Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P?0.05). We found a significant association with increased ischemic stroke risk in women carrying the CC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 2.43(1.03-5.75)]; a similar trend was also found in men carrying the TC genotype of rs4965814 [hazard ratio: 1.81(1.06-3.08)]. SNP rs4965814 of SELS may affect the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of ischemic stroke may give new therapeutic targets to pharmacologists.
Two novel Gram-negative strains (CCBAU 03422T and CCBAU 03415) isolated from root nodules of Sophora flavescens were phylogenetically classified into the genus of Phyllobacterium based on the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and atpD genes. They showed 99.8% rRNA gene sequence similarities to Phyllobacterium brassicacearum LMG 22836T, and CCBAU 03422T showed 91.2% and 88.6% atpD gene similarities to strains P. endophyticum LMG 26470T and P. brassicacearum LMG 22836T, respectively. Strain CCBAU 03422T contained Q-10 as its major quinone and showed cellular fatty acid profile, carbon source utilization and other phenotypic characteristics differing from type strains of the related species. DNA-DNA relatedness (lower than 48.8%) further confirmed the differences between the novel strains and the type strains of related species. Strain CCBAU 03422T could nodulate and fix nitrogen effectively on its original host plant, Sophora flavescens. Based upon the studies mentioned above, a novel species named as Phyllobacterium sophorae is proposed and the type strain is CCBAU 03422T (= A-6-3T = LMG 27899T = HAMBI 3508T).
Although mechanisms and pathways mediating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to mechanisms and pathways that counteract injury responses. This study uncovered that the apelin-APJ pathway is an endogenous counter-injury mechanism that protects against ARDS.
Arylalkynes can be converted into ?-diketones with the use of a copper catalyst, and also be transformed into vinyl acetates under metal-free conditions, both in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as an oxidant at room temperature. A series of substituted ?-diketones were prepared in moderate to good yields. A variety of vinyl halides could be regio- and stereo-selectively synthesized under mild conditions, and I, Br and Cl could be all easily embedded into the alkynes.
A rapid, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of yogliptin and its metabolite in Wistar rat plasma. Linagliptin and dexamethasone were chosen as the internal standards of yogliptin and its metabolite, (R)-8-(3-hydroxypiperidine- -yl)-7-(but-2-yn-1-yl)-1-((5-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-3-methyl- H-purine-2, 6 (3H, 7H)-dione, respectively. After a simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and ISs were separated on a Grace Altima HP C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution using methanol (containing 0.1% formic acid, 4 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate)-0.1% formic acid (containing 4 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. A chromatographic total run time of 4.4 min was achieved. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted with electrospray ionization under positive-ion and multiple-reaction monitoring modes. Linear calibration curves for yogliptin and its metabolite were over the concentration range of 0.5 to 500 ng x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng x mL(-1). The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 14%, the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The method was used to determine the concentration of yogliptin and M1 in Wistar rat plasma after a single oral administration of yogliptin (27 mg x kg(-1)). The method was proved to be selective, sensitive and suitable for pharmacokinetic study of yogliptin and M1 in Wistar rat plasma.
Patients with refractory epilepsy are resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The mechanisms of drug resistance are varied, but one of them is the overexpression of multidrug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the brain. Tetrandrine (TTD) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of Stephania tetrandra (S, Moore) and is found to have a favorable effect against multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapy. However, whether TTD affects AEDs in refractory epilepsy is unknown. In this study, we investigated the change in AED treatment efficacy in doxorubicin-induced drug resistant cells after TTD administration. We also examined the effect of TTD on seizure behaviors in the refractory epileptic rats, specifically the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp protein in the cortex and hippocampus of the refractory epileptic rats. Our results demonstrated that TTD decreased cell resistance to phenytoin and valproate. TTD decreased seizure rate and increased the treatment efficacy of AEDs by reducing the expression of P-gp at mRNA and protein levels in vivo. These data support the use of TTD as an adjuvant drug for treating refractory epilepsy.
Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
Abstract We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important coronary heart disease model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308?bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes.
Cisplatin resistance presents a major challenge in the successful treatment of breast cancer, and its mechanism has not been documented well. In this study, to determine the relationship between chemotherapy resistance and microRNA (miRNA) expression during the development of cisplatin resistance in breast cancer, we used microRNA microarrays analysis successfully identified 19 miRNAs that were either overexpressed or underexpressed (8 upregulated and 11 downregulated) in the MCF-7 cell line and its cisplatin-resistant variant MCF-7/DDP. Among them, the miR-218 was most downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cell lines and identified that breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) was the cellular targets of miR-218. In vivo assay also demonstrated that restoring miR-218 expression in MCF-7/DDP cell line could sensitize cells against cisplatin, thereby increasing cisplatin-mediated tumor cell apoptosis and reducing DNA repair. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with breast cancer display high levels of miR-218 and low levels of BRCA1 expression; these patients may gain the greatest benefits in terms of increased survival when treated with cisplatin. All of these results indicated that miR-218 has a significant function in the development of cisplatin resistance in breast cancer. Restoring miR-218 expression may constitute a novel therapeutic approach by which to increase cisplatin sensitivity in breast cancer.
The Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is a candidate risk gene for Parkinson' disease (PD), and a function SNP (rs5030732) in the coding region of this gene has been studied for the association with the disease extensively among worldwide populations, but the results were inconsistent and controversial. Here, to estimate the association between UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and risk of PD in general population, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis by combining all available case-control subjects in Asian, European, and American populations, with a total of 7742 PD cases and 8850 healthy controls, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and PD were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method with a fixed- or random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was also performed in different onset age-matched groups. Among high-quality studies, UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism was moderately associated with the risk of PD (allele contrasts, OR = 1.063, 95 % CI 1.008-1.122; p = 0.024; regressive genetic model, OR = 1.078, 95 % CI 1.005-1.157; p = 0.035). When stratifying for ethnicity, none association were observed in subgroups. Analysis of early-onset PD (EOPD) and late-onset PD (LOPD) revealed that the polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PD. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism is moderately associated with susceptibility to PD, and more studies are needed to confirm our conclusion.
Electrochemical codeposition of vanadium oxide (V2O5) and polypyrrole (PPy) is conducted from vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and pyrrole in their aqueous solution to get V2O5-PPy composite, during which one-dimensional growth of polypyrrole (PPy) is directed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) are used to characterize the composite, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to investigate their morphologies. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP) for galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to study electrochemical activities and pseudocapacitive properties of the composite. The influences of VOSO4 to pyrrole ratio in the electro-codeposition solution on morphologies and pseudocapacitive properties of the composite are discussed. Due to the organic-inorganic synergistic effect, V2O5-PPy composite exhibits good charge-storage properties in a large potential window from -1.4 to 0.6 V vs SCE, with a specific capacitance of 412 F/g at 4.5 mA/cm(2). A model supercapacitor assembled by using the V2O5-PPy composite as the electrode materials displays a high operating voltage of 2 V and so a high energy density of 82 Wh/kg (at the power density of 800 W/kg).
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKCa1) channels on the proliferation, migration, invasion ability and monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgE) secretion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Trypan blue exclusion was used to evaluate the impact of clotrimazole (CLO, an inhibitor of the KCa1) on the survival ability of MM cell line U266; transwell chamber and matrigel experiments were used to evaluate the impact of CLO on the ability of the migration and invasion of U266 cells; the influence of CLO on IgE secretion in U266 cells was detected by ELISA. The results showed that small dose of CLO ( ? 1.0 µmol/L) could not inhibit the viability of U266 cells. The Transwell and Matrigel invasing tests displayed that the cell number moving into lower chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with small dose of CLO ( ? 1.0 µmol/L). After treating the cells with 1.00 µmol/L CLO for 24 h and 48 h, the concentration of IgE in cell supernatant was (4.98 ± 0.39) and (4.38 ± 0.32) ng/ml, while those in control group were (15.41 ± 1.88) and (19.73 ± 2.01) ng/ml, respectively, suggesting significant difference between them(P < 0.05). It is concluded that CLO can decrease the ability of migration and monoclonal immunoglobulin secretion of multiple myeloma cells by blocking the IKCa1, thus this study provides a new think for the targeted therapy of MM.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children and infants. Severe infection with EV71 can lead to various neurological complications or fatal diseases. However, the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that EV71 modulates type I interferon (IFN) and cytokine responses. Here, we show that EV71 disables components of the TAB2 complex through the 3C protein. When expressed in mammalian cells, EV71 3C interacts with TAB2 and TAK1, which inhibits NF-?B activation. Furthermore, 3C mediates cleavage of TAB2 and its partners, which requires the protease activity. H40D or C147S substitution in the 3C active sites abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding domain has no effect. The 3C protein targets TAB2 at Q113-S114, TAK1 at Q360-S361, TAB1 both at Q414-G415 and Q451-S452, and TAB3 at Q173-G174 and Q343-G344. Importantly, overexpression of TAB2 inhibits EV71 replication, whereas addition of cleaved fragments has no effect. Thus, an equilibrium between the TAB2 complex and EV71 3C represents a control point of viral infection. These results suggest that TAK1/TAB1/TAB2/TAB3 cleavage mediated by EV71 may be a mechanism to interfere with inflammatory responses.
The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d (^im) compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.
A Gram-negative, white, non-motile, rod shaped bacterial strain BN-19(T) was isolated from a root nodule of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BN-19(T) formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176(T), Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T) with sequence similarities of 97.5, 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1 % respectively. Sequence analysis of housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA (with sequence similarities of ?92 %) confirmed the unique position of BN-19(T) in the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain BN-19(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T), R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. tarimense PL-41(T) were 20.6, 22.5, 15.9 and 20.5 % respectively, further confirming that BN-19(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rhizobium. The DNA G + C content was 60.1 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain BN-19(T) were C19:0 cyclo ?8c, summed feature 2 (C14:0 3OH and/or C16:1 iso I) and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c). Some phenotypic features also differentiate the strain BN-19(T) from the related species. On the basis of these results, strain BN-19(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BN-19(T) (=LMG 27895(T) = CCBAU 101086(T)).
