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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Carbon Quantum Dot-Stabilized Gadolinium Nanoprobe Pre-pared via a One-Pot Hydrothermal Approach for Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Dual-Modality Bioimaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used extensively for clinical diagnoses. It is critical to design and develop highly efficient MR contrast agents with simple preparation procedure, low toxicity, and high biocompatibility. Here, we report a carbon quantum dot (CQDs)-stabilized gadolinium hybrid nanoprobe (Gd-CQDs) prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of citrate acid, ethanediamine, and GdCl3 at 200 °C for 4 h. In vitro and in vivo tests confirmed their low toxicity and high biocompatibility. Gd-CQDs were observed to have a higher MR response than gadopentetic acid dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) because of their high Gd content and hydrophilicity. Moreover, the fluorescence of CQDs was remained in Gd-CQDs. The in vivo MR and fluorescence dual-modality imaging of Gd-CQDs was confirmed with zebrafish embryo and mice as models. The modification of Gd-CQDs with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide provided a high affinity to U87 cancer cells for targeted imaging. Whereas the MR response showed a depth penetration and spatial visualization, fluorescence revealed the fine distribution of Gd-CQDs in tissues because of its high resolution and sensitivity. We found that Gd-CQDs distributed in the tissues in a heterogeneous mode: they entered into the tissue cells but were observed less in the extracellular matrix. The MR and fluorescence dual-modality imaging of Gd-CQDs makes them a potential contrast agent for clinic applications because of their simple preparation procedure, ease of functionalization, high contrast efficiency, low toxicity, and high biocompatibility.
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[Screening on antiosteoporotic active parts of dipsacus radix based on zebrafish model].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Prednisolone-induced osteoporosis model using zebrafish was used to screen the antiosteoporotic active parts of Dipsacus Radix, in order to investigate the applicability and rationality of the zebrafish model of osteoporosis.
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[Effect of plasmacytoid dendritic cells activited by bacteria on spontaneous remission of leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Spontaneous remission (SR) of leukemia is a rare event in clinic, which possibly correlated with severe infection and sepsis, but its exact mechanism has not been confirmed. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity respectively. A patient with severe infection of staphylococcus aureus acquired completely spontaneous remission (SR), moreover a increased number of pDC were observed, suggesting that bacteria-activated pDC may play an important role in SR. This study was purposed to explore if the bacteria can stimulate pDC successfully and get a functional pDC. Both pDC and mDC were isolated from freshly collected, leukocyte-rich buffy coats from healthy blood donor and leukemic patient with SR by using MACS and FACS. The pDC were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium and were stimulated with different kinds of bacteria and the expression of CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR on the cell surface was analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytokine (IFN-?, IL-12, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10) production was measured by using ELISA kits. The results showed that the stimulation with staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa resulted in the maturation of pDC, which secrete a large number of IFN-? and promote the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells to Th1 cells. The activated pDC expressed high level of CD40 and CD86 and showed higher T cell stimulatory capacities. It is concluded that staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa can activate pDC, the activated pDC secrete high quantity of IFN-?. This result suggests that bacteria stimulated pDC may play a key role in SR of leukemia following severe infections.
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A Clinical Study of New Cases of Parenchymal Neurosyphilis: Tabes Dorsalis has Disappeared or Been Missed?
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Tabes dorsalis (TD) was documented as the most common parenchymal neurosyphilis, but its incidence dramatically declined in the antibiotic era. Syphilis has resurged on the China mainland since the 1980s. In recent years, physicians have been reporting parenchymal neurosyphilis, and the overwhelming majority was general paresis, but this was not the case in the authors' hospital. To make clear the real situation of parenchymal neurosyphilis in the authors' hospital, a retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients during 2009-2012. Overrepresented clinical new cases of tabetic and paretic parenchymal neurosyphilis were collected. Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and responses to penicillin were analyzed in two groups. The efficiency of two current criteria based on CSF antibodies tests was inspected. In the 43 cases with positive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TPPA tests, 18 patients met the criteria of this study: 11 presented with symptoms of general paresis, and seven had typical presentations of TD. There were statistical differences in serum RPR titers, CSF RPR, white blood cell count, and TP between the paretic and tabetic groups. The response to penicillin was relatively poor in TD. The efficiency of two current criteria was lower in the diagnosis of TD. TD was not uncommon in our area. Its clinical features remained typical, but underdiagnosis with CSF-based criteria and a decreased response to penicillin were prominent issues.
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Hederagenin from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.) induces apoptosis in human LoVo colon cells through the mitochondrial pathway.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Colorectal cancer has become one of the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality throughout world. Hederagenin, a derivative of oleanolic acid isolated from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.), has been shown to have potential anti-tumor activity. The study was conducted to evaluate whether hederagenin could induce apoptosis of human colon cancer LoVo cells and explore the possible mechanism.
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[Evaluation of high-resolution images application for wild medicinal plants macro monitoring: a case of Apocynum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To investigate the resources of medicinal plant, such as wild Apocynum, supervised classification based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and texture feature were used to monitor wild medicinal plants from image captured by ZY-3 and World-view-2 and compare which satellite Image are more appropriate to monitor the wild medicinal plants. The research results shows that: for more complex growth conditions wild medicinal plants Apocynum, high-resolution images Worldview-2 is more suitable for its remote identification, the low-resolution satellite ZY-3 can only recognizes the wild medicinal plants which distributed intensively. If the study target distribution is more intensive and larger scale, and cultivated type medicinal plants, the use of satellite ZY-3 in low resolution remote sensing data to identify the target can be a good choice, it is not necessary to buy high-resolution data, in order to avoid waste of expenditure, for the scattered distribution, the high-resolution satellite imagery data may be indispensable to identify targets.
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[Compared with colloidal silica and porous silica as baicalin solid dispersion carrier].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To compare the dissolution characteristics of colloidal silica and porous silica as the solid dispersion carrier, with baicalin as the model drug.
