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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 in lungs of preterm rats after hyperoxic lung injury.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To study the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of preterm rats exposed to 60% O2 and to elucidate the relationship between the changes of FABP4 expression and the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
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Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.
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Quantifying the lifetime circadian rhythm of physical activity: a covariate-dependent functional approach.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Objective measurement of physical activity using wearable devices such as accelerometers may provide tantalizing new insights into the association between activity and health outcomes. Accelerometers can record quasi-continuous activity information for many days and for hundreds of individuals. For example, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging physical activity was recorded every minute for [Formula: see text] adults for an average of [Formula: see text] days per adult. An important scientific problem is to separate and quantify the systematic and random circadian patterns of physical activity as functions of time of day, age, and gender. To capture the systematic circadian pattern, we introduce a practical bivariate smoother and two crucial innovations: (i) estimating the smoothing parameter using leave-one-subject-out cross validation to account for within-subject correlation and (ii) introducing fast computational techniques that overcome problems both with the size of the data and with the cross-validation approach to smoothing. The age-dependent random patterns are analyzed by a new functional principal component analysis that incorporates both covariate dependence and multilevel structure. For the analysis, we propose a practical and very fast trivariate spline smoother to estimate covariate-dependent covariances and their spectra. Results reveal several interesting, previously unknown, circadian patterns associated with human aging and gender.
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Indole alkaloids with new skeleton activating neural stem cells.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Alstoscholarisines A-E (1-5), five unprecedented monoterpenoid indole alkaloids with 6/5/6/6/6 fused-bridge rings, were isolated from Alstonia scholaris. They promoted adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs) proliferation significantly, in which the most active one (1) functioned from a concentration of 0.1 ?g/mL in a dosage-dependent manner. Furthermore, 1 enhanced NSC sphere formation and neurogenic fate commitment through activation of a Wnt signaling pathway and promoted NSC differentiation but did not affect proliferation of neuroblastoma cells.
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[Construction of beta-catenin miRNA-expressing vectors and test of silencing effect in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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OBEJECTIVE: To construct miRNA-expressing plasmid vector for interfering the expression of beta-catenin in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats.
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[Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.
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Effect modification by gender and smoking status on the association between obesity and atopic sensitization in Chinese adults: a hospital-based case-control study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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There is an ongoing debate on the potential association between obesity and atopy. However, no previous studies have investigated whether this relationship depends on sex and smoking status in Chinese adults.
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Learning regulatory programs by threshold SVD regression.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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We formulate a statistical model for the regulation of global gene expression by multiple regulatory programs and propose a thresholding singular value decomposition (T-SVD) regression method for learning such a model from data. Extensive simulations demonstrate that this method offers improved computational speed and higher sensitivity and specificity over competing approaches. The method is used to analyze microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. The analysis yields previously unidentified insights into the combinatorial regulation of gene expression by noncoding RNAs, as well as findings that are supported by evidence from the literature.
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Belt-MRF for large aperture mirrors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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With high-determinacy and no subsurface damage, Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) has become an important tool in fabricating high-precision optics. But for large mirrors, the application of MRF is restricted by its small removal function and low material removal rate. In order to improve the material removal rate, shorten the processing cycle, we proposed a new MRF concept, named Belt-MRF to expand the application of MRF to large mirrors and made a prototype with a large remove function, using a belt instead of a very large polishing wheel to expand the polishing length. A series of experimental results on Silicon carbide (SiC) and BK 7 specimens and fabrication simulation verified that the Belt-MRF has high material removal rates, stable removal function and high convergence efficiency which makes it a promising technology for processing large aperture optical elements.
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Effects of nutritional management intervention on gestational weight gain and perinatal outcome.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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To evaluate whether nutritional management intervention can prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and improve perinatal outcomes.
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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor l (XAFl) enhances the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to cisplatin.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The purpose of present study was to investigate the roles of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor l (XAFl) in regulation apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells after treatment with cisplatin (DDP). A total of ten paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues were collected from patients with CRC after surgery. The levels of XAFl protein were detected by Western blot. Primary CRC cells were separated from cancer tissues, and its viability or apoptosis after treatment with DDP was determined with MTT or Annexin V/PI assays, respectively. Furthermore, we either up-regulated transfecting a XAF1 overexpression vector or down-regulated XAF1 by siRNA interference. And then, the XAF1 levels and its sensitivity to cisplatin were assessed. XAFl had a lower expression in the cancerous tissues from samples T1, T2 and T3 than their paired non-cancerous tissues N1, N2 and N3. However, the expression of XAF1 was not detected in samples T4 and N1. XAF1 levels in cancer tissues significantly decreased in comparison with normal tissues. Cell abilities of primary cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, after treatment with a series concentrations of cisplatin (2, 5, 10 ?g/mL) for 48 h. Although, after down-expression of XAFl by siRNA, cisplatin caused a significant decreases in apoptosis rates in CRC cells. The up-regulation of XAF1 distinctly increased apoptosis in CRC cells administered by cisplatin (P < 0.001). The XAFl could promoted apoptosis and enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity to cisplatin in CRC cells.
