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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[The protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell on lung injury induced by vibrio vulnificus sepsis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To discuss the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) on lung injury induced by vibrio vulnificus sepsis and its mechanism.
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Increased service use following Medicaid expansion is mostly temporary: evidence from California's low income health program.
Policy Brief UCLA Cent Health Policy Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has already resulted in expanded eligibility for Medicaid in 27 states, including California, as of 2014. One major concern about the Medicaid expansion is that a high level of need among the newly eligible may lead to runaway costs, which could overwhelm state budgets when federal subsidies no longer cover 100 percent of the expansion population's costs in 2017. Although cost increases as a result of the newly eligible are likely, an even more important question is whether these increases will be temporary or permanent. Evidence from California's Low Income Health Program (LIHP) suggests that cost and utilization increases among newly eligible Medicaid beneficiaries will be mostly temporary. This policy brief presents data showing a significant decline in the use of hospital inpatient care and in emergency room visits after one year of enrollment in LIHP, and a stable, not increasing, rate of outpatient service use. Because LIHP provided health care coverage from 2011 to 2013 in advance of the full Medicaid expansion, our findings suggest that early and significant investments in infrastructure and in improving the process of care delivery can effectively address the pent-up demand for health care services of previously uninsured populations.
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Equilibrium Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Bernal-Stacked Bilayer Graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Using ethanol as the carbon source, self-limiting growth of AB-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) has been achieved on Cu via an equilibrium chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. We found that during this alcohol catalytic CVD (ACCVD) a source-gas pressure range exists to break the self-limitation of monolayer graphene on Cu, and at a certain equilibrium state it prefers to form uniform BLG with a high surface coverage of ?94% and AB-stacking ratio of nearly 100%. More importantly, once the BLG is completed, this growth shows a self-limiting manner, and an extended ethanol flow time does not result in additional layers. We investigate the mechanism of this equilibrium BLG growth using isotopically labeled (13)C-ethanol and selective surface aryl functionalization, and results reveal that during the equilibrium ACCVD process a continuous substitution of graphene flakes occurs to the as-formed graphene and the BLG growth follows a layer-by-layer epitaxy mechanism. These phenomena are significantly in contrast to those observed for previously reported BLG growth using methane as precursor.
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Resveratrol Suppresses the Inducible Expression of CYP3A4 Through the Pregnane X Receptor.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by a number of clinically prescribed drugs and herbal extracts. The inducible expression of several important cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes has been shown to be regulated by the activation of PXR in the liver. In the current study, reporter gene-transfected cells were used to identify potential antagonists of PXR. Here, we showed that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenolic compound could significantly suppress the rifampicin-induced PXR transactivation of the CYP3A4 promoter. Treatment of hPXR-over-expressed cells with RES reduced the rifampicin-inducible expression of CYP3A4 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the induction of mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A11 by pregnenolone 16?-carbonitrile was also significantly reduced when RES was applied in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes. Taking together, these findings suggest that RES can attenuate the PXR-mediated induction of CYP3A enzyme. Therefore, it would be possible for RES to antagonize the elevation in CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism by identified PXR activators.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassiinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Parnassiinae) is a circular molecule of 15,424?bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A?+?T-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs use standard TAA, while others use TAG (nad1) or incomplete codon T (cox1 and cox2), as their termination codons. 15 intergenic spacers (175?bp in total) and 10 overlapping sequences (29?bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The 491?bp long A+?T-rich region contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. In addition, a 36?bp sequence stretch potential to form stem-loop structures is also found in the A+?T-rich region.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract The mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) was determined in this study. It was 16,706?bp in length with the typical genomic organization and gene order as most vertebrates. Whole nucleotide base composition was 31.3% A, 25.3% C, 13.2% G and 30.1% T. Among the protein-coding genes, there are three overlapping reading-frames on the same strand, while one of it on the opposite strand. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were used in 13 protein-coding genes. The 22 tRNA ranged from 67 (tRNA-Cys and tRNA-Ser2) to 75?bp (tRNA-Leu1) in length. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into the typical clover-leaf structure, which lost the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and replaced by a simple loop. The control region was 1064?bp in length and showed a higher AT content (66.8%) than the average value of whole mitogenome (61.4%).
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Reverse lyotropic liquid crystals from europium nitrate and P123 with enhanced luminescence efficiency.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Fabrication of lyotropic aggregates containing the lanthanide ions is becoming a preferable way to prepare novel functional materials. Here, the lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) of reverse hexagonal, reverse bicontinuous cubic, and lamellar phases have been constructed in sequence directly from the mixtures of Eu(NO3)3·6H2O and Pluronic P123 amphiphilc block copolymer with increasing the salt proportion. Their phase types and structural characteristics were analyzed using polarized optical microscopy (POM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The driving forces of reverse LLC phase formation were investigated using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and rheological measurements. The hydrated europium salt was found to act not only as a solvent here, but also as the bridge to form hydrogen bonding between coordinated water molecules and PEO blocks, which played a key role in the reverse LLCs formation. Compared to those in aqueous solutions and solid state, the enhanced luminescence quantum yields and prolonged excited state lifetimes were observed in two europium containing reverse mesophases. The luminescence quenching effect of lanthanide ions was efficiently suppressed, probably due to the substitution of coordinated water molecules by oxyethyl groups of P123 and ordered phase structures of LLCs, where the coordinated europium ions were confined and isolated by PEO blocks. The optimum luminescence performance was then found to exist in the reverse hexagonal phase. The obtained results on such lanthanide-induced reverse LLCs should be referable for designing new luminescent soft materials construction to expand their application fields.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Freshwater Whipray Himantura dalyensis.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Freshwater Whipray Himantura dalyensis is presented in this study. It is 17,693?bp in length and contains 37 genes in typical gene order and transcriptional orientation observed in vertebrates. There were a total of 86?bp short intergenic spacers and 22?bp overlaps in the genome. The overall base composition was 31.4% A, 25.5% C, 13.2% G and 29.9% T. Two start codons (GTG and ATG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were found in 13 protein-coding genes. The length of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 68 (tRNA-Cys and tRNA-Ser2) to 75?bp (tRNA-Leu1). The origin of L-strand replication (OL) was found between the tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The base composition of the control region (1940?bp) was similar to the whole mitogenome.
