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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Stroke.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone involved in the proper conformation of many proteins. HSP90 inhibitors (17-dimethyl aminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride [17-DMAG]) bind to and inactivate HSP90, suppressing some key signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Since considerable evidence suggests that inflammation accounts for the progression of cerebral ischemic injury, we investigated whether 17-DMAG can modulate inflammatory responses in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with 17-DMAG or vehicle for 7?d before being subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery and reperfusion. Mice were evaluated at 24?h after MCAO for neurological deficit scoring. Moreover, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 17-DMAG was investigated with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. 17-DMAG significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome. 17-DMAG suppressed activation of microglia and decreased phosphorylation of inhibitory (I)?B and subsequent nuclear translocation of p65, which eventually downregulated expression of NF-?B-regulated genes. These results suggest that 17-DMAG has a promising therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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Feasibility of Low-Throughput Next Generation Sequencing for Germline DNA Screening.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Next generation sequencing (NGS) promises many benefits for clinical diagnostics. However, current barriers to its adoption include suboptimal amenability for low clinical throughputs and uncertainty over data accuracy and analytical procedures. We assessed the feasibility and performance of low-throughput NGS for detecting germline mutations for Lynch syndrome (LS).
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[C/EBP? in Multiple Myeloma Patients May Lead to Increased Hepcidin].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to explore the possible mechanisms of hepcidin increase in multiple myeloma patients. The clinical information and peripheral venous blood of eligible patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma were collected. Serum concentration of IL-6 was detected by ELISA. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by CD14(+) magnetic beads. The expression of hepcidin, IL-6 and C/EBP? mRNA of monocytes were detected by real time quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the hemoglobin level was reduced in 17 multiple myeloma patients enrolled in study (97.8 ± 27.5 g/L), showing the characteristics of anemia of chronic disease. The hepcidin and C/EBP? expression of peripheral blood monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01), serum IL-6 was also higher than that in normal controls (P < 0.01). Serum IL-6 positively correlated with monocyte hepcidin and C/EBP? expression (P < 0.05); monocyte C/EBP? expression positively correlated with monocyte hepcidin expression (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the elevated IL-6 may induce hepcidin expression through up-regulating C/EBP? in untreated myeloma patients.
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Surface Plasmon-Polariton Mediated Red Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Metallic Electrodes Integrated with Dual-Periodic Corrugation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We demonstrate an effective approach to realize excitation and outcoupling of the SPP modes associated with both cathode/organic and anode/organic interfaces in OLEDs by integrating dual-periodic corrugation. The dual-periodic corrugation consists of two set gratings with different periods. The light trapped in the SPP modes associated with both top and bottom electrode/organic interfaces are efficiently extracted from the OLEDs by adjusting appropriate periods of two set corrugations, and a 29% enhancement in the current efficiency has been obtained.
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A high-performance reduced graphene oxide/ZnCo layered double hydroxide electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Tailoring high performance, stable, and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for water oxidation is of fundamental importance for the development of promising energy conversion and storage technologies. In this work, we report a remarkably simple and efficient approach for the preparation of ZnCo-layered double hydroxides and reduced graphene oxide (RGO/ZnCo-LDH) nanocomposites via a facile one-pot coprecipitation method. The resulting RGO/ZnCo-LDH complex investigated for the first time as a catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity (with onset overpotential ?330 mV in 0.1 M KOH) and excellent stability than pristine ZnCo-layered double hydroxides and commercial Pt/C, making it a highly efficient nonprecious metal-based novel LDH composite electrocatalyst for OER.
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Surfactant protein b expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of full-term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.
Acta Clin Croat
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The aim was to investigate the surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of full-term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to assess SP-B expression in BALF of 60 full-term neonates with RDS and 23 healthy neonates and correlation of SP-B level with RDS classification according to chest x-ray findings and PaO2/FiO2 before mechanical ventilation in neonates with RDS. The SP-B level was significantly lower in the RDS group (17.63 +/- 6.80 ng/mL) than in healthy neonates (103.95 +/- 6.38 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). The SP-B level correlated positively with PaO2/ FiO2 before mechanical ventilation (r = 0.838, P < 0.001). Moreover, the lower the SP-B level, the more severe was the RDS as determined by chest x-ray (P < 0.001). In conclusion, full-term neonates with RDS had reduced SP-B in BALF, which was related to the severity of RDS, suggesting that SP-B supplement may be an effective strategy in the treatment of RDS in full-term neonates.
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?, ?-Cholesterol-Functionalized Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol as a Novel Modifier of Cationic Liposomes for Gene Delivery.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Here, three novel cholesterol (Ch)/low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates, termed ?, ?-cholesterol-functionalized PEG (Ch2-PEGn), were successfully synthesized using three kinds of PEG with different average molecular weight (PEG600, PEG1000 and PEG2000). The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential application of novel cationic liposomes (Ch2-PEGn-CLs) containing Ch2-PEGn in gene delivery. The introduction of Ch2-PEGn affected both the particle size and zeta potential of cationic liposomes. Ch2-PEG2000 effectively compressed liposomal particles and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs were of the smallest size. Ch2-PEG1000 and Ch2-PEG2000 significantly decreased zeta potentials of Ch2-PEGn-CLs, while Ch2-PEG600 did not alter the zeta potential due to the short PEG chain. Moreover, the in vitro gene transfection efficiencies mediated by different Ch2-PEGn-CLs also differed, in which Ch2-PEG600-CLs achieved the strongest GFP expression than Ch2-PEG1000-CLs and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs in SKOV-3 cells. The gene delivery efficacy of Ch2-PEGn-CLs was further examined by addition of a targeting moiety (folate ligand) in both folate-receptor (FR) overexpressing SKOV-3 cells and A549 cells with low expression of FR. For Ch2-PEG1000-CLs and Ch2-PEG2000-CLs, higher molar ratios of folate ligand resulted in enhanced transfection efficacies, but Ch2-PEG600-CLs had no similar in contrast. Additionally, MTT assay proved the reduced cytotoxicities of cationic liposomes after modification by Ch2-PEGn. These findings provide important insights into the effects of Ch2-PEGn on cationic liposomes for delivering genes, which would be beneficial for the development of Ch2-PEGn-CLs-based gene delivery system.
