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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Treatment of distal clavicle type ? fracture: suture anchor versus clavicular hook plate].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To compare the efficacy of suture anchor with clavicular hook plate in treatment of type ? fractures of the distal clavicle. METHODS?Forty patients with Neer type ? fractures of distal clavicle were treated in our hospital from May 2009 to May 2010, including 21 cases treated with suture anchors and 19 cases treated with clavicular hook plate. The time of fracture union and Constant Murley scores were compared between two groups. RESULTS?All incisions reached primary healing, and there was no infection or hematoma formation. Postoperative follow-up time was 12-24 months, mean 14.5 months. The mean time of fracture reunion in suture anchors group was 13.2±2.0 weeks (9-17 weeks) and that in clavicular hook plate group was 13.3±2.0 weeks (10-16 weeks, P>0.05). The mean postoperative Constant Murley scores in suture anchors and hook plate groups were( 91.1±6.5)% and (89.2±7.6)%, respectively(P>0.05). But the pain score in suture anchor group was higher than that in hook plate group(12.6±1.9 vs 11.3±2.3, P<0.05). CONCLUSION?Compared with claviculer hook plate, the suture anchor has good clinical results and less complications in treatment of type ? fractures of distal clavicle?
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[Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and the interaction between hMSH2 polymorphisms and environmental factors].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To use a hospital-based case-control study design to investigate the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the interaction of polymorphisms in the human mismatch repair gene,hMSH2,with environmental factors.
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Long-term outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical resection of central neurocytoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Background and purposeThe role of adjuvant radiotherapy for central neurocytomas (CNs) is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the clinical outcomes of treating histologically confirmed CNs with adjuvant RT after surgical resection.Material and methodsSixty-three CN patients were retrospectively evaluated: 24 patients underwent gross total resection (GTR); 28, subtotal resection (STR); 9, partial resection (PR), and 2, biopsy (Bx). They underwent adjuvant RT after surgery (median dose, 54 Gy).ResultsThe median follow-up was 69 months (15¿129 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 94.4% and 95% after GTR¿+¿RT, 96.4% and 100% after STR¿+¿RT, and 100% and 90.9% after PR¿+¿RT. Only three patients had tumor recurrence: at the primary site at 30 and 24 months in two GTR¿+¿PR patients, and dissemination to the spinal cord at 75 months in one STR¿+¿RT patient. Thirty-eight (63.3%) patients experienced late neurotoxicity (28, grade 1; 7, grade 2; 3, grade 3). Short-term memory impairment was the most common toxicity.ConclusionsRT after incomplete resection (IR) led to OS and PFS comparable to those for GTR. Considering the excellent outcomes and limited late toxicity, adjuvant RT maybe a good option for CN patients who undergo IR.
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Hyperuralones A and B, new acylphloroglucinol derivatives with intricately caged cores from Hypericum uralum.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Hyperuralone A (1), a polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol possessing an unprecedented tetracyclo-[5.3.1.1(4,9).0(4,11)]-dodecane core, was characterized from Hypericum uralum together with hyperuralone B (2), a congener with another complex caged skeleton. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and ECD calculations. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of their intriguing architectures via intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions was also proposed. Compound 1 exhibited obviously cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 4.6-14.4 ?M).
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Cyclin D1b splice variant promotes ?v?3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Cyclin D1b, a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, holds oncogenic functions in human cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Here we introduced wild-type cyclin D1a or cyclin D1b variant into non-metastatic MCF-7 cells. Our results show that ectopic expression of cyclin D1b promotes invasiveness of the cancer cells in a cyclin D1a independent manner. Specifically, cyclin D1b is found to modulate the expression of ?v?3, which characterizes the metastatic phenotype, and enhance tumor cell invasive potential in cooperating with HoxD3. Notably, cyclin D1b promotes ?v?3-mediated adhesion and invasive migration, which are associated with invasive potential of breast cancer cells. Further exploration indicates that cyclin D1b makes breast cancer cells more sensitive to toll-like receptor 4 ligand released from damaged tumor cells. These findings reveal a role of cyclin D1b as a possible mediator of ?v?3 transcription to promote tumor metastasis.
