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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Chemical constituents against hepatic fibrosis from Phyllodium pulchellum roots].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the bioactive constituents against hepatic fibrosis from the roots of Phyllodium pulchellum.
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Surface Plasmon-Polariton Mediated Red Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on Metallic Electrodes Integrated with Dual-Periodic Corrugation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We demonstrate an effective approach to realize excitation and outcoupling of the SPP modes associated with both cathode/organic and anode/organic interfaces in OLEDs by integrating dual-periodic corrugation. The dual-periodic corrugation consists of two set gratings with different periods. The light trapped in the SPP modes associated with both top and bottom electrode/organic interfaces are efficiently extracted from the OLEDs by adjusting appropriate periods of two set corrugations, and a 29% enhancement in the current efficiency has been obtained.
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Magnetic resonance imaging for the normal mesostenium and involvement of the mesostenium in acute pancreatitis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The main point of this paper is to study MRI findings of the normal mesostenium and the involvement of the mesostenium in acute pancreatitis and to discuss the relationship between the involvement of the mesostenium and the severity of acute pancreatitis. In clinical practice, the mesenterical involvement in acute pancreatitis was often observed on MRI in daily works, which was little recorded in the reported studies. We conducted the current study to assess the mesenterical involvement in acute pancreatitis with MRI. We found that the mesenterical involvement of acute pancreatitis patients is common on MRI. The mesenterical involvement has a positive correlation with the MR severity index and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II scoring system. It has been shown that MR can be used to visualize mesenterical involvement, which is a supplementary indicator in evaluating the severity of acute pancreatitis and local and systemic complications.
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Thermophilic hydrogen production from sludge pretreated by thermophilic bacteria: Analysis of the advantages of microbial community and metabolism.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacteria pretreatment and elevated fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from sludge were examined. The highest hydrogen yield of 19.9mlH2g(-1) VSS was achieved at 55°C by using pretreated sludge, which was 48.6% higher than raw sludge without pretreatment, and 28.39% higher than when fermented at 35°C. To explore the internal factors of this superior hydrogen production performance, the microbial community and the metabolism analysis were performed by using high-throughput sequencing and excitation-emission matrix. The pretreated sludge showed better utilization of dissolved organic matter and less inhibition of metabolism, especially at thermophilic condition. The 454 sequencing data indicated that microbial abundance was distinctly reduced and extremely high proportion of hydrogen-producing bacteria was found in the thermophilic community (Thermoanaerobacterium accounted for 93.75%). Thus, the pretreated sludge and thermophilic condition showed significant advantages in the hydrogen production using waste sludge as substrate.
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Possible causes of excess sludge reduction adding metabolic uncoupler, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), in sequence batch reactors.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Two parallel sequence batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, with and without TCS addition, to research the causes of sludge reduction by uncouplers. Three possible mechanisms of sludge reduction by TCS were studied: (1) occurrence of metabolic uncoupling, (2) consumption of more energy to resist the infection of TCS, (3) promotion of lysis-cryptic growth by TCS addition. Results showed the remarkable reduction of electronic transport system (ETS) activity and specific cellular ATP (SATP) in TCS reactor, which proved the occurrence of metabolic uncoupling. The increasing amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), as measured by chemical methods and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra, implied microorganisms consumed more energy to resist TCS. The similar DNA concentrations of the effluents in two reactors indicated sludge lysis was not intensified by TCS. Therefore, uncoupler might not only cause metabolic uncoupling but also induce more energy consumption in the production of some substances to resist uncoupler.
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Does immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair increase tendon healing? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To determine whether immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair improved tendon healing compared with early passive motion.
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Phenolic constituents from the roots of Phyllodium pulchellum.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Three new phenolic constituents 1-3 were obtained from the 95% ethanol extract of the roots of Phyllodium pulchellum (Leguminosae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, such as NMR, UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, and CD. Furthermore, in an in vitro bioassay, all compounds were tested for inhibitory effects against the proliferation of acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, and compound 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 7.6 ?M.
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[Clinical study of autologous cytokine induced killer cells combined with chemotherapy for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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This study was purposed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of autologous cytokine induced killer (CIK) cells combined with chemotherapy in treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from 5 elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia, and then augmented by priming with interferon gamma (IFN-?) followed by IL-2 and monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD3. The autologous CIK cells thus obtained were infused back to individual patients, 28 days as one cycle. The changes in cellular immune function, incidence of infection, independence of hematoglobin or blood transfusion, and progression of disease were observed and assessed before and after therapy. The results showed that the 46 cycles of CIK cell infusion were performed for 5 patients, no adverse reaction was observed in these patients. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+) increased significantly (P < 0.05), The therapy of CIK could significantly reduce the incidence of infection (P < 0.05) and shorten the time of high fever in AML patients (P < 0.05). CIK also could reduce the volume of erythrocyte infusion to maintenance hematoglobin level (P < 0.05). We found that although CIK could not change the outcome of AML, the combination of CIK and chemotherapy could control patients' condition and prolong their survival during the development and end stage of AML. It is concluded that autologous CIK cells combined with chemotherapy is safe and efficacious for the elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
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Herb-drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Herb-drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (Ki) were determined for the compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (Ki) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb-drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7.
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Incidence of retear with double-row versus single-row rotator cuff repair.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Rotator cuff tears have a high recurrence rate, even after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Although some biomechanical evidence suggests the superiority of the double-row vs the single-row technique, clinical findings regarding these methods have been controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double-row repair method results in a lower incidence of recurrent tearing compared with the single-row method. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify reports of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing single-row with double-row rotator cuff repair. The primary outcome assessed was retear of the repaired cuff. Secondary outcome measures were the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score, the Constant shoulder score, and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed. Six studies involving 428 patients were included in the review. Compared with single-row repair, double-row repair demonstrated a lower retear incidence (risk ratio [RR]=1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.49]; P=.005; I(2)=0%) and a reduced incidence of partial-thickness retears (RR=2.16 [95% CI, 1.26-3.71]; P=.005; I(2)=26%). Functional ASES, Constant, and UCLA scores showed no difference between single- and double-row cuff repairs. Use of the double-row technique decreased the incidence of retears, especially partial-thickness retears, compared with the single-row technique. The functional outcome was not significantly different between the 2 techniques. To improve the structural outcome of the repaired rotator cuff, surgeons should use the double-row technique. However, further long-term RCTs on this topic are needed.
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Don't panic: interpretation bias is predictive of new onsets of panic disorder.
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Psychological models of panic disorder postulate that interpretation of ambiguous material as threatening is an important maintaining factor for the disorder. However, demonstrations of whether such a bias predicts onset of panic disorder are missing. In the present study, we used data from the Dresden Prediction Study, in which a epidemiologic sample of young German women was tested at two time points approximately 17 months apart, allowing the study of biased interpretation as a potential risk factor. At time point one, participants completed an Interpretation Questionnaire including two types of ambiguous scenarios: panic-related and general threat-related. Analyses revealed that a panic-related interpretation bias predicted onset of panic disorder, even after controlling for two established risk factors: anxiety sensitivity and fear of bodily sensations. This is the first prospective study demonstrating the incremental validity of interpretation bias as a predictor of panic disorder onset.
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Treatment of multiple solitary plasmacytomas with cytokine-induced killer cells.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Currently available treatment methods for advanced plasmacytoma include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunomodulatory agents, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion. We report a case of advanced refractory multiple solitary plasmacytomas in a 68-year-old Asian man with multiple bone lesions, in whom autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were administered in an effort to eliminate residual tumor lesions.
