to B104CM. We found that B104CM can induce OPC proliferation through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), but not PI3K or p38 MAPK signaling pathways in vitro. The IEGs involved in B104CM-induced OPC proliferation include c-fos, c-jun and Id2, but not c-myc, fyn, or p21. The cyclins D1, D2 and E are also involved in B104CM-stimulated proliferation of OPCs. The activation of Erk results in subsequent expression of IEGs (such as c-fos, c-jun and Id-2) and cyclins (including cyclin D1, D2 and E), which play key roles in cell cycle initiation and OPC proliferation. Collectively, these results suggest that the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 is an important molecular event during OPC proliferation induced by B104CM.
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Cotransplantation of glial restricted precursor cells and schwann cells promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Oligodendrocyte (OL) replacement can be a promising strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. However, the poor posttransplantation survival and inhibitory properties to axonal regeneration are two major challenges that limit their use as donor cells for repair of CNS injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at enhancing the survival of grafted oligodendrocytes as well as reducing their inhibitory properties, such as the use of more permissive oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also called glial restricted precursor cells (GRPs), should be highly prioritized. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising translational strategy to promote axonal regeneration after CNS injuries, partly due to their expression and secretion of multiple growth-promoting factors. Whether grafted SCs have any effect on the biological properties of grafted GRPs remains unclear. Here we report that either SCs or SC-conditioned medium (SCM) promoted the survival, proliferation, and migration of GRPs in vitro. When GRPs and SCs were cografted into the normal or injured spinal cord, robust survival, proliferation, and migration of grafted GRPs were observed. Importantly, grafted GRPs differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes and formed new myelin on axons caudal to the injury. Finally, cografts of GRPs and SCs promoted recovery of function following SCI. We conclude that cotransplantation of GRPs and SCs, the only two kinds of myelin-forming cells in the nervous system, act complementarily and synergistically to promote greater anatomical and functional recovery after SCI than when either cell type is used alone.
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Meta-Analysis on the Associations of TLR2 Gene Polymorphisms with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Susceptibility among Asian Populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Publications regarding the associations of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between TLR2 G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with PTB susceptibility.
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Effectiveness of stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To report the feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis (IVCTT) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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[Influence of lipopolysaccharide on the permeability of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells and the molecular mechanism].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To study the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the permeability of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and possible molecular mechanism.
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[Surveillance on Salmonella infection in Guangdong province, 2008 - 2009].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To understand the infection of Salmonella (S.) in patients with diarrhea and outbreaks caused by Salmonella to identify the serotypes, resistance to antibiotics and PFGE types of the strains from the surveillance program in Guangdong province.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.