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Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Quinoxalin-2(1H)-One Derivatives as EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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With the successful use of ge?tinib and erlotinib in clinic, some potent EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors have gained widespread concern in the treatment of ovarian or non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the emergence of EGFR-activating mutations resist to the drugs, there is an impending need to design new inhibitor targeted EGFR. Furthermore, the understanding of mutual effect between EGFR and drug has been available, it has become a hot spot for the research of anticancer drugs. We have designed and synthesized a series of 6-methoxy-7-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-quinoxalin-2(1H)-one derivatives as novel EGFR inhibitors. Most of the compounds have showed inhibitory activity toward EGFR kinase. This work has demonstrated it is possible to construct a new type of EGFR protein kinase inhibitor using a design-in strategy.
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Protective effect of Schisandrae chinensis oil on pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic rats.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Islet cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is primarily attributed to increased apoptosis of pancreatic ?-Cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Schisandrae chinensis oil on pancreatic ?-Cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats and the associated molecular mechanisms of action. Wistar rats were randomly divided into diabetic rats and control rats, diabetic rats treated with Schisandrae chinensis oil (1 mg/kg), and control rats treated with Schisandrae chinensis oil. The serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels along with MDA content, SOD and CAT activities in pancreatic tissues were measured. TUNEL was used to observe the apoptosis of rat pancreatic cells. Western blot was used to determine specific protein expression. The results showed that the oil significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels as well as the pancreatic MDA, but increased SOD and CAT activities. The protein expression of Bcl-2, PDX-1, GLUT-2, and GCK but not caspase 3 was significantly enhanced in the oil-treated rats compared with diabetic rats. However, Bax content was not significantly different between the control and DM groups. Schisandra chinensis oil improves pancreatic ?-cell function by enhancing antioxidant potential of the pancreas, upregulating the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, increasing expression of glucose metabolism, and delaying islet cell apoptosis.
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Lipid-AuNPs@PDA nanohybrid for MRI/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles represent an emerging agent with the potential to offer extremely sensitive diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a multifunctional theranostic agent (referred to as LA-LAPNHs) for targeted magnetic resonance imaging/computed X-ray tomography (MRI/CT) dual-mode imaging and photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. The LA-LAPNHs were characterized as having a core-shell structure with the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)@polydopamine (PDA) as the inner core, the indocyanine green (ICG), which is electrostatically absorbed onto the surface of PDA, as the photothermal therapeutic agent, and the lipids modified with gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid and lactobionic acid (LA), which is self-assembled on the outer surface as the shell. The LA-LAPNHs could be selectively internalized into the hepatocellular cell line (HepG2 cells) but not into HeLa cells due to the specific recognition ability of LA to asialoglycoprotein receptor. Additionally, the dual-mode imaging ability of the LA-LAPNH aqueous solution was confirmed by enhanced MR and CT imaging showing a shorter T1 relaxation time and a higher Hounsfield unit value, respectively. In addition, the LA-LAPNHs showed significant photothermal cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells with near-infrared irradiation due to their strong absorbance in the region between 700 and 850 nm. In summary, this study demonstrates that LA-LAPNHs may be a promising candidate for targeted MR/CT dual-mode imaging and photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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PAAT, a novel ATPase and trans-regulator of mitochondrial ABC transporters, is critically involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are implicated in a diverse range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as cholesterol and lipid transportation and multidrug resistance. Despite the considerable efforts made in understanding of the cellular function of ABC proteins, the regulation mechanism of this type of protein is still poorly defined. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel ATPase protein, protein associated with ABC transporters (PAAT), in humans. PAAT contains a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD)-like domain and a signal for intramitochondrial sorting. We showed that PAAT is localized in both the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and has an intrinsic ATPase activity. PAAT physically interacts with the 3 known mitochondrial inner membrane ABC proteins, ABCB7, ABCB8, and ABCB10, but not ABCB1, ABCB6, or ABCG2, and functionally regulates the transport of ferric nutrients and heme biosynthesis. Significantly, PAAT deficiency promotes cell death, reduces mitochondrial potential, and sensitizes mitochondria to oxidative stress-induced DNA damages. Our experiments revealed that PAAT is a novel ATPase and a trans-regulator of mitochondrial ABC transporters that plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and cell survival.-Yang, X., Yang, J., Li, L., Sun, L., Yi, X., Han, X., Si, W., Yan, R., Chen, Z., Xie, G., Li, W., Shang, Y., Liang, J. PAAT, a novel ATPase and trans-regulator of mitochondrial ABC transporters, is critically involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis.
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One-pot synthesis of macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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The macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid nanofibers were synthesized via electrospun method followed by acid treatment processing. It was identified to be an effective and simple synthetic strategy to form the uniform nanofibers about 350 nm in size. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123), was used as the template for mesoporous structure (5 nm) and the macroporous structure about 10 ?m in size derived from the overlapping of the nanofibers. Furthermore, the surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic property can be adjusted by varying the amount of mesoporous bioglass precursor (MBG-p). With the outstanding structure characters and the suitable hydrophilic property, these nanofiber composites show controlled drug release and the fast hydroxyapatite (HAP) mineralization performance. Herein, the novel materials are expected to have potential application for bone tissue engineering.
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[Impacts of rotating or lifting-thrusting manipulation on distant vision of naked eye in patients of juvenile myopia: a randomized controlled trial].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To compare the differences in the efficacy on distant version of naked eye in the patients of juvenile myopia between rotating manipulation and lifting-thrusting manipulation of acupuncture.
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Social stress and escalated drug self-administration in mice I. Alcohol and corticosterone.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Stress experiences have been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol abuse in humans; however, a reliable mouse model using episodic social stress has yet to be developed.
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Social stress and escalated drug self-administration in mice II. Cocaine and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Social defeat stress results in escalation of cocaine taking and long-term neural adaptations in rats. How the intensity and timing of social defeat stress determine these effects, particularly in mice, have not been well characterized.