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[Comparison study of five scoring systems for evaluating prognosis of patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To compare the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), delta model for end-stage liver disease (deltaMELD), MELD and serum sodium (MELD-Na), MELD score to serum sodium ratio index (MESO), and integrated end-stage liver disease model (iMELD) scoring systems for their utility in evaluating medium-short term prognosis of cirrhotic patients who underwent the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure.
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Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains.
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Sources of halogenated brominated retardants in house dust in an industrial city in southern China and associated human exposure.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs.
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Dysoxydensins A-G, seven new clerodane diterpenoids from Dysoxylum densiflorum.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Seven new clerodane diterpenoids, dysoxydensins A-G (1-7), together with six known clerodanes, were isolated from Dysoxylum densiflorum. The structures of all the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, and compounds 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate cytotoxic activities.
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[Enhanced electro-catalytic oxidation of dye wastewater with FePMo12 adopted catalyst].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation degradation of azo dyes has become a widely used method in recent years. Iron phosphomolybdate (FePMo12) was synthesized with molybdophosphoric acid and ferric salt. Morphology and microstructure of catalyst were chararerized by IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The heteropolyanion showed a Keggin structure. Electrochemical oxidation of acid red 3R was investigated in the presence of FePMo12 supported on modified 4A molecular sieve (4A) as packing materials in the reactor. The results showed that the optimal technological conditions for decolorization of acid red 3R simulated wastewater were as follows: active component load 3% , electrolytic voltage 22 V, initial pH 4, air-flow 0.08 m3 h- ', electrode span 3.0 cm. Under the opñrrizd conditions, the decolorization efficiency, COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 75.3% , 65.4% and 46.0% after 90 min, respectively. With the addition of NaCI to the dyes solution during electrolysis, the decolorization efficiency increased, while the effect of Na2SO4 on the degradation was negative. The efficiency of degradation and mineralization of the acid red 3R were estimated based on the absorbance measurements by UV-vis. It shows that the conjugated structure of dye was destroyed primarily.
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Percutaneous coronary intervention compared with coronary artery bypass graft in coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Previous reports of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft outcomes in coronary artery disease patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were inconsistent. We evaluated the optimal revascularization strategy for CKD patients. We searched Pub Med, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and scanned the references of relevant articles and reviews. All studies that compared relevant clinical outcomes between percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft in CKD patients were selected. We defined short-term and long-term all-cause mortality as primary outcome, and long-term incidences of myocardial infarction and revascularization as secondary outcomes. A total of 2235 citations were retrieved, and 31 studies involving 99,054 patients, with 55,383 receiving percutaneous coronary intervention and 43,671 receiving coronary artery bypass graft, were included. In subgroup analyses of dialysis patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention with stents versus coronary artery bypass graft, CKD patients with multivessel coronary disease, and CKD patients receiving drug-eluting stent versus coronary artery bypass graft, the pooled outcomes revealed that percutaneous coronary intervention possessed lower short-term mortality, but higher late revascularization risk. No significant differences in long-term mortality were observed between the two strategies in these subgroup analyses. In conclusion, in some specific clinical circumstances, CKD patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention possessed lower short-term all-cause mortality, but higher long-term revascularization risk, than coronary artery bypass graft; long-term all-cause mortality was not different between the two strategies.
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Subclassification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on dilation stratifies coronary artery disease patients with distinct risk.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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A new 4-tired classification of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) based on LV concentricity and dilation has been proposed; however, the association between the new categorization of LV geometry and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unknown.
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Analysis of clinical evaluation of response to treatment of Parkinson's disease with integrated Chinese and Western medicine therapy.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To analyze the clinical evaluation of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving integrated Chinese and Western medicine therapy.
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Bayesian Models for Multiple Outcomes in Domains with Application to the Seychelles Child Development Study.
J Am Stat Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) examines the effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the functioning of the central nervous system. The SCDS data include 20 outcomes measured on 9-year old children that can be classified broadly in four outcome classes or "domains": cognition, memory, motor, and social behavior. Previous analyses and scientific theory suggest that these outcomes may belong to more than one of these domains, rather than only a single domain as is frequently assumed for modeling. We present a framework for examining the effects of exposure and other covariates when the outcomes may each belong to more than one domain and where we also want to learn about the assignment of outcomes to domains. Each domain is defined by a sentinel outcome which is preassigned to that domain only. All other outcomes can belong to multiple domains and are not preassigned. Our model allows exposure and covariate effects to differ across domains and across outcomes within domains, and includes random subject-specific effects which model correlations between outcomes within and across domains. We take a Bayesian MCMC approach. Results from the Seychelles study and from extensive simulations show that our model can effectively determine sparse domain assignment, and at the same time give increased power to detect overall, domain-specific and outcome-specific exposure and covariate effects relative to separate models for each endpoint. When fit to the Seychelles data, several outcomes were classified as partly belonging to domains other than their originally assigned domains. In retrospect, the new partial domain assignments are reasonable and, as we discuss, suggest important scientific insights about the nature of the outcomes. Checks of model misspecification were improved relative to a model that assumes each outcome is in a single domain.