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The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens that threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. The article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research.
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The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus reduces proteinuria in membranous nephropathy accompanied by a decrease in angiopoietin-like-4.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Tacrolimus is an anticalcineurinic agent with potent immunosuppressive activity that has recently been shown to have the added benefit of reducing proteinuria in membranous nephropathy (MN) patients. However, its potential mechanisms remain unknown. To reveal the mechanism, rat cohorts were administered tacrolimus or vehicle from days 7 to 28 after the induction of passive Heymann nephritis (PHN). PHN induction resulted in heavy proteinuria and increased expression of desmin, a marker of injured podocytes. We also showed that the glomerular expression of angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) was markedly upregulated in PHN rats and human MN followed by an increase in urine Angptl4 excretion. In addition, increased Angptl4 expression may be related to podocyte injury and proteinuria. Furthermore, upregulated Angptl4 expression primarily colocalized with podocytes rather than endothelial or mesangial cells, indicating that podocytes may be the source of Angptl4, which then gradually migrated to the glomerular basement membrane over time. However, tacrolimus treatment markedly reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4, accompanied by a reduction in the established proteinuria and the promotion of podocyte repair. Additionally, glomerular immune deposits and circulating IgG levels induced by PHN clearly decreased following tacrolimus treatment. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus can reduce Angptl4 in podocytes accompanied by a decrease in established proteinuria and promotion of podocyte repair in MN.
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Hormesis Effects of Amoxicillin on Growth and Cellular Biosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at Different Nitrogen Levels.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Coexisting antibiotic contaminants have potential to regulate cyanobacterial bloom, and the regulation is likely affected by nitrogen supply. A typical cyanobaterium Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-50 mg L(-1) of nitrogen and exposed to 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for 7 days. Algal growth was not significantly (p?>?0.05) affected by amoxicillin at the lowest nitrogen level of 0.05 mg L(-1), stimulated by 600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at a moderate nitrogen level of 0.5 mg L(-1) and enhanced by 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at higher nitrogen levels of 5-50 mg L(-1). Amoxicillin affected chlorophyll-a, psbA gene, and rbcL gene in a similar manner as algal growth, suggesting a regulation of algal growth via the photosynthesis system. At each nitrogen level, synthesis of protein and polysaccharides as well as production and release of microcystins (MCs) increased in response to environmental stress caused by amoxicillin. Expression of ntcA and mcyB showed a positive correlation with the total content of MCs under exposure to amoxicillin at nitrogen levels of 0.05-50 mg L(-1). Nitrogen and amoxicillin significantly (p?
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Mesenchymal stem cells, not conditioned medium, contribute to kidney repair after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Studies have shown that stem cells exert their therapeutic effects on acute kidney injury (AKI) through paracrine/endocrine actions. If the protective effect is mediated in an endocrine manner, the injection of the factors that these cells secrete could be effective, but the effect of conditioned medium (CM) remains controversial.
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Mitogenomics of the Speartooth Shark challenges ten years of control region sequencing.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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BackgroundMitochondrial DNA markers have long been used to identify population boundaries and are now a standard tool in conservation biology. In elasmobranchs, evolutionary rates of mitochondrial genes are low and variation between distinct populations can be hard to detect with commonly used control region sequencing or other single gene approaches. In this study we sequenced the whole mitogenome of 93 Critically Endangered Speartooth Shark Glyphis glyphis from the last three river drainages they inhabit in northern Australia.ResultsGenetic diversity was extremely low (¿ =0.00019) but sufficient to demonstrate the existence of barriers to gene flow among river drainages (AMOVA ¿ ST =0.28283, P <0.00001). Surprisingly, the comparison with single gene sub-datasets revealed that ND5 and 12S were the only ones carrying enough information to detect similar levels of genetic structure. The control region exhibited only one mutation, which was not sufficient to detect any structure among river drainages.ConclusionsThis study strongly supports the use of single river drainages as discrete management units for the conservation of G. glyphis. Furthermore when genetic diversity is low, as is often the case in elasmobranchs, our results demonstrate a clear advantage of using the whole mitogenome to inform population structure compared to single gene approaches. More specifically, this study questions the extensive use of the control region as the preferential marker for elasmobranch population genetic studies and whole mitogenome sequencing will probably uncover a large amount of cryptic population structure in future studies.
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Expression of the RIP-1 Gene and its Role in Growth and Invasion of Human Gallbladder Carcinoma.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Receptor interacting protein(RIP)-1 is thought to have a significant role in inflammation signaling pathways; however, the role of RIP-1 in malignant tumors is largely unknown.
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Anti-fibrosis effect of scutellarin via inhibition of endothelial-mesenchymal transition on isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in rats.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Scutellarin (SCU) is the major active component of breviscapine and has been reported to be capable of decreasing myocardial fibrosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether SCU treatment attenuates isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis and the mechanisms of its action. Rats were injected subcutaneously with isoprenaline (Iso) to induce myocardial fibrosis and rats in the SCU treatment groups were intraperitoneally infused with SCU (10 mg·kg-1·d-1 or 20 mg·kg-1·d-1, for 14 days). Post-treatment, cardiac functional measurements and the left and right ventricular weight indices (LVWI and RVWI, respectively) were analysed. Pathological alteration, expression of type I and III collagen, Von Willebrand factor, ?-smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation-31 (CD31), and the Notch signalling proteins (Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1) were examined. The administration of SCU resulted in a significant improvement in cardiac function and decrease in the cardiac weight indices; reduced fibrous tissue proliferation; reduced levels of type I and III collagen; increased microvascular density; and decreased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and increased expression of CD31, Notch1, Jagged1 and Hes1 in isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in rats. Our results suggest that SCU prevents isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis via inhibition of cardiac endothelial-mesenchymal transition potentially, which may be associated with the Notch pathway.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Zebra bullhead shark Heterodontus zebra (Heterodontiformes: Heterodontidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Zebra bullhead shark Heterodontus zebra was first presented in this study. It was 16,720 bp in length, encoding 37 genes and one control region. The gene order and translate orientation were identical to most vertebrates. Overall nucleotide base composition of H. zebra mitogenome was 31.6% A; 26.8% C; 13.1% G and 28.4% T. Total 27 bp overlaps and 20 bp short intergenic spaces were found in 17 gene junctions in the genome. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three terminate codons (TAG, TAA and T) were found in 13 protein-coding genes. Except for tRNA-Ser2, which lost the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and formed one simple loop, the remaining tRNAs could fold into the typical clover-leaf secondary structures. The termination-associated sequences and three short conserved blocks (CBS I-III) were identified in the control region.