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Combined effects of six cytokine gene polymorphisms and SNP-SNP interactions on hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Southern Guangxi, China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the genesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that combined effects of cytokine gene SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions are associated with HCC risk. Six SNPs in cytokine genes (IL-2, IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10) were genotyped in a study of 720 Chinese HCC cases and 784 cancer-free controls. Although none of these SNPs individually had a significant effect on the risk of HCC, we found that the combined effects of these six SNPs may contribute to HCC risk (OR=1.821, 95% CI=1.078-3.075). This risk was pronounced among smokers, drinkers, and hepatitis B virus carriers. A SNP-SNP interaction between IL-2-330 and IFN-?-1615 was associated with an increased HCC risk (OR=1.078, 95% CI=1.022-1.136). In conclusion, combined effects of SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions in cytokine genes may contribute to HCC risk.
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Shortest path analyses in the protein-protein interaction network of NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) overexpression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) is a novel cancer-related protein involves multiple functions in many cancers and other diseases. We previously overexpressed NGAL to analyze its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) was constructed and the shortest paths from NGAL to transcription factors in the network were analyzed. We found 28 shortest paths from NGAL to RELA, most of them obeying the principle of extracellular to cytoplasm, then nucleus. These shortest paths were also prioritized according to their normalized intensity from the microarray by the order of interaction cascades. A systems approach was developed in this study by linking differentially expressed genes with publicly available PPI data, Gene Ontology and subcellular localizaton for the integrated analyses. These shortest paths from NGAL to DEG transcription factors or other transcription factors in the PPI network provide important clues for future experimental identification of new pathways.
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Correlation between ovarian chocolate cyst and serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level and the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy on serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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This study was to investigate the correlation between ovarian chocolate cysts and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125 levels and to demonstrate the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy (UGIS) on serum CA-125 levels.
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Expression of leptin and its receptor in thyroid carcinoma: distinctive prognostic significance in different subtypes.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To investigate the potential prognostic significance of leptin and its receptor (Ob-R) in thyroid carcinoma.
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RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs.
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Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in the silky starling (Sturnus sericeus).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To better understand the physiological characteristics of the silky starling (Sturnus sericeus), its body temperature (Tb), basal metabolic rate (BMR), evaporative water loss (EWL) and thermal conductance (C) elicited by different ambient temperatures (Ta) (5-30 ?) were determined in the present study. Our results showed that they have a high Tb (41.6 ± 0.1 ?), a wide thermal neutral zone (TNZ) (20-27.5?) and a relatively low BMR within the TNZ (3.37 ± 0.17 mL O?/g·h). The EWL was nearly stable below the TNZ (0.91 ± 0.07 mg H?O/g·h) but increased remarkably within and above the TNZ. The C was constant below the TNZ, with a minimum value of 0.14 ± 0.01 mL O?/g·h·?. These findings indicate that the BMR, Tb and EWL of the silky starling were all affected by Ta, especially when Ta was below 20 ? and the EWL plays an important role in thermal regulation.
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Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on growth performance, flesh quality, muscle antioxidant capacity and antioxidant-related signalling molecule expression in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Growth performance, flesh quality, antioxidant status and antioxidant-related signalling molecule expression in the muscle of young grass carp, which were fed graded levels of arginine (6.9-24.5 g/kg diet) for eight weeks, were investigated. Muscle protein, lipid and nitric oxide contents, shear force, hydroxyproline concentration, and pH were significantly improved by appropriate arginine. Cooking loss, lactate content, cathepsins activities, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents exhibited an opposite tendency. Additionally, optimum arginine significantly enhanced glutathione content and the activities and gene expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in muscle. Moreover, the expression levels of glutamate-cysteine ligase, target of rapamycin, ribosome protein S6 kinase 1, casein kinase 2 and NF-E2-related factor 2 in muscle were significantly elevated by appropriate arginine. However, optimum arginine significantly decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 mRNA levels in muscle. In conclusion, arginine improved the flesh quality and muscle antioxidant capacity and regulated antioxidant-related signalling molecule expression.