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Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Ecdysanthera rosea.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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One new eudesmane sesquiterpenoid (1) named ecdysantherol A and two new benzene derivatives ecdysantherols B (2) and C (3), together with five known benzene derivatives (4-8) were isolated from the stems of Ecdysanthera rosea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The known compounds were identified by the comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported literature data. Compound 1 showed moderate antibacterial activity against the Providensia smartii with MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL.
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Effect of generation 4.0 polyamidoamine dendrimer on the mineralization of demineralized dentinal tubules in vitro.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Dentine hypersensitivity is a type of clinical oral disease, which is highly prevalent worldwide. Although there are many materials to treat dentine hypersensitivity, their long-term therapeutic effects are not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this research was to observe and identify the biological mineralization of the generation 4.0 polyamidoamine dendrimer on the demineralized dentinal tubules at different time points.
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Mesoporous nano/micro noble metal particles: synthesis and applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The morphology, size and composition often govern the physical and chemical properties of noble metal units with a size in the nano or micro scale. Thus, the controlled growth of noble metal crystals would help to tailor their unique properties and this would be followed by their practical application. Mesoporous nano/micro noble metal units are types of nanostructured material that have fascinating properties that can generate great potential for various applications. This review presents a general view on the growth mechanisms of porous noble metal units and is focused on recent progresses in their synthetic approaches. Then, their potential applications in the field of drug delivery, cell imaging and SERS substrates, as well as fuel cell catalysts are overviewed.
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Design of a prognostic score model for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The purpose of this analysis was to create a prognostic score model for newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) which has not been created before.
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Effect of different calcium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-5Al-1Bi-0.3Mn magnesium alloy.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The effect of different Ca contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-5Al-1Bi-0.3Mn (AMB501) magnesium alloys was investigated by conventional melting and casting technique using different Ca contents (1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt %). Increasing the Ca content resulted in higher hardness and yield strength, but decreased elongation. The improved tensile properties of the AM50-1Bi-xCa alloys were due to the changes in AMB501 alloy microstructure when the Ca content increased, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrum, and X-ray diffractometer. The alloy microstructure indicated that the amount of ?-Mg17 Al12 phase on grain boundaries decreased and the morphology of ?-Mg17 Al12 phase on grain boundaries changed from quasicontinuous-net shape to dispersed particles. The Mg17 Al12 phase disappeared and a new secondary phase Al2 Ca appeared after a 3.0 wt % Ca addition. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The highly conserved negatively charged Glu141 and Asp145 of the G-protein-coupled receptor RXFP3 interact with the highly conserved positively charged arginine residues of relaxin-3.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Relaxin-3 is a newly identified insulin/relaxin superfamily peptide that plays a putative role in the regulation of food intake and stress response by activating its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor RXFP3. Relaxin-3 has three highly conserved arginine residues, B12Arg, B16Arg and B26Arg. We speculated that these positively charged arginines may interact with certain negatively charged residues of RXFP3. To test this hypothesis, we first replaced the negatively charged residues in the extracellular domain of RXFP3 with arginine, respectively. Receptor activation assays showed that arginine replacement of Glu141 or Asp145, especially Glu141, significantly decreased the sensitivity of RXFP3 to wild-type relaxin-3. In contrast, arginine replacement of other negatively charged extracellular residues had little effect. Thus, we deduced that Glu141 and Asp145, locating at the extracellular end of the second transmembrane domain, played a critical role in the interaction of RXFP3 with relaxin-3. To identify the ligand residues interacting with the negatively charged EXXXD motif of RXFP3, we replaced the three conserved arginines of relaxin-3 with negatively charged glutamate or aspartate, respectively. The mutant relaxin-3s retained the native structure, but their binding and activation potencies towards wild-type RXFP3 were decreased significantly. The compensatory effects of the mutant relaxin-3s towards mutant RXFP3s suggested two probable interaction pairs during ligand-receptor interaction: Glu141 of RXFP3 interacted with B26Arg of relaxin-3, meanwhile Asp145 of RXFP3 interacted with both B12Arg and B16Arg of relaxin-3. Based on these results, we proposed a relaxin-3/RXFP3 interaction model that shed new light on the interaction mechanism of the relaxin family peptides with their receptors.
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Acute basophilic leukemia presenting with maculopapular rashes and a gastric ulcer: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) is a rare and poorly characterized form of leukemia. The case of a 65-year-old male who complained of dizziness, maculopapular skin lesions and melena is described in the current report. A gastroscopy was conducted and indicated a gastric antral ulcer. The diagnosis of ABL was determined due to characteristic cytomorphological features, the myeloid immunophenotype of the blast cells (identified to be positive for cluster of differentiation [CD]25 and CD123) in addition to the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome and a c-kit D816V mutation. The patient initially demonstrated clinical improvement as a result of chemotherapy, however, subsequently deteriorated. The gastric and skin manifestations of ABL may be associated with excessive histamine release from basophilic cells. Thus, the administration of H1- and H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and steroids is proposed in order to minimize these associated complications.