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[Proteomic study on effect of tangcao pill on microsome CYP450].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Tangcao pill is commonly applied in adjuvant and even alternative therapy for patients with AIDS. However, the herb contains complex ingredients, but with unknown effect against anti-HIV drug and unknown function. Because CYP450 emzyme is the main metabolic enzymes of the drug, it is of important significance to study the regulation of CYP450 enzymes before and after the combined administration of Tangcao pill and EFV. Proteomics, due to its high throughout and high sensitivity, has been widely applied in CYP450 enzyme study. In this paper, liver microsomes were separated through differential centrifugation. Their proteins were separated through SDS-PAGE. The three protein bands that CYP450 enzymes were located were cut and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Totally 16 CYP450 isoenzymes were identified. Furthermore, in order to make a quantitative analysis on the effect of tang herb on CYP450 emzyme, the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technology based on MS was adopted. The CYP2C11 was selected based on the results of the mass spectrum identification of proteins. The characteristic polypeptides were obtained through searching Expasy blast database. The m/z of the fragment ions was less than 800. In the paper, the m/z of ion pairs of CYP2C11 were 711.5/232.1, 711.5/319.2, 711.5/466.2 and 711.5/595.3, and the m/z of ESAT-6 (internal standard, IS) were 735.5/215.3, 735.5/389.3, 735.5/460.3 and 735.5/524.3. The relative peak (analyte/IS) area was adopted for the relative quantitative analysis. Compared with the EFV single administration group, the EFV and Tangcao pill combined administration group showed a 1.6-fold increase in CYP2C11. The results of the paper indicated that Tangcao pill may affect drug metabolism by regulating metabolic enzymes such as CYP2C11, but the specific mechanism still unknown.
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[Study thought of pharmaceutical preparations quality standards by dynamic quality control technology].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Pharmaceutical preparations, particularly as a "secret recipe" of traditional Chinese medicine in medical institutions, are the product of China's medical and health industry, and they are also an important means of competing of different medical institutions. Although pharmaceutical preparations have advantages and characteristics than institutes for drug and pharmaceutical companies, the quality standards of pharmaceutical preparations in medical institutions has not reached the desired level over the years. As we all know, the quality of pharmaceutical preparations is important to ensure the efficacy, especially under the environment of people pay more sttention on drug safety and effectiveness and contry increase emphasis on the stste of pharmaceutical preparations. In view of this, we will improve the grade, stability, and clinical efficacy of pharmaceutical preparations by the advanced equipment, testing instruments and the process dynamic quality control technology. Finally, we hope we can provide new ideas for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations.
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[New exploration on effect of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine components structure on multi-ingredient/component pharmacokinetics].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The study on the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is a linking science during the modernization of TCMs, and plays an important role in the studies on the complex material base of TCMs, the in vivo process of ingredient/ component and the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics correlation. However, because of the multi-ingredient/component system of TCMs, how to scientifically reveal the pharmacokinetics that is consistent with TCMs' characteristics has long been a hotspot and difficulty for the exploration. The optimal composition structure of the material basis of TCMs shows the best efficacy, while the difference between the multi-ingredient/component composition structures in the efficacy is closely related to their absorption, transport, metabolism and excretion in vivo. In this article, the authors systematically review the study methods for pharmacokinetics of TCMs and their compounds, and explore the pharmacokinetics of TCMs based on the "component structure theory". As a result, the method for integrating TCM component structure and the TCM pharmacokinetics was proposed to be adopted to intensively study the effect of the component structure on the in vivo TCM multi-ingredient/component pharmacokinetic characteristics, in order to promote the TCM modernization and innovation in China.
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[Effect of temperature on the structure of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramics studied by Raman spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In the present paper, nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system was produced by melting method. The CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic was measured by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from -190 to 310 degrees C in order to study the effect of temperature on the structure of this system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics. The results showed that different non-bridge oxygen bond silicon-oxygen tetrahedron structural unit changes are not consistent with rising temperature. Further analyses indicated that: the SiO4 tetrahedron with 2 non-bridged oxygen (Q2), the SiO4 tetrahedron with 3 non-bridged oxygen (Q(1)), which are situated at the edge of the 3-D SiO4 tetrahedrons network, and the SiO4 tetrahedron with 4 non-bridged oxygen (Q(0)), which is situated outside the 3-D network all suffered a significant influence by the temperature change, which has been expressed as: shifts towards the high wave-number, increased bond force constants, and shortened bond lengths. This paper studied the influence of temperature on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics using variable temperature Raman technology. It provides experiment basis to the research on external environment influence on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics materials in terms of structure and performance. In addition, the research provides experimental basis for controlling the expansion coefficient of nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system.
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Simultaneous Determination of Pirfenidone and Its Metabolite in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.
J Anal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A simple and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pirfenidone and its metabolite, 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated. Aliquots of plasma (0.1 mL) containing pirfenidone and 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, as well as deuterium-labeled internal standards (ISs), were deproteinized using acetonitrile. An Agilent Zorbax Plus C18 column was used for the chromatography, with isocratic elution. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium formate solution (5 mM) containing 0.1% formic acid (60 : 40, v/v). Using multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode, transitions m/z 186.1 ? 65.1, m/z 216.0 ? 77.0, m/z 191.1 ? 65.1 and m/z 221.0 ? 81.0 were chosen to quantify pirfenidone, 5-carboxy-pirfenidone and the two ISs, respectively. The time of analysis was <3 min. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration ranges 0.005-25 ?g/mL for pirfenidone, and 0.005-15 ?g/mL for 5-carboxy-pirfenidone. The lower limit of quantification for both analytes was 0.005 ?g/mL. The intra- and interday precision and relative errors in quality control samples were between -11.7 and 1.3% for pirfenidone and between -5.6 and 2.5% for 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, with mean recoveries ?90%. The method that has been developed is easy to carry out, sensitive and rapid, and has been successfully used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in healthy human volunteers.