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Comparative study of placental ?-microglobulin-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and nitrazine test to diagnose premature rupture of membranes: a randomized controlled trial.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of placental ?-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and nitrazine test to diagnose premature rupture of membranes.
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The GTPase-activating protein GIT2 protects against colitis by negatively regulating Toll-like receptor signaling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) regulates thymocyte positive selection, neutrophil-direction sensing, and cell motility during immune responses by regulating the activity of the small GTPases ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). Here, we show that Git2-deficient mice were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, Escherichia coli, or endotoxin-shock challenge, and a dramatic increase in proinflammatory cytokines was observed in Git2 knockout mice and macrophages. GIT2 is a previously unidentified negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced NF-?B signaling. The ubiquitination of TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is critical for the activation of NF-?B. GIT2 terminates TLR-induced NF-?B and MAPK signaling by recruiting the deubiquitinating enzyme Cylindromatosis to inhibit the ubiquitination of TRAF6. Finally, we show that the susceptibility of Git2-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis depends on TLR signaling. Thus, we show that GIT2 is an essential terminator of TLR signaling and that loss of GIT2 leads to uncontrolled inflammation and severe organ damage.
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Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Recent studies have suggested that combination antiplatelet therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of acute stroke. However, additional prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. The present trial compared the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the treatment of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke within 72hours of onset. Six hundred and ninety patients aged ?40years with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were identified for enrollment. Experienced physicians determined baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at the time of admission. All patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive aspirin alone (300mg/day) or clopidogrel (300mg for the first day, 75mg/day thereafter) plus aspirin (100mg/day). The main endpoints were neurological deterioration, recurrent stroke, and development of stroke in patients with TIA within 14days of admission. After 43 patients were excluded, 321 patients in the dual therapy group and 326 patients in the monotherapy group completed the treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. During the 2week period, stroke deterioration occurred in nine patients in the dual therapy group and 19 patients in the monotherapy group. Stroke occurred after TIA in one patient in the dual therapy group and three patients in the monotherapy group. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in both groups. This study showed that early dual antiplatelet treatment reduced early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke, compared with antiplatelet monotherapy. These results imply that dual antiplatelet therapy is superior to monotherapy in the early treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P < 0.05). In addition, valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05), down-regulated mRNA levels of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor ?1, I?B? and target of rapamycin (TOR) (P < 0.05), and up-regulated tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 8 and nuclear factor ?B P65 (NF-?B P65) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P < 0.05), and improved Claudin 15 expression in the fish intestine (P < 0.05). However, valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-?B P65, I?B? and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.
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Convenient three-dimensional cell culture in supermolecular hydrogels.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A convenient three-dimensional cell culture was developed by employing high swelling property of hybrid hydrogels coassembled from C2-phenyl-based supermolecular gelators and sodium hyaluronate. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the hybrid gelators can self-assemble into nanofibrous hydrogel. The high swelling property of dried gel ensures cell migration and proliferation inside bulk of the hydrogels, which provides a facial method to study disease models, the effect of drug dosages, and tissue culture in vitro.
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Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: protective effects of myo-inositol.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of the expression of the Nrf2, Maf G1 (rather than Maf G2 gene) and PKCd genes, suggesting that de novo synthesis of those factors is required for the protracted induction of such antioxidant genes. However, the modulation of Keap1a (rather than Keap1b) of fish brain under Cu exposure might be used to turn off of the signaling cascade and avoid harmful effects. Interestingly, pre-treatment of fish with MI prevented the fish brain from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly by increasing the GSH content and CuZnSOD and GST activities. Summarily, this study indicates that although Cu stimulates adaptive increases in the expression of some antioxidant enzyme genes through Nrf2/ARE signaling, it also induces oxidation and the depletion of most of antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content due to the increase of ROS production, and MI protects the fish brain against Cu toxicity.