The objective of this study was to develop an effective ultra-rapid vitrification method and evaluate its effect on maturation, developmental competence and development-related gene expression in bovine immature oocytes. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls, (2) liquid nitrogen vitrification, and (3) liquid helium vitrification. Oocytes were vitrified and then warmed, the percentage of morphologically normal oocytes in liquid helium group (89.0%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the liquid nitrogen group (81.1%). When the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured in vitro for 24 h, the maturation rate in liquid helium group (50.6%) was higher (P < 0.05) than liquid nitrogen group (42.6%). Oocytes of liquid helium vitrification had higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (41.1% and 10.0%) than that of liquid nitrogen vitrification (33.0% and 4.5%; P < 0.05) after in vitro fertilization. Moreover, the expression of GDF9 (growth/differentiation factor-9), BAX (apoptosis factor) and ZAR1 (zygote arrest 1) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) when the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured 24 h. The expression of these genes was altered after vitrification. Expression of GDF9 and BAX in the liquid helium vitrification group was not significantly different from that of the control, however there were significant differences between the liquid nitrogen vitrification group and control. In conclusion, it was feasible to use liquid helium for vitrifying bovine immature oocytes. There existed an association between the compromised developmental competence and the altered expression levels of these genes for the vitrified oocytes.
Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d (^im) plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
Unlike native proteins that are amenable to structural analysis at atomic resolution, unfolded proteins occupy a manifold of dynamically interconverting structures. Defining the conformations of unfolded proteins is of significant interest and importance, for folding studies and for understanding the properties of intrinsically disordered proteins. Short chain protein fragments, i.e., oligopeptides, provide an excellent test-bed in efforts to define the conformational ensemble of unfolded chains. Oligomers of alanine in particular have been extensively studied as minimalist models of the intrinsic conformational preferences of the peptide backbone. Even short alanine peptides occupy an ensemble of substates that are distinguished by small free energy differences, so that the problem of quantifying the conformational preferences of the backbone remains a fundamental challenge in protein biophysics. Here, we demonstrate an integrated computational-experimental-Bayesian approach to quantify the conformational ensembles of the model trialanine peptide in water. In this approach, peptide conformational substates are first determined objectively by clustering molecular dynamics snapshots based on both structural and dynamic information. Next, a set of spectroscopic data for each conformational substate is computed. Finally, a Bayesian statistical analysis of both experimentally measured spectroscopic data and computational results is carried out to provide a current best estimate of the substate population ensemble together with corresponding confidence intervals. This distribution of substates can be further systematically refined with additional high-quality experimental data and more accurate computational modeling. Using an experimental data set of NMR coupling constants, we have also applied this approach to characterize the conformation ensemble of trivaline in water.
Leukemia is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children worldwide, and multidrug-resistance (MDR) is a main reason for tumor chemotherapy failure. The present study investigated the effects of ADR following incubation with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells on reversing MDR in K562/ADR cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and cultured in vitro in the presence of a combination of cytokines to generate CIK for K562/ADR cell treatment. A decreased level of P-glycoprotein expression and glutathione (GSH), an increased intracellular Rh-123 content, decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR gene 1, MDR-associated protein 1, GSH S-transferase-?, B-cell lymphoma 2 and Survivin, and the decreased phosphorylation of AKT and the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-?B and activator protein 1 were detected following ADR treatment in CIK co-cultured K562/ADR cells. Additionally, the level of ADR sensitivity and the apoptosis rate were increased in the CIK co-cultured K562/ADR cells. These results indicate that pre-treatment with CIK could reverse the MDR of K562/ADR cells, and that patients would be most likely to benefit from the combination of chemotherapy and CIK therapy.
The present paper brings the parameters of the detection fiber into Monte Carlo model, and we studied the influence of fiber optic parameters and the distance of fiber from the detector on the detected optic signal,. The simulation results show that signals are obviously different when the NA (numerical aperture) and diameter of the fiber are different respectively. With the increase in NA and diameter of the fiber, the diffuse reflectance and diffuse transmission increase gradually. However, the distance from the sample surface, to some extent, brings little influence when we control it within 1 mm. By further study of the simulation result, we found that the collection efficient of the fiber is the same in different spatial positions. And the collection efficient of strong scattering material is a constant, in spite of absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient. We can normalize the diffuse signals collected by fibers with different angular aperture beta by the collection efficient. Meanwhile, this paper provided the fitting curve of the collection efficient in a certain range. For fibers with different diameters, we can get a good consistence by area normalization. Therefore, the research on the effects of the difference of the detection fiber on diffuse hyper-spectrum has great significance for practical measurement. And the detection results can be transplanted by collection efficient and area normalization when we change the actual detecting fiber.
To improve photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer (CP) in the visible light region, five different transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ru(3+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) were introduced into its framework through an ion-exchange process. Among all the resulting transition metal ion doped coordination polymers (TMI/CPs), the one doped with Fe(3+) took on the most excellent photocatalytic activity and the highest quantum yields in the visible light region, decomposing 94% Rhodamine B (RhB) in 8 hours. It can be attributed to the doping of Fe(3+), which reduced the band gap (Eg) of the original CP, facilitating photocatalysis of the obtained polymer. Compared with the coordination polymer with Fe(3+) as a dopant, products doped with other metal ions presented weaker photocatalytic activities in the visible light region, while under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, they showed favorable photocatalytic properties. The results suggest that to dope transition metal ions into the framework of CPs would be an ideal option for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.
To develop a new method for simultaneous determination of eight organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples using solidification floating organic drop liquid-phase microextraction (SFO-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-electronic capture detector (GC-ECD).
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in a range of neurological disorders, such as neurodegenation diseases, cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, sclerosis, and diabetic neuropathy. Protein misfolding and accumulation in the ER lumen initiate unfolded protein response in energy-starved neurons which are relevant to toxic effects. In neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, ER dysfunction is well recognized, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In stroke and ischemia, spinal cord injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, chronic activation of ER stress is considered as main pathogeny which causes neuronal disorders. By targeting components of these ER signaling responses, to explore clinical treatment strategies or new drugs in CNS neurological diseases might become possible and valuable in the future.