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[Two-dimensional zebrafish model combined with hyphenated chromatographic techniques for evaluation anti-osteoporosis activity of epimendin A and its metabolite baohuoside I].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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This article firstly established a new efficient method for screening anti-osteoporosis ingredients, which used two-dimensional zebrafish model combined with hyphenated chromatographic techniques to evaluate anti-osteoporosis activities of epimedin A and its metabolite baohuoside I. Adult zebrafish was used for metabolism of epimedin A in 0.5% DMSO, and LC-MS was used for analysis of the metabolite, which was captured by HPLC, and prednisolone-induced osteoporosis model of zebrafish was used to evaluate the anti-osteoporotic activities of trace amounts of epimedin A and baohuoside I. The results indicated that epimedin A and baohuoside I can prevent prednisolone-induced osteoporosis in zebrafish. The developed method in this paper enables the separation, enrichment and analysis of micro-amount metabolite of epimedin A, and anti-osteoporosis activities in vivo of epimedin A and baohuoside I was simple and efficient screening resorting to zebrafish osteoporosis mode. This paper would provide new ideas and methods for a rapid and early discovery of anti-osteoporosis activities of micro-ingredients and its metabolite of traditional Chinese medicine.
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[Research thoughts and technology system framework of jinfukang oral liquid secondary exploitation].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Most Chinese medicine has good clinical efficacy and application. However, the material basis is vague for the lack of basic research, the value of Chinese medicine is hard to reflect for the low technology level and product quality is difficult to maintain for the quality control indicator selection is incorrect. Chinese medicine Jinfukang oral liquid is a typical product of Chinese medicines. Jinfukang oral liquid was selected as a model drug in this article. Based on the overall concept and systems theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the research idea and technology system for modern Chinese medicine secondary exploitation was formed. The system includes three parts, for the first, basic research to make clear the components structure and their action mechanism, for the second, technology upgraded to optimize process and improve the product quality, for the last, exploring the associated industry to form the industrial chain. The research ideas and technology system based on the material basis research and development of modern Chinese medicine, guided with component structure in Chinese medicine and aimed clinical needs. This research ideas and technology system provides strategies and methods for the development of modern Chinese medicine secondary exploitation.
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[Effect of spray drying process on physical properties and dissolution of tanshinone].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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In order to improve the dissolution in vitro of components by processing tanshinone with the pray drying method, the physical properties of tanshinone power was analyzed by BET, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and its dissolution in vitro was also investigated. The results of characterization showed decreased power size and increased specific surface area of tanshinone powder, and its existence in an amorphous state. Within 4 h, the accumulated dissolutions of tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A) in components of tanshinone reached 78.3%, 81.9%, respectively. Therefore, the spray-drying method was conducive to enhance the dissolution of components of tanshinone.
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[Effects of micronization on micromeritics properties of baicalin].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Baicalin extremely fine powder was made by using ball-mill and the effect of micronization on the micromeritics properties of baicalin was studied and analyzed. The microstructures of baicalin ordinary and extremely fine powder were compared by scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction and the powder characteristic of them was investigated. The hygroscopicity was studied. The effect of micronization on the dissolution of baicalin was investigated. The results showed that the chemical constituents of baicalin were not changed after micronization with better compressibility. It was confirmed that micronization technology had a certain application value in promoting the insoluble component of baicalin absorption with higher dissolution.
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[Preparation of baicalin-chitooligosaccharide compound and its characterization].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To apply chitooligosaccharide in the preparation of baicalin compound, in order to increase the drug dissolution in vitro, and investigate the basic property of the compound. Baicalin-chitooligosaccharide compound was prepared by using the solvent method. The structure and physicochemical properties of compound were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and infrared vibrational spectrum (IR), and its dissolution behavior was also investigated. The results showed that the compound prepared at baicalin-chitooligosaccharide molar ratio of 1 : 1 could significantly improve the dissolution of baicalin. The results of DSC and XRD analysis suggested that baicalin may exist in an amorphous state. IR results indicated the interaction between baicalin and chitooligosaccharide. The baicalin-chitooligosaccharide compound could significantly improve dissolution in vitro of drug.
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[Ideas and methods of two-dimensional zebrafish model combined with chromatographic techniques in high-throughput screening of active anti-osteoporosis components of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To break through the restrictions of the evaluation model and the quantity of compounds by using the two-dimensional zebrafish model combined with chromatographic techniques, and establish a new method for the high-throughput screening of active anti-osteoporosis components.
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[Simultaneous determination of ten active ginsenosides in steamed notoginseng by UPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A quantitative method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography was established to simultaneously determine ten ginsenoside active ingredients including ginsenoside Rg6, F4, Rk3, Rh4, 20(S) -Rg3, 20(R) -Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, 20(S)-Rh2 and 20(R)-Rh2 in steamed notoginseng. The ten ginsenosides of steamed notoginseng with different head numbers, parts, and steaming time were determined by this method. An Acquity BEH C18 chromatographic column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) was used to perform the determination, which was maintained at 35 degrees C throughout the analysis. Mobile phase was composed of water and acetonitrile with flow rate at 0.3 mL x min(-1) under gradient elution, and detection wavelength was set to 203 nm for monitoring the separation. The results demonstrate ginsenoside Rg6, F4, Rk3, Rh4, 20 (S)-Rg3, 20 (R) -Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, 20 (S)-Rh2 and 20(R) -Rh2 have shown good linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 8) within 0.46-115, 2.06-515, 1.632408, 3.216-804, 1.392-348, 1.4-350, 0.496-248, 3.012-1 506, 0.82-205 and 0.832-208 mg x L(-1), and their average recoveries were 97.00%, 97.96%, 98.86%, 95.27%, 98.67%, 98.02%, 95.53%, 96.63%, 99.57% and 103.6%, respectively. The proposed approach was quick and accurate and portrayed excellent repeatability and determination efficiency. The quality of steamed notoginseng was effectively controlled, which served as a foundation for establishing a normalized processing technique and quality standard for ensuring the reliability and consistency of its clinical efficacy.
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The anti-inflammation effect of baicalin on experimental colitis through inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B pathway activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Baicalin holds a protective effect on inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, its molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity on ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unknown. The present study was conducted to verify whether the anti-inflammation effect of baicalin on experimental colitis is via inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B pathway activation.