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Dysregulation of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play critical roles in inducing B-cell activation and producing various cytokines, whereas circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells (CTfh) may act as a counterpart to measure Tfh cell disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Tfh could be involved in the development of T2DM by assessing CTfh in peripheral blood. CTfh and it subtypes were determined by measuring CD3, CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 in 68 T2DM patients and 60 healthy controls using flow cytometry. Results showed that proportion of CTfh in the peripheral CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in T2DM patients (8.5 ± 0.5%) than in controls (4.5 ± 0.3%) (p < 0.001). Further study revealed that the balance of CTfh subtypes was greatly dysregulated, in which percentage of Th17 subtype was significantly increased in patients. Investigating the correlation between CTfh and risk factors of T2DM demonstrated that proportion of CTfh were significantly elevated in patients with body mass index (BMI) over 24.0 (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients with abdominal obesity had further increase in CTfh than those without abdominal obesity. This study suggests the involvement of CTfh in T2DM, especially in T2DM-related obesity.
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Imaging observations of a schwannoma of low malignant potential in the anterior abdominal wall: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma, is an uncommon benign neoplasm that is most commonly found in the trunk and head and neck regions. The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old female with schwannoma localized in the anterior abdominal wall and analyzes the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging observations of the schwannoma. A dynamic time-intensity curve was also recorded in the study. A well-defined, elliptic low echo level, heterogeneous mass was observed during ultrasound examination. The CT scan revealed a solid, heterogeneous, low-density mass in the abdominal wall. Contrast-enhanced scans showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass during the arterial and venous phase. Centripetal fill-in was demonstrated and the mass was markedly, homogenously enhanced relative to the muscles during the delayed phase. Peak enhancement was observed during the venous phase and then slowly declined. However, the mass was hyperattenuated during the delayed phase. The lesion was completely excised and no evidence of recurrence has been identified during the 3 months of follow-up. The present study suggested that a diagnosis of schwannoma should be considered for certain patients with masses in the abdominal wall. Peripheral enhancement during the arterial and venous phases and homogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase are the significant imaging findings of a schwannoma.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the hardnose shark Carcharhinus macloti (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Carcharhinus macloti was determined in this study. It is 16,701?bp in length and contains 37 genes with the typical gene order and transcriptional orientation in vertebrates. A total of 29?bp overlaps and 29?bp short intergenic spaces located in 22 gene junctions. The overall base composition is 31.6% A, 26.2% C, 13.0% G and 29.2% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were found in 13 protein-coding genes. The length of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 66?bp (tRNA-Ser2) to 75?bp (tRNA-Leu1). The tRNA-Ser2 (GCU) lacks the dihydrouridine arm by a simple loop and can not be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066?bp in length with high A+T content (68.2%).
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus is determined in this study. It is 16,700?bp in length, with the typical gene composition, arrangement and transcriptional orientation in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 25.8% C, 13.2% G and 29.7% T. Two start codons and two stop codons are found in the protein-coding genes. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 nucleotides. The tRNA-Ser2 lost the DHU arm and could not be folded to the typical cloverleaf secondary structure. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) sequence was identified between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The high A+T content of control region is due to a lot of poly A and poly T.
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Fetal and adult fibroblasts display intrinsic differences in tendon tissue engineering and regeneration.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Injured adult tendons do not exhibit optimal healing through a regenerative process, whereas fetal tendons can heal in a regenerative fashion without scar formation. Hence, we compared FFs (mouse fetal fibroblasts) and AFs (mouse adult fibroblasts) as seed cells for the fabrication of scaffold-free engineered tendons. Our results demonstrated that FFs had more potential for tendon tissue engineering, as shown by higher levels of tendon-related gene expression. In the in situ AT injury model, the FFs group also demonstrated much better structural and functional properties after healing, with higher levels of collagen deposition and better microstructure repair. Moreover, fetal fibroblasts could increase the recruitment of fibroblast-like cells and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells to the injury site during the regeneration process. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanisms of better regeneration with FFs should be elucidated and be used to enhance adult tendon healing. This may assist in the development of future strategies to treat tendon injuries.
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[The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicin in animal model of lung injury induced by paraquat: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To systematically review the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in an animal model of lung injury induced by paraquat (PQ), and to provide a theoretical basis for future clinical trials.
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A masquerade presenting with diplopia.
Aust Fam Physician
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Diplopia can often be a diagnostic challenge in the general practice setting. Differentials broadly include orbital pathology and neuromuscular aetiologies. Familiarity with the causes and subsequent investigations can help deliver efficient and effective patient care.
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[Experimental study on adsorption effect of activated carbon to abamectin].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To investigate the adsorbability of activated charcoals for abamectin in vitro at various pH and concentrations.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus is determined for the first time in this study. The gene composition and order in the mitogenome of C. melanopterus is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.3% A, 25.3% C, 13.3% G and 30.1% T. There are 29?bp overlaps and 21?bp short intergenic spaces in the mitogenome. Two start codons and three stop codons were found in protein-coding genes. The dihydrouridine arm of tRNA-Ser2 was replaced by a simple loop and the other tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The termination associated sequence (TAS) and the conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) are found in the control region.