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Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of glutaredoxin from Antarctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small ubiquitous redox enzymes that catalyze glutathione-dependent reactions to reduce protein disulfide. In this study, a full-length Grx gene (PsGrx) with 270 nucleotides was isolated from Antarctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178. It encoded deduced 89 amino acid residues with the molecular weight 9.8?kDa. Sequence analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed the catalytic motif CPYC. Recombinant PsGrx (rPsGrx) stably expressed in E. coli BL21 was purified to apparent homogeneity by Ni-affinity chromatography. rPsGrx exhibited optimal activity at 30°C and pH 8.0 and showed 25.5% of the activity at 0°C. It retained 65.0% of activity after incubation at 40°C for 20?min and still exhibited 37.0% activity in 1.0?M NaCl. These results indicated that rPsGrx was a typical cold active protein with low thermostability.
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Tissue factor in tumor microenvironment: a systematic review.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The aberrant hemostasis is a common manifestation of cancer, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second leading cause of cancer patients' mortality. Tissue factor (TF), comprising of a 47-kDa transmembrane protein that presents in subendothelial tissues and leukocytes and a soluble isoform, have distinct roles in the initiation of extrinsic coagulation cascade and thrombosis. Laboratory and clinical evidence showed the deviant expression of TF in several cancer systems and its tumor-promoting effects. TF contributes to myeloid cell recruitment in tumor stroma, thereby remodeling of tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the number of TF-positive-microparticles (TF+MP) from tumor origins correlates with the VTE rates in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the TF regulation and roles in tumor progression and clinical complications.
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Adsorption dominant catalytic activity of a carbon dots stabilized gold nanoparticles system.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Carbon dots (CDs) with abundant functional groups (-OH, -COOH, C=O) on their surface were specially designed to enhance the adsorption capacity and the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The CDs stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-CDs) were greenly synthesized by a one-step reduction of HAuCl4 with CDs which were used as both the reductant and the stabilizer under visible light irradiation. The resulting AuNPs-CDs exhibit a high catalytic activity towards the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, with a good linear correlation of ln(C(i)/C0) versus time and a kinetic rate constant about 0.68 min(-1). Further detailed adsorption kinetics data indicated that the present adsorption system follows a predominantly second-order rate model, and the CDs capped on the surface of the AuNPs also enhanced the adsorption capacity and the catalytic activity of the AuNPs.
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Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.
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A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.
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Investigation of iterative image reconstruction in low-dose breast CT.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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There is interest in developing computed tomography (CT) dedicated to breast-cancer imaging. Because breast tissues are radiation-sensitive, the total radiation exposure in a breast-CT scan is kept low, often comparable to a typical two-view mammography exam, thus resulting in a challenging low-dose-data-reconstruction problem. In recent years, evidence has been found that suggests that iterative reconstruction may yield images of improved quality from low-dose data. In this work, based upon the constrained image total-variation minimization program and its numerical solver, i.e., the adaptive steepest descent-projection onto the convex set (ASD-POCS), we investigate and evaluate iterative image reconstructions from low-dose breast-CT data of patients, with a focus on identifying and determining key reconstruction parameters, devising surrogate utility metrics for characterizing reconstruction quality, and tailoring the program and ASD-POCS to the specific reconstruction task under consideration. The ASD-POCS reconstructions appear to outperform the corresponding clinical FDK reconstructions, in terms of subjective visualization and surrogate utility metrics.
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4-methylene-2-octyl-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylic acid (C75), an inhibitor of fatty-acid synthase, suppresses the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway and impairs mitochondrial function.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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4-Methylene-2-octyl-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylic acid (C75) is a synthetic fatty-acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor with potential therapeutic effects in several cancer models. Human mitochondrial ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (HsmtKAS) is a key enzyme in the newly discovered mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway that can produce the substrate for lipoic acid (LA) synthesis. HsmtKAS shares conserved catalytic domains with FASN, which are responsible for binding to C75. In our study, we explored the possible effect of C75 on HsmtKAS and mitochondrial function. C75 treatment decreased LA content, impaired mitochondrial function, increased reactive oxygen species content, and reduced cell viability. HsmtKAS but not FASN knockdown had an effect that was similar to C75 treatment. In addition, an LA supplement efficiently inhibited C75-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Overexpression of HsmtKAS showed cellular protection against low dose C75 addition, whereas there was no protective effect upon high dose C75 addition. In summary, the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway has a vital role in mitochondrial function. Besides FASN, C75 might also inhibit HsmtKAS, thereby reducing LA production, impairing mitochondrial function, and potentially having toxic effects. LA supplements sufficiently ameliorated the toxicity of C75, showing that a combination of C75 and LA may be a reliable cancer treatment.
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Spectroscopic properties of a series of Co(II) coordination polymers and the influence of Co(II) coordination environment on photoelectric property.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Four Co(II) coordination polymers, [Co(suc)]n1, [Co(pdc)]n2, {[Co7(suc)4(OH)6(H2O)3]·8H2O}n3, {[Co(bdc)(phen)(H2O)]·H2O}n4 (H2suc=succinic acid, H2pdc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc=1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electrical conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ultraviolet visible and near-infrared absorption spectrum (UV-Vis-NIR), infrared spectrum (IR), and elemental analysis. The structural analyses indicate that the coordination numbers of the Co(II) ions are 4, 5, 6 and 6 for the polymers 1-4, respectively. And polymers 1 and 2 exhibit 3D structure formed by suc(2-) and pdc(2-) anions bridging Co(II) ions, respectively. Polymer 3 exhibits a 2D structure with suc(2-) anions bridging seven-nuclear [Co7(OH)6(H2O)3](3-) unit and polymer 4 is a 1D structure bridged by bdc(2-) anions. The surface photoelectric properties of the cobalt polymers were mainly studied by SPS. The results of SPS reveal that all polymers possess certain photoelectric conversion property in the range of 300-800nm. The influences of the structure, coordination micro-environment of central metal ion and structural dimensionality on response bands of SPS were discussed.
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Carbon quantum dot/NiFe layered double-hydroxide composite as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for water oxidation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction is crucial to a variety of important energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we use carbon quantum dots (CQDs, ?5 nm) to form hybrids with the ultrathin nickel-iron layered double-hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) nanoplates. The resulting CQD/NiFe-LDH complex exhibits high electrocatalytic activity (with an overpotential of ?235 mV in 1 M KOH at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2)) and stability for oxygen evolution, which almost exceed the values of all previously reported Ni-Fe compounds and were comparable to those of the most active perovskite-based catalyst.