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Enhanced dissolution and stability of Tanshinone IIA base by solid dispersion system with nano-hydroxyapatite.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) exhibits a variety of cardiovascular effects; however, it has low solubility in water. The preparation of poorly soluble drugs for oral delivery is one of the greatest challenges in the field of formulation research. Among the approaches available, solid dispersion (SD) technique has proven to be one of the most commonly used these methods for improving dissolution and bioavailability of drugs, because of its relative simplicity and economy in terms of both preparation and evaluation.
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Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Danmu injection using LC-ESI-MS(n) and LC-DAD.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Danmu injection, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Nauclea officinalis, has been commonly used for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat in China. However, the chemical constituents in Danmu injection have not been clarified yet.
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[Evaluation of drug release behavior in vitro of ginkgolides component drug release unit].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composition is a multi-component multiple drug release system and more components preparation system. How to evaluate the drug release behavior of diversification has been a block for the modernization of TCM. This article through to study of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release and similarity analysis of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release behavior and use Weight coefficient method to integrate the multicomponent drug release curve. So it can provide the idea and method for drug evaluation of TCM component preparation.
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[Advance in studies on anti-diabetic mechanism of Gardeniae Fructus and its active ingredient geniposide].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The diabetes is mainly treated by the oral administration of western medicines at present. Despite their rapid curative effect, there have been still many reports for the western medicines about their clinical adverse reactions, failure of effective prevention and treatment of complications and drug resistance. Hence, they are not suitable for long-term administration. Traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in treating diabetes mellitus (DM) , which is commonly known as Xiaokezheng in the theory of traditional Chinese medicines. In recent years, many scholars have taken extracts from traditional Chinese medicines or separated active constituents as the study objects in the expectation of developing new-type drugs for treating and preventing diabetes. Therefore, a large number of study reports have been emerged in this field. Due to their significant glucose-reducing effect and specific effect in treating complications of diabetes, traditional Chinese medicine Gardeniae Fructus and its iridoid component geniposide shall be given full attention. This paper summarized the advance in studies on the curative effect and action mechanism of Gardeniae Fructus and geniposide in preventing and treating diabetes.
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Pressure-induced metallization of molybdenum disulfide.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements of molybdenum disulfide MoS(2) are performed at pressures up to 81 GPa in diamond anvil cells. Above 20 GPa, we find discontinuous changes in Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns which provide evidence for isostructural phase transition from 2H(c) to 2H(a) modification through layer sliding previously predicted theoretically. This first-order transition, which is completed around 40 GPa, is characterized by a collapse in the c-lattice parameter and volume and also by changes in interlayer bonding. After the phase transition completion, MoS(2) becomes metallic. The reversibility of the phase transition is identified from all these techniques.
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[Study on oral absorption enhancers of astragalus polysaccharides].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Astragalus polysaccharides was lounded to 4-(2-aminoethylphenol), followed by labeling the APS-Tyr with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) at the secondary amino group. The absorption enhancement effects of low molecular weight chitosan and protamine on astragalus polysaccharides were evaluated via Caco-2 cell culture model. The results show that the fluorecent labeling compound has good stability and high sensitivity. On the other hand low molecular weight chitosan and protamine also can promoted absorption of the astragalus polysaccharides without any cytotoxity, and the absorption increase was more significant with increasing the amount of low molecular weight chitosan and protamine. At the same time, the low molecular weight chitosan has slightly better effect. The transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells show that absorption enhancers could improve its membrane transport permeability by opening tight junctions between cells and increasing the cell membrane fluidity.
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High-pressure study of isoviolanthrone by Raman spectroscopy.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Vibrational properties of isoviolanthrone are investigated by Raman scattering at pressures up to 30.5 GPa and room temperature. A complete characterization of phonon spectra under pressure is given for this material. The onset of a phase transition at 11.0 GPa and the formation of a new phase above 13.8 GPa are identified from both the frequency shifts and the changes in the full width half maxima of the intra- and internal modes. The transition is proposed to result from the changes of intra- and intermolecular bonding. The tendencies of the intensity ratios with pressure are in good agreement with the pressure dependence of the resistance at room temperature, indicating that the phase transition may be an electronic origin. The absence of the changes in the lattice modes indicates that the observed phase transition is probably a result of the structural distortions or reorganizations. The reversible character of the transition upon compression and decompression is determined in the entire pressure region studied.
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[Study on preparation of ginkgolides component solid dispersions micro pill drug release unit].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan were applied to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions micro pill drug release unit and study the dissolution of GKS. Microcrystalline cellulose, chitosan as composite carrier, solvent method was used to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to Characterization of ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Ginkgolides component solid dispersions as principle agent were prepared for micro-pellet. Comparison of different types, different doses of the adhesive, drug-polymer interactions, and disintegrating agent for the preparation of ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit, the optimum preparation ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit was screened by orthogonal design experiment. Preparation of ginkgolides components solid dispersions with microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan at ratio 1: 3. Drug cumulative dissolution was more than 80% in 60 min. Solid dispersion-micro-pellet drug release unit can significantly improve the dissolution of ginkgolides components, it has practical application value.
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[Studies on hydroxyapatite applicatied in coprecipitate of total salvianolic acids phospholipid complex].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The purpose of this research was to prepare total salvianolic acids-phytosome-HA coprecipitate to improve drug dissolution and its micromeritic properties. Firstly, the coprecipitate was prepared by solvent method and in vitro dissolution of tripterine was performed with the salvianolic acid B and danshensu as criteria. At the same time, the micromeritic properties was characterizated, the structure of samples was characterized by TEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR. Results showed that when the ratio of drug to HA was 1:2, it had a better dissolution, the accumulative drug-release percent in vitro at 60 min was over 90%. At the same time, it has good liquidity and low moisture absorption. Its micromeritic properties have improved. It is proved that the drug still existed amorphously by microstructure analysis. The preparation process is simple and feasible, it has practical value.