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Mohawk Promotes the Tenogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Activation of the TGF? Signaling Pathway.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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The transcription factor Mohawk (Mkx) is expressed in developing tendons and is an important regulator of tenogenic differentiation. However, the exact roles of Mkx in tendinopathy and tendon repair remain unclear. Utilizing gene expression Omnibus datasets and Immunofluorescence assays, we found that Mkx expression level was dramatically lower in human tendinopathy tissue and it is activated at specific stages of tendon development. In mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), ectopic Mkx expression strikingly promoted tenogenesis more efficiently than Scleraxis (Scx), a well-known master transcription factor of tendon. Significantly higher levels of tenogenic gene expression and collagen fibril growth were observed with Mkx versus Scx. Interestingly, it was observed that Mkx dramatically up-regulated Scx through binding to the Tgfb2 promoter. Additionally, the transplantation of Mkx expressing-MSC sheets promoted tendon repair in a mouse model of Achilles-tendon defect. Taken together, these data shed light on previously unrecognized roles of Mkx in tendinopathy, tenogenesis, and tendon repair, as well as in regulating the TGF? pathway. Stem Cells 2014.
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[Analysis of reoperation for infertility women with tubal pregnancy after conservative surgery].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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To evaluate the cause of infertility and tubal abnormality in women of tubal pregnancy after conservative treatment with laparotomy or laparoscopy through a combination of laparoscopy, hysteroscopic tubal catheterization and hydrotubation.
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The architecture of a scrambled genome reveals massive levels of genomic rearrangement during development.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Programmed DNA rearrangements in the single-celled eukaryote Oxytricha trifallax completely rewire its germline into a somatic nucleus during development. This elaborate, RNA-mediated pathway eliminates noncoding DNA sequences that interrupt gene loci and reorganizes the remaining fragments by inversions and permutations to produce functional genes. Here, we report the Oxytricha germline genome and compare it to the somatic genome to present a global view of its massive scale of genome rearrangements. The remarkably encrypted genome architecture contains >3,500 scrambled genes, as well as >800 predicted germline-limited genes expressed, and some posttranslationally modified, during genome rearrangements. Gene segments for different somatic loci often interweave with each other. Single gene segments can contribute to multiple, distinct somatic loci. Terminal precursor segments from neighboring somatic loci map extremely close to each other, often overlapping. This genome assembly provides a draft of a scrambled genome and a powerful model for studies of genome rearrangement.
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Locking plate fixation combined with iliac crest bone autologous graft for proximal humerus comminuted fracture.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Although the use of an intramedullary fibular allograft together with locking plate fixation can provide additional medial support and prevent varus malalignment in displaced proximal humeral fractures with promising results, the fibular autograft donor site often sustains significant trauma and cannot restore the articular surface of comminuted fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a locking plate and crest bone autologous graft for treating proximal humerus comminuted fractures.
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Long-term effects of knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and osteoarthritis prevention.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is difficult to heal after injury due to the dynamic fluid environment of joint. Previously, we have achieved satisfactory regeneration of subcutaneous tendon/ligament with knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold due to its specific "internal-space-preservation" property. This study aims to investigate the long-term effects of knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold on ACL regeneration and osteoarthritis prevention. The knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold was fabricated and implanted into a rabbit ACL injury model. The knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold was found to enhance migration and adhesion of spindle-shaped cells into the scaffold at 2 months post-surgery. After 6 months, ACL treated with the knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold exhibited increased expression of ligament genes and better microstructural morphology. After 18 months, the knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold-treated group had more mature ligament structure and direct ligament-to-bone healing. Implanted knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffolds degraded much more slowly compared to subcutaneous implantation. Furthermore, the knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold effectively protected joint surface cartilage and preserved joint space for up to 18 months post-surgery. These findings thus demonstrated that the knitted silk-collagen sponge scaffold can regenerate functional ACL and prevent osteoarthritis in the long-term, suggesting its clinical use as a functional bioscaffold for ACL reconstruction.
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Transcription-Independent Functions of an RNA Polymerase II Subunit, Rpb2, During Genome Rearrangement in the Ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The RNA polymerase II (Pol-II) holoenzyme, responsible for messenger RNA production, typically consists of 10-12 subunits. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that maternally deposited, long, noncoding, template RNAs are essential for programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Here we show that such RNAs are bidirectionally transcribed and transported to the zygotic nucleus. The gene encoding the second-largest subunit of Pol-II, Rpb2, has undergone gene duplication, and the two paralogs, Rpb2-a and -b, display different expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation of double-stranded RNAs identified an association with Rpb2-a. Through immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we show that Rpb2-a in early zygotes appears surprisingly unassociated with other Pol II subunits. A partial loss of function of Rpb2-a leads to an increase in expression of transposons and other germline-limited satellite repeats. We propose that evolutionary divergence of the Rpb2 paralogs has led to acquisition of transcription-independent functions during sexual reproduction that may contribute to the negative regulation of germline gene expression.
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Mitochondrial genome of the longtail butterfly ray Gymnura poecilura (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Abstract The complete mitogenome the longtail butterfly ray (Gymnura poecilura) was first presented in this study. It is 17,874?bp in length, contains 37 genes with the typical gene order and transcriptional direction in vertebrates. The overall base composition is: 28.5% A, 26.5% T, 15.0% G and 30.1% C. There are 26?bp overlaps and 41?bp short intergenic spaces located in 7 and 16 gene junctions, respectively. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were used in protein-coding genes. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) was found between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The control region has the same A and C contents (28.8%).