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Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) analysis of MRSA.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) changes to methicillin-resistant S. aureus upon the acquisition of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), a genomic island that encodes methicillin resistance. All SCCmec elements reported to date share four common characteristics: (1) carrying the mec gene complex (mec); (2) carrying the ccr gene complex (ccr); (3) being flanked by characteristic nucleotide sequences, inverted repeats, and direct repeats, at both ends; and (4) being integrated at the integration site sequence (ISS) for SCC, which is located at the 3'-end of orfX or at the extremity of the SCC element. SCCmec elements in S. aureus are classified into different types based on the combination of mec and ccr, which share variations, five classes in mec and eight in ccr. To date, at least 11 types of SCCmec elements have been identified. Regions other than mec and ccr within the SCCmec element are designated as "joining regions" (J-regions), which are classified into three subgroups, J1-3. Many J-region variants have been identified among the SCCmec elements of types I-V. We herein describe PCR methods to type SCCmec elements by first identifying the mec and ccr type, and then identifying genes in the J-regions.
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[The effect of emodin on the contraction of isolated jejunum smooth muscle of rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To investigate the effect of emodin on the contraction of jejunum smooth muscle and its underlying mechanisms.
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Template-Induced Diverse Metal-Organic Materials as Catalysts for the Tandem Acylation-Nazarov Cyclization.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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In our continuing quest to develop a metal-organic framework (MOF)-catalyzed tandem pyrrole acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction with ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids for the synthesis of cyclopentenone[b]pyrroles, which are key intermediates in the synthesis of natural product (±)-roseophilin, a series of template-induced Zn-based (1-3) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. Structural conversions from non-porous MOF 1 to porous MOF 2, and back to non-porous MOF 3 arising from the different concentrations of template guest have been observed. The anion-? interactions between the template guests and ligands could affect the configuration of ligands and further tailor the frameworks of 1-3. Futhermore, MOFs 1-3 have shown to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the tandem acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction. In particular, the unique structural features of 2, including accessible catalytic sites and suitable channel size and shape, endow 2 with all of the desired features for the MOF-catalyzed tandem acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction, including heterogeneous catalyst, high catalytic activity, robustness, and excellent selectivity. A plausible mechanism for the catalytic reaction has been proposed and the structure-reactivity relationship has been further clarified. Making use of 2 as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reaction could greatly increase the yield of total synthesis of (±)-roseophilin.
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[Clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging in congenital anorectal malformation].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To investigate the clinical value of MRI examination in congenital anorectal malformation (CARM).
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Destabilizing LSD1 by Jade-2 promotes neurogenesis: an antibraking system in neural development.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Histone H3K4 demethylase LSD1 plays an important role in stem cell biology, especially in the maintenance of the silencing of differentiation genes. However, how the function of LSD1 is regulated and the differentiation genes are derepressed are not understood. Here, we report that elimination of LSD1 promotes embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation toward neural lineage. We showed that the destabilization of LSD1 occurs posttranscriptionally via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Jade-2. We demonstrated that Jade-2 is a major LSD1 negative regulator during neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo in both mouse developing cerebral cortices and zebra fish embryos. Apparently, Jade-2-mediated degradation of LSD1 acts as an antibraking system and serves as a quick adaptive mechanism for re-establishing epigenetic landscape without more laborious transcriptional regulations. As a potential anticancer strategy, Jade-2-mediated LSD1 degradation could potentially be used in neuroblastoma cells to induce differentiation toward postmitotic neurons.
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Interferon-? enhances the susceptibility of renal cell carcinoma to rapamycin by suppressing mTOR activity.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects of interferon (IFN)-? and rapamycin (RPM) on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and examine the synergistic growth suppression conferred by IFN-? and RPM. The effects of IFN-? and/or RPM on RCC cells were determined using a WST-1 assay and the synergy of IFN-? and RPM against three RCC cell lines was analyzed with isobolographic analysis. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated by RNAi, and the expression and phosphorylation of proteins in the mTOR pathway following treatment with IFN-? and/or RPM was examined by western blot analysis. The observations indicated that IFN-? significantly increased the susceptibility of RCC cells to RPM and the synergistic effect of IFN-? and RPM against RCC cells was confirmed in all three RCC cell lines. The mTOR pathway was shown to be associated with the synergistic effect of IFN-? and RPM against RCC. IFN-? and RPM alone decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70 S6 kinase, S6 and 4E binding protein 1, and IFN-? significantly enhanced the RPM-induced suppression of the mTOR pathway. However, in RCC cells with low mTOR activity, the synergy of IFN-? and RPM was eliminated. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the synergistic effect of IFN-? and RPM against RCC cells. Thus, mTOR may serve as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced RCC.
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Geographical distribution of reference value of aging people's left ventricular end systolic diameter based on the support vector regression.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this paper is to analyze the geographical distribution of reference value of aging people's left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVDs), and to provide a scientific basis for clinical examination.
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JMJD6 promotes colon carcinogenesis through negative regulation of p53 by hydroxylation.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Jumonji domain-containing 6 (JMJD6) is a member of the Jumonji C domain-containing family of proteins. Compared to other members of the family, the cellular activity of JMJD6 is still not clearly defined and its biological function is still largely unexplored. Here we report that JMJD6 is physically associated with the tumor suppressor p53. We demonstrated that JMJD6 acts as an ?-ketoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent lysyl hydroxylase to catalyze p53 hydroxylation. We found that p53 indeed exists as a hydroxylated protein in vivo and that the hydroxylation occurs mainly on lysine 382 of p53. We showed that JMJD6 antagonizes p53 acetylation, promotes the association of p53 with its negative regulator MDMX, and represses transcriptional activity of p53. Depletion of JMJD6 enhances p53 transcriptional activity, arrests cells in the G1 phase, promotes cell apoptosis, and sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agent-induced cell death. Importantly, knockdown of JMJD6 represses p53-dependent colon cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo, and significantly, the expression of JMJD6 is markedly up-regulated in various types of human cancer especially in colon cancer, and high nuclear JMJD6 protein is strongly correlated with aggressive clinical behaviors of colon adenocarcinomas. Our results reveal a novel posttranslational modification for p53 and support the pursuit of JMJD6 as a potential biomarker for colon cancer aggressiveness and a potential target for colon cancer intervention.