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[Effect of Moutan Cortex on AGEs-induced mesangial cell proliferation and basement membrane thickening].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To investigate the effect of Moutan Cortex on mesangial proliferation and basement membrane thickening induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
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[Research on spectral reflectance characteristics for Glycyrrhizae Radix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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In order to study the spectral reflectance differences of Glycyrrhizae Radix under different growth conditions and lay the foundation for quantitative monitoring of Glycyrrhizae Radix remote sensing images, spectra of Glycyrrhiza species under different growth period and different varieties and different regions were measured by a portable spectrometer. The results showed that the reflectivity of annual G. uralensis was obviously higher than that of the two years plant in the visible light band own to the contents of crown layer chlorophyll. The reflectivity of two years G. pallidiflora was higher than that of G. uralensis in the near infrared band own to the leaf area index and the content of leaf water. The red edge spectrum of annual plant fluctuated largely than that of two years plant due to vegetation coverage and leaf area index. G. pallidiflora grew well than G. uralensis. Under different regions of the Glycyrrhiza species, spectral data analysis showed that within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors to affect the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under different regions owe to the leaf water content, the higher leaf water content, the lower spectral reflectance. The principal component analysis and continuum-removed method of the spectral data under different regions found that, within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors caused by the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under the different regions, Glycyrrhiza species spectral similarity related to the spatial distance.
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[Processing mechanism of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on absorption and metabolism of flavonoids].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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As beneficial traditional Chinese medicine, Epimedium fried with suet oil can enhance the effect of warming kidney yang. Previous literature studies about processing of Epimedium mainly focused on changes in chemical composition and pharmacological effect. From the angle of flavonoids absorption and metabolism, our group innovatively study the processing mechanism of Epimedium based on active component transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier. The processing effect of fried Epimedium can be divided into two key aspects of " heat" during processing and processing accessories "suet oil". Through continuous three National Natural Science Foundation items, the research group has clarified the scientific connotation of "heat" during processing with ADME, and explains the synergistic mechanism of processing accessories "suet oil" based on self-assembled micelles formation in vivo for the first time. This paper summarizes the research ideas and results of Epimedium processing mechanism of the project team for many years, and discusses the future research direction and content, in order to provide new ideas and new methods for modern Chinese medicine processing mechanism.
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[Discussion on research ideas of synergistic mechanism of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on self-assembled micelles formation in vivo].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Accessories processing is a major feature of traditional pharmaceutical technology in China How to use modem science and technology to reveal the scientific connotation of accessories processing, is the core of traditional Chinese medicine processing research. As traditional beneficial Chinese medicine, Epimedium can enhance the effect of warming kidney yang after processing with suet oil However, the current literature research from two aspects of chemical constituents and pharmacological action cannot fully explain the processing mechanism of accessories suet oil. According to the characteristics of fatty acids in suet oil with long chain fatty and surface activity, and based on the theoretical basis of self-assembled drug delivery system, as well as the experimental basis of Epimedium flavonoids self-assembled micelles simulated formation and promoting absorption, this paper puts forward the research hypothesis on synergistic mechanism of Epimedium fried with suet oil based on self-assembled micelles formation in vivo. This paper also describes in detail the research ideas and methods of self-assembled micelles enhancing absorption and synergistic mechanism of Epimedium flavonoids, which has the important theory significance and application value to reveal the scientific connotation of Chinese medicine fried with oil.
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[Construction of research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing.
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[Discussion about research progress and ideas on processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Study on the processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine is the key to science of processing Chinese materia medica and modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. At present, chemical and pharmacology methods are mainly used to discuss the processing principle of efficiency, attenuated, delayed or cooked with different treatment. So that the processing mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine has made breakthrough progress. With the introduction of modern science and technology, biotransformation, intestinal absorption, pharmacokinetics and metabolomics methods have been gradually applied in traditional Chinese medicine processing mechanism. This article summarizes the achievements in the processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in recent years, analyses and discusses some main problems, and points out to in-depth study on absorption and metabolism, strengthening excipient processing mechanism, paying attention to the integration of multiple disciplines and data statistical analysis. Combined with years of exploration and practice, the project group proposes a new idea "traditional Chinese medicine processing mechanism based on coupled effect of chemical composition transformation and intestinal absorption barrier" , which provides reference for the study of the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine processing.
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Comparative study of placental ?-microglobulin-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and nitrazine test to diagnose premature rupture of membranes: a randomized controlled trial.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of placental ?-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and nitrazine test to diagnose premature rupture of membranes.
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An attempt to stabilize tanshinone IIA solid dispersion by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO3 and poloxamer 188.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) on solid dispersions (SDs) has thermodynamical instability of amorphous drug. Ternary solid dispersions (tSDs) can extend the stability of the amorphous form of drug. Poloxamer 188 was used as a SD carrier. Nano-CaCO3 played an important role in adsorption of biomolecules and is being developed for a host of biotechnological applications.
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Vibrational, electronic and structural properties of wurtzite GaAs nanowires under hydrostatic pressure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of GaAs nanowires have been studied in the metastable wurtzite phase via Resonant Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements in diamond anvil cells under hydrostatic conditions between 0 and 23 GPa. The direct band gap E0 and the crystal field split-off gap E0 + ? of wurtzite GaAs increase with pressure and their values become close to those of zinc-blende GaAs at 5 GPa, while being reported slightly larger at lower pressures. Above 21 GPa, a complete structural transition from the wurtzite to an orthorhombic phase is observed in both Raman and X-ray diffraction experiments.
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[Study on preparation of sagittatoside B with epimedin B converted from cellulase].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To prepare sagittatoside B with epimedin B Hydrolyzed from cellulase. With the conversion ratio as the index, the effects of pH value, temperature, reaction time, dosage of enzyme and concentration of substrates on the conversion ratio were detected. L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design was adopted to optimize the preparation process. Hydrolyzed products were identified by MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were that the temperature was 50 degrees C, the reaction medium was pH 5.6 acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution, the concentration of substrates was 20 g x L(-1), the mass ratio between enzyme and substrate was 3: 5, and the relative molecular mass of the reaction product was 646.23. NMR data proved that the product was sagittatoside B. The process is simple and reliable under mild reaction conditions, thus suitable for industrial production.