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[Epidemiological features and pathogenic characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Gansu Province, China during 2008-2012].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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This study aims to analyze the epidemiological features and pathogenic characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Gansu Province, China and to provide a basis for the development of effective prevention and control measures. The descriptive epidemiological analysis was used to analyse the data of HFMD cases in Gansu. The specimens collected from hospitals were subjected to RT-PCR or real-time PCR to detect human enterovirus (HEV) nucleic acid, and HEV strains were isolated using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells and human laryngeal carcinoma cells. The complete VP1-encoding region of several identified enterovirus A71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was subjected to full-length amplification by RT-PCR and then to sequencing and analysis. A total of 52 550 HFMD cases were reported in Gansu from 2008 to 2012, including 205 severe cases and 27 deaths. The incidence rates in the whole province from 2008 to 2012 were 22.42/10(5), 49.29/10(5), 47.20/10(5), 27.27/10(5), and 55.84/10(5), respectively. There were cases in all the 14 cities or prefectures in Gansu, and Lanzhou had the largest number of cases (16 001 cases), accounting for 30.45% of all cases in the province. HFMD cases were mostly reported during May to July, accounting for 51.69% of all cases throughout the year. The male-to-female ratio was 1.69:1. Of all the cases, 87.59% were under the age of five. Of the 5 416 cases for laboratory tests, 3 322 (61.34%) were positive for HEV nucleic acid, including EV71 (46.96%), CVA16 (41.57%), and other HEVs (11.47%). Among the 186 severe cases, 114 (61.29%) were positive for HEV nucleic acid, and 82.46% of the positive cases for EV71. All the 25 dead cases were infected with EV71. A total of 402 strains were isolated from 3 111 specimens collected from hospitals (2 123 throat swab specimens, 705 stool specimens, and 705 herpes specimens), including EV71 (70.15%), CVA16 (27.11), other coxsackievirus A (3.98%), coxsackievirus B (2.49%), echovirus (1.74%), and adenovirus (1.99%). The genotyping of VP1- encoding region showed that all the 194 EV71 strains isolated during 2008-2012 belonged to the C4a evolutionary branch of C4 subtype; among the 45 CVA16 strains, 12 belonged to the Bla evolutionary branch of B1 subtype and 33 to the B1b evolutionary branch, and B1b became the predominant subtype in 2012. In conclusion, in Gansu Province, HFMD occurs mostly in children under the age of five; EV71 and CVA16 are the main pathogens of this disease, and the two are predominant alternately from 2008 to 2012; the severe and dead cases of HFMD are closely related to infection with EV71; the types of pathogens varied across different regions in the same year during 2008-2012.
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[Study on efficacy of liujunzi decoction combined with zuojin pills in treating acute radioactive duodenitis and their mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Liujunzi decoction combined with Zuojin pills in treating the radioactive duodenitis and their mechanism, and compare with clinical routine acid suppressants combined with mucous membrane protective preparations to study the mechanism of their efficacy.
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[Clinical outcomes and economic analysis of two ovulation induction protocols in patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycles].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To compare the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of luteal phase down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing repeated in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles.
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Benzylidene-indolinones are effective as multi-targeted kinase inhibitor therapeutics against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Effective pharmacological intervention of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently lacking. Despite the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for the targeted therapy of several malignancies, no agent has been developed to specifically interfere with the oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling aberrations found in HCC. Therefore, we adopted an orthogonal biological phenotypic screening approach to uncover candidate compounds: based on a potent cytotoxicity toward HCC-derived cell lines, and minimal toxicity toward normal liver cells. Given the success of indolinone as a chemical scaffold in deriving potent multi-kinase inhibitors (e.g. sunitinib), we screened a group of newly synthesized benzylidene-indolinones. Among the candidates, E/Z 6-Chloro-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyliden)-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one (compound 47) exhibited potent anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, pro-apoptotic properties and good safety profile as compared to known multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib. Additionally, an accompanying suppression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) transcription, an HCC tumor marker, implies a favorable selectivity and efficacy on HCC. The in vivo efficacy was demonstrated in an HCC xenograft where 47 was administered once weekly (60 mg/kg) and suppressed tumor burden to the same extent as sorafenib (30 mg/kg daily). A receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array study revealed promising inhibition of multiple tyrosine kinases such as IGF-1R, Tyro3 and EphA2 phosphorylation. Gene silencing of these targets ameliorated the cytotoxic potential of 47 on the HuH7 cell line, thereby implicating their contribution to the tumorigenicity of HCC. Hence, 47 exhibits potent anti-cancer effects on HCC cell lines, and is a suitable lead for developing multi-targeted kinase inhibitors of relevance to HCC.
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Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0T to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been considered useful for pathological staging and histological grading in bladder cancer. To our knowledge, no study has combined the two imaging modalities together to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer.
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Multiple Mechanisms in Renal Artery Stenosis-Induced Renal Interstitial Fibrosis.
Nephron Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Background/Aims: Renal artery stenosis (RAS), which may lead to renal fibrosis, is a common cause of end-stage renal disease in elderly patients. However, the potential mechanisms leading to the development of renal fibrosis and atrophy have not been clarified. Methods: A two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt mouse model was established in the present study. Blood pressure, morphological and pathological alterations were examined on days 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Peritubular capillary loss and pericyte changes after injury were evaluated. Inflammatory macrophage infiltration and Wnt/?-catenin signaling were also investigated. Results: A significant increase in blood pressure and obvious renal atrophy were observed on days 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. Following surgery, the clipped kidneys developed aggravated interstitial fibrosis and tubular epithelial injury over time. Moreover, RAS induced obvious peritubular capillary loss and inflammatory macrophage infiltration. Increased pericyte number was found in the clipped kidneys, but these cells detached from the endothelial cells and migrated to the interstitium. Wnt/?-catenin signaling was also significantly upregulated in the clipped kidneys after surgery. Conclusion: Our study provides a novel insight into the mechanisms linking peritubular capillary loss and pericyte changes in RAS-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings also suggest that inflammatory macrophages and Wnt/?-catenin signaling participate in these pathological processes. Therefore, multi-target therapeutic strategies may significantly contribute to the prevention of renal interstitial fibrosis and the preservation of renal function in patients with RAS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Determination of sunitinib and its active metabolite, N-desethyl sunitinib in mouse plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS: assay development and application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A simple, sensitive and specific method using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine sunitinib and N-desethyl sunitinib in mouse plasma and tissues. The analytes were separated by an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and buffer solution (water with 0.1% formic acid and 5?mm ammonium acetate; 40: 60, v/v) running at a flow rate of 0.35?mL/min for 2?min. Quantification was performed using a mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization mode. The transition was monitored at m/z 399???283, m/z 371???283 and m/z 327???270 for sunitinib, N-desethyl sunitinib and internal standard, respectively. Calibration curves were linear over concentration ranges of 2-500, 0.5-50 and 1-250?ng/mL for plasma, heart and other biosamples. The method was successfully applied to animal experiments. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that sunitinib was eliminated quickly in mice with a half-life of 1.2?h; tissue distribution data showed more sunitinib and its metabolite in liver, spleen and lung, which provided reference for further study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Rapid acquisition of helium-3 and proton three-dimensional image sets of the human lung in a single breath-hold using compressed sensing.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To develop and validate a method for acquiring helium-3 ((3) He) and proton ((1) H) three-dimensional (3D) image sets of the human lung with isotropic spatial resolution within a 10-s breath-hold by using compressed sensing (CS) acceleration, and to assess the fidelity of undersampled images compared with fully sampled images.