A new and efficient Pd(II) -catalyzed intermolecular annulation of N-benzoylsulfonamide with allenes for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones is reported. This C?H functionalization is compatible with ambient air and moisture, and it can be applied to terminal or internal allenes with di?erent synthetically attractive functional groups. Control experiments and a kinetic isotope effect study are conducted and a plausible mechanism is proposed.
This study examined the effect of cholic acid (CA) on cultured cardiac myocytes (CMs) from neonatal rats with an attempt to explore the possible mechanism of sudden fetal death in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Inverted microscopy was performed to detect the impact of CA on the beating rates of rat CMs. MTT method was used to study the effect of CA on the viability of CMs. CMs cultured in vitro were incubated with 10 ?mol/L Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescence indicator fluo-3/AM. The fluorescence signals of free calcium induced by CA were measured under a laser scanning confocal microscope. The results showed that CA decreased the beating rates of the CMs in a dose-dependent manner. CA could suppress the activities of CMs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CA increased the concentration of intracellular free calcium in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggested that CA could inhibit the activity of CMs by causing calcium overload, thereby leading to the sudden fetal death in ICP.
The antibacterial efficacy of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus was studied ex vivo in broiler chickens after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of valnemulin against S. aureus strains ATCC 25923 in broth and serum were 0.12 and 1 µg/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of valnemulin against all susceptible S. aureus strains isolated from chickens in the test population were 0.06 and 0.12 ?g/mL, respectively. Protein binding, which greatly influences the efficacy of valnemulin, was assayed by equilibrium dialysate in vitro. A high binding fraction of 86.2% was found, which seems in good agreement with the difference of bacterial susceptibility tests observed in broth and serum. The surrogate index of AUC0-24/MIC required for the lowest bacteriostatic effect, and 2 log10CFU reduction in bacterial count were 24.4 h and 38.0 h, respectively. The required daily dose of valnemulin for a bacteriostatic activity was calculated to be 15 mg/kg BW based on the MIC90 of 0.12 µg/mL. Considering the slow disposition process of valnemulin and an AUC0-24 h value of more than 10-fold obtained from diseased animals, a suggested dose of 3 mg/kg BW is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in infected broilers. Due to the time-dependent antibacterial characteristics of valnemulin, the recommended daily dose should be split into two or three sub-doses to achieve the highest effectiveness while diminishing the risk of development of bacterial resistance.
Root-shoot communications play important roles in plant stress responses. Here, we examined the roles of root-sourced signals in the shoot response to heat in cucumber plants. Cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and luffa roots were exposed to aerial and root-zone heat to examine their tolerance by assessing the levels of oxidative stress, PSII photoinhibition, accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), H2 O2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 using immunoblotting, chlorophyll fluorescence, immunoassay, CeCl3 staining and Western blotting, respectively. Grafting onto the luffa rootstock enhanced the shoot tolerance to the heat. This enhanced tolerance was associated with increased accumulation of ABA and apoplastic H2 O2 , RBOH transcripts and HSP70 expression and a decrease in oxidative stress in the shoots. The increases in the ABA and H2 O2 concentrations in the shoots were attributed to an increase in ABA transport from roots and an increase in ABA biosynthesis in the shoots when the root-zone and shoots were heat stressed, respectively. Inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation compromised luffa rootstock-induced HSP70 expression and heat tolerance. These results suggest that, under heat stress, ABA triggers the expression of HSP70 in an apoplastic H2 O2 -dependent manner, implicating the role of an ABA-dependent H2 O2 -driven mechanism in a systemic response involving root-shoot communication.
Activation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via Ca(2+)/calpain is responsible in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis and to the process of atherosclerosis. Probucol is a lipid-lowering drug which has an anti-atherosclerosis effect. The mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we hypothesized that probucol via inhibition of NHE1 in VSMCs attenuates LPS-accelerated atherosclerosis and promotes plaque stability. Our results revealed that treatment of VSMCs with LPS increased the NHE1 activity in a time-dependent manner, associated with the increased Ca(2+)i. Probucol inhibited the LPS-induced increase of NHE1 activity in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs for 24-hour co-incubation, as well as the change of Ca(2+)i. In addition, LPS enhanced the calpain activity. Both probucol and calcium chelation of Ca(2+) abolished the LPS-induced increase of calpain activity. Treatment of VSMCs with LPS reduced the expression of Bcl-2 without altering the mRNA level. Probucol inhibited the LPS-reduced expression of Bcl-2 protein in VSMCs. Animal studies indicated administration of probucol suppressed LPS-accelerated apoptosis, atherosclerosis and plaque instability in Apoe(-/-) mice. In conclusion, probucol via inhibition of NHE1 attenuates atherosclerosis lesion growth and promotes plaque stability.
Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO2 assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly developed robot-assisted frameless stereotactic system for deep electrode implantation and radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC). Deep-electrode implantation was performed in the bilateral mesial temporal lobes of seven patients. Following the implantation of the deep electrodes through the monitored designed path, the epileptogenic zones were determined with the assistance of a robot system. Deep electrode electroencephalograms were recorded prior to and following RFTC. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by computed tomography scans and Engel classification criteria. The procedure was well tolerated by all patients with no patients suffered from severe permanent complications. After follow-ups for 34-62 months, four patients achieved Engel class I, including three patients with Ia classification, two patients were classified as Engel class IVa and one patient was classified as Engel class IVc. Therefore, robot-assisted frameless stereotaxy for deep electrode implantation and RFTC is indicated to be a safe and effective method that may be used effectively in clinical practice.