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[Study on preparation of salvianolic acid phospholipid compound].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To prepare salvianolic acid phospholipid compound. With the compound of salvianolic acids and soybean phospholipid as the index, mono-factor experiment and orthogonal design experiment were conducted to screen its technical parameters. According to the results, the optimal preparation conditions of salvianolic acid phospholipid compound were that THF were taken as the reaction solvent, the concentration time was 3 h, the reactant concentration was 5 g x L(-1), the mass ratio of salvianolic acids and phospholipid was 1: 1.5, and the reaction temperature was 40 degrees C. The oil/water partition coefficient of the prepared salvianolic acid phospholipid compound significant increased in water and buffers with different pH values. The results of phase analysis such as DSC, XRD and FTIR indicated that salvianolic acids existed in phospholipid in an amorphous state.
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[Analysis and discussion about current development of relevant studies on "traditional Chinese medicine components"].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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As traditional Chinese medicine components have become a hotspot in the field of traditional Chinese medicine study, they have followed a development trend of diversity and false identification. In studies on a new modem product, we shall encourage the diversified development mode, but avoid the false concept identification of traditional Chinese medicine components. In this paper, by analyzing the current development of traditional Chinese medicine components and problems, we discussed the standardization of traditional Chinese medicine components, with the aim of reducing and avoiding the situations to study non-traditional Chinese medicine components as traditional Chinese medicine components.
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[Preparation of baicalin colon-specific solid dispersion and evaluation on its in vitro release].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To prepare pH-dependent baicalin colon-specific solid dispersion, with the aim of colon-specific delivery and rapid drug release.
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Pressure effect on stabilities of self-interstitials in HCP-zirconium.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) mediate the evolution of micro-structures which is crucial in understanding the instabilities of hexagonal close packed (HCP) structures. Taking zirconium as a prototype, we investigate the pressure effect on the stabilities of SIAs using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory. We found that the pressure greatly affects the stability of the SIAs. The SIAs in basal planes are more stable under pressure. The SIA configuration of the lowest formation energy changes from basal octahedral (BO) to octahedral (O) at a pressure of 21 GPa. The lowest formation enthalpy configuration switches from BO to S (split-dumbbell) at the pressure of 30 GPa. The formation volumes of SIAs decrease monotonically in response to an increase in pressure. Our results reveal that it is important to take pressure effects into account when predicting the micro-structural evolution of HCP structures.
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Determination of six polyynes in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus using polyethylene glycol modified reversed migration microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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A PEG-modified reversed migration MEEKC method was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyynes, including oplopandiol, falcarindiol, oplopandiol acetate, (11S, 16S, 9Z)-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate, oplopantriol B, and oplopantriol A, in Oplopanax horridus and Oplopanax elatus. The running buffer containing 0.8% v/v ethyl acetate, 3.8% w/v SDS, 6.6% v/v n-butanol in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), followed by mixing with propan-2-ol at 30% v/v and PEG-1000 at 15% w/v, was applied in the analysis. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the six polyynes in five samples of Oplopanax horridus and one of O. elatus. The result showed that the types and amounts of polyynes present were obviously different when comparing the two herbs. Besides, the developed PEG-modified reversed MEEKC method might be suitable for the analysis of hydrophobic analytes in herbal medicines.
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Constraint on the potassium content for the superconductivity of potassium-intercalated phenanthrene.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Raman-scattering measurements were performed on K(x)phenanthrene (0 ? x ? 6.0) at room temperature. Three phases (x = 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0) are identified based on the obtained Raman spectra. Only the K3phenanthrene phase is found to exhibit the superconducting transition at 5 K. The C-C stretching modes are observed to broaden and become disordered in K(x)phenanthrene with x = 2.0, 2.5, 6.0, indicating some molecular disorder in the metal intercalation process. This disorder is expected to influence the nonmetallic nature of these materials. The absence of metallic character in these nonsuperconducting phases is found from the calculated electronic structures based on the local density approximation.
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Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: A cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China.
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Multielemental composition of suet oil based on quantification by ultrawave/ICP-MS coupled with chemometric analysis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Suet oil (SO) has been used commonly for food and medicine preparation. The determination of its elemental composition has became an important challenge for human safety and health owing to its possible contents of heavy metals or other elements. In this study, ultrawave single reaction chamber microwave digestion (Ultrawave) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was performed to determine 14 elements (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ti, Ni, V, Sr, Na, Ka and Ca) in SO samples. Furthermore, the multielemental content of 18 SO samples, which represented three different sources in China: Qinghai, Anhui and Jiangsu, were evaluated and compared. The optimal ultrawave digestion conditions, namely, the optimal time (35 min), temperature (210 °C) and pressure (90 bar), were screened by Box-Behnken design (BBD). Eighteen samples were successfully classified into three groups by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the contents of 14 elements. The results showed that all SO samples were rich in elements, but with significant differences corresponding to different origins. The outliers and majority of SO could be discriminated by PCA according to the multielemental content profile. The results highlighted that the element distribution was associated with the origins of SO samples. The proposed ultrawave digestion system was quite efficient and convenient, which could be mainly attributed to its high pressure and special high-throughput for the sample digestion procedure. Our established method could be useful for the quality control and standardization of elements in SO samples and products.
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Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Previous studies concerning the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes have provided controversial findings.