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Coexpression within Integrated Mitochondrial Pathways Reveals Different Networks in Normal and Chemically Treated Transcriptomes.
Int J Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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As energy producers, mitochondria play a pivotal role in multiple cellular processes. Although several lines of evidence suggest that differential expression of mitochondrial respiratory complexes (MRCs) has a significant impact on mitochondrial function, the role of integrated MRCs in the whole coexpression network has yet to be revealed. In this study, we construct coexpression networks based on microarray datasets from different tissues and chemical treatments to explore the role of integrated MRCs in the coexpression network and the effects of different chemicals on the mitochondrial network. By grouping MRCs as one seed target, the hypergeometric distribution allowed us to identify genes that are significantly coexpress with whole MRCs. Coexpression among 46 MRC genes (approximately 78% of MRC genes tested) was significant in the normal tissue transcriptome dataset. These MRC genes are coexpressed with genes involved in the categories "muscle system process," "metabolic process," and "neurodegenerative disease pathways," whereas, in the chemically treated tissues, coexpression of these genes mostly disappeared. These results indicate that chemical stimuli alter the normal coexpression network of MRC genes. Taken together, the datasets obtained from the different coexpression networks are informative about mitochondrial biogenesis and should contribute to understanding the side effects of drugs on mitochondrial function.
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Rapid detection of porcine kobuvirus in feces by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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PKV is a new emerging pathogen detected in diarrhea pigs. At present, no more detection methods were reported except RT-PCR method. this study was to develop a fast diagnostic method based on the LAMP reaction for rapid detection of PKV nucleic acid in fecal samples.
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Effects of angiopoietin-1 on inflammatory injury in endothelial progenitor cells and blood vessels.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Thus, targeting both aspects of cardiovascular tissue regeneration may offer promising therapeutic options for cardiovascular disorders. To this end, we constructed a lentiviral vector (pNL) with the Ang-1 gene and transfected EPCs with it (Ang-1-EPCs) to investigate vasculogenesis in both cellular and animal models. Compared to controls, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) increased significantly in both untreated EPCs and in the pNL vector group. After Ang-1 transcription, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 decreased considerably in those treatment groups. Ang-1-modified EPCs alleviated inflammatory responses induced by tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in vitro. Moreover, Ang-1-EPC implantation inhibited neointimal hyperplasia after balloon catheter injury in rats, dramatically diminishing the intimal-media (I/M) ratio and decreasing the neointimal area. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the Ang-1-EPC group was lower than the EPC non-treatment group as well, suggesting that Ang-1-EPC improved cell survival during inflammation and promoted endothelialization in damaged blood vessels.
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Potential role of microRNA: identification and functional analysis of microRNA in corticospinal tract after unilateral lesions of the medullary pyramid.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Corticospinal tract is mainly descending tracts by dominating voluntary movement of the limbs and fine movement of distal limb, especially in mammals. Distal axonal degeneration is called anterograde degeneration. Proximal end is connected to the neuron cell body, whereas retrograde degeneration is very slight with the possibility of regeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding with the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs. In order to understand the mechanism of underlying gene alteration in the rostral and caudal, respectively, after the corticospinal tract injury, we analyzed rostral and caudal mRNA and miRNA, respectively, using microRNA and mRNA profiles. We combined the predicted targets of miRNA with differentially expressed mRNA for selecting intersection gene. To predict the function miRNAs, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed to find genes associated with change of rostral and caudal, respectively. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that changes in miRNA and target mRNA expression affected rostral regeneration, including negative regulation of apoptosis, positive regulation of cell proliferation, cell adhesion, oligodendrocyte development etc. It also affected caudal degeneration, including induction of apoptosis, down-regulating nervous system development, immune response etc. The current results illustrated that corticospinal tract injury produces a wide range changes of miRNAs, whereas mRNA also showed significantly change which affects key biological processes after injury in rostral and caudal.
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The circadian clock gene regulatory module enantioselectively mediates imazethapyr-induced early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Plant growth and development are strongly affected by environmental pollutants, such as herbicides. Widely used herbicides can remain in soil or aquatic systems for long periods of time. Herbicide pollutants have been reported to heavily affect global plant growth and pose a significant challenge to agriculture. However, it is unclear whether herbicides affect plant flowering. Here, we demonstrated that imazethapyr (IM), a chiral herbicide, can enantioselectively promote flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. We clarified the possible mechanism by which IM promotes flowering and found that the photoperiod pathway may play an important role in propagating the IM stress signal. IM enantiomers decreased the amplitude of core oscillators (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL) and utilized the up-regulation of the GIGANTEA-(CONSTANS)-FLOWERING LOCUS T pathway to induce floral gene, APETALA1 over-expression enantioselectively; this treatment ultimately caused early flowering. Our findings provide new insight into the method by which plants control reproductive timing in response to herbicide stress. Flowering time is an important trait in crops and affects the life cycles of pollinator species. The persistence of herbicides in the biosphere will alter plant life cycles and diversity.
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Auxin-callose-mediated plasmodesmal gating is essential for tropic auxin gradient formation and signaling.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In plants, auxin functions as a master controller of development, pattern formation, morphogenesis, and tropic responses. A sophisticated transport system has evolved to allow the establishment of precise spatiotemporal auxin gradients that regulate specific developmental programs. A critical unresolved question relates to how these gradients can be maintained in the presence of open plasmodesmata that allow for symplasmic exchange of essential nutrients and signaling macromolecules. Here we addressed this conundrum using genetic, physiological, and cell biological approaches and identified the operation of an auxin-GSL8 feedback circuit that regulates the level of plasmodesmal-localized callose in order to locally downregulate symplasmic permeability during hypocotyl tropic response. This system likely involves a plasmodesmal switch that would prevent the dissipation of a forming gradient by auxin diffusion through the symplasm. This regulatory system may represent a mechanism by which auxin could also regulate symplasmic delivery of a wide range of signaling agents.