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Improving cytomegalovirus-specific T cell reconstitution after haploidentical stem cell transplantation.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and delayed immune reconstitution (IR) remain serious obstacles for successful haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT). CMV-specific IR varied according to whether patients received manipulated/unmanipulated grafts or myeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning. CMV infection commonly occurs following impaired IR of T cell and its subsets. Here, we discuss the factors that influence IR based on currently available evidence. Adoptive transfer of donor T cells to improve CMV-specific IR is discussed. One should choose grafts from CMV-positive donors for transplant into CMV-positive recipients (D+/R+) because this will result in better IR than would grafts from CMV-negative donors (D-/R+). Stem cell source and donor age are other important factors. Posttransplant complications, including graft-versus-host disease and CMV infection, as well as their associated treatments, should also be considered. The effects of varying degrees of HLA disparity and conditioning regimens are more controversial. As many of these factors and strategies are considered in the setting of haplo-SCT, it is anticipated that haplo-SCT will continue to advance, further expanding our understanding of IR and CMV infection.
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Cinchona alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra and Cinchona ledgeriana.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Seven new cinchona alkaloids, cinchonanines A-G (1-7), and 29 known alkaloids were isolated from the barks of Cinchona surrirubra and C. ledgeriana collected from Yunnan Province in China. The new structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2, 13, 14, and 15 showed moderate cytotoxicity.
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Chemical and toxicological investigations of a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The established tradition of consuming and marketing wild mushrooms has focused attention on mycotoxicity, which has become a global issue. In the present study, we describe the toxins found in a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum. Fifteen new triterpenoids terreolides?A-F (1-6) and saponaceolides?H-P (8-16) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the toxic mushroom T. terreum. Terreolides?A-C (1-3) possessed a unique 5/6/7 trioxaspiroketal system, whereas terreolides D-F (4-6) possessed an unprecedented carbon skeleton. Two abundant compounds in the mushroom, saponaceolide?B (7) and saponaceolide?M (13), displayed acute toxicity, with LD50 values of 88.3 and 63.7?mg?kg(-1) when administered orally in mice. Both compounds were found to increase serum creatine kinase levels in mice, indicating that T. terreum may be the cause of mushroom poisoning ultimately leading to rhabdomyolysis.
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Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process.
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SOCS3 expression correlates with severity of inflammation in mouse hepatitis virus strain 3-induced acute liver failure and HBV-ACLF.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Recently, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) has been shown to be an inducible endogenous negative regulator of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway which is relevant in inflammatory response, while its functions in acute liver failure and HBV-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the role of SOCS3 in the development of mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)-induced acute liver failure and its expression in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with HBV-ACLF. Inflammation-related gene expression was detected by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The correlation between SOCS3 level and liver injury was studied. Our results showed that the SOCS3 expression was significantly elevated in both the liver tissue and PBMCs from patients with HBV-ACLF compared to mild chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Moreover, a time course study showed that SOCS3 level was increased remarkably in the liver of BALB/cJ mice at 72 h post-infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, were also increased significantly at 72 h post-infection. There was a close correlation between hepatic SOCS3 level and IL-6, and the severity of liver injury defined by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, respectively. These data suggested that SOCS3 may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MHV-3-induced acute liver failure and HBV-ACLF.
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Combination of gefitinib and DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapy efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of concomitant inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and DNA methyltransferase were examined in human colon cancer cells. We demonstrated that decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) synergized with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor) to reduce cell viability and colony formation in SW1116 and LOVO cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to NCM460 cells, a normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line. The combination was also more effective at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. In addition, the combination of decitabine with gefitinib markedly inhibited colon cancer cell migration. Furthermore, gefitinib synergistically enhanced decitabine-induced cytotoxicity was primarily due to apoptosis as shown by Annexin V labeling that was attenuated by z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor. Concomitantly, cell apoptosis resulting from the co-treatment of gefitinib and decitabine was accompanied by induction of BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, along with reduction of Bcl-2 compared to treatment with either drug alone. Interestingly, combined treatment with these two drugs increased the expression of XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) which play an important role in cell apoptosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of XAF1 significantly attenuated colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by the combination of the two drugs. Our findings suggested that gefitinib in combination with decitabine exerted enhanced cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells were involved in mitochondrial-mediated pathway and induction of XAF1 expression. In conclusion, based on the observations from our study, we suggested that the combined administration of these two drugs might be considered as a novel therapeutic regimen for treating colon cancer.
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Genome-wide transcriptome and antioxidant analyses on gamma-irradiated phases of deinococcus radiodurans R1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adaptation of D. radiodurans cells to extreme irradiation environments requires dynamic interactions between gene expression and metabolic regulatory networks, but studies typically address only a single layer of regulation during the recovery period after irradiation. Dynamic transcriptome analysis of D. radiodurans cells using strand-specific RNA sequencing (ssRNA-seq), combined with LC-MS based metabolite analysis, allowed an estimate of the immediate expression pattern of genes and antioxidants in response to irradiation. Transcriptome dynamics were examined in cells by ssRNA-seq covering its predicted genes. Of the 144 non-coding RNAs that were annotated, 49 of these were transfer RNAs and 95 were putative novel antisense RNAs. Genes differentially expressed during irradiation and recovery included those involved in DNA repair, degradation of damaged proteins and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism. The knockout mutant crtB (phytoene synthase gene) was unable to produce carotenoids, and exhibited a decreased survival rate after irradiation, suggesting a role for these pigments in radiation resistance. Network components identified in this study, including repair and metabolic genes and antioxidants, provided new insights into the complex mechanism of radiation resistance in D. radiodurans.