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Simultaneous determination of glimepiride and pioglitazone in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous estimation and pharmacokinetic investigation of glimepiride and pioglitazone in human plasma has been developed and fully validated. Glimepiride and pioglitazone, compounds which exert synergistic effects on blood glucose control, were investigated in human plasma using deuterium-labeled analogs as internal standards (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was carried out on 0.2 mL of human plasma using ethyl acetate, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 ?m) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid (95:5:0.1, v/v/v, plus 5mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. To quantify glimepiride, pioglitazone and their IS, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of m/z 491.2?352.2, m/z 496.2?357.2, m/z 357.2?134.2 and m/z 361.2?138.2 were performed in positive mode. The total run time was 3.0 min and the elution time was about 2.4 min. The method exhibited good separation of analytes, without interference from endogenous substances. The linear calibration curves were 0.2-250 ng/mL for glimepiride and 0.2-1,250 ng/mL for pioglitazone; the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.2 ng/mL for both analytes. Intra- and inter-day reproducibility was less than 10% for glimepiride and less than 5% for pioglitazone, with relative errors ranging from -8.00% to 2.80% at the three concentrations of analytes used for quality control (QC). The matrix effect was negligible and recoveries were similar for each analyte and its IS. Glimepiride and pioglitazone were found to be stable under the assay conditions and the method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetic studies of glimepiride and pioglitazone, following oral doses of 2mg glimepiride tablets and 15 mg pioglitazone tablets to 16 healthy volunteers.
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The protective effect of smilax glabra extract on advanced glycation end products-induced endothelial dysfunction in HUVECs via RAGE-ERK1/2-NF-?B pathway.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used in folk for the treatment of diabetic vascular complications. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced endothelial dysfunction has been thought to be a major cause of diabetic vascular complications. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of SGR extract on AGEs-induced endothelial dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms.
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A systematic review and quantitative assessment of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Previous investigations have suggested a strong association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. However, the results of the following replication studies were not always concordant. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the more reliable estimate.
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Omentin-1 promotes the growth of neural stem cells via activation of Akt signaling.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Omentin is a novel adipokine, which is expressed in and released from omental adipose tissue. In the present study, the effect of omentin on neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated. NSCs are a subtype of stem cell in the nervous system, which are able to self?renew and generate neurons and glia for repairing neural lesions. Mouse NSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with recombinant omentin for 3 and 5 days significantly increased the size of NSC neurospheres (P<0.01) and enhanced NSC cell viability in normal conditions. In addition, omentin protected against the decrease in cell viability induced by the pro?inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor??. In the NSCs, incubation of omentin for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 16 h enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt at the Thr308 site and of AS160 at the Ser318 site, peaking 6 h after treatment. Additionally, treatment with LY294002 (10 µM), a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3?kinase/Akt signaling, eliminated the omentin?induced increase in neurosphere size and cell viability. Overall, the present study provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that omentin promotes the growth and survival of NSCs in vitro through activation of the Akt signaling pathway. These results may contribute to the understanding of the role of omentin in the nervous system.
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New metabolite profiles of Danshensu in rats by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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In our research, ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was established for analyzing the metabolite profiles of Danshensu (DSS) in rat feces, bile, urine, plasma and the possible metabolic pathways were subsequently proposed after the oral dose of 80mg/kg; rat biological samples were collected and pretreated by protein precipitation. Then, the samples were injected into an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography BEHC column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (solvent A)-0.1% formic acid-water (solvent B) with a linear gradient elution program. Totally, 17 metabolites of DSS were identified, including 4, 5, 4 and 4 metabolites in the feces, urine, blood, and bile samples respectively. Most of them were to our knowledge reported for the first time. The results indicated that DSS was metabolized via dehydrogenation, deoxygenation, methylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation pathways in vivo. Among these, methylation was considered as the main physiologic processes of it. This study revealed that U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS was more accurate and sensitive to detect and identify the possible metabolites and to better understand the metabolism of DSS in vivo.
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Enhanced bioavailability of apigenin via preparation of a carbon nanopowder solid dispersion.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, a novel carbon nanopowder (CNP) drug carrier was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of apigenin (AP). Solid dispersions (SDs) of AP with CNP were prepared, and their in vitro drug release and in vivo performance were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Drug release profiles showed that AP dissolution from the CNP-AP system (weight ratio, 6:1) after 60 minutes improved by 275% compared with that of pure AP. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic analysis of SD formulations in rats showed that the AP area under the curve0-t value was 1.83 times higher for the CNP-AP system than for pure AP, indicating that its bioavailability was significantly improved. In addition, compared with pure AP, SDs had a significantly higher peak and shorter time to peak. Preliminary intestinal toxicity tests indicated that there was no significant difference in the tissues of the rats treated with the CNP-AP system, rats treated with the CNP alone, and controls. In conclusion, CNP-based SDs could be used for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs while also improving drug safety.
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[Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.
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[Simultaneous content determination of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1 and dracorhodin in ZJHX rubber paste by double wavelength HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb, and dracorhodin from ZJHX rubber paste were analyzed simultaneously by HPLC, with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase for gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 35 degrees C and the sample size was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 203 nm for ginsenoside and 440 nm for dracorhodin, respectively. The results showed that all of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1 and dracorhodin could be were separated well by baseline, with the linear ranges of 0.251-5.020 microg (R2 = 0.999 8), 0.520-10.400 microg (R2 = 0.999 9), 0.251-5.010 microg (R2 = 0.999 7), 0.505-10.100 microg (R2 = 0.999 8) and 0.160-3.270 microg (R2 = 0.999 9), respectively. Each component showed a good linear relationship, with the average recoveries ranging from 99.39% to 100.5%. The established method was so simple, accurate and highly reproducible that it could be used for quality control of ZJHX rubber paste.
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[Study on effective substances of tea for chemoprevention of lung cancer based on principal component analysis].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To study the effective substances of tea for chemoprevention of lung cancer based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).
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[Study on porous maize starch preparation and powdering coix seed oil].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To optimize the preparation conditions of porous starch The porous starch was used to powder coix seed oil. Porous starch was made of maize starch by using compound enzymes of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase. The preparation process was optimized through orthogonal test design with oil absorption rate to salad oil as indexes. The effect of different dosages of porous starch on yield of triglyceride by powdering coix seed oil was studied. The triglyceride release behaviors and fluidity of powdered coix seed oil were also studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions for preparation of porous maize starch were as follows, the mass radio of glucoamylase to a-amylase was 3:1, the temperatures was 55 degrees C, pH was 5.0, and hydrolysis time was 12 h. Under these conditions, the oil absorption rate to salad oil was 98.5% for porous maize starch. Porous starch was used to power coix seed oil. When porous starch to coix seed oil was 4:1, the triglyceride yield of powering coix seed oil was up to 97.02%. The fluidity of powdered coix seed oil was favorable and control released. The preparation of powdered liquid oil with porous starch had many advantages such as simple production technology, convenient operation, low cost and was worth generalizing.