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Hierarchical porous bioactive glasses/PLGA-magnetic SBA-15 for dual-drug release.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The hierarchical porous bioglass combined with magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized. The bioactive glass materials possess a hierarchical porous structure with the macroporous (50?m) and the mesoporous (3.86nm) structures derived from the plant template (cattail stem) and triblock polyethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer (P123), respectively. Magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized by adopting the post assembly method using Fe(NO3)3 as iron source and ethylene glycol as reduction. After coating PLGA, PLGA-IBU-magnetic SBA-15 also possessed super-paramagnetism and the corresponding saturation magnetizations (Ms) could reach 2.6emug(-1). Metformin HCl (MH) and ibuprofen (IBU) were used as model drugs, and the drug release kinetics was studied. MH and IBU could release 60% and 85% from the sample respectively. The system shows excellent dual-drug controlled delivery performance and good bioactivity in vitro that leads to good potential application on bone regeneration.
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ER? directly activated the MDR1 transcription to increase paclitaxel-resistance of ER?-positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Chemotherapy is commonly used to treat early-stage invasive and advanced-stage breast cancer either before or after surgery. Increasing evidence from clinical analysis and in vitro studies has shown that ER-positive breast cancer cells are insensitive to chemotherapy. Complete understanding of how ER? mediates drug resistance is prerequisite to improvement of the chemotherapeutic efficacy. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by MDR1 gene is one of the major causes of drug resistance. The association between ER? and MDR1 in breast cancer is still unclear and the limited reports are conflict. This study systematically explored intrinsic link between ER? and the P-gp over-expression in paclitaxel-resistant ER?(+) breast cancer cell lines and mouse model in molecular details. Our data showed that ER? activated the MDR1 transcription in MCF-7/PTX breast cancer cells by binding to ERE1/2 and interacting with Sp1 that bridged to the downstream CG-rich element within the MDR1 promoter. Knockdown of MDR1 restrained the effect of ER? in MCF-7 cells and sensitized the cells to paclitaxel. Treatment of ICI 182,780 that selectively suppressed ER? significantly decreased the MDR1 expression and increased the sensitivity of drug resistant breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors to paclitaxel. Our data strongly demonstrated that ER? was able to increase drug resistance of breast cancer cells through activating MDR1 transcription. This novel mechanism provides new insight to how the ER? signaling regulates response of ER?(+) breast tumors to chemotherapy, which may be exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer in the future.
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Separation of electrical and optical energy gaps: selectively adjusting the electrical and optical properties for a highly efficient blue emitter.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The design concept of separation of optical and electrical bandgap for wide bandgap materials is further developed in DCzSiPI. The HOMO/LUMO levels can be tuned by incorporation of PI and DCz substituents. The tetraphenylsilane core avoids the intramolecular charge transfer from DCz to PI (DCz = dimer carbazole, PI = phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole). The allowed transitions are found to be from HOMO-1 to LUMO providing DCzSiPI with sufficient bandgap.
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The synthesis and characterization of Ag-N dual-doped p-type ZnO: experiment and theory.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Ag-N dual-doped ZnO films have been fabricated by a chemical bath deposition method. The p-type conductivity of the dual-doped ZnO:(Ag, N) is stable over a long period of time, and the hole concentration in the ZnO:(Ag, N) is much higher than that in mono-doped ZnO:Ag or ZnO:N. We found that this is because AgZn-NO complex acceptors can be formed in ZnO:(Ag, N). First-principles calculations show that the complex acceptors generate a fully occupied band above the valance band maximum, so the acceptor levels become shallower and the hole concentration is increased. Furthermore, the binding energy of the Ag-N complex in ZnO is negative, so ZnO:(Ag, N) can be stable. These results indicate that the Ag-N dual-doping may be expected to be a potential route to achieving high-quality p-type ZnO for use in a variety of devices.
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Effects of compound K on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Compound K (CK) is a final metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides from Panax ginseng. Although anti-diabetic activity of CK has been reported in recent years, the molecular mechanism of CK in the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains unclear. In the present investigation, we established a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance using high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ), and attempted to verify more details and exact mechanisms in the treatment of T2DM. CK was administered orally at three doses [300, 100 and 30 mg/kg bodyweight (b.w.)] to the diabetic rats. Bodyweight, food-intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity (ISI), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), as well as oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. According to our results, CK could improve bodyweight and food-intake of diabetic rats. CK exhibited dose-dependent reduction of FBG, TG and TC of diabetic rats. CK treatment also enhanced FINS and ISI. Meanwhile, the glucose tolerance observed in the present study was improved significantly by CK. It is concluded from the results that CK may have improving effects on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance of diabetic rats. Furthermore, research showed that CK could promote the expression of InsR, IRS1, PI3Kp85, pAkt and Glut4 in skeletal muscle tissue of diabetic rats. These results indicate that the hypoglycemic activity of CK is mediated by improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is closely related to PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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Endoscopic biopsy in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a retrospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are often located in the deep mucosa or submucosa, and the efficacy of endoscopic biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of GI-NENs is not fully understood.
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Value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalograph in early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalograph (aEEG) in early diagnosis and prediction of long-term prognosis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), 120 HIE Children were randomly assigned into aEEG group and control group (n = 60 per group). Children in each group were sub-divided into mild, moderate and severe HIE groups (n = 20 per group). 1, 3, 14 and 28 days after birth, aEEG was performed in aEEG group; 3, 14 and 28 days after birth, neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was done in both groups. Children who discharged were followed up at adjusted gestational age of 12 months with Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and prognosis evaluation.
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Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea) associated with Lauraceae in China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, three new species of eriophyoid mites in the family Eriophyidae associated with Phoebe hunanensis Hand.-Mazz. (Lauraceae), namely Gammaphytoptus striatilobus sp. n., Phyllocoptes setalsolenidion sp. n., and Dechela phoebe sp. n. are described and illustrated. All are vagrants causing no apparent damage to the same host plants.
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Intestinal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal MRSA carriers hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The current data regarding the correlation between the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carried in the nasal cavity and digestive tract are inadequate.
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De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.
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A robot-assisted surgical system using a force-image control method for pedicle screw insertion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement.