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Hydrogen sulfide synergistically upregulates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via NF-?B signalling in periodontal fibroblasts.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S in the oral cavity is positively correlated with periodontitis but the mechanism by which H2S contributes to periodontal diseases is obscure. We investigated the effect of H2S in combination with P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in periodontal fibroblasts and the underlying mechanism of action.
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In vitro and in vivo broad antiviral activity of peptides homologous to fusion glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus and Marek's disease virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of paramyxovirus and Marek's disease virus (MDV) of herpesvirus, two of the most serious threats to the poultry industry, can give rise to complex co-infections that hinder diagnosis and prevention. In the current study, two different peptides, derived from the MDV gH (gHH2L) and gB (gBH3), respectively, exhibit antiviral activity against NDV in vitro. The potent inhibitory effect of heptad repeat 2 from fusion glycoprotein of the NDV on MDV infection also has been demonstrated. Plaque formation and embryo infectivity assays confirmed these antiviral results. Furthermore, each tandem peptide consisting of two motifs from different viruses exhibits more potent antiviral activity than the constituent peptides. The current work provides a new strategy for developing novel peptides and vaccines against virus infection and co-infections.
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Abdominal regional fat distribution on MRI correlates with cholecystolithiasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine whether abdominal regional fat distribution pattern on MRI is correlated with cholecystolithiasis.
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The normal transverse mesocolon and involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis: an MRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To study the MRI findings of the normal transverse mesocolon and the involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis (AP) as well as the relationship between the involvement of the mesocolon and the severity of AP.
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In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cysteine and site specific conjugated herceptin antibody-drug conjugates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are monoclonal antibodies designed to deliver a cytotoxic drug selectively to antigen expressing cells. Several components of an ADC including the selection of the antibody, the linker, the cytotoxic drug payload and the site of attachment used to attach the drug to the antibody are critical to the activity and development of the ADC. The cytotoxic drugs or payloads used to make ADCs are typically conjugated to the antibody through cysteine or lysine residues. This results in ADCs that have a heterogeneous number of drugs per antibody. The number of drugs per antibody commonly referred to as the drug to antibody ratio (DAR), can vary between 0 and 8 drugs for a IgG1 antibody. Antibodies with 0 drugs are ineffective and compete with the ADC for binding to the antigen expressing cells. Antibodies with 8 drugs per antibody have reduced in vivo stability, which may contribute to non target related toxicities. In these studies we incorporated a non-natural amino acid, para acetyl phenylalanine, at two unique sites within an antibody against Her2/neu. We covalently attached a cytotoxic drug to these sites to form an ADC which contains two drugs per antibody. We report the results from the first direct preclinical comparison of a site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADC and a cysteine conjugated anti-Her2 ADC. We report that the site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADCs have superior in vitro serum stability and preclinical toxicology profile in rats as compared to the cysteine conjugated anti-Her2 ADCs. We also demonstrate that the site specific non-natural amino acid anti-Her2 ADCs maintain their in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy against Her2 expressing human tumor cell lines. Our data suggests that site specific non-natural amino acid ADCs may have a superior therapeutic window than cysteine conjugated ADCs.
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[Analysis for Clinicopathological Features, Therapy and Prognosis of 30 Elderly Patients with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The purpose of this study was to explore the clinicopathological features, therapy and prognostic factors of elderly patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). The clinical data including general clinical characteristics, pathological features, chemotherapy selection and treatment response of 30 patients with NHL in our hospital from January 2003 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The survival was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods, and the prognosis was evaluated by COX regression multivariate analysis model. The clinical parameters selected include age, Ann Arbor stage, international prognostic index (IPI), B symptom and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The results showed that all the patients suffered from underlying disease, and the cardiovascular disease (hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia) is the most common, and minority (8/30) combined with secondary tumor, the 63% (19/30) cases had B symptoms at diagnosis. only 2 cases were diagnosed as T-cell lymphoma; the 93% (28/30) cases combined with B-cell lymphoma, 57% (17/28) of them combined with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann-Arbor stage ? IIwas 37% (11/30);10(37%)patients IPI score was ? 2, and 67% (20/30) was scored 3-5; 13(43%) patients serum LDH level was abnormal. Modified R-CHOP chemotherapy was given individually on the basis of clinical features. The patients achieved complete remission, partial remission, stable disease, or progressive disease accounted for 14 (46.7%), 13 (43.3%), 1 (3.3%), and 2 (6.7%), respectively; the total reaction rate was 90% after 4 cycles of chemotherapy; the overall survival (OS) rate at 1 and 2 years was 73.3% and 43.3%, and progression-free survival (PFS)rate at 0.5 and 1 years was 62.2% and 54.9%; multivariate analysis by COX regression showed that B symptoms and Ann-Arbor stage were independent factors (P = 0.014, 0.039; RR = 6.678, 4.939, respectively) affecting the OS of elderly NHL, and IPI score affected PFS independently. It is concluded that elderly patients with NHL usually are of late stage at newly diagnosis and have suffered from underlaying diseases. Besides strengthening supportive treatment, modified R-CHOP chemotherapy should be given individually according to different prognosis. B symptoms and Ann-Arbor stage>IIare indicators for poor prognosis of elderly NHL.
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A model of in vitro UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition by bile acids predicts possible metabolic disorders.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Increased levels of bile acids (BAs) due to the various hepatic diseases could interfere with the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs, and endobiotics including steroid hormones. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are involved in the conjugation and elimination of many xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The present study sought to investigate the potential for inhibition of UGT enzymes by BAs. The results showed that taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) exhibited the strongest inhibition toward UGTs, followed by lithocholic acid. Structure-UGT inhibition relationships of BAs were examined and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation performed by using in vitro inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) in combination with calculated in vivo levels of TLCA. Substitution of a hydrogen with a hydroxyl group in the R1, R3, R4, R5 sites of BAs significantly weakens their inhibition ability toward most UGTs. The in vivo inhibition by TLCA toward UGT forms was determined with following orders of potency: UGT1A4 > UGT2B7 > UGT1A3 > UGT1A1 ? UGT1A7 ? UGT1A10 ? UGT2B15. In conclusion, these studies suggest that disrupted homeostasis of BAs, notably taurolithocholic acid, found in various diseases such as cholestasis, could lead to altered metabolism of xenobiotics and endobiotics through inhibition of UGT enzymes.
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A highly selective probe for human cytochrome P450 3A4: isoform selectivity, kinetic characterization and its applications.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Bufalin 5?-hydroxylation was found to be an isoform-specific biotransformation probe substrate for cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The probe reaction was well-characterized and it can be used for measuring the real catalytic activities of CYP3A4 from different enzyme sources.
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Identification and Characterization of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Responsible for the Glucuronidation of Fraxetin.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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  Fraxetin, a major constitute from traditional medicine plant Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), have been found to possess multiple bioactivities. However, the metabolic pathway(s) of fraxetin in human tissues have not been reported yet. This study aimed to characterize the glucuronidation pathway(s) of fraxetin in human tissues. Fraxetin could be metabolized to two glucuronides in human liver microsomes (HLMs). These two glucuronides were biosynthesized and characterized as 7-O-glucuronide (7-O-G) and 8-O-glucuronide (8-O-G), respectively. UGT1A1, -1A6, -1A7, -1A8, -1A9 and -1A10 participated in the formation of 7-O-G, while the formation of 8-O-G was catalyzed selectively by UGT1A6 and UGT1A9. UGT1A9 showed the highest catalytic activities in the formation of 7-O-G and 8-O-G. Both kinetic characterization and inhibition assays demonstrated that UGT1A9 played important roles in fraxetin glucuronidations in HLMs, especially in the formation of the major metabolite 8-O-G. Furthermore, the intrinsic clearance of fraxetin in both human liver microsomes and UGT1A9 was greater than that of 7, 8-dihydroxylcoumarin, revealing that the addition of C-6 methoxy group lead to the higher metabolic clearance. In summary, the glucuronidation pathways of fraxetin in human liver microsomes were well-characterized, and UGT1A9 was the major isoform responsible for the glucuronidations of fraxetin.