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Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Paired Human Hair and Serum from e-Waste Recycling Workers: Source Apportionment of Hair PBDEs and Relationship between Hair and Serum.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p < 0.05) between hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously.
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Melosuavines A-H, Cytotoxic Bisindole Alkaloid Derivatives from Melodinus suaveolens.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Eight new bisindole alkaloids, melosuavines A-C (1-3), having an aspidosperma-scandine linkage, melosuavines D-F (4-6), possessing an aspidosperma-aspidosperma skeleton, and melosuavines G and H (7 and 8) of the aspidosperma-venalatonine type, tenuicausine (9), and melodinine J (10) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens. The structures of 1-8 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, and compounds 9 and 10 were identified by comparison with data in the literature. The relative configuration 9 was determined from the ROESY spectrum, and some NMR signals were reassigned. Compounds 1, 2, 4-6, 8, and 10 exhibited low micromolar cytotoxicity against one or more of five human cancer cell lines.
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Indole Alkaloids from Leaves and Twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells.
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A Glycine Soja 14-3-3 Protein GsGF14o Participates in Stomatal and Root Hair Development and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.
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[Effect of hydrofluoric acid etching time and resin bonding on the flexural strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramic].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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To analyze the effect of hydrofluoric acid(HFA) etching time and resin bonding on the flexural strength of IPS e.max® Press glass ceramic, and evaluate the efficacy of resin cements to seal the cracks of the etched ceramic.
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Antibacterial prenylbenzoic acid derivatives from Anodendron formicinum.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Anodendron formicinum led to the isolation of eight prenylbenzoic acid derivatives. Three of these were new compounds, designated as formicinuosides A (1), B (2), and C (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with the reported spectroscopic data. This is the first report of chemical constituents from A. formicinum and their antimicrobial activities. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 4, 6 and 8 showed significant antibacterial activities against Providensia smartii with MIC values of 0.781?g/mL. Moreover, compound 8 showed remarkable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with MIC value of 0.781?g/mL.
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Induced furoeudesmanes: a defense mechanism against stress in Laggera pterodonta, a Chinese herbal plant.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Laggera pterodonta displays different phenotypes in its natural habitat but expresses a uniform phenotype with large, broad leaves and fewer secondary metabolites when grown under optimal conditions. The production of six furoeudesmanes is only induced when L. pterodonta encounters stresses, conferring host resistance against a broad spectrum of plant invaders.
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Sex-related differences in outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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There were considerable discrepancies with regard to sex-related differences in complications and prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
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Lancolides, antiplatelet aggregation nortriterpenoids with tricyclo[6.3.0.0(2,11)]undecane-bridged system from Schisandra lancifolia.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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A new class of highly oxygenated Schisandra nortriterpenoids, lancolides A-D (1-4), from Schisandra lancifolia, represents the first example of natural products that possess a tricyclo[6.3.0.0(2,11)]undecane-bridged system. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectra, X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemical calculations. Lancolides A (1) and D (4) had specific antiplatelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF).
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Cytotoxic indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana divaricata.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Five new vobasinyl-ibogan-type bisindole alkaloids, tabernaricatines A-E (1-5), two new monomers, tabernaricatines F and G (6 and 7), and 24 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata. Alkaloids 1 and 2 are the first vobasinyl-ibogan-type alkaloids possessing a six-membered ring via an ether linkage between C-17 and C-21. All compounds except for 3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines; conophylline showed significant bioactivity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cells with IC?? values of 0.17, 0.35, 0.21, 1.02, and 1.49 ?M, respectively.
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QTL mapping reveals a tight linkage between QTLs for grain weight and panicle spikelet number in rice.
Rice (N Y)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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A number of QTL studies reported that one genomic region was associated with several traits, indicating linkage and/or pleiotropic effects. The question of pleiotropy versus tight linkage in these studies should be solved using a large-size population combined with high-density mapping. For example, if each of the 2 parents has a TGW-increasing or SPP-increasing QTL that is tightly linked, complementary combination of the 2 beneficial QTLs by using molecular markers could produce higher yields compared to the 2 parents. However, a pleiotropic QTL with opposite effects on the SPP and 1,000-grain weight (TGW) is complicated and challenging in terms of its application to rice improvement.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Five Multilocus Sequence Types of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae can colonize the human nasopharynx and cause conjunctivitis and otitis media. Different deletions in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus and different multilocus sequence types have been described for nonencapsulated strains. Draft genome sequences were generated to provide insight into the genomic diversity of these strains.
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[Technological experience of occlusal reconstruction with IPS e.max Press for severely worn dentition].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To investigate the feasibility of occlusal reconstruction with IPS e.max Press for patients suffering from severely worn dentition, and to summarize the technological experience.