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Transcription factor-mediated cell-to-cell signalling in plants.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Plant cells utilize mobile transcription factors to transmit intercellular signals when they perceive environmental stimuli or initiate developmental programmes. Studies on these novel cell-to-cell signals have accumulated multiple pieces of evidence showing that non-cell-autonomous transcription factors play pivotal roles in most processes related to the formation and development of plant organs. Recent studies have explored the evolution of mobile transcription factors and proposed mechanisms for their trafficking through plasmodesmata, where a selective system exists to facilitate this process. Mobile transcription factors contribute to the diversity of the intercellular signalling network, which is also established by peptides, hormones, and RNAs. Crosstalk between mobile transcription factors and other intercellular molecules leads to the development of complex biological signalling networks in plants. The regulation of plasmodesmata appears to have been another major step in controlling the intercellular trafficking of transcription factors based on studies of many plasmodesmal components. Furthermore, diverse omics approaches are being successfully applied to explore a large number of candidate transcription factors as mobile signals in plants. Here, we review these fascinating discoveries to integrate current knowledge of non-cell-autonomous transcription factors.
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Generation and Development of Paravertebral Ossification in Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement: A Detailed Analytic Report Using Coronal Reconstruction CT.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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A retrospective follow-up study and review of images in published papers.
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Molecular cloning, expression, purification and characterization of thioredoxin from Antarctic sea-ice bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Thioredoxin (Trx) is a highly conserved and multi-functional protein that plays a pivotal role in maintaining the redox state of the cell and in protecting the cell against oxidative stress. Trx gene from Antarctic sea-ice bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178 was cloned and expressed as soluble protein in Escherichia coli (designated as PsTrx). Trx gene consisted of an open reading frame of 324-bp nucleotides encoding a protein of 108 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 11.88 kDa. The deduced protein included the conserved Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys active-site sequence. After purification by a single step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, recombinant PsTrx with a high specific activity of 96.67 U/mg was obtained. The purified PsTrx had an optimal temperature and pH of 25 °C and 7.0, respectively, and showed about 55 % of the residual catalytic activity even at 0-10 °C. It had high tolerance to a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-2 M NaCl) and was stable in the presence of H2O2. This research suggested that PsTrx displayed unique catalytic properties.
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Overexpression of the poplar NF-YB7 transcription factor confers drought tolerance and improves water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Water deficit is a serious environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. Improvement of drought tolerance and efficient water use are significant strategies to overcome this dilemma. In this study, a drought-responsive transcription factor, nuclear factor Y subunit B 7 (PdNF-YB7), induced by osmotic stress (PEG6000) and abscisic acid, was isolated from fast-growing poplar clone NE-19 [Populus nigra × (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra)]. Ectopic overexpression of PdNF-YB7 (oxPdB7) in Arabidopsis enhanced drought tolerance and whole-plant and instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of biomass produced to water consumed). Overexpressing lines had an increase in germination rate and root length and decrease in water loss and displayed higher photosynthetic rate, instantaneous leaf WUE, and leaf water potential to exhibit enhanced drought tolerance under water scarcity. Additionally, overexpression of PdNF-YB7 in Arabidopsis improved whole-plant WUE by increasing carbon assimilation and reducing transpiration with water abundance. These drought-tolerant, higher WUE transgenic Arabidopsis had earlier seedling establishment and higher biomass than controls under normal and drought conditions. In contrast, Arabidopsis mutant nf-yb3 was more sensitive to drought stress with lower WUE. However, complementation analysis indicated that complementary lines (nf-yb3/PdB7) had almost the same drought response and WUE as wild-type Col-0. Taken together, these results suggest that PdNF-YB7 positively confers drought tolerance and improves WUE in Arabidopsis; thus it could potentially be used in breeding drought-tolerant plants with increased production even under water deficiency.
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Expression and characterization of recombinant human phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx or GPx4; EC1.11.1.12) is a selenoperoxidase that can directly reduce phospholipid and cholesterol hydroperoxides. The mature cytoplasmic GPx4 is a monomeric protein with molecular weight of 19.5 kDa. In this study, human GPx4 (hGPx4) gene was amplified from the complementary DNA library of human hepatoma cell line. Eukaryotic expression plasmid pSelExpress1-leader-GPx4 was constructed and transfected into the eukaryotic cells HEK293T. Expression of hGPx4 was detected by Western blotting, and the target protein was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The results of the activity and kinetics of the purified protein show that the obtained protein follows a "ping-pong" mechanism, which is similar to that of native cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1; EC1.11.1.9). This is the first time that hGPx4 could be expressed and purified from HEK293T cells, and this work will provide an important resource of hGPx4 for its functional study in vitro and in vivo. © 2013 IUBMB Life, 65(11):951-956, 2013.
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Kinetic evidence of an apparent negative activation enthalpy in an organocatalytic process.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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A combined kinetic and computational study on our tryptophan-based bifunctional thiourea catalyzed asymmetric Mannich reactions reveals an apparent negative activation enthalpy. The formation of the pre-transition state complex has been unambiguously confirmed and these observations provide an experimental support for the formation of multiple hydrogen bonding network between the substrates and the catalyst. Such interactions allow the creation of a binding cavity, a key factor to install high enantioselectivity.
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SAD-A kinase controls islet ?-cell size and function as a mediator of mTORC1 signaling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in controlling islet ?-cell function. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. Synapses of amphids defective kinase-A (SAD-A) is a 5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-related protein kinase that is exclusively expressed in pancreas and brain. In this study, we investigated a role of the kinase in regulating pancreatic ?-cell morphology and function as a mediator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that global SAD-A deletion leads to defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and petite islets, which are reminiscent of the defects in mice with global deletion of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, a downstream target of mTORC1. Consistent with these findings, selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas decreased islet ?-cell size, whereas SAD-A overexpression significantly increased the size of mouse insulinomas cell lines ?-cells. In direct support of SAD-A as a unique mediator of mTORC1 signaling in islet ?-cells, we demonstrate that glucose dramatically stimulated SAD-A protein translation in isolated mouse islets, which was potently inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1. Moreover, the 5-untranslated region of SAD-A mRNA is highly structured and requires mTORC1 signaling for its translation initiation. Together, these findings identified SAD-A as a unique pancreas-specific effector protein of mTORC1 signaling.
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[Efficacy of radiotherapy for adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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To analyze efficacy of radiotherapy for adult patients with langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).
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Indium(III)-dicarboxylic microporous frameworks with high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Two microporous metal-organic frameworks formulated as H2In3O(OH)3(1,3-bdc)3 (1) and HIn(1,4-bdc)2 (2) (bdc = benzenedicarboxylic) were designed and synthesized. Compound 2 shows a high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2 as well as a high stability.