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bFGF promotes adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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In this work we describe the establishment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the role of bFGF in adipocyte differentiation. The totipotency of ESCs and MSCs was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR of totipotency factors. MSCs were successfully used to induce osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. MSCs that differentiated into adipocytes were stimulated with and without bFGF. The OD/DNA (optical density/content of total DNA) and expression levels of the specific adipocyte genes PPAR?2 (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?2) and C/EBPs were higher in bFGF cells. Embryonic bodies had a higher adipocyte level compared with cells cultured in plates. These findings indicate that bFGF promotes adipocyte differentiation. MSCs may be useful cells for seeding in tissue engineering and have enormous therapeutic potential for adipose tissue engineering.
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Transcriptomic analysis of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum provides insights into infection-related effectors.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Phytophthora cactorum, a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, can cause destructive diseases on numerous crops worldwide, leading to essential economic losses every year. However, little has been known about its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms. To gain insight into its repertoire of effectors, the P. cactorum transcriptome was investigated using Illumina RNA-seq.
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Protective effect of Flos puerariae extract following acute alcohol intoxication in mice.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The effect of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE) on alcohol metabolism, hepatic injury, and memory impairment was assessed following acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in mice.
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The role of death receptor 3 in the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Death receptor 3 (DR3) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, primarily found in lymphoid tissues. Reports have determined that DR3 may also be distributed in numerous types of tumors. Therefore, it is thought that DR3 may have an important role in the process of tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of silencing DR3 expression on hepatocarcinoma cell growth, apoptosis and invasion in order to elucidate the role of DR3 in tumor development. The hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, SMMC7721 and Bel?7402) and normal human liver cells (HL?7702) were transfected with three stealth RNA interference (RNAi) sequences that target the DR3 gene. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of DR3 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines and normal liver HL?7702 cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to determine the rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Following silencing of the DR3 gene, western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of P53, Fas, Caspase8, nuclear factor kappa?light?chain?enhancer of activated B cells (NF??B) and Caspase3. DR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hepatocarcinoma cell lines was significantly increased compared with that in the normal liver cell line. Three targeted DR3 gene small interfering RNAs significantly inhibited DR3 gene expression in Bel?7402 cells at the nucleic acid level. AF02670.1_stealth_883 and cocktail demonstrated the most efficient inhibition of DR3 gene expression at 48 and 72 h following transfection, with mRNA inhibition rates of 89.46 and 92.75%, and 90.53 and 94.25% (P<0.01), respectively. Cell viability was significantly reduced by AF02670.1_stealth_883 and RNAi cocktail at 24, 48 and 72 h following transfection. The inhibition rates of cell proliferation were 50.76 and 61.76% (P<0.05) at 72 h following transfection. FCM revealed that AF02670.1_stealth_883 and RNAi cocktail also induced apoptosis in Bel?7402 cells at 72 h following transfection. Reduction of NF??B and P53 levels was observed (P<0.05) in Bel?7402 cells following DR3 silencing, whereas levels of Fas, Caspase3 and Caspase8 were markedly elevated (P<0.05). DR3 expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly higher than those in normal cells. DR3 silencing effectively inhibited proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. However, silencing of the DR3 gene affect levels of apoptosis antigen?3 ligand in cells, therefore indicating that it may be involved with other pathways that regulate apoptosis in HCCs. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that DR3 may be a promising therapeutic target molecule for further study of hepatocellular carcinoma gene therapy.
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Ulinastatin attenuates renal interstitial inflammation and inhibits fibrosis progression in rats under unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of the urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin (UTI) on renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in rats subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the three groups; the sham operation (SOR) group (n=8), the UUO group (n=8) and the UUO+UTI group (post?UUO UTI treatment, n=8). UUO was performed with complete ligation of the left ureter. As a medical intervention, saline (4 ml kg?1 d?1) and UTI (40000 units kg?1 d?1) were injected, respectively, into the animals of the corresponding groups on day one following surgery. The rats in all three groups were euthanized on day seven post surgery. Blood samples were harvested for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) content measurements. The degree of interstitial pathological changes in the tissues from the obstructed kidneys were observed through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. The CD68+ macrophage amount, tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??), interleukin 1? (IL?1?), nuclear factor??B (NF??B), transforming growth factor??1 (TGF??1) and type I collagen (Col?I) levels were examined immunohistochemically. The protein expression levels of NF??B were examined using western blot analysis. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of homogenates were measured spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that ulinastatin had no statistically significant effect on the BUN and Scr levels (P>0.05). However, in comparison with the SOR group, the UUO group exhibited significantly more severe renal interstitial pathological injury in terms of tubular dilation, epithelial atrophy, renal interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and proliferation of fibrous tissues, as well as significantly elevated levels of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, IL?1?, TNF??, NF??B, TGF??1 and Col?I (P<0.01). UTI treatment significantly reduced UUO?induced renal interstitial damage with reduced levels of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, IL?1?, TNF??, NF??B, TGF??1 and Col?I and MDA (P<0.05), and increased SOD levels (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study indicated that UTI is able to effectively inhibit UUO?side renal interstitial inflammatory reaction and fibrosis in UUO?inflicted rats.
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PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.
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Association between nocturnal hypoxia and liver injury in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is suggested as a potential risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism is still far from clear. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of OSA-related hypoxia on severity of liver injury in patients with NAFLD.
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Discovery of a novel series of potent MK2 non-ATP competitive inhibitors using 1,2-substituted azoles as cis-amide isosteres.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A unified strategy was conceived and implemented to deliver conformationally constrained anilides based on their preferred cis-amide conformers. The imidazole/triazole mimicing amide bonds were designed, building upon an earlier discovery of a novel series of tricyclic lactams MK2 kinase inhibitors. This approach enabled rapid, modular synthesis of structurally novel analogs. The efficient SAR development led to the discovery of low molecular weight and potent MK2 non-ATP competitive inhibitors with good ligand efficiency, which led to improved permeability and oral exposure in rats.