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Gardovatine, a novel Strychnos-Strychnos bisindole alkaloid with cytotoxicity from Gardneria oveta.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Gardovatine (1), the first Strychnos-Strychnos alkaloid with a C3/C7 cleaved backbone, was isolated from twigs and leaves of Gardneria ovate, together with an analogue divarine (2). The structure was established by extensive spectroscopic methods. Both compounds showed potential cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines.
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Salidroside attenuates LPS-stimulated activation of THP-1 cell-derived macrophages through down-regulation of MAPK/NF-kB signaling pathways.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Excessive activation of macrophages is implicated in various inflammatory injuries. Salidroside (Sal), one of the main bioactive components of Rhodiola Sachalinensis, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to examine the effect of Sal on the activation of macrophages and the possible mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated phrobol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophage models were established. The changes in the inflammatory profiles of THP-1-derived macrophages were determined. The results showed that Sal significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), interleukin-1beta (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) at both mRNA and protein levels in THP-1-derived macrophages, and the effect was dose-depedent. Moreover, NF-?B activation was significantly suppressed and the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK was substantially down-regulated after Sal treatment. The findings suggested that Sal can suppress the activation of LPS-stimulated PMA-differetiated THP-1 cells, as evidenced by the decreased expression of iNOS, COX2, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, and the mechanism involves the inhibition of NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of the MAPK signal pathway.
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Acupuncture Deqi Intensity and Propagated Sensation along Channels May, Respectively, Differ due to Different Body Positions of Subjects.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Acupuncture as an essential component of complementary and alternative medicine is gradually recognized and accepted by the mainstream of contemporary medicine. For obtaining preferable clinical effectiveness, Deqi is commonly regarded as efficacy predictor and parameter which is necessary to be achieved. Influential factors for acupuncture efficacy, like Deqi sensation as well as propagated sensation along channels (PSCs), enjoyed a long history in acupuncture basic research. Concerning this study, taking into account different positions on acupuncture Deqi sensation and PSCs, we would like to attest whether different body positions for subjects during needling procedure yield differed acupuncture Deqi sensation, particularly in terms of intensity, and PSCs. Methods. We used self-controlled method and selected 30 healthy subjects to perform needle insertion at Futu point (ST32) bilaterally. Then they were instructed to record the value of intensity of acupuncture sensation and the length and width of PSCs after removing the needle. Results. In regard to intensity of Deqi, kneeling seat position is stronger than supine position, accounting for 90% of the total number of subjects. In length of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 56.7%. In width of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 66.7%. Conclusion. Our findings show that needle inserting at Futu point (ST32) in kneeling seat position achieve better needle sensation and provide reference for clinical.
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Tetramethylpyrazine protects against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats by reversing the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Tetramethylpyrazine is used in the treatment of many neurological diseases because of its neuroprotective effect. Here, we demonstrate that administration of tetramethylpyrazine effectively reverses memory deficits induced by scopolamine. Moreover, tetramethylpyrazine preserves postsynaptic protein synthesis and restores cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway signaling deficits. Our study not only explores the actions of tetramethylpyrazine on synapses, but also provides novel evidence for the possible therapeutic use of tetramethylpyrazine in dementia.
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The impact of smoking on clinical efficacy and pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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CONTEXT: Previous findings regarding the relationship between smoking and clopidogrel effects were considerably discrepant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on clinical and pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library through January 2013 were searched. Reference lists of pertinent literatures and abstracts of major cardiovascular conferences were screened. STUDY SELECTION: Clinical and laboratory studies, which reported major adverse cardiovascular events and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity categorised by smoking status respectively, were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: Descriptive and quantitative data were extracted. The main analyses were performed under a random-effects model. For clinical studies, HR estimates were synthesised according to smoking status; for laboratory studies, standardised mean difference (SMD) of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and OR for high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity were pooled. Heterogeneity was quantified by computing I(2) statistic. RESULTS: Of the 1869 citations retrieved, seven clinical studies and 12 laboratory studies involving 111 132 patients with established cardiovascular disease and 6658 patients with acute coronary syndrome and/or stent deployment, respectively, were included for meta-analysis. Pooled clinical results showed that an intensified antiplatelet regimen involving clopidogrel was associated with 10% reduced risk for major adverse cardiovascular events among non-current smokers (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96), while this clinical benefit was enhanced by 2.9-fold among current smokers (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.80). Pooled analysis of laboratory studies revealed that current smokers had significantly lower on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (SMD -0.30; 95% CI -0.46 to -0.15) but, notably, there was considerable inter-study heterogeneity (I(2) 76.2%; p=0.000). The analysis based on four studies (n=1423) suggested a significantly lower odds of high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity among current smokers than those among never smokers (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to positively modify the relative clinical efficacy and pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel.
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Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas.