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Relationship of trehalose accumulation with ethanol fermentation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The protective effect and the mechanisms of trehalose accumulation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated during ethanol fermentation. The engineered strains with more intercellular trehalose achieved significantly higher fermentation rates and ethanol yields than their wild strain ZS during very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, while their performances were not different during regular fermentation. The VHG fermentation performances of these strains were consistent with their growth capacity under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, the key stress factors during VHG fermentation. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation is more important for VHG fermentation of industrial yeast strains than regular one. The differences in membrane integrity and antioxidative capacity of these strains indicated the possible mechanisms of trehalose as a protectant under VHG condition. Therefore, trehalose metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving the VHG fermentation performance of industrial yeast strains.
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Two new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Pteris semipinnata.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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In this study, two new compounds and six known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Pteris semipinnata. The chemical structures of these two new compounds were elucidated as 6?,11?-dihydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1) and 7?,11?-dihydroxy-15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2) by the extensive spectral methods including 2D NMR and HR-MS techniques.
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Association between RAD51 gene polymorphism (-135G/C) and susceptibility of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Study results on the association between RAD51 gene -135G/C polymorphism and risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the association. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang databases to collect all relevant studies until January 2013. Meta-analysis was carried out using fixed/random model by Review Manager 5.1 and STATA10.0. A total of 10 eligible studies with 2,656 patients and 3,725 controls were included in meta-analysis. Significant association was detected between -135G/C polymorphism and increased MDS risk (CC?+?GC vs. GG: OR?=?1.46, 95 % CI?=?1.11-1.92; CC vs. GC?+?GG: OR?=?2.45, 95 % CI?=?1.23-4.89), while no association was observed for acute leukemia. Subgroup analysis by subtypes of acute leukemia and ethnicity showed no significant results either. Our meta-analysis indicated that the -135G/C polymorphism might be associated with increased susceptibility of MDS. However, lack of evidence supported association of this polymorphism with acute leukemia. Additional well-designed studies with larger samples are required to verify our results.
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A cholesterol tag at the N terminus of the relatively broad-spectrum fusion inhibitory peptide targets an earlier stage of fusion glycoprotein activation and increases the peptides antiviral potency in vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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In previous work, we designed peptides that showed potent inhibition of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chicken embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that peptides modified with cholesterol or 3 U of polyethylene glycol (PEG3) conjugated to the peptides N termini showed even more promising antiviral activities when tested in animal models. Both cholesterol- and cholesterol-PEG3-tagged peptides were able to protect chicken embryos from infection with different serotypes of NDV and IBV when administered 12 h prior to virus inoculation. In comparison, the untagged peptides required intervention closer to the time of viral inoculation to achieve a similar level of protection. Intramuscular injection of cholesterol-tagged peptide at 1.6 mg/kg 1 day before virus infection and then three times at 3-day intervals after viral inoculation protected 70% of the chickens from NDV infection. We further demonstrate that the cholesterol-tagged peptide has an in vivo half-life greater than that of untagged peptides. It also has the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the avian central nervous system (CNS). Finally, we show that the cholesterol-tagged peptide could play a role before the viral fusion peptides insertion into the host cell and thereby target an earlier stage of fusion glycoprotein activation. Our findings are of importance for the further development of antivirals with broad-spectrum protective effects.
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Excellent toluene sensing properties of SnO2-Fe2O3 interconnected nanotubes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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SnO2-Fe2O3 interconnected nanotubes were obtained by combining the single nozzle electrospinning and thermal treatment methods. The results of scanning electron microscopy revealed the special structure of ruptures and interconnected nanotubes in the as-prepared materials. The toluene sensing test results of SnO2-Fe2O3 interconnected nanotubes show that SnO2-Fe2O3 interconnected nanotubes possess excellent toluene gas-sensing properties. The sensitivity of detecting limit (50 ppb) is 2.0 at the optimum operating temperature of 260 °C. The response and recovery times to 1 ppm toluene are about 5 and 11 s, respectively. Moreover, the SnO2-Fe2O3 interconnected nanotube gas sensors exhibit the remarkable selectivity to toluene, and good long-term stability.
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NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and cancer risk: update on current evidence.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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A number of studies have investigated the association between NBS1 Glu185Gln (rs1805794, E185Q) polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. Previous meta-analysis found a borderline significant impact of this polymorphism on cancer risk; however, the result might be relatively unreliable due to absence of numerous newly published studies. Thus, we conducted an updated meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases until April 9, 2013. The odds ratios were pooled by the fixed-effects/random-effects model in STATA 12.0 software. As a result, a total of 48 case-control studies with 17,159 cases and 22,002 controls were included. No significant association was detected between the Glu185Gln polymorphism and overall cancer risk. As to subgroup analysis by cancer site, the results showed that this polymorphism could increase the risk for leukemia and nasopharyngeal cancer. Notably, the Glu185Gln polymorphism was found to be related to increased risk for urinary system cancer, but decreased risk for digestive system cancer. No significant associations were obtained for other subgroup analyses such as ethnicity, sample size and smoking status. In conclusion, current evidence did not suggest that the NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism was associated with overall cancer risk, but this polymorphism might contribute to the risk for some specific cancer sites due to potential different mechanisms. More well-designed studies are imperative to identify the exact function of this polymorphism in carcinogenesis.
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The effects of soy isoflavone on bone density in north region of climacteric Chinese women.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Only a few investigations were based on limb bone density. This study evaluated the efficacy of soy isoflavone in the treatment of the principal menopausal disorders, limb bone density and the role of pathway. The research protocol involved the random subdivision of the enrolled sample into two groups of 40 women, who were to receive treatment for 6 months with isoflavone (90 mg/day) and with placebo. All of the patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their complaints. BMD of the radius and tibia were measured using quantitative ultrasound. Bone metabolism indexes calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were examined regularly. Serum cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) examined by ELISA. The results of the score of Kupperman table showed that the isoflavone can lead to a significant reduction in some of the disorders. Compared with placebo, the tibia bone density in isoflavone group increased obviously against the base value before trail. Isoflavone led to a stronger descent of the concentration of ALP and a decrease of IL-6 and TNF-? level than placebo. For climacteric women, soy isoflavone in the dose of 90 mg/day could improve some menopausal syndromes and was effective on increasing limb bone density, which maybe had the relationship with the levels of IL-6, TNF-? and ALP in serum.
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Treatability study of 3,3,4,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) combined with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) to reduce excess sludge production in a sequence batch reactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The present study investigated the synergistic effects of a novel combined uncoupler of TCS and TCP on excess activated sludge reduction during a 60-day operation using a sequence batch reactor (SBR). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to obtain the optimal dosage of the combined uncoupler. The results of 60-day operation demonstrated the combined uncoupler had effectively reduced the sludge yield by approximately 52%, without serious affecting the substrate removal efficiency. The high sludge reduction rate revealed that it was feasible and effective to utilize a combined uncoupler to limit excess activated sludge. The three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of activated sludge with different metabolic uncouplers indicated that tryptophan, tyrosine protein-like substances and tryptophan, tyrosine amino-like substances were reduced by adding a combined uncoupler. Moreover, the variation of sludge components provided a better understanding of the effects of uncouplers on activated sludge reduction.