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[Effects of maternal exposure to nano-alumina during pregnancy on neurodevelopment in offspring mice].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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To observe the effects of maternal exposure to nano-alumina during pregnancy on the neurodevelopment in offspring mice.
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Phase transformations and vibrational properties of coronene under pressure.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Both the vibrational and structural properties of coronene have been investigated upon compression up to 30.5 GPa at room temperature by a combination of Raman scattering and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. The spectroscopic and crystallographic results demonstrate that two pressure-induced structural phase transitions take place at 1.5 GPa and 12.2 GPa where the high-pressure phases are identified as monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal structures with space groups of P2/m and Pmmm, respectively. A kink in the slope of the cell parameters as a function of pressure is associated with the disappearance of several internal Raman modes, which suggests the existence of structural distortions or reorganizations at approximately 6.0 GPa. Above 17.1 GPa, almost no evidence of crystallinity can be observed, indicating a possible transformation of coronene into an amorphous phase.
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[Advance in studies on phospholipid compound of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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According to Chinese and foreign literatures and reports in recent years, this article introduced the latest advance in studies on phospholipid compound of traditional Chinese medicines in terms of its preparation mechanism, preparation process, characterization and transmembrane absorption. Under appropriate conditions, traditional Chinese medicines could generate phospholipid compound, whose physico-chemical property differs from the original drug, with a better absorption and improved bioavailability. Therefore, there is huge room for further study and development of phospholipid compound with traditional Chinese medicines.
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[Equilibrium solubility of ginkgo flavonoid components in water and PBS of different pHs with mass fraction weight coefficient method].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To descript the equilibrium solubility of ginkgo flavonoid components in water and PBS of different pHs.
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[Study on solubility of ginkgolide components with mass fraction weight coefficient method].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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In this study, the HPLC-ELSD method was adopted to detect the equilibrium solubility of B and A in water and different pH buffer solution, as well as their apparent oil-water partition coefficients in the noctanol-water/buffer solution. Furthermore, the mass fraction weight coefficient method was adopted to express the integrated equilibrium solubility and oil-water distribution coefficient of ginkgolide components. The direct addition method and the mass fraction weight coefficient method were compared in calculating the property value of ginkgolide components, showing that the mass fraction weight coefficient method was more scientific and reasonable. The tentative study provided ideas to property characterization of traditional Chinese medicine components, as well as basis for studies on preparations of traditional Chinese medicine components.
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[Investigation on equilibrium solubility and apparent oil/water partition coefficient of diterpenoid tanshinone component by similarity analysis methods].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To study the equilibrium solubility and apparent oil/water partition coefficient of diterpenoid tanshinone component by similarity analysis methods, so as to lay the foundation for Salvia diterpenoid quinone component of the overall solubility characterization.
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[Experimental study on structure optimization of ginkgolide components].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Having searched a large number of literatures, the author found different concepts of traditional Chinese medicine components among pharmacists. Then, what are traditional Chinese medicine components? The author thinks that traditional Chinese medicine components shall be optimized traditional Chinese medicine components with relatively clear efficient substances, action mechanisms, specific purity and definite internal structure. This experiment preliminarily determined optimized component structures of ginkgolides by comparing the four reported constituents in in vivo and in vitro pharmacodynamic and pharmacological experiments. The experimental design could provide ideas and basis for optimizing traditional Chinese medicine components and determining their matching structures.
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[Study on pharmaceutical screening of representative components of Salvia miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To screen out the main components with no significant difference with Salvia miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones pharmacological action, in order to determine the compatible form of representative components that can describe the overall property of S. miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones.
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[Construction of analytical method for similarity of traditional Chinese medicine components on the basis of biopharmaceutic properties].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Traditional Chinese medicine components are a complex multi-component system. How to characterize and evaluate their diverse properties have long been key scientific problems in the modernization process of traditional Chinese medicines. According to the relevant regulations for biopharmaceutical properties, we made the criteria for evaluating similarity of Chinese medicine components, while establish an analytical method based on cosine and Grubbs to evaluate the dispersion degree of properties of representative components, so as to provide ideas and methods for classifying traditional Chinese medicine sub-components and evaluating the integrity of component properties.
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Structural and vibrational properties of phenanthrene under pressure.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The structural and vibrational properties of phenanthrene are measured at high pressures up to 30.2 GPa by Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Two phase transitions are observed in the Raman spectra at pressures of 2.3 GPa and 5.4 GPa which correspond to significant changes of intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. Above 10.2 GPa, all the Raman peaks are lost within the fluorescence background; however, upon further compression above 20.0 GPa, three broad peaks are observed at 1600, 2993, and 3181 cm(-1), indicating that phenanthrene has transformed into amorphous phase. Using X-ray diffraction, the structures of corresponding phases observed from Raman spectra are indexed with space groups of P2(1) for phase I (0-2.2 GPa), P2/m for phase II (2.2-5.6 GPa), P2/m+Pmmm for phase III (5.6-11.4 GPa) which has a coexistence of structures, and above 11.4 GPa the structure is indexed with space group of Pmmm. Although phenanthrene has transformed to a hydrogenated amorphous carbon structure above 20.0 GPa, these amorphous clusters still show characteristic crystalline behavior based on our X-ray diffraction patterns. Our results suggest that the long-range periodicity and the local disorder state coexist in phenanthrene at high pressures.
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[Determination pharmacokinetics parameters of raw and different processed epimediums by pharmacology effect method].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To determine the pharmacokinetics parameters of raw and different processed epimediums with pharmacology effect method.
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