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1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 leukocyte telomere length-related genetic variants contribute to glioma susceptibility.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our previous data demonstrated that two SNPs (rs398652 on 14q21 and rs621559 on 1p34.2) were associated with LTL and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese. However, the role of these genetic variants on glioma risk is still unknown. Therefore, we examined if these genetic variants have impact on the genetic susceptibility of glioma in Chinese. On the basis of analyzing 404 glioma patients and frequency-matched 820 controls, we found that subjects having the 1p34.2 rs621559 AG or GG genotype had an OR of 1.82 (95 % CI = 1.07-3.09, P = 0.026) or 2.12 (95 % CI = 1.26-3.56, P = 0.005) for developing glioma, respectively, compared with subjects having the rs621559 AA genotype. Similarly, the 14q21 rs398652 AG or GG genotype was associated with increased glioma risk (OR = 1.39, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.80, P = 0.012; OR = 1.52, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.20, P = 0.029) compared to AA genotype. In all, our results highlight the possible role of telomere in carcinogenesis.
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Associations between impulsivity, aggression, and suicide in Chinese college students.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Although there are accumulating data regarding the epidemiology of suicide in China, there are meager data on suicidal ideation and attempts among college students. Interestingly, elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify the associations between suicide and the personality factors of impulsivity and aggression.
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[Size distribution of particle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle emissions from simulated emission sources].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Particles from cooking lampblack, biomass and plastics burning smoke, gasoline vehicular exhausts and gasoline generator exhausts were prepared in a resuspension test chamber and collected using a cascade MOUDI impactor. A total of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particles were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that there were two peaks in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm and 2.5-10 microm for cooking lampblack, and only one peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm for straw and wood burning smoke. But there were no clear peak for plastics burning smoke. The peak for gasoline vehicular exhausts was found in the range of 2.5-10 microm due to the influence of water vapor associated with particles, while the particles from gasoline generator exhausts were mainly in the range of < or = 2.5 microm (accounting for 93% of the total mass). The peak in 2.5-10 microm was clear for cooking lampblack and gasoline vehicular exhausts. The peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm became more and more apparent with the increase of PAHs molecular weight. The fraction of PAH on particles less than 1.0 microm to that on the total particles increased along with PAH's molecular weight. Phenanthrene was the dominant compound for cooking lampblack and combustion smoke, while gasoline vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts were characterized with significantly high levels of naphthalene and benzo[g, h, i] perylene, respectively. The distribution of source characteristic ratios indicated that PAHs from cooking lampblack and biomass burning were close and they were different from those of vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts.
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Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201) enhances human BKCa channel activity by selectively targeting the pore-forming ? subunit.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Tanshinone II-A sodium sulfonate (DS-201), a water-soluble derivative of Tanshinone II-A, has been found to induce vascular relaxation and activate BKCa channels. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the action of DS-201 on BKCa channels.
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Characterization of lymph node metastasis and its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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This study aimed to characterize lymph node metastasis and determine its clinical significance in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. The medical charts of 920 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical surgical resection between March, 2010 and March, 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed. Lymphatic metastasis was observed in 69.6% of the patients (640/920). The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with early-stage gastric cancer was 21.4% (18/84). Lymph node metastasis was observed in all the patients with stage IIIC-IV gastric cancer. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher among patients with tumors >7 cm in size. The most frequently affected lymph nodes in patients with proximal, central and distal gastric cancer were station no. 1 (34.2%), no. 3 (33.8%) and no. 6 (34.3%) lymph nodes, respectively. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in patients with Borrmann type IV cancer was significantly higher compared to that in patients with other Borrmann type cancers. Our study further demonstrated that lymphatic metastasis is closely correlated with TNM stage, location, depth of invasion and size of gastric tumors. Therefore, we recommend that a sufficient number of lymph nodes be examined from each patient to determine the extent of lymph node dissection based on Borrmann type, location, size, depth of invasion and histology of the cancer.
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Temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement: a subtype of temporal lobe epilepsy.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Some recent studies suggest that some imaging-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) had significant amygdala enlargement (AE). Contradictory data were also reported in previous studies regarding the association between AE and TLE. The present study was to investigate the clinical characters of a group of TLE with AE and compare the amygdala volume of the same patient before and after antiepileptic drugs treatment by a larger sample size.