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Expression of wild soybean WRKY20 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance and regulates ABA signalling.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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The WRKY-type transcription factors are involved in plant development and stress responses, but how the regulation of stress tolerance is related to plant development is largely unknown. GsWRKY20 was initially identified as a stress response gene using large-scale Glycine soja microarrays. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the expression of this gene was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt, cold, and drought. Overexpression of GsWRKY20 in Arabidopsis resulted in a decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and early seedling growth. However, compared with the wild type, GsWRKY20 overexpression lines were more sensitive to ABA in stomatal closure, and exhibited a greater tolerance to drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and a decreased stomatal density. Moreover, microarray and qRT-PCR assays showed that GsWRKY20 mediated ABA signalling by promoting the expression of negative regulators of ABA signalling, such as AtWRKY40, ABI1, and ABI2, while repressing the expression of the positive regulators of ABA, for example ABI5, ABI4, and ABF4. Interestingly, GsWRKY20 also positively regulates the expression of a group of wax biosynthetic genes. Further, evidence is provided to support that GsWRKY20 overexpression lines have more epicuticular wax crystals and a much thicker cuticle, which contribute to less chlorophyll leaching compared with the wild type. Taken together, the findings reveal an important role for GsWRKY20 in enhancing drought tolerance and regulating ABA signalling.
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Recombinant expression and downstream processing of the disulfide-rich tumor-targeting peptide chlorotoxin.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a scorpion-derived disulfide-rich peptide that targets malignant tumors by binding the cell surface matrix metalloproteinase-2 and annexin A2. Various CTXs labeled with functional moieties have shown great potential for tumor diagnosis and treatment. In the present study, we established an efficient approach for preparing mature CTX that may be used for experimental and therapeutic purposes. The designed CTX precursors carried either a 6xHis-tag or a 6xHis-tag and a glutathione transferase (GST)-tag and were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Following S-sulfonation, the precursors were purified using immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. Subsequent to the removal of the tag by enterokinase cleavage and in vitro oxidative refolding, mature CTX was obtained with a considerable yield. The yield of mature CTX whose precursors carried a 6xHis-tag and a GST-tag (2 mg per liter of culture) was ?10-fold that of the mature CTX whose precursors carried a 6xHis-tag (150-200 ?g per liter of culture). The folded CTX inhibited the migration of glioma cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it was biologically active.
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Evaluation of reproductive and developmental toxicities of Pu-erh black tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) extract in Sprague Dawley rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Pu-erh black tea, which is obtained by first parching crude green tea leaves and followed by secondary fermentation with microorganisms, has been believed to be beneficial beverages for health in PR China. But its potential toxicity when administered at a high dose as concentrated extract has not been completely investigated.
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Vector Monte Carlo simulations on atmospheric scattering of polarization qubits.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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In this paper, a vector Monte Carlo (MC) method is proposed to study the influence of atmospheric scattering on polarization qubits for satellite-based quantum communication. The vector MC method utilizes a transmittance method to solve the photon free path for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and random number sampling to determine whether the type of scattering is aerosol scattering or molecule scattering. Simulations are performed for downlink and uplink. The degrees and the rotations of polarization are qualitatively and quantitatively obtained, which agree well with the measured results in the previous experiments. The results show that polarization qubits are well preserved in the downlink and uplink, while the number of received single photons is less than half of the total transmitted single photons for both links. Moreover, our vector MC method can be applied for the scattering of polarized light in other inhomogeneous random media.
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A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.
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Biologic properties of surgical scaffold materials derived from dermal ECM.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Surgical scaffold materials manufactured from donor human or animal tissue are increasingly being used to promote soft tissue repair and regeneration. The clinical product consists of the residual extracellular matrix remaining after a rigorous decellularization process. Optimally, the material provides both structural support during the repair period and cell guidance cues for effective incorporation into the regenerating tissue. Surgical scaffold materials are available from several companies and are unique products manufactured by proprietary methodology. A significant need exists for a more thorough understanding of scaffold properties that impact the early steps of host cell recruitment and infiltration. In this study, a panel of in vitro assays was used to make direct comparisons of several similar, commercially-available materials: Alloderm, Medeor Matrix, Permacol, and Strattice. Differences in the materials were detected for both cell signaling and scaffold architecture-dependent cell invasion. Material-conditioned media studies found Medeor Matrix to have the greatest positive effect upon cell proliferation and induction of migration. Strattice provided the greatest chemotaxis signaling and best suppressed apoptotic induction. Among assays measuring structure-dependent properties, Medeor Matrix was superior for cell attachment, followed by Permacol. Only Alloderm and Medeor Matrix supported chemotaxis-driven cell invasion beyond the most superficial zone. Medeor Matrix was the only material in the chorioallantoic membrane assay to support substantial cell invasion. These results indicate that both biologic and structural properties need to be carefully assessed in the considerable ongoing efforts to develop new uses and products in this important class of biomaterials.