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Interaction domain of glycoproteins gB and gH of Mareks disease virus and identification of an antiviral peptide with dual functions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Our previous study reported that both glycoproteins gB and gH of the herpesvirus Mareks disease virus (MDV) contain eleven potential heptad repeat domains. These domains overlap with ?-helix-enriched hydrophobic regions, including the gH-derived HR1 (gHH1) and HR3 (gHH3) and gB-derived HR1 (gBH1) regions, which demonstrate effective antiviral activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of less than 12 µM. Plaque formation and chicken embryo infection assays confirmed these results. In this study, biochemical and biophysical analyses detected potential interactions between these peptides. gHH1, gHH3, and gBH1 were found to interact with each other in pairs. The complex formed by gHH3 and gBH1 showed the most stable interaction at a molar ratio of 1:3, the binding between gHH1 and gBH1 was relatively weak, and no interaction was observed between the three HR peptides. These results indicate that gHH3 and gBH1 are likely the key contributors to the interaction between gB and gH. Furthermore, each HR peptide from herpesvirus glycoproteins did not effectively inhibit virus infection compared with peptides from a class I enveloped virus. In this report, the HR mimic peptide modified with a double glutamic acid (EE) or a double lysine (KK) at the non-interactive sites (i.e., solvent-accessible sites) did not noticeably affect the antiviral activity compared with the wild-type HR peptide, whereas tandem peptides from gH-derived gHH1 and gB-derived gBH1 (i.e., gBH1-Linker-gHH1) produced efficient antiviral effects, unlike the individual peptides. The proposed interpretation of inhibition of entry has been addressed. Our results support the hypothesis that the interaction domain between glycoproteins gH and gB is a critical target in the design of inhibitors of herpesvirus infection.
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(2S,4R)-2-[(1R)-1-(4-Bromo-phen-yl)-2-nitro-eth-yl]-4-ethyl-cyclo-hexa-none.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The crystal structure of the title compound, C(16)H(20)BrNO(3), contains three chiral centers in the configuration 1R,2S,6R. The cyclo-hexane ring is in a chair conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H?O inter-actions, forming chains along the a-axis direction.
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Characterizing the fluorescent products of waste activated sludge in dissolved organic matter following ultrasound assisted ozone pretreatments.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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This study investigated the effects of ozone and ultrasound (US) pretreatments, both individually and combined, on waste activated sludge reduction. Batch tests were conducted first to optimize the individual ozone and US pretreatments. Maximum sludge reduction ratios of 10.89% and 23% were obtained at 0.15g O3/g total solids ozone dose and 1.5W/mL US energy density, respectively. The combined ozone and US pretreatments were studied using response surface methodology. A maximum sludge reduction ratio of 40.14% was achieved by the combined ozone/US pretreatment with an ozone dose of 0.154g O3/g total solids and an US energy density of 1.445W/mL. The analysis of the dissolved organic matter by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the combined pretreatment was superior to the individual ozone and US pretreatments, and also demonstrated the synergetic effect of these two combined pretreatments.
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Pancreatic duct patterns in acute pancreatitis: a MRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To study the MRI findings of the pancreatic duct in patients with acute pancreatitis.
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Lenalidomide treatment for multiple myeloma: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In recent years, a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported on lenalidomide as a treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Herein, we report results of a meta-analysis of RCTs examining the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for MM.
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[Pathological grading analysis of liver biopsies in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers of different age ranges].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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To study the best time of taking liver biopsy for chronic HBV carriers of age ranges and then guiding antiretroviral treatment.
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[Enhancing effect of deoxynivalenol-mediated GRP78 down-regulation on heavy chain secretion and bioactivity of two-chain FVIII gene co-transfected cells].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Although two chain transfering separately could be used to overcome the volume limitation of adeno-associated virus vectors (AAV) in coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) gene delivery, it leads to chain imbalance for inefficient heavy chain secretion. In this study we aimed to improve the efficacy of two chain strategy in FVIII gene delivery through the degradation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) known as a protein chaperone in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by deoxynivalenol (DON) to decrease GRP78-bound FVIII heavy chain. By treating the two-chain gene transduced 293 cells with DON, the heavy chain (HC) secretion and FVIII bioactivity were observed. Data showed that 293 cells after three hours post-treatment with DON at a concentration of 500 ng mL(-1) resulted in obvious decrease the level of GRP78 but no effect on the cell proliferation. The HC secreted from DON-treated cells transfected with HC gene alone was 59 +/- 11 ng mL(-1), higher than that secreted by control cells (15 +/- 4 ng mL(-1)), and the HC secretion was further increasing to 146 +/- 34 ng mL(-1) in light chain (LC) gene co-transfected cells with an activity measured up to 0.66 +/- 0.15 U mL(-1), also greater than control cells (76 +/- 17 ng mL(-1) and 0.35 +/- 0.09 U mL(-1)). Taken together, these data suggest that DON-mediated GRP78 down-regulation could improve the efficacy of two-chain FVIII gene transfering by facilitating HC secretion, providing an experimental basis for in vivo dual-AAV application in FVIII gene delivery.
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[Problems and solutions in minimally invasive process of posterior discectomy for lumbar disc herniation].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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To analyze the problems and complications of posterior discectomy for lumbar disc herniation.
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Novel microbial transformation of resibufogenin by Fusarium solani.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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In this paper, microbial transformation of resibufogenin by Fusarium solani AS 3.1829 was investigated, and five transformed products were isolated and identified as 3-ketone-resibufogenin (2), 3-one-cyclic 3-(1,2-dimethyl-1,2-ethanediylacetal)-resibufogenin (3), 3-dimethoxyl-resibufogenin (4), 3-epi-resibufogenin (5), and 3-epi-15?-hydroxy-7?H-bufalin (6), respectively. Among them, 3, 4, and 6 are new compounds, and the rare double oxidization of C-3 was reported. In addition, the cytotoxicities of transformed products were also investigated.
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Microbial transformation of deoxyandrographolide by Alternaria alternata AS 3.4578.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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Biotransformation of deoxyandrographolide (1) by Alternaria alternata AS 3.4578 gave five derivatives identified by spectral methods including 2D NMR as the known dehydroandrographolide (2) and 9beta-hydroxy-dehydroandrographolide (3) and the new compounds 9beta-hydroxy-deoxyandrographolide (4), 3alpha,17,19-trihydroxy-8,13-ent-labdadien-15,16-olide (5) and 3-oxo-9beta-hydroxy-deoxyandrographolide (6).
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[The first exploration of a minimally invasive lysis subcutaneouly for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture based on relatively safe region around standard injection point of gluteal muscle].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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To explore the solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site for gluteal muscle contracture patient based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle.
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[Prediction and bioinformatics analysis of human gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Objective of this study was to perform bioinformatics analysis of the characteristics of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine and predict its novel potential biological function to provide a direction for further exploring pharmacological actions of amifostine and study methods. Amifostine was used as a key word to search internet-based free gene expression database including GEO, affymetrix gene chip database, GenBank, SAGE, GeneCard, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProt and BLOCKS and the sifted amifostine-regulated gene expression profiling data was subjected to validity testing, gene expression difference analysis and functional clustering and gene annotation. The results showed that only one data of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine was sifted from GEO database (accession: GSE3212). Through validity testing and gene expression difference analysis, significant difference (p < 0.01) was only found in 2.14% of the whole genome (460/192000). Gene annotation analysis showed that 139 out of 460 genes were known genes, in which 77 genes were up-regulated and 62 genes were down-regulated. 13 out of 139 genes were newly expressed following amifostine treatment of K562 cells, however expression of 5 genes was completely inhibited. Functional clustering displayed that 139 genes were divided into 11 categories and their biological function was involved in hematopoietic and immunologic regulation, apoptosis and cell cycle. It is concluded that bioinformatics method can be applied to analysis of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine. Amifostine has a regulatory effect on human gene expression profiling and this action is mainly presented in biological processes including hematopoiesis, immunologic regulation, apoptosis and cell cycle and so on. The effect of amifostine on human gene expression need to be further testified in experimental condition.