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Anterior cornual motoneuron regression pattern after sacral plexus avulsion in rats.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Sacral plexus avulsions lead to severe disability in patients and remain a thorny clinical problem due to the lack of anatomical, experimental and clinical studies. Attempts have been made to treat lumbosacral plexus injuries with such operations as direct anastomosis of the ends of injured sacral plexuses, and certain therapeutic effects were achieved. To further explore the degeneration pattern of anterior cornual motoneurons and determine the best time for treatment, we carried out this study.
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Accelerated dual-contrast first-pass perfusion MRI of the mouse heart: Development and application to diet-induced obese mice.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Gene-modified mice may be used to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal myocardial blow flow (MBF). We sought to develop a quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging technique for mice and to test the hypothesis that myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) is reduced in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO).
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Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on serum cystatin C among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on serum cystatin C, a novel biomarker of early renal impairment, among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients.
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Expression of Bmi-1 and PAI-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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To determine the correlation between invasiveness, migration and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and expression of the B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 (Bmi-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1).
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Multiple tumor marker protein chip detection system in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The clinical stage of the disease at diagnosis often determines the prognosis and survival rate of a patient with pancreatic cancer. Early symptoms of pancreatic cancer are often not obvious on imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and so on), and when patients present with weight loss, jaundice and abdominal pain and other symptoms, they are usually already in the advanced stages of pancreatic cancer. However, the examination of combined tumor markers might improve their sensitivity or specificity in aiding diagnosis.
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An effective haplotype assembly algorithm based on hypergraph partitioning.
J. Theor. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The haplotype assembly problem has been proven to be complex. Heuristic algorithms are the main methods that are used to solve the problem. These algorithms perform well when the SNP fragments are error-free, but they are less accurate when the error rate increases. The complex relationships caused by fragment errors present a major barrier to assembling accurate haplotypes. Therefore, modeling the complex relationships is the key to solve the problem. In this study, we model the haplotype assembly problem using hypergraph partitioning formulations and propose a novel method termed HGHap (Hypergraph-based Haplotype assembly method). HGHap approaches the haplotype assembly problem in two phases. In the first phase, a hypergraph is constructed in which each vertex corresponds to a fragment and vertices are multiply connected to form hyperedges. In the second phase, a hypergraph partitioning algorithm is employed to obtain two groups of fragments to construct the haplotypes. The hyperedges capture higher-order relationships among fragments that facilitate the subsequent partitioning. Our results demonstrate that the method performs better than other methods in most cases, especially in cases with a high error rate.
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[Clinical research on surgical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer of diameter less than 2 cm].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To discuss the model of reasonable dissection extent of mediastinal lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer of diameter less than 2 cm.
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[Functional polymorphism of NRF2 gene promoter -617C/A in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cellular inflammatory response in patients with alcoholic liver disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To investigate the influence of NRF2 gene polymorphism at locus -617 on inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).
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In Vivo to In Vitro Effects of Six Bioactive Lignans of Wuzhi Tablet (Schisandra Sphenanthera Extract) on the CYP3A/P-glycoprotein-Mediated Absorption and Metabolism of Tacrolimus.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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We recently reported that Wuzhi tablet (WZ; Schisandra sphenanthera extract) can inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux and CYP3A-mediated metabolism of tacrolimus (FK506) and thus increase the blood concentrations of FK506. Major active lignans of WZ include schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, and schisantherin A. Whether and how these six lignans affect the pharmacokinetics of FK506 remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of these lignans on the first-pass absorption and metabolism of FK506 and the involved mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that whole-blood concentrations of FK506 were increased to different degrees following coadministration of the six lignans, respectively. Schisandrol B showed the strongest effect on the increase of the area under the concentration-time curve, the oral bioavailability, the gut processes affecting availability, and the hepatic availability of FK506. The reduction of intestinal first-pass effect contributed most to the increase in oral bioavailability of FK506 when coadministered with schisandrol B. In vitro transport experiment showed that schisandrin A, schisandrin B, and schisandrol B inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux of FK506. In vitro metabolism study showed that the inhibitory effect of these six lignans on FK506 metabolism was dose-dependent. In conclusion, the exposure of FK506 in rats was increased when coadministered with these lignans, and schisandrol B showed the strongest effect. Lignans of WZ inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux and CYP3A-mediated metabolism of FK506, and the reduction of intestinal first-pass affected by the lignans was the major cause of the increased FK506 oral bioavailability.
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Mitochondrial genome of the ringstraked guitarfish Rhinobatos hynnicephalus (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the ringstraked guitarfish Rhinobatos hynnicephalus is firstly presented in this study, which is also the first representative in the family Rhinobatidae. It is 16,776?bp in length and contains 37 genes and one control region as the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional direction in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.7% A, 26.8% C, 13.5% G and 28.1% T. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67?bp (tRNA-Ser2) to 75?bp (tRNA-Leu1). The origin of L-strand replication (OL) sequence was identified between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes. The termination associated sequence (TAS) and the conserved sequence blocks (CSB 1--3) were recognized in the control region.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the blue shark Prionace glauca (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract In this study, we first presented the complete mitochondrial genome of the blue shark Prionace Glauca, a pelagic and oceanic species. It is 16,705?bp in length and contains 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. The overall base composition is 31.6% A, 24.4% C, 13.1% G and 30.9% T. Overlaps and short inter-genic spaces are located in the genome. The tRNA-Ser2 loses the dihydrouridine arm and cannot be folded into the typical clover-leaf secondary structure. Two start codons (GTG and ATG) with two stop codons (TAG and TAA) or with one incomplete stop codon (T) are found in the 13 protein-coding genes. The control region contains high A?+?T (69.9%) and low G (12.0%).
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini was firstly determined in this study. It is 16,726?bp in length with the typical gene composition and orders in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 26.3% C, 13.2% G and 29.1% T. Two start codon (ATG and GTG) and three stop codon (TAG, AGA and TAA/TA/T) patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Except for the tRNA-Ser2, the remaining 21 tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region possess the highest A?+?T content (66.1%) and lowest G content (12.6%) among all mitochondrial partitions.