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Synthesis of carbon quantum dots/SiO2 porous nanocomposites and their catalytic ability for photo-enhanced hydrocarbon selective oxidation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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We report a facile hydrolytic process for the preparation of CQDs/SiO2 porous nanocomposites, which show high catalytic activity and stability for the selective oxidation of cis-cyclooctene under visible light irradiation, with TBHP as a radical initiator and oxygen (in the air) as an oxidant at 80 °C.
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MicroRNA-24/MODY gene regulatory pathway mediates pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Overnutrition and genetics both contribute separately to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction, but how these factors interact is unclear. This study was aimed at determining whether microRNAs (miRNAs) provide a link between these factors. In this study, miRNA-24 (miR-24) was highly expressed in pancreatic ?-cells and further upregulated in islets from genetic fatty (db/db) or mice fed a high-fat diet, and islets subject to oxidative stress. Overexpression of miR-24 inhibited insulin secretion and ?-cell proliferation, potentially involving 351 downregulated genes. By using bioinformatic analysis combined with luciferase-based promoter activity assays and quantitative real-time PCR assays, we identified two maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes as direct targets of miR-24. Silencing either of these MODY genes (Hnf1a and Neurod1) mimicked the cellular phenotype caused by miR-24 overexpression, whereas restoring their expression rescued ?-cell function. Our findings functionally link the miR-24/MODY gene regulatory pathway to the onset of type 2 diabetes and create a novel network between nutrient overload and genetic diabetes via miR-24.
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Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cavernous lymphangioma.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristic endoscopic findings in patients with esophageal cavernous lymphangioma and assess the efficacy of endoscopic techniques in the management of this disease. We retrospectively analyzed data from 6 patients who were diagnosed with esophageal cavernous lymphangioma by endoscopy and histologic evaluation. All patients underwent endoscopic resection of the tumor at our hospital between January 2010 and June 2011. Four male and 2 female patients, with a mean age of 48.2 ± 15.2 years (range, 35 to 77 y) with esophageal cavernous lymphangioma, who underwent endoscopy followed by endoscopic resection were included in this report. The lesions varied from 0.4 to 1.2 cm in diameter, with a mean size of 0.78 ± 0.26 cm. Endoscopy revealed dilated lymphatic channels beneath the surface epithelium of the lesion in all patients. An endoscopic ultrasound revealed that all lesions were multicystic and located in the submucosal layer. Histologic examination confirmed the initial diagnosis in all patients. Endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis of esophageal cavernous lymphangioma, with dilated lymphatic channels beneath the surface epithelium of the lesion being a characteristic endoscopic feature. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool to differentiate cavernous lymphangioma from other esophageal tumors. Endoscopic resection of esophageal cavernous lymphangioma was safe and effective in all of the analyzed cases.
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Molecular cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of glutathione S-transferase from Antarctic sea-ice bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. ANT506.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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A glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from Antarctic sea-ice bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. ANT506 (namely PsGST), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of PsGST comprised 654bp encoding a protein of 217 amino acids with a calculated molecular size of 24.3kDa. The rPsGST possesses the conserved amino acid defining the binding sites of glutathione (G-site) and substrate binding pocket (H-site) in GST N_3 family. PsGST was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant PsGST (rPsGST) was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography with a high specific activity of 74.21U/mg. The purified rPsGST showed maximum activity at 40°C and exhibited 14.2% activity at 0°C. It was completely inactivated at 50°C for 40min. These results indicated that rPsGST was a typical cold active GST with low thermostability. The enzyme was little affected by H2O2 and Triton X-100, and 50.2% of the remaining activity was detected in the presence of high salt concentrations (2M NaCl). The enzymatic Km values for CDNB and GSH was 0.22mM and 1.01mM, respectively. These specific enzyme properties may be related to the survival environment of Antarctic sea ice bacteria.
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microRNA-7 suppresses the invasive potential of breast cancer cells and sensitizes cells to DNA damages by targeting histone methyltransferase SET8.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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SET8 (SET domain containing 8) is a histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20)-specific monomethyltransferase in higher eukaryotes that exerts diverse functions in transcription regulation, DNA repair, tumor metastasis, and genome integrity. The activity of SET8 is tightly controlled during cell cycle through post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and sumoylation. However, how the expression of SET8 is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we report that microRNA-7 is a negative regulator of SET8. We demonstrated that microRNA-7 inhibits H4K20 monomethylation and suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasive potential of breast cancer cells. We showed that microRNA-7 promotes spontaneous DNA damages and sensitizes cells to induced DNA damages. Our experiments provide a molecular mechanism for the regulation of SET8 and extend the biological function of microRNA-7 to DNA damage response, supporting the pursuit of microRNA-7 as a potential target for breast cancer intervention.
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A cobalt-based 3D porous framework with excellent catalytic ability for the selective oxidation of cis-cyclooctene.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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A 3D porous framework [Co3(?2-OH)4(I)2]·2H2O (I = hypoxanthine) with two types of 1D channels possess excellent catalytic ability for the selective oxidation of cis-cyclooctene.
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[Randomized controlled trails for "equilibrium-acupuncture" treatment of lumbar pain in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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To observe the effect of "equilibrium-acupuncture" intervention on lumbar pain in lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse patients.
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Histone acetyltransferase 1 promotes homologous recombination in DNA repair by facilitating histone turnover.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks is vital to the maintenance of genome integrity and proper cell functions. Histone modifications, such as reversible acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, which collectively contribute to the establishment of distinct chromatin states, play important roles in the recruitment of repair factors to the sites of double-strand breaks. Here we report that histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1), a classical B type histone acetyltransferase responsible for acetylating the N-terminal tail of newly synthesized histone H4 in the cytoplasm, is a key regulator of DNA repair by homologous recombination in the nucleus. We found that HAT1 is required for the incorporation of H4K5/K12-acetylated H3.3 at sites of double-strand breaks through its HIRA-dependent histone turnover activity. Incorporated histones with specific chemical modifications facilitate subsequent recruitment of RAD51, a key repair factor in mammalian cells, to promote efficient homologous recombination. Significantly, depletion of HAT1 sensitized cells to DNA damage compromised the global chromatin structure, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. Our experiments uncovered a role for HAT1 in DNA repair in higher eukaryotic organisms and provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of histone dynamics by HAT1.
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