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[Application of ??mTc-SPECT-CT and carbon nanoparticles suspension injection in sentinel lymph node mapping for rectal cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping(SLM) in patients with rectal cancer by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) lymphoscintigraphy and carbon nanoparticles suspension injection.
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Microbial transformation of deoxyandrographolide by Fusarium graminearum AS 3.4598.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Biotransformation of deoxyandrographolide (1) by Fusarium graminearum AS 3.4598 was investigated in this paper. And five transformed products of 1 by F. graminearum AS 3.4598 were obtained. Their chemical structures were characterized as 3-oxo-8?,17?-epoxy-14-deoxyandrographolide (2), 3-oxo-14-deoxyandrographolide (3), 3-oxo-17,19-dihydroxyl-8,13-ent-labdadien-15,16-olide (4), 1?-hydroxyl-14-deoxyandrographolide (5), and 7?-hydroxyl-14-deoxyandrographolide (6) by spectral methods including 2D NMR. Among them, products 2, 4, and 5 are new.
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Repeated transfusions of autologous cytokine-induced killer cells for treatment of haematological malignancies in elderly patients: a pilot clinical trial.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The elderly population is susceptible to haematological malignancies, and these elderly patients are intolerant to cytotoxic drugs. Therefore, the exploration of a safe and reliable strategy exclusive of chemotherapy is critical in improving the prognosis of elderly patients with haematological malignancies. We evaluated the safety and the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells combined with recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2) in the treatment of haematological malignancies in elderly patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 20 elderly patients with haematological malignancies, then augmented by priming with interferon gamma, rhIL-2 and CD3 monoclonal antibody. The autologous CIK cells (2-3 × 10(9)) were transfused back to patients, followed by a subcutaneous injection of IL-2 (1 mU/day) for 10 consecutive days. The regimen was repeated every 4 weeks. The host cellular immune function, tumour-related biological parameters, imaging characteristics, disease condition, quality of life and survival time were assessed. Fourteen patients received 8 cycles of transfusion and 6 received 4 cycles. No adverse effects were observed. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+) CD8(+) and CD3(+) CD56(+) cells were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the levels of serum ?2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were markedly decreased (p < 0.05) after autologous CIK cell transfusion. Cancer-related symptoms were profoundly alleviated, as demonstrated by the improved quality of life (p < 0.01). Complete remission was observed in 11 patients, persistent partial remission in 7 patients and stable disease in 2 patients. At the end of follow-up, the mean survival time was 20 months. Transfusion with autologous CIK cells plus rhIL-2 treatment is safe and effective for treating haematological malignancies in elderly patients.
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Comparative metabolism of cinobufagin in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, minipig, monkey, and human.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Cinobufagin (CB), a major bioactive component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chansu, has been reported to have potent antitumor activity. In this study, in vitro metabolism of CB among species was compared with respect to metabolic profiles, enzymes involved, and catalytic efficiency by using liver microsomes from human (HLM), mouse (MLM), rat (RLM), dog (DLM), minipig (PLM), and monkey (CyLM). Significant species differences in CB metabolism were revealed. In particular, species-specific deacetylation and epimerization combined with hydroxylation existed in RLM, whereas hydroxylation was a major pathway in HLM, MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM. Two monohydroxylated metabolites of CB in human and animal species were identified as 1?-hydroxylcinobufagin and 5?-hydroxylcinobufagin by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR techniques. CYP3A4 was identified as the main isoform involved in CB hydroxylation in HLM on the basis of the chemical inhibition studies and screen assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s. Furthermore, ketoconazole, a specific inhibitor of CYP3A, strongly inhibited CB hydroxylation in MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM, indicating that CYP3A was responsible for CB hydroxylation in these animal species. The apparent substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency for 1?- and 5?-hydroxylation of CB in liver microsomes from various species were also determined. PLM appears to have K(m) and total intrinsic clearance value (V(max)/K(m)) similar to those for HLM, and the total microsomal intrinsic clearance values for CB obeyed the following order: mouse > dog > monkey > human > minipig. These findings provide vital information to better understand the metabolic behaviors of CB among various species.
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Characterisation and evaluation of antiviral recombinant peptides based on the heptad repeat regions of NDV and IBV fusion glycoproteins.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
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Mixed virus infections can cause livestock losses that are more devastating than those caused by single virus infections. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), serious threats to the poultry industry, can give rise to complex mixed infections that hinder diagnosis and prevention. In this study, we show that newly designed peptides, which are based on the heptad repeat (HR) region of the fusion glycoproteins from NDV and IBV, have more potent antiviral activity than the mother HR peptides. Plaque formation and chicken embryo infectivity assays confirmed these results. The novel peptides completely inhibited single virus infections and mixed infections caused by NDV and IBV. Furthermore, we assessed cell toxicity and possible targets for the peptides, thereby strengthening the notion that HR2 is an attractive site for therapeutic intervention. These results suggest the possibility of designing a relatively broad-spectrum class of antiviral peptides that can reduce the effects of mixed-infections.
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[IgG radiolabelling with (99m)Tc by tricarbonyl method and its biodistribution in mice].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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To synthesize the complex fac-[??(m)Tc(CO)?(H?O)?](+) for labeling IgG and investigate the in vitro stability of ??(m)Tc(CO)?(H?O)?-IgG and its biodistribution in mice.
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[Glycosylation modifications improve secretion and activity of intein spliced coagulation factor VIII].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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to investigate the effect of glycosylation modification on secretion of intein spliced B-domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII).
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[Enhancing effect of AR-3 on protein splicing-based eukaryotic cell gene transfer of full-length coagulation factor VIII].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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To study the effect of an acidic region-3 (AR-3), capable of improving the secretion of heavy chain of coagulation factor VIII (fVIII), on the secretion of protein spicing ligated full-length fVIII.
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[Glycosylation and L303e/F309S mutations improve intein-mediated splicing of the split coagulation factor VIII].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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We recently demonstrated that an intein-mediated protein splicing can be used to transfer B-domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII) gene by a dual-vector. In this study, we observed the effect of a variant heavy chain with six potential glycosylation sites of B domain and L303E/F309S mutations in its A1 domain, which were proven to be beneficial for FVIII secretion, on secretion of spliced BDD-FVIII. By transient co-transfection of cultured 293 cells with intein-fused variant heavy chain (DMN6HCIntN) and light chain (IntCLC) genes, the culture supernatant was analyzed quantitatively by ELISA for secreted spliced BDD-FVIII antigen and by a chromogenic assay for bioactivity. The data showed that the amount of spliced BDD-FVIII protein and coagulation activity in culture supernatant from DMN6HCIntN plus IntCLC co-transfected cells were up to (149 +/- 23) ng x mL(-1) and (1.12 +/- 0.14) u x mL(-1) respectively greater than that of intein-fused wild type heavy (HCIntN) and light chain (IntCLC) co-transfected cells [(99 +/- 14) ng x mL(-1) and (0.77 +/- 0.13) u x mL(-1)] indicating that the variant heavy chain is able to improve the secretion of spliced BDD-FVIII and activity. A cellular mechanism-independent BDD-FVIII splicing was also observed. It provided evidence for ongoing animal experiment using intein-mediated dual-AAV vector technology for delivery of the BDD-FVIII genes.