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Whole mitogenome of the Endangered dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata (Rajiformes: Pristidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract In this study, we describe the first complete mitochondrial sequence for the Endangered dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata. The base composition of the 16,804?bp long mitogenome is 31.9% A, 26.5% C, 13.3% G and 28.3% T and the gene arrangement and transcriptional direction are the same as those found in most vertebrates. All protein-coding genes start with ATG except the COI gene, which starts with GTG. Stop codons include incomplete T, AGG and TAA; however, TAG is not found in the mitogenome of this euryhaline elasmobranch species.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus (Lamniformes: Alopiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus is first presented in this study. It is 16,692?bp in length and contains the 37 genes and 1 control region with the typical gene order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.1% A, 29.3% T, 25.3% C and 13.3% G. Totally, 27?bp overlaps and 25?bp short intergenic spaces are dispersal in the mitogenome. The tRNA-Ser2 (GCU) cannot be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure because of lacking the dihydrouridine arm. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were used in the 13 protein-coding genes.
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Neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Cushings disease.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To review the main neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive deficits in patients with Cushings disease (CD) and the associated pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CD. These mechanistic details may provide recommendations for preventing or treating the cognitive impairments and mood disorders in patients with CD.
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Membrane attachment and structure models of lipid storage droplet protein 1.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Neutral lipid triglycerides, a main reserve for fat and energy, are stored in organelles called lipid droplets. The storage and release of triglycerides are actively regulated by several proteins specific to the droplet surface, one of which in insects is PLIN1. PLIN1 plays a key role in the activation of triglyceride hydrolysis upon phosphorylation. However, the structure of PLIN1 and its relation to functions remain elusive due to its insolubility and crystallization difficulty. Here we report the first solid-state NMR study on the Drosophila melanogaster PLIN1 in combination with molecular dynamics simulation to show the structural basis for its lipid droplet attachment. NMR spin diffusion experiments were consistent with the predicted membrane attachment motif of PLIN1. The data indicated that PLIN1 has close contact with the terminal methyl groups of the phospholipid acyl chains. Structure models for the membrane attachment motif were generated based on hydrophobicity analysis and NMR membrane insertion depth information. Simulated NMR spectra from a trans-model agreed with experimental spectra. In this model, lipids from the bottom leaflet were very close to the surface in the region enclosed by membrane attachment motif. This may imply that in real lipid droplet, triglyceride molecules might be brought close to the surface by the same mechanism, ready to leave the droplet in the event of lipolysis. Juxtaposition of triglyceride lipase structure to the trans-model suggested a possible interaction of a conserved segment with the lipase by electrostatic interactions, opening the lipase lid to expose the catalytic center.
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Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases of a phytosterol ethoxylate in amide solvents.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Materials exhibiting unique aggregation behavior in nonaqueous solvents have attracted attention due to their wide applications. Motivated by this recent interest, the aggregation properties of a phytosterol ethoxylate surfactant, BPS-10, in three organic amide compounds, formamide (FA), N-methylformamide (NMF), and N,N-dimethyl- formamide (DMF), have been studied. Polarized optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to investigate the lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) phases formed in these binary systems. Herein, we discuss the relationship between subtle intermolecular interactions and the aggregation behavior of BPS-10. As good proton donors or acceptors to form hydrogen bonding, FA molecules allow BPS-10 to show a richer phase behavior. Compared with the systems formed in water and ionic liquids, the LLCs constructed in FA have higher thermal stability. In addition, two kinds of lamellar phases could coexist in a narrow region. With the methyl replacement in formamide, however, the ability to form hydrogen bonds is reduced and the solvent bulk phase structure becomes less ordered from FA to DMF. Consequently, the solvophobic interaction of BPS-10 becomes weaker, and the LLCs are more difficult to form. In addition, the extra strong interactions between the steroid rings of BPS-10 may provide enough driving force to produce the hexagonal phase (H1) directly in NMF and DMF without micelle formation, thereby creating a novel sequence (isotropic ? H1 ? L?) of ordered phases with increasing surfactant concentration. The results discussed herein should prove to be a useful complement to the growing body of literature regarding steroid surfactant aggregation in polar organic solvents.
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Parallel evolution of IDH2 gene in cetaceans, primates and bats.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Cetaceans and primates both have large brains that require large amounts of aerobic energy metabolism. In bats, the cost of flight makes locomotion energetically demanding. These mammalian groups may represent three independent evolutionary origins of an energy-demanding lifestyle in mammals. IDH2 encodes an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the mitochondrion, which plays a key role in aerobic energy metabolism. In this study, we cloned and sequenced this gene in two cetaceans, and 19 bat species, and compared the data with available primate sequences to test its evolution. We found significant signals of parallel evolution in this gene among these three groups. Parallel evolution of this gene may reflect their parallel evolution towards a higher demand for energy.
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Automatic salient object detection via maximum entropy estimation.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This Letter proposes a rapid method for automatic salient object detection inspired by the idea that an image consists of redundant information and novelty fluctuations. We believe object detection can be achieved by removing the nonsalient parts and focusing on the salient object. Considering the relation between the composition of the image and the aim of object detection, we constructed what we believe is a more reliable saliency map to evaluate the image composition. The local energy feature is combined with a simple biologically inspired model (color, intensity, orientation) to strengthen the integrity of the object in the saliency map. We estimated the entropy of the object via the maximum entropy method. Then, we removed pixels of minimal intensity from the original image and compute the entropy of the resulting images, correlating this entropy with the object entropy. Our experimental results show that the algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and is more suitable in real-time applications.
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In vitro drug resistance of clinical isolated Brucella against antimicrobial agents.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To explore the antibiotic resistance of Brucella melitensis and instruct rational use of antimicrobial agents in clinical treatment of Brucella infection.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese wobbegong Orectolobus japonicus (Orectolobiformes: Orectolobidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese wobbegong Orectolobus japonicus was presented in this study. It is 16,706?bp in length with the typical gene composition and arrangement in the mitochondrial genome of vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.6% A, 24.0% C, 13.3% G and 30.1% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA) were found in protein-coding genes. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. One termination associated sequence (TAS) and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) were found in the control region.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.