Three microbial strains isolated from common beans, 23C2T (Tunisia), Gr42 (Spain) and IE4868 (Mexico), which have been identified previously as representing a genomic group closely related to Rhizobium gallicum, are further studied here. Their 16S rRNA genes showed 98.5-99% similarity with Rhizobium loessense CCBAU 7190BT, R. gallicum R602spT, Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844T and Rhizobium yanglingense CCBAU 71623T. Phylogenetic analysis based on recA, atpD, dnaK and thrC sequences showed that the novel strains were closely related and could be distinguished from the four type strains of the closely related species. Strains 23C2T, Gr42 and IE4868 could be also differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by their phenotypic and physiological properties and their fatty acid contents. All three strains harboured symbiotic genes specific to biovar gallicum. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 23C2T and the type strains of R. loessense, R. mongolense, R. gallicum and R. yanglingense ranged from 58.1 to 61.5%. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 23C2T was 59.52%. On the basis of these data, strains 23C2T, Gr42 and IE4868 were considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium azibense is proposed. Strain 23C2T (=CCBAU 101087T=HAMBI3541T) was designated as the type strain.
Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20-80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to achieve protective immunity.
Several studies have reported that excessive amounts of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) might increase the incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), but so far the published results were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to PCOS by performing a meta-analysis.
We report a giant electric-field control of magnetization (M) as well as magnetic anisotropy in a Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) structure at room temperature, in which a maximum relative magnetization change (?M/M) up to 83% with a 90° rotation of the easy axis under electric fields were observed by different magnetic measurement systems with in-situ electric fields. The mechanism for this giant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling can be understood as the combination of the ultra-high value of anisotropic in-plane piezoelectric coefficients of (011)-cut PMN-PT due to ferroelectric polarization reorientation and the perfect soft ferromagnetism without magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoFeB film. Besides the giant electric-field control of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy, this work has also demonstrated the feasibility of reversible and deterministic magnetization reversal controlled by pulsed electric fields with the assistance of a weak magnetic field, which is important for realizing strain-mediated magnetoelectric random access memories.
Chaetoglobosin Y (1), was isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain Chaetomium globosum (No. 64-5-8-2), along with related six known cytochalasans, chaetoglobosin Fex (2), chaetoglobosin E (3), isochaetoglobosin D (4), chaetoglobosin G (5), cytoglobosin B (6), and cytoglobosin C (7). Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those of the closely related compounds previously reported. The cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cell line of 2-7 was evaluated in vitro with doxorubicin as positive control.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, their roles in the regulation of stomatal opening or closure remain obscure. Here, the mechanism underlying BR-induced stomatal movements is studied. The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the stomatal apertures of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were measured by light microscopy using epidermal strips of wild type (WT), the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient notabilis (not) mutant, and plants silenced for SlBRI1, SlRBOH1 and SlGSH1. EBR induced stomatal opening within an appropriate range of concentrations, whereas high concentrations of EBR induced stomatal closure. EBR-induced stomatal movements were closely related to dynamic changes in H(2)O(2) and redox status in guard cells. The stomata of SlRBOH1-silenced plants showed a significant loss of sensitivity to EBR. However, ABA deficiency abolished EBR-induced stomatal closure but did not affect EBR-induced stomatal opening. Silencing of SlGSH1, the critical gene involved in glutathione biosynthesis, disrupted glutathione redox homeostasis and abolished EBR-induced stomatal opening. The results suggest that transient H(2)O(2) production is essential for poising the cellular redox status of glutathione, which plays an important role in BR-induced stomatal opening. However, a prolonged increase in H(2)O(2) facilitated ABA signalling and stomatal closure.
Three new isocoumarin derivatives, mucorisocoumarins A-C (1-3, resp.), together with seven known compounds, 4-10, were isolated from the cold-adapted fungal strain Mucor sp. (No.?XJ07027-5). The structures of the new compounds were identified by detailed IR, MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. It was noteworthy that compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were successfully resolved by chiral HPLC, indicating that 1-7 should exist as enantiomers. In an embryonic developmental toxicity assay using a zebrafish model, compound 3 produced developmental abnormalities in the zebrafish embryos. This is the first report of isocoumarins with developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos.
Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells that could be found in most body fluids. The main functions of exosomes are cellular communication and cellular waste clean-up. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of exosomes in the regulation of sensitivity of the lung cancer cell line A549 to cisplatin (DDP). When DDP was added to A549 cells, exosomes secretion was strengthened. Addition of the secreted exosomes to other A549 cells increased the resistance of these A549 cells to DDP. Upon exposure of A549 to DDP, the expression levels of several miRNAs and mRNAs reportedly associated with DDP sensitivity changed significantly in exosomes; these changes may mediate the resistance of A549 cells to DDP. Exosomes released by A549 cells during DDP exposure decreased the sensitivity of other A549 cells to DDP, which may be mediated by miRNAs and mRNAs exchange by exosomes via cell-to-cell communication. Although the detailed mechanism of resistance remains unclear, we believed that inhibition of exosomes formation and release might present a novel strategy for lung cancer treatment in the future.