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[Post-translational ligation and function of dual-vector transferred split CFTR gene].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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The mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to an autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). The gene therapy for CF using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivering CFTR gene is restricted by the contents limitation of AAV vectors. In this study the split CFTR genes severed at its regulatory domain were delivered by a dual-vector system with an intein-mediated protein trans-splicing as a technique to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR half proteins and its function as a chloride ion channel. A pair of eukaryotic expression vectors was constructed by breaking the human CFTR cDNA before Ser712 codon and fusing with Ssp DnaB intein coding sequences. After co-transfection into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells followed by transient expression, patch clamps were carried out to record the chloride current of whole-cell and the activity of a single channel, and the ligation of two halves of CFTR was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that the intein-fused half genes co-transfected cells displayed a high whole cell chloride current and activity of a single channel indicating the functional recovery of chloride channel, and an intact CFTR protein band was figured out by CFTR-specific antibodies indicating that intein can efficiently ligate the separately expressed half CFTR proteins. The data demonstrated that protein splicing strategy could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors, encouraging our ongoing research program on dual AAV vector system based gene transfer in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.
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[vWF improves secretion and activity of intein spliced BDD-FVIII].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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As synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, the von Willebrand factor (vWF) plays an important hemostatic role in the binding to and stabilizing blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and preventing its enzymatic degradation. Our recent work demonstrated intein can efficiently ligate BDD-FVIII (B-domaim deleted FVIII) posttranslationally by protein trans-splicing after transfer of split BDD-FVIII gene by a dual-vector system. In this study we investigated the effect of vWF on secretion and activity of intein-ligated BDD-FVIII. We observed the levels of full-length BDD-FVIII antigen secreted into culture supernatant by ELISA and their activity by Coatest assay after transfection of cultured 293 cells with intein-fused BDD-FVIII heavy- and light-chain genes simultaneously with the vWF gene co-transfected. The data showed that the amount of full-length BDD-FVIII protein and their bioactivity in vWF gene co-transfected cell supernatant were 235 +/- 21 ng x mL(-1) and 1.98 +/- 0.2 u x mL(-1), respectively, greater than that of non-vWF co-transfected cell (110 +/- 18) ng x mL(-1) and 1.10 +/- 0.15 u x nL(-1)) or just BDD-FVIII gene transfected control cell (131 +/- 25 ng x mL(-1) and 1.22 +/- 0.18 u x mL(-1)) indicating the benefit of vWF gene co-transfection in the secretion and activity of intein-spliced BDD-FVIII protein. It provided evidence that vWF gene co-transfer may be useful to improve efficacy of gene therapy for hemophilia A in protein splicing-based split FVIII gene transfer.
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[Protein trans-spliced chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII with augmented secretion].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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This study is to construct a chimeric human/porcine BDD-FVIII (BDD-hpFVIII) containing the substituted porcine A1 and A3 domains which proved to have a pro-secretory function. By exploring Ssp DnaB inteins protein trans-splicing a dual-vector was adopted to co-transfer the chimeric BDD-hpFVIII gene into cultured COS-7 cell to observe the intracellular BDD-hpFVIII splicing by Western blotting and secretion of spliced chimeric BDD-hp FVIII protein and bio-activity using ELISA and Coatest assay, respectively. The dada showed that an obvious protein band of spliced BDD-hpFVIII can be seen, and the amount of spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and bio-activity in the supernatant were up to (340 +/- 64) ng x mL(-1) and (2.52 +/- 0.32) u x mL(-1) secreted by co-transfected cells which were significantly higher than that of dual-vector-mediated human BDD-FVIII gene co-transfection cells [(93 +/- 22) ng x mL(-1), (0.72 +/- 0.13) u x mL(-1)]. Furthermore, a spliced BDD-hpFVIII protein and activity can be detected in supernatant from combined cells separately transfected with intein-fused BDD-hpFVIII heavy and light chain genes indicating that intein-mediated BDD-hpFVIII splicing occurs independently of cellular mechanism. It provided evidence for enhancing FVIII secretion in the research of animal models using intein-based dual vector for the delivery of the BDD-hpFVIII gene.
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Preparative separation of four major bufadienolides from the Chinese traditional medicine, Chansu, using high-speed counter-current chromatography.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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A preparative, high-speed, counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) method for the isolation and purification of bufadienolides from Chansu was successfully developed by using stepwise elution with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane: chloroform: methanol: water (4:1:2.5:5 and 4:1:4:5, v/v). A total of 7.5 mg of cinobufotalin (1), 8.0 mg of bufalin (2), 14.0 mg of cinobufagin (3) and 9.5 mg of resibufogenin (4) were obtained in a one-step separation from 80 mg of the crude extract with purities of 93.2%, 98.7%, 99.2%, and 99.4%, respectively. The chemical structures were determined from 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data.
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[Enhancing effect of porcine coagulation factor VIII A1 and A3 domains on secretion of post-translationally spliced human/porcine hybrid coagulation factor VIII].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Low levels of coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) protein expression caused by its inefficient secretion and the over-sized fVIII gene affect the transgene-based gene therapy for hemophilia A adversely. Our previous study demonstrated that intein-mediated protein trans-splicing for delivery of the fVIII gene with a dual-vector system could improve secretion of post-translationally spliced fVIII by light chain in cis. In this study, a human/porcine hybrid fVIII (HP-fVIII) containing replaced A1 and A3 domains of porcine fVIII was investigated for secretion and activity of the spliced HP-fVIII after intein-based dual-vector delivery of the HP-fVIII gene. A pair of expression plasmids comprising intein-fused HP-fVIII heavy and light chains were constructed and transiently co-transfected into COS-7 cells. The spliced HP-fVIII and bio-activity in culture media were quantitatively analyzed by ELISA and Coatest method respectively. The intracellular splicing of HP-fVIII was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that in the culture supernatant of cells co-transfected with HP-fVIII, the amount and activity of spliced HP-fVIII were significantly higher than those of spliced hfVIII secreted from the cells co-transfected with human fVIII [(184+/-34 ng/mL) vs (48+/-12) ng/mL, P<0.01; (1.18+/-0.22) IU/mL vs (0.31+/-0.10) IU/mL, P<0.01], demonstrating the dramatically enhancing effect of porcine A1 and A3 domains on the secretion of intein-spliced HP-fVIII. The spliced HP-fVIII protein and its activity were also detected in the supernatant from combined cells separately transfected with intein-fused HP-fVIII heavy and light chain genes, indicating that the intein-mediated HP-fVIII splicing was independent of cellular mechanism and could occur outside the cell after the secretion of precursor proteins. Additionally, an intracellularly spliced HP-fVIII band was found with a molecular weight similar to human fVIII protein, confirming the HP-fVIII splicing. These results provided experimental basis for ongoing study using intein-based dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to transfer HP-fVIII gene in animal models.
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Screening and construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved multi-tolerance and bioethanol fermentation performance.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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In this study, a systemic analysis was initially performed to investigate the relationship between fermentation-related stress tolerances and ethanol yield. Based on the results obtained, two elite Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, Z8 and Z15, with variant phenotypes were chosen to construct strains with improved multi-stress tolerance by genome shuffling in combination with optimized initial selection. After three rounds of genome shuffling, a shuffled strain, YZ1, which surpasses its parent strains in osmotic, heat, and acid tolerances, was obtained. Ethanol yields of YZ1 were 3.11%, 10.31%, and 10.55% higher than those of its parent strains under regular, increased heat, and high gravity fermentation conditions, respectively. YZ1 was applied to bioethanol production at an industrial scale. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from available yeast strains could be used as parent stock for yeast breeding and that the genome shuffling approach is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable phenotypes in a single strain.