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Enrichment of MTHFR 677?T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China.
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Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp.
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The quantitative and functional changes of NK cells in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a neurotropic parasite which can cause injury to central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Natural killer (NK) cells are specialized innate lymphocytes important in early defense against pathogens as in a variety of intracellular bacterial, viral, and protozoan infections. However, the number and function of NK cells in extracellular parasitic infection of A. cantonensis are unclear. In this study, on A. cantonensis infected mice which may mimic the human's infection, we found that the percentage of splenic NK cells and the absolute number of peripheral blood NK cells were decreased at 21-day post infection compared with that of controls. When administrating with albendazole treatment at early stage of the infection, the changes of NK cells could be avoided. Further analysis confirmed that the reduction of NK cells was due to their apoptosis manifested as increased expressions of annexin V and activated caspase-3 after 16-day post infection. Moreover, both activated and inhibitory receptors such as CD16, CD69, NKG2D, and Ly49a on NK cells were down-regulated after 16-day post infection. Interestingly, NK cells isolated from mice of 21-day post infection showed enhanced IFN-? production when stimulated with IL-12 for 24 h and cytotoxicity to YAC-1 cells, as well as elevated CD107a expression. It is evident that NK cell population and its function were changed in A. cantonensis infected mice, suggesting their involvement in pathogenesis of the infection.
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Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell tumor of liver and spleen: granulomatous and eosinophil-rich variants mimicking inflammatory or infective lesions.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell (FDC) tumor is an uncommon, Epstein-Barr virus-associated neoplasm of the liver or spleen, characterized by spindly tumor cells dispersed in a background of small lymphocytes and plasma cells. We report 6 diagnostically challenging cases in which the neoplastic component is further overshadowed by granulomas or eosinophils. The patients included 2 men and 4 women with a median age of 45.5 years, and 1 of them showed concurrent involvement of the liver and spleen. The presence of extensive coalescent epithelioid granulomas in 3 splenic tumors and 3 liver tumors raised the possibilities of an infective process or sarcoidosis. In another liver tumor, the massive infiltrate of eosinophils, accompanied by geographic eosinophilic abscesses, suggested parasitic infestation or so-called eosinophilic granuloma of the liver. However, scrutiny of the tissue between the granulomas or among the eosinophils revealed scattered atypical spindly cells with indistinct cell borders, large vesicular nuclei, and distinct nucleoli. The atypical cells were positive for FDC markers on immunostaining (CD21, CD35) and Epstein-Barr virus on in situ hybridization. Thus, a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor-like FDC tumor could be confirmed. Awareness of the granulomatous and eosinophil-rich variants of this tumor type will facilitate the correct diagnosis to be made.
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Structure determinants for the substrate specificity of acyl-CoA ?9 desaturases from a marine copepod.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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In contrast to soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from plants, little is known about the structure-guiding principle underlying substrate specificity and regioselectivity of membrane-bound acyl-CoA desaturases from animals, mainly due to lack of the three-dimensional structure information. Here we report identification of two homologous membrane-bound acyl-CoA ?9 desaturases (ChDes9-1 and ChDes9-2) from the marine copepod Calanus hyperboreus that accumulates more than 90% of total storage lipids in the form of wax esters. ChDes9-2 is a common ?9 desaturase with substrate specificity to long chain fatty acid 18:0, while ChDes9-1 is a new type of ?9 desaturase introducing a ?9 double bond into a wide range of very long chain fatty acids ranging from 20:0 to 26:0. Reciprocal domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis guided by the membrane topology revealed that presence or absence of an amphipathic and bulky residue, tyrosine, in the middle of the second transmembrane domain was important in determining the substrate specificity of the two desaturases. To examine the mechanistic structure for the substrate specificity, tyrosine-scanning mutagenesis was employed to systematically substitute the residues in the transmembrane domain of the very long chain desaturase. The results showed that the transmembrane domain formed an ?-helix structure probably involved in formation of the substrate-binding pocket and the corresponding residue of the tyrosine likely resided at the critical position within the pocket mediating the interaction with the substrates, thereby specifying the chain length of the substrates.