H2O2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important functions in plant stress responses, but their roles in acclimation response remain unclear. This study examined the functions of H2O2 and MPK1/2 in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato plants. Mild cold, paraquat, and drought as acclimation stimuli enhanced tolerance to more severe subsequent chilling, photooxidative, and drought stresses. Acclimation-induced cross-tolerance was associated with increased transcript levels of RBOH1 and stress- and defence-related genes, elevated apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, increased activity of NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione redox state, and activation of MPK1/2 in tomato. Virus-induced gene silencing of RBOH1, MPK1, and MPK2 or MPK1/2 all compromised acclimation-induced cross-tolerance and associated stress responses. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that acclimation-induced cross-tolerance is largely attributed to RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production at the apoplast, which may subsequently activate MPK1/2 to induce stress responses.
Background/Objectives: Maintenance of cellular function in culture is vital for transfer and development following adoptive immunotherapy. Dual properties of IL-21 in activating T cells and reducing activation induced cell death led us to explore the mechanism of action of IL-21 enhanced proliferation and cytotoxic potential of CIK cells. Method: CIK cells cultured from PBMCs of healthy subjects were stimulated with IL-21 and cellular viability and cytotoxicity to K562 cells were measured. To elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-21, mRNA expression of cytotoxic factors was assessed by RT-PCR and protein expression of significantly important cytotoxic factors and cytokine secretion were determined through flow cytometry and ELISA. Western blotting was performed to check the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway following stimulation. Results: We found that IL-21 did not enhance in vitro proliferation of CIK cells, but did increase the number of cells expressing the CD3+/ CD56+ phenotype. Cytotoxic potential was increased with corresponding increase in perforin (0.9831±0.1265 to 0.7592±0.1457), granzyme B (0.4084±0.1589 to 0.7319±0.1639) and FasL (0.4015±0.2842 to 0.7381±0.2568). Interferon gamma and TNF-alpha were noted to increase (25.8±6.1 ng/L to 56.0±2.3 ng/L; and 5.64±0.61 ?g/L to 15.14±0.93 ?g/L, respectively) while no significant differences were observed in the expression of granzyme A, TNF-alpha and NKG2D, and NKG2D. We further affirmed that IL-21 signals through the STAT-3 and STAT- 5b signaling pathway in the CIK cell pool. Conclusion: IL-21 enhances cytotoxic potential of CIK cells through increasing expression of perforin, granzyme B, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. The effect is brought about by the activation of STAT-3 and STAT-5b proteins.
Healthy Beagle dogs were administrated with batroxobin by intravenous infusion at high, medium and low doses. The study of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics was intended to clarify the relevance of them and provided strong evidence for clinical use of batroxobin. The blood samples were collected after injection based on the time schedule and samples were tested by ELISA method to get the concentration of batroxobin. At the same time, changes of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib) and D-dimmer were tested. The results showed that the concentration of D-D increased significantly after administration compared with that of before administration. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2 were (2.27 +/- 0.42) h, (10.65 +/- 2.19) h and (11.01 +/- 3.51) h; C(max) were (11.9 +/- 1.72) ng x mL(-1), (154.53 +/- 12.38) ng x mL(-1) and (172.14 +/- 47.33) ng x mL(-1); AUC(last) were (29.38 +/- 3.69) ng xh x mL(-1), (148.43 +/- 72.85) ng x h x mL(-1) and (599.22 +/- 359.61) ng x h x mL(-1). The elimination of batroxobin was found to be in accord with linear kinetics characteristics. The results of pharmacodynamics showed that D-dimmer level increased significantly after the administration of batroxobin, which was similar with the changes of batroxobin plasma concentration. Simultaneously, Fib concentrations in Beagle dog blood decreased significantly after the iv administration of batroxobin, while recovered to base level after 48 hours. PT, TT and APTT significantly became longer after administration, which returned to normal level after 48 hours. Especially, the D-dimmer levels and the batroxobin concentration in plasma after intravenous infusion of the drug were synchronized in Beagle dogs. Changes between PD/PK results had obvious correlation, and the D-dimmer levels in plasma can be one of the important monitoring indicators of batroxobin in thrombolytic medication.
To establish and optimize the technology of taking root and promoting seedlings of white flower Scutellaria baicalensis test tube plantlet, and provide the theory and technology base for efficient factorization production system of white flower Scutellaria baicalensis.
To search for a method for treatment of bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (BTLE), we report one patient with BTLE experienced bilateral stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE). Neuropsychological examinations were performed before and 5 days, and 6, 18, and 48 months after operation. No seizure occurred in the follow-up time, and no long-term memory and intelligence deficits were found except for a transient decline of the scores immediately after operation. Because severe damage of memory could be caused by bilateral resection surgery, bilateral SAHE should be considered as a possible approach for the treatment of BTLE. However, further studies with accumulation of cases are needed, especially in the detailed assessment of neuropsychological function.
7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1), variecolortide B (2), and variecolortide C (3), the rare variecolortides existing in racemic manner, were isolated from an endolichenic fungal strain Eurotium sp. (No. 17-11-8-1). With the chiral HPLC technology, (-)-(S)-7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1a), (+)-(R)-7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1b), (-)-(S)-variecolortide B (2a), (+)-(R)-variecolortide B (2b), (-)-(S)-variecolortide C (3a), and (+)-(R)-variecolortide C (3b) were successfully separated and obtained. Their absolute configurations were firstly assigned by ECD experiment and ECD calculation. According to the relation of isolated compounds, a plausible biosynthetic pathway for variecolortides was proposed. In caspase-3 enzymatic assay, compounds 1-3 showed inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 1.7, 0.8 and 15.7?M, respectively.