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Copper ions stimulate the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via oxygen stress in vitro.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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This study examined the effect of copper ions on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of oxidative stress in this process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis in Wilsons disease. LX-2 cells, a cell line of human HSCs, were cultured in vitro and treated with different agents including copper sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) for different time. The proliferation of LX-2 cells was measured by non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? subunit (PDGF?R), ELISA to determine the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), dichlorofluorescein assay to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid hydroperoxide assay to quantify the level of lipid peroxide (LPO). The results showed that copper sulfate over a certain concentration range could promote the proliferation of LX-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect was most manifest when LX-2 cells were treated with copper sulfate at a concentration of 100 ?mol/L for 24 h. Additionally, copper sulfate could dose-dependently increase the levels of ROS and LPO, and decrease the ratio of GSH/GSSG in LX-2 cells. The copper-induced increase in mRNA and protein expression of PDGF?R was significantly inhibited in LX-2 cells pre-treated with NAC, a precursor of GSH, and this phenomenon could be reversed by the intervention of BSO, an inhibitor of NAC. It was concluded that copper ions may directly stimulate the proliferation of HSCs via oxidative stress. Anti-oxidative stress therapies may help suppress the copper-induced activation and proliferation of HSCs.
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Indolizine derivatives as HIV-1 VIF-ElonginC interaction inhibitors.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Compound 1 (VEC-5) was identified as a potent small-molecular HIV-1 viron infectivity factor inhibitor that targets the viron infectivity factor-ElonginC interaction. A structure-activity relationship study was carried out to develop compounds with improved efficacy against HIV-1 and 49 indolizine derivatives of three categories were designed and synthesized. We found that five compounds exhibited promising anti-HIV-1 activity, and the most active compound 2g had an IC50 value of 11.0 ?m. These results provide new information to develop highly potent small-molecule HIV-1 viron infectivity factor inhibitors.
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Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions.
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Association between obesity and atopic disorders in Chinese adults: an individually matched case-control study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Obesity is regarded as a potential risk factor for atopy. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of obesity with atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma and food allergy in Chinese adults.
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The CYP2C19 genotype does not impact the long-term prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 plays a key role in clopidogrel activation and thus impacts the clinical outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the majority of patients with CAD gradually discontinue clopidogrel after one year of discharge. This study explored whether the CYP2C19 gene polymorphism was associated with clinical events in patients with CAD after one year of discharge.
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Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.
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[KCTD9, a novel potassium channel related gene, was highly expressed in hepatic NK cells and T cells of fulminant hepatitis mice induced by MHV-3].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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To explore the mechanisms of a novel potassium channel gene named KCTD9 (potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9) in model of fulminant viral hepatitis induced by murine hepatitis virus 3 (MHV-3).
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[Effects of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on the differentiation of mouse preadipocytes and the expression of C/EBP? and PPAR?].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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This study examined the effects of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 on the differentiation of mouse preadipocytes and the expression of CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferation activated receptor ? (PPAR?), in order to study the possible roles of insulin receptor substrate (IRSs)/PI3K signal pathway in the differentiation of preadipocytes.
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Psychotripine: a new trimeric pyrroloindoline derivative from Psychotria pilifera.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Psychotripine, a trimeric pyrroloindoline derivative with an unprecedented hendecacyclic system bearing a hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine unit, was isolated from the leaves of Psychotria pilifera. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and quantum theory. A possible biogenesis was also postulated.
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Site-specific DOTA/europium-labeling of recombinant human relaxin-3 for receptor-ligand interaction studies.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Relaxin-3 (also known as INSL7) is a recently identified neuropeptide belonging to the insulin/relaxin superfamily. It has putative roles in the regulation of stress responses, food intake, and reproduction by activation of its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor RXFP3. It also binds and activates the relaxin family peptide receptors RXFP1 and RXFP4 in vitro. To obtain a europium-labeled relaxin-3 as tracer for studying the interaction of these receptors with various ligands, in the present work we propose a novel site-specific labeling strategy for the recombinant human relaxin-3 that has been previously prepared in our laboratory. First, the N-terminal 6 × His-tag of the single-chain relaxin-3 precursor was removed by Aeromonas aminopeptidase and all of the primary amines of the resultant peptide were reversibly blocked by citroconic anhydride. Second, the A-chain N-terminus of the blocked peptide was released by endoproteinase Asp-N cleavage that removed the linker peptide between the B- and A-chains. Third, an alkyne moiety was introduced to the newly released A-chain N-terminus by reaction with the highly active primary amine-specific N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Fourth, after removal of the reversible blockage under mild acidic condition, europium-loaded DOTA with an azide moiety was introduced to the two-chain relaxin-3 carrying the alkyne moiety through click chemistry. Using this site-specific labeling strategy, homogeneous monoeuropium-labeled human relaxin-3 could be obtained with good overall yield. In contrast, conventional random labeling resulted in a complex mixture that was poorly resolved because human relaxin-3 has four primary amine moieties that all react with the modification reagent. Both saturation and competition binding assays demonstrated that the DOTA/Eu(3+)-labeled relaxin-3 retained high binding affinity for human RXFP3, RXFP4, and RXFP1 and was therefore a suitable non-radioactive and stable tracer to study the interaction of various natural or designed ligands with these receptors. Using this site-specific labeling strategy, other functional probes, such as fluorescent dyes, biotin, or nanoparticles could also be introduced to the A-chain N-terminal of the recombinant human relaxin-3. Additionally, we improved the time-resolved fluorescence assay for the DOTA-bound europium ion which paves the way for the use of DOTA as a lanthanide chelator for protein and peptide labeling in future studies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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