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A RAD52 genetic variant located in a miRNA binding site is associated with glioma risk in Han Chinese.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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As a crucial homologous recombination repair gene, RAD52 participates in maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of tumorigenesis. Although several cancer susceptibility RAD52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified previously, little was known on how the RAD52 SNPs are involved in glioma development in Han Chinese. Therefore, we examined the association between five RAD52 SNPs (rs1051669, rs10774474, rs11571378, rs7963551 and rs6489769) and glioma risk using a case-control design. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. We found that only the RAD52 rs7963551 SNP was significantly associated with glioma risk, with the odds of having the rs7963551 AC or CC genotype in patients was 0.49 (95 % CI 0.37-0.65, P = 9.2 × 10(-6)) or 0.39 (95 % CI 0.18-0.81, P = 0.012) compared with the AA genotype. These data are consistent with functional relevance of allelic regulation of RAD52 expression by the rs7963551 SNP and miRNA let-7 in cancer cells. Stratified analyses elucidated that statistically significant association between glioma and rs7963551 SNP only existed in either astrocytic tumors (P = 6.3 × 10(-6)) or oligoastrocytic tumors (P = 0.002). In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that genetic variants influencing miRNA-mediated regulation of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes may contribute glioma susceptibility.
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Mesohepatectomy for the treatment of patients with centrally located hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Mesohepatectomy is considered a feasible option for patients with centrally located hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mesohepatectomy is a technically demanding and less frequently used procedure. In this study, we summarized the surgical experience and evaluated the clinical outcomes of mesohepatectomy in 24 patients with centrally located HCC. Of these patients, 9 were treated with hepatectomy of Couinaud's segments IV, V and VIII with concurrent cholecystectomy; 8 underwent resection of segments IVb, V and VIII, including 7 patients who also received a cholecystectomy; 4 underwent hepatectomy of segments IVa, V and VIII; and 3 patients were treated with hepatectomy of segments I, IV, V and VIII, with concurrent cholecystectomy. The Pringle maneuver was used on 17 patients during hepatectomy. Total hepatic vascular exclusion (HVE) was performed on 3 patients and HVE was not used on 4 patients. The average mesohepatectomy operative time was 238 min and the average intraoperative blood loss was 480 ml (200-2,200 ml). There was no intraoperative mortality and the postoperative morbidity rate was 25% (6/24). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates were 76 and 46%, respectively. Therefore, mesohepatectomy is a safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of centrally located HCC and HVE during mesohepatectomy for centrally located HCC is crucial to the success of the operation and postoperative patient recovery.
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Multi-walled carbon nanotubes impair Kv4.2/4.3 channel activities, delay membrane repolarization and induce bradyarrhythmias in the rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The potential hazardous effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on cardiac electrophysiology are seldom evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of MWCNTs on the Kv4/Ito channel, action potential and heart rhythm and the underlying mechanisms.
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Pioglitazone upregulates angiotensin converting enzyme 2 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues in rats with high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can improve hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Angiotensin (Ang) II, the primary effector of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays vital roles in the development and progression of NASH. And some AngII-mediated effects can be regulated by TZDs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, a new component of RAS, can degrade Ang II to attenuate its subsequent physiological actions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of TZDs on ACE2 expression in insulin-sensitive tissues in NASH rats.
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Wettability of supramolecular nanofibers for controlled cell adhesion and proliferation.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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By employing smart self-assembly of 1,4-benyldicarbonxamide-phenylalanine (C2) derived supramolecular gelators, a simple way to construct nanofibrous environments with the controllable wettability is developed. The fast cell adhesion and proliferation on the least wettable fibers indicates an efficient control over cells, which is proved to be mainly mediated by the interaction between protein and the fibers. One typical merit superior to other materials is that cell adhesion can be regulated not only on two-dimensional (2D) substrates but also in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. This paves a novel way to deeply understand the influence of fiber wettability on cell behaviors in 3D environment.