To study the epidemic characteristics of human rhinovirus (HRV) in children with acute respiratory infections in Gansu Province. 286 throat swabs were collected from children with acute respiratory in fections in Gansu Province during 2011. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (multiplex RT-PCR) assay was used to screen those specimens for detection of common respiratory tract pathogens. For HRV-positive samples, nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) was performed to amplify VP1 and VP4/VP2 gene fragments of HRV. The VP4/VP2 and VP1 regions of HRV-positive samples were sequenced and performed genotype analysis. Of 286 specimens fested, 27 were positive for HRV by multiplex RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, of which 16 children were made (16/185), 8.64%) and 11 female (11/101,10.89%). The positive rate was 9.44% (27/286). The mean age of HRV-positive children was 3 years in this study, children less than one year old had the highest proportion 44.4% (12/ 27, 44.4%). The highest HRV positive rate fell on May, 2011 (6/27, 22.2%). Common cold accounted for the highest proportion, 12.24% (12/98) followed by pneumonia, 8.50% (13/153). The remaining 2 cases were bronchitis. Sequence analysis showed HRV A was the predominant genotype in Gansu Province in 2011, accounting for 84.62% (22/26) of positive cases, followed by HRV C (11.54%, 3/26) and only one HRV B was detected (3.85%, 1/26). HRV could be detected throughout the year in Gansu Province and primarily infected children under one year old. The group A was the epidemic genotype of HRV and move than one genotype existed in Gansu Province during 2011.
To detect the expression of Robo1 in lung cancer tissues, adjacent non-cancerous tissues as well as lung cancer brain metastasis, and explore the correlation of Robo1 expression to lung cancer brain metastasis.
Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 50 F g(-1)) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.
Two new naphthaline glucosides, 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8-methyl-1-O-?-d-glucopyranosylnaphthaline (1) and 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8-methyl-2-O-?-d-glucopyranosylnaphthaline (2), together with one new isocoumarin glucoside, 3-(3,3-dichloro-2-hydroxylpropyl)-6-methoxy-8-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-1H-isochromen-1-one (3), were isolated from a cold-adapted fungal strain Mucor sp. (No. XJ07027-5). Their structures were characterized by detailed analyses of IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. Among them, 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against five tumor cells (A-549, HL-60, MCF-7, SMMC-7721, and SW480).
This paper is to report the study of the metabolism of forscolin in plasma and liver microsomes for guiding clinical therapy. Forscolin was quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The metabolic stability of forscolin in rat, Beagle dog, monkey and human plasma and liver microsomes, mediated enzymes of forscolin and its inhibition on cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes were studied. Results showed that forscolin was not metabolized in plasma of the four species but metabolized in liver microsomes of the four species. The t1/2 of forscolin in rat, Beagle dog, monkey and human liver microsomes were (52.0 +/- 15.0), (51.2 +/- 5.9), (6.0 +/- 0.2) and (11.9 +/- 1.8) min; CL(int) were (75.6 +/- 18.7), (60.9 +/- 6.8), (513.8 +/- 14.3) and (176.2 +/- 25.6) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1); CL were (34.8 +/- 4.5), (23.3 +/- 1.0), (40.3 +/- 0.5) and (17.9 +/- 0.3) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. Forscolin was metabolized by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. There was definite inhibition on CYP3A4 at the concentrations of forscolin between 0.1 ng x mL(-1) and 5 microg x mL(-1). Therefore, forscolin is rapidly excreted from liver microsomes. Attention should be paid to the drug interaction when forscolin was used along with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 in clinics.
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) technique is a promising method to determine the mechanical properties of thin low dielectric constant (low-k) dielectrics by matching the experimental dispersion curve with the theoretical dispersion curves. However, it is difficult to calculate the dispersion curves when SAWs propagate along patterned structure. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is applied to obtain the numerical dispersion results of SAWs propagating on patterned film. Periodic boundary condition and plane-strain model is used to improve the computation speed. Four structures of bulk silicon, single layered low-k film, two layered Cu and SiO2 film, and patterned film, are simulated in this paper. The dispersion curves of single low-k films derived from the FEM simulation agree very well with those calculated by traditional method, which verifies the correct employment of the FEM approach. Dispersion curves of two patterned film structure of Cu and SiO2 with difference metal wire width are obtained. Effective Youngs moduli are achieved by fitting the FEM simulated results with those of traditional theoretical calculation through least square error method.
Five new xanthoquinodins, A4-A6 (1-3), B4 (4), and B5 (5), were isolated from the crude extract of the endolichenic fungal strain Chaetomium elatum (No. 63-10-3-1), along with three known xanthoquinodins, A1-A3 (6-8). Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the NMR data with those of the closely related compounds previously reported. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis and ECD calculation. The cytotoxic activity of all compounds was tested against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 human cancer cell lines.
Fabry disease is a rare lysosome storage disease featuring X-linked recessive inheritance. The study was to explore potential mutations of alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) gene and their correlation with clinic manifestations in three Chinese pedigrees with Fabry disease.