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Efficient isolation and purification of five products from microbial biotransformation of cinobufagin by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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An efficient separation method of using high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully established to directly purify cytotoxic transformed products of cinobufagin by Cordyceps militaris. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:6:3:4, v/v) was used in high-speed counter-current chromatography. A total of 9 mg of 4beta,12alpha-dihydroxyl-cinobufagin (1), 15 mg of 12beta-hydroxyl-cinobufagin (2), 8 mg of 5beta-hydroxyl-cinobufagin (3), 12 mg of deacetylcinobufagin (4) and 6 mg of 3-keto-cinobufagin (5) were obtained in a one-step separation from 400 mg of the crude extract with purity of 98.7, 97.2, 90.6, 99.1 and 99.4%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR technology. All products (1-5) showed the potent activities against human carcinoma cervicis (Hela) and malignant melanoma (A375) cells in vitro.
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Dwarf apple MbDREB1 enhances plant tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stress via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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In higher plants, DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors play an important role in tolerance to low temperatures, drought, and high-salt stress. These transcription factors bind to CRT/DRE elements in promoter regions of target genes, regulating their expression. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel gene encoding a DREB1 transcription factor from dwarf apple, Malus baccata (GenBank accession number: EF582842). Expression of MbDREB1 was induced by cold, drought, and salt stress, and also in response to exogenous ABA. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that MbDREB1 localizes in the nucleus. A yeast activity assay demonstrated that the MbDREB1 gene encodes a transcription activator, which specifically binds to DRE/CRT elements. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing MbDREB1 showed increased tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stresses. Analysis of the MbDREB1 promoter revealed an ABA-responsive element (ABRE), an inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1)-like binding site, two MYB recognition sites, and three stress-inducible GT-1 boxes. GUS activities driven by the MbDREB1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis increased in response to ABA, cold temperature, drought, and salt treatments. Interestingly, the expression of both ABA-independent and ABA-dependent stress-induced genes (COR15a and rd29B, respectively) was activated under normal growth conditions in Arabidopsis overexpressing MbDREB1. These results suggest that MbDREB1 functions as a transcription factor and increases plant tolerance to low temperature, drought, and salt stress via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.
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[Cloning of ID4 gene expression regulation promoter and subcloning of recombinant ID4 promoter luciferase reporter].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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The present study was aimed to clone ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory region, and to construct a series of recombinant promoter-luciferase reporter for exploring the mechanism of ID4 gene expression regulation. Methods and results: the upstream 5 flanking sequence of 2242 bp from transcriptional start site (TSS) and downstream 5 non-coding region of 212 bp on ID4 gene were searched out and downloaded from human genome databank of NCBI using whole length of ID4 gene cDNA as a probe; On-line promoter analysis softwares, including TESS and Genomax, were employed to analyze the characteristics of ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory elements. Then, based on the analytic results, PCR primers were designed and synthesized. Segmental amplification method was adopted to obtain two fragments of 1829 bp and 784 bp. The two fragments were inserted into the plasmid pGEM-T, transformed into TOP10 competent E. coli., and positive recombinants were screened respectively. Subsequently, restriction enzymes KpnI/NheI and KpnI/EcoRI were used to digest the above-mentioned two plasmids pGEM-T and pGL3, and ligation was completed by T4 DNA ligase. After transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies, the basic recombinant ID4 gene promoter-pGL3 was successfully constructed. KpnI/NheI double digestion and sequencing showed that the target fragment was 2 459 bp and consistent with the corresponding sequence of GenBank; Using the 2459 bp fragment as a template, 5 pairs of primers with identical 3 terminus and different 5 terminus were designed and synthesized for half-nest PCR amplification. 5 fragments with an interval of approximate 400 bp each other, i.e. 2112 bp, 1703 bp, 1290 bp, 784 bp and 496 bp, were produced and inserted into pGEM-T after recovery and purification for transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies. After that, KpnI/NheI was used to digest the above-mentioned five pGEM-T recombinant plasmids and pGL3 basic vector, and the ligation was completed by T4 DNA ligase. After transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening for positive colonies, 5 subcloned recombinants of ID4 gene promoter and pGL3 Basic vector cells were constructed. In conclusion, 2.5 kb ID4 gene promoter with upstream expression regulatory sequence was successfully cloned and a series of ID4 promoter subclone-pGL3-Basic recombinant were constructed for further researches on activity, expression regulation and function of ID4 promoter.
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[Gene expression profile analysis of T lymphocytes involved in pathogenesis of severe aplastic anemia by using bioinformatics method as a novel way of drug screening].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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This study was aimed to explore the gene expression profile characteristics of T lymphocytes involved in pathogenesis of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and to predict putative curative drugs for SAA by using biological principle of similarity contrast of gene expression profiles between drugs and diseases. SAA and T lymphocyte were used as key words to search gene expression datasets related to pathogenesis of SAA in public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) of NCBI. After significance test, gene expression profiling involved in pathogenesis of SAA were screened and applied to cluster analysis. And then SAA-related gene expression profiles were thrown into pharmacological gene expression datasets of 3000 candidate drugs for similarity analysis and significantly negative correlation was used as a screening criterion for selecting putative curative drugs of SAA. The results showed that only one gene expression dataset was found out, i.e. GSE3807. Computational bioanalysis identified a total of 515 candidate genes of T lymphocyte involved in pathogenesis of SAA, whose expression level exceeded more than 2-fold. Among them, 202 genes were upregulated and 313 genes were downregulated. Cluster analysis showed that those genes belonged to different pathways, including nucleic acid metabolic process, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, Golgi apparatus protein transport, protein phosphorylation and immunoglobin/major histocompatibility complex. Similarity analysis of gene expression profiles of SAA and drugs showed that hydroxycamptothecin and metformin might have a potential therapeutic efficacy on SAA. It is concluded that by means of novel bioinformatics method, gene expression profiling combined with similarity analysis between disease-related gene expression and pharmacological gene expression profiles may be a novel way of drug screening for SAA.
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Drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling to improve acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Acetic acid existing in a culture medium is one of the most limiting constraints in yeast growth and viability during ethanol fermentation. To improve acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, a drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling approach with higher screen efficiency of shuffled mutants was developed in this work. Through two rounds of genome shuffling of ultraviolet mutants derived from the original strain 308, we obtained a shuffled strain YZ2, which shows significantly faster growth and higher cell viability under acetic acid stress. Ethanol production of YZ2 (within 60 h) was 21.6% higher than that of 308 when 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid was added to fermentation medium. Membrane integrity, higher in vivo activity of the H+-ATPase, and lower oxidative damage after acetic acid treatment are the possible reasons for the acetic acid-tolerance phenotype of YZ2. These results indicated that this novel genome shuffling approach is powerful to rapidly improve the complex traits of industrial yeast strains.