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The HECT Type Ubiquitin Ligase NEDL2 Is Degraded by Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1, and Its Tight Regulation Maintains the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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NEDD4-like ubiquitin ligase 2 (NEDL2) is a HECT type ubiquitin ligase. NEDL2 enhances p73 transcriptional activity and degrades ATR kinase in lamin misexpressed cells. Compared with the important functions of other HECT type ubiquitin ligase, there is less study concerning the function and regulation of NEDL2. Using primary antibody immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify a list of potential proteins that are putative NEDL2-interacting proteins. The candidate list contains many of mitotic proteins, especially including several subunits of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and Cdh1, an activator of APC/C. Cdh1 can interact with NEDL2 in vivo and in vitro. Cdh1 recognizes one of the NEDL2 destruction boxes (R(740)GSL(743)) and targets it for degradation in an APC/C-dependent manner during mitotic exit. Overexpression of Cdh1 reduces the protein level of NEDL2, whereas knockdown of Cdh1 increases the protein level of NEDL2 but has no effect on the NEDL2 mRNA level. NEDL2 associates with mitotic spindles, and its protein level reaches a maximum in mitosis. The function of NEDL2 during mitosis is essential because NEDL2 depletion prolongs metaphase, and overexpression of NEDL2 induces chromosomal lagging. Elevated expression of NEDL2 protein and mRNA are both found in colon cancer and cervix cancer. We conclude that NEDL2 is a novel substrate of APC/C-Cdh1 as cells exit mitosis and functions as a regulator of the metaphase to anaphase transition. Its overexpression may contribute to tumorigenesis.
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Rapid identification of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine fufang preparation xianling gubao capsule by LC-linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The traditional Chinese medicine fufang preparation "Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao" capsule (XLGB), which is composed of six herbal medicines, is popularly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. A reliable and effective method using LC-linear ion trap (LTQ)/Orbitrap mass spectrometry for rapid screening and identification of chemical constituents in "Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao" capsule is described in this paper. Based on the UV spectrum, mass spectrum, and the chemical components isolated from the original plants of XLGB, 118 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, including 58 flavonoid glycosides, six prenylated flavonones, five prenylated isoflavones, six prenylated chalcones, four xanthone C-glycosides, 13 saponins, eight phenolic acids, five coumarins, three lignans, three iridoids, five phenethyl alcohol glycosides, one tanshinone and one alkaloid. This work might be helpful for the quality control and further pharmacokinetic studies of XLGB, and provided a good example for the rapid identification of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine fufang preparation. Moreover, the identification strategy for the linkages of sugar residues in flavonol O-glycosides was summarized in the study. The diagnostic fragment ions at m/z 185 [C12H9O2] and 157 [C11H9O], which distinguish C-6 and C-8 prenylated flavonoids, were reported for the first time.
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Pioglitazone upregulates hepatic angiotensin converting enzyme 2 expression in rats with steatohepatitis.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Angiotensin II, one component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is formed from Ang I by the catalysing of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance. ACE2, a homologue of ACE, couterregulate the actions of angiotensin II by facilitating its breakdown to angiotensin-(1-7). RAS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Earlier demonstration that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve steatohepatitis promoted us to evaluate the change of hepatic ACE2 expression in rats with high fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH and the effects of TZDs on the hepatic ACE2 expression.
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Clinical and radiographic predictors in diagnosing sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients: a cross-sectional study in China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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In county-level tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries in China, the accurate diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) needs to be improved by developing and validating clinical and radiographic predictors.
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[Geographical distribution regarding the prevalence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis in China in 2010].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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To describe the geographical distribution regarding the prevalence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 2010, to provide reference for eliminating the regional unbalance of TB prevalence in China.
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The effects of dietary thiamin on oxidative damage and antioxidant defence of juvenile fish.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The present study explored the effects of thiamin on antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In a 60-day feeding trial, a total of 1,050 juvenile Jian carp (8.20 ± 0.02 g) were fed graded levels of thiamin at 0.25, 0.48, 0.79, 1.06, 1.37, 1.63 and 2.65 mg thiamin kg(-1) diets. The results showed that malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were significantly decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, the anti-superoxide anion capacity and anti-hydroxyl radical capacity in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were the lowest in fish fed the thiamin-unsupplemented diet. Meanwhile, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the contents of glutathione in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were enhanced with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum, hepatopancreas and intestine followed a similar trend as CAT (P < 0.05). However, SOD activity in muscle was not affected by dietary thiamin level (P > 0.05). The results indicated that thiamin could improve antioxidant defence and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp.