S100A8 and S100A9 play important roles in immune and inflammatory disorders. The role of the two proteins in systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown. Fifty-seven diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) patients, 31 limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) patients were recruited in the present study. The expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in plasma was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the mRNA levels in peripheral blood were assessed using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. The expression and distribution of S100A8, S100A9, and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), in skin tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The plasma concentrations of S100A8 and S100A9 were significantly higher in dcSSc patients than in normal controls and lcSSc patients. Both S100A8 and S100A9 levels were significantly increased in dcSSc patients with lung or kidney involvement. Increased plasma levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in dcSSc patients were associated with several autoantibodies. Transcription levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in peripheral blood were found elevated in both dcSSc and lcSSc patients than normal controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated higher S100A8 and S100A9 expression in sclerotic skin than in normal skin. The number of S100A8, S100A9, or RAGE positive fibroblasts was also significantly increased. Highly elevated expression of both S100A8 and S100A9 was found in dcSSc patients. There was close correlation with disease severity and serological abnormalities, suggesting that the two proteins may play important roles in the development of systemic sclerosis.
qnrD, unlike other qnr genes, is mainly located on small nonconjugative plasmids. We investigated the presence of qnrD among 1,373 Enterobacteriaceae isolates in China. Twelve qnrD-positive strains were detected, and all were nonsusceptible to fluoroquinolones. The complete sequence of plasmids showed that the qnrD determinants were located on two plasmids with a respective size of ~4.2 and 2.7 k-bp. Interestingly, the identification of qnrD in this study revealed the highest prevalence of Proteeae among Enterobacteriaceae identified.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether allogeneic red blood cell transfusions showed a deleterious effect and what might be preoperative risk factors for blood transfusion in patients with TNM stage II colon cancer. Total 470 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria were selected for a further 10-year follow-up study. We found that there were statistical significance between non-transfused and transfused group in mortality (P=0.018), local recurrence (P=0.000) and distant metastasis (P=0.040). Local recurrence and distant metastasis between 1 to 3 units and more than 3 units group did not show any significant differences. There was no difference in survival rate between non-transfused and 1 to 3 units group (log rank =0.031, P=0.860). The difference between different blood transfusion volume in transfused patients was found (78.77% vs 63.83%, P=0.006). Meanwhile, the significant difference of survival rate was existed between non-transfused group and more than 3 units group (84.83% vs 63.83%, P=0.002 ). Univariate analysis showed the following 3 variables to be associated with an increased risk of allogeneic blood transfusions: preoperative CEA level (P<0.05), location of tumor (P<0.01) and diameter of tumor (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that location of tumor and diameter of tumor are two independent factors for requirement of perioperative transfusions. Therefore, allogeneic transfusion increase the postoperative tumor mortality, local recurrence and distant metastasis in patients with stage II colon cancer. The postoperative tumor mortality, local recurrence and distant metastasis were not associated with the blood transfusion volume. The blood transfusion volume was associated with the survival rate. Location of tumor and diameter of tumor were the independent preoperative risk factors for blood transfusion.
This study investigated whether treating fetal fibroblast cells (donor cells) with epigenetic modification-inducing drugs could improve the development of porcine cloned embryos. Donor cells were treated with different DNA methylation inhibitors (5-aza-dC, zebularine or RG108; 5nM) or histone deacetylase inhibitors (TSA, NaBu or SCR; 50nM) for 1h, and then subjected to SCNT. All of the treated groups showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rates compared to the control group. We chose 5-aza-dC and TSA as a combined treatment, and found that donor cells co-treated with 2.5nM 5-aza-dC for 1h and subsequently treated with 50nM TSA for another 1h before SCNT showed significantly improved blastocyst rates compared to the control, 5-aza-dC-treated, and TSA-treated groups. The levels of DNA methylation were decreased (though not to a significant degree) in donor cells treated with 5-aza-dC, TSA or both. The histone H3 acetylation levels were significantly increased in donor cells treated with TSA or co-treated with 5-aza-dC and TSA. Donor cells simultaneously co-treated with 5nM 5-aza-dC and 50nM TSA for 1h showed increased apoptosis of SCNT blastocysts. However, when we decreased the concentration of 5-aza-dC to 2.5nM, the co-treatment induced less apoptosis among SCNT blastocysts and the blastocyst development rate improved. Together, these results indicate that treatment of donor cells with 5-aza-dC, TSA, or TSA plus a low dose of 5-aza-dC could improve the blastocyst development of porcine cloned embryos.
Two new 4-methyl-progesteroids, nodulisporisteriod A (1) and nodulisporisteriod B (2), were isolated from the extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nodulisporium sp. (No. 65-17-2-1), along with two related metabolites, demethoxyviridin (3) and inoterpene B (4). Their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallographic analysis and comparison of the NMR data with those of the closely related compounds previously reported. Nodulisporisteriod A (1) and nodulisporisteriod B (2) possess new carbon skeletons, which are the first cases of fission at C-3,4 in 4-methyl-progesteroids. A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was proposed. Moreover, the A?42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 1-4 were evaluated using standard thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as positive control. Demethoxyviridin (3) displayed anti-A?42 aggregation activity with IC50 value of 13.4?M.
To improve the photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer in the visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) was loaded onto its surface through a facile in situ chemical oxidation polymerization process. The resulting PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials with excellent stability exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure coordination polymer photocatalyst on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. This enhancement can be ascribed to the introduction of PANI on the surface of the coordination polymer, which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as well as a significant expansion of the photoresponse region. Finally, we discussed the influence of acidity on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of the composite material. An optimal condition to obtain the PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material with excellent photocatalytic activity has been obtained.
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