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[Intein-mediated F309SfVIII ligation with enhanced secretion of its heavy chain.].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2009
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Coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a secretion protein and plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade. Hemophilia A resulted from deficiency of fVIII is the most common X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Gene therapy is recognized as an attractive strategy for the eventual cure of this disease. However, the gene therapy is hampered by the big size of fVIII gene when using the most promising gene vectors, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. In this study we explored the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing to deliver a Phe(309)-->Ser mutant full-length fVIII (F309SfVIII) gene by using a dual-vector system. An intein is a protein sequence embedded within a precursor protein and can excise itself through protein splicing. The F309SfVIII is proven to be beneficial to its secretion. The F309SfVIII gene was broken into heavy and light chains before Ser(1239) in B domain and fused with the coding sequences of Ssp DnaB intein respectively to construct a pair of plasmid vectors by inserting them into the pcDNA3.1 vectors. Forty-eight hours after co- or separate transfection of 293 cells, the co-transfected cell lysate showed an obvious ligated F309SfVIII protein band by Western blot with a polyclonal antibody against fVIII. The amounts of secreted F309SfVIII protein in culture supernatants and their bioactivities were (71+/-9) ng/mL and (0.38+/-0.09) IU/mL determined by ELISA and Coatest assay respectively. The supernatant from combined cells with separate transfections also displayed lower levels of F309SfVIII antigen and fVIII activity [(25+/-6) ng/mL and (0.12+/-0.05) IU/mL], indicating the F309SfVIII could be formed by splicing both before and after secretion. The content of F309SfVIII heavy chain protein from co-transfected cell supernatant was higher than that of intein-fused heavy chain transfection alone [(135+/-10) ng/mL vs (37+/-7) ng/mL, P<0.01)]. These data demonstrated that intein could be used as a technical strategy in a dual-vector system delivering F309SfVIII gene with improved secretion of fVIII providing an alternative approach to circumvent the packaging limitation of AAV for F309SfVIII gene transfer, which encourages our continuing study in hemophilia A gene therapy in vivo.
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[Experimental identification of drugs with function of targeted up-regulating ID4 expression: bioinformatics-based prediction and preliminary validation].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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To screen new candidate molecular-targeted anti-leukemia compounds with potential functions of targeted up-regulating ID4 gene expression.
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[Promotive effect of LRP16 gene on proliferation of K562 cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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The study was aimed to investigate the promotive effect of LRP16 gene on K562 cell proliferation. Open reading frame of LRP16 gene was amplified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ligated to pGEM-T plasmid to construct LRP16 ORF-pGEM-T recombinant vector. Then, LRP16 ORF identified by sequencing was inserted into pcDNA3.1+ plasmid to construct LRP16 ORF-pcDNA3.1+ recombinant expression plasmid which was transfected into K562 cell lines to make overexpression of LRP16 gene in K562 cells. Survival of cells was determined by MTT assay and growth curve of cells was drawn, the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that LRP16 ORF was successfully amplified, then the LRP16 ORF-pcDNA3.1+ recombinant plasmid was constructed. The K562 cell line with overexpression of LRP16 gene was established. The promotive effect of LRP16 gene overexpression on proliferation of K562 cells was observed and the effect partially related to the enhancement of cells from G0 to S phase induced by LRP16 gene. It is concluded that LRP16 gene overexpression shows a promotive effect on proliferation of K562 cells.
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New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Two new phenolic glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Their structures were elucidated as (2-hydroxy)phenylcarbinyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-beta-D-(glucopyranosyl hydroxymethyl)phenyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.
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Microbial biotransformation of cryptotanshinone by Cunninghamella elegans and its application for metabolite identification in rat bile.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Cryptotanshinone (1) is one of the major bioactive constituents in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Preparative-scale biotransformation of cryptotanshinone by Cunninghamella elegans (AS 3.2082) produced three new products, which were identified as (3R,15R)-3-hydroxycryptotanshinone (2), (3S,15R)-3-hydroxycryptotanshinone (3), and (4S,15R)-18-hydroxycryptotanshinone (4), respectively. The structural elucidation was based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. The absolute configuration of these three products was confirmed by comparison of their circular dichroism spectra with those of the known compounds. These biotransformed metabolites were used as for the comparison of in vivo metabolites in rat bile sample after intravenous administration and they are identical to three of the minor hydroxylated metabolites in vivo, which suggested that microbial biotransformation model was a useful and feasible approach for the preparation of mammalian metabolites in trace.
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[Bioinformatics scan of factors with inhibitory effect on lrp16 gene expression].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The main purpose of the this study was to find the candidate cis-elements in negative regulation region throngh analysing the DNA sequences of lrp16 gene promoter so as to provide the experimental basis for screening drugs with inhibitory effect on lrp16 gene expression. The open reading frame (ORF) sequences in uncoding DNA and mRNA sequences of 5 flanking region in lrp16 gene were cloned by the data in GeneBank and Internet; the possibly existing cis-element in thsi region was searched in databank of human transcriptional factor by using TESS and Genomax online promoter analysis software; the drugs related to inhibition of lrp16 gene expression were screened by using SAGE and GEO databank. The results showed that there were many cis-elements in the negative regulation region, including T-Ag, PU.1, c-Ets, XPF-1, P2 alphaA, IL6-6RE and RAR. In cultured cell lines, hormone or its inhibitor such as corticosteroid, tamoxifen, forskolin, phenylephrine, inflammatory factors such as IFNgamma and TNFalpha, and chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil could down-regulate the lrp16 gene expression as compared with absent ones. It is concluded that cis-elements including T-Ag, PU.1, c-Ets, XPF-1, P2 alphaA, IL6-6RE and RAR may inhibit lrp16 expression and hormone or its inhibitor such as corticosteroid, tamoxifen, forskolin, phenylephrine, inflammatory factors such as IL6, IFNgamma and TNFalpha, and chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil may participate in the regulation of lrp16 gene expression in negative manner.
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[Lrp16 gene expression in leukemia cell lines and bone marrow cells of leukemia patients and its clinical implication].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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This study was purposed to investigate lrp16 gene expression in leukemia cell lines and bone marrow cells of leukemia patients and explore the relationship between lrp16 gene expression and development of leukemia. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to test the lrp16 mRNA expression in 4 leukemia cell lines, including K562 (CML), HL-60 (APL), MOLT4 (ALL) and U937 cell lines, as well as in bone marrow-derived cells from 115 patients with leukemia. The effect of lrp16 gene expression on genesis and progression of leukemia was analyzed according to clinicopathological features. The results indicated that positive expression of lrp16 mRNA was found in all 4 leukemia cell lines. For leukemia patients, the positive expression rate of lrp16 mRNA in all AML patients was 38% (16/42), in which the positive rates in AML patients with complete remission (CR) and AML patients without remission were 13% (4/30) and 100% (12/12) respectively. The positive expression rate of lrp16 mRNA in ALL patients was 38% (10/26), in which the positive rate in ALL patients with CR and ALL patients without remission were 16% (3/18) and 87% (7/8) respectively. The positive expression rate of lrp16 mRNA in CML patients was 36% (9/25), in which the positive rates in CML patients with CR and CML patients without remission were 20% (4/20) and 100% (5/5) respectively. The positive rate of lrp16 mRNA in CLL patients was 31% (7/22), in which the positive rate in CLL patients with CR and CLL patients without remission were 11% (2/17) and 100% (5/5) respectively. There was no difference of lrp16 gene expression between leukemia subtypes, but there was statistical significant difference in lrp16 gene expression between CR patients and non CR patients (p < 0.001). It is concluded that the lrp16 gene is a leukemic oncogene and closely relates to genesis and progression of leukemia, which may be an indicator for evaluating clinical efficacy of leukemia therapy.
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Combining DNA pooling with selective recombinant genotyping for increased efficiency in fine mapping.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2009
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One of the key steps in positional cloning and marker-aided selection is to identify marker(s) tightly linked to the target gene (i.e., fine mapping). Selective genotyping such as selective recombinant genotyping (SRG) is commonly used in fine mapping for cost-saving. To further decrease genotyping effort and rapidly screen for tightly linked markers, we propose here a combined DNA pooling and SRG strategy. A two-stage pooled genotyping can be used for identifying recombinants between a pair of flanking markers more efficiently, and a joint use of bulked DNA analysis and two-stage pooling can also save cost for genotyping recombinants. The combined DNA pooling and SRG strategy can further be extended to fine mapping for polygenic traits. The numerical results based on hypothetical scenarios and an illustrative application to fine mapping of a mutant gene, called xl(t), in rice suggest that the proposed strategy can remarkably reduce genotyping amount compared with the conventional SRG.
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