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[Relationship between the expression level of miR-29c and biological behavior of gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To study the function and clinicopathological significance of RNA-29c (miR-29c) in the carcinogenesis and development of gastric cancer.
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Somatosensory reflex seizures in a patient with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Somatosensory-evoked reflex epilepsy is characterized by seizures in response to specific stimuli. It is highly uncommon for somatosensory-evoked focal seizures to be caused by movement or a change in posture. Reflex epilepsy induced by both somatosensory and proprioceptive stimulations has not been previously reported. In this study, we present a case of reflex epilepsy evoked by somatosensory and proprioceptive stimulation in a patient with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. After comparing our patient with other cases of previously reported somatosensory-evoked reflex epilepsy, we determined that our patient had an unusual cause of reflex epilepsy.
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IP3 decreases coronary artery tone via activating the BKCa channel of coronary artery smooth muscle cells in pigs.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BKCa) is a potential target for coronary artery-relaxing medication, but its functional regulation is largely unknown. Here, we report that inositol trisphosphate (IP3) activated BKCa channels in isolated porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells and by which decreased the coronary artery tone. Both endogenous and exogenous IP3 increased the spontaneous transient outward K(+) currents (STOC, a component pattern of BKCa currents) in perforated and regular whole-cell recordings, which was dependent on the activity of IP3 receptors. IP3 also increased the macroscopic currents (MC, another component pattern of BKCa currents) via an IP3 receptor- and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) mobilization-independent pathway. In inside-out patch recordings, direct application of IP3 to the cytosolic side increased the open probability of single BKCa channel in an IP3 receptor-independent manner. We conclude that IP3 is an activator of BKCa channels in porcine coronary smooth muscle cells and exerts a coronary artery-relaxing effect. The activation of BKCa channels by IP3 involves the enhancement of STOCs via IP3 receptors and stimulation of MC by increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the channels.
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[Road dust loading and chemical composition at major cities in Fujian Province].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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A total of 57 road dust and 16 urban soil samples were collected from four cities, Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Quanzhou and Putian in Fujian Province, China. Twenty-six elements, eight water soluble ions, organic carbon and elemental carbon in the fraction of particulate diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) derived through a suspension chamber were analyzed. The average loading of road dust with diameter less than 100 microm in the four cities ranged from 6.99 g x m(-2) to 10.11 g x m(-2), while the loading of PM2.5 ranged from 4.0 mg x m(-2) to 12.5 mg x m(-2). Both the soil and road dust samples were characterized with much higher concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, Fe and K. But for the anthropogenic elements such as Cu, Pb, Zn,Cr and Ti, much lower levels were found in the soil PM2.5, than those in the road dust PM2.5. Significantly higher levels of NH4+, NO3- and SO4(2-) were found in the road dust PM2.5 from Zhangzhou in comparison with those from other cities in this study. The calcium ion (Ca2+) content was significantly positively correlated with the Mg2+ content in the road dust PM2.5 from Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou. The levels of organic carbon (OC) in the road dust PM2.5 in these four cities were higher than those reported in Jinan, Shijiazhuang and Beijing while the levels of elemental carbon (EC) were all lower than those in the urban road dust from Beijing, Significant positive correlation between EC and OC was found in samples from Quanzhou and Putian, suggesting the same and/or similar sources. The result of mass balance indicated that higher percentage compositions were soil and OM in both Quanzhou and Putian. Based on the cluster analysis, the 57 road dust samples were divided into four types: influenced by atmospheric deposition, influenced by soil dust, influenced by atmospheric deposition and soil dust, and influenced by soil and construction dust.
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A case report of diffuse pneumocephalus induced by sneezing after brain trauma.
Chin. J. Traumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Pneumocephalus is the presence of air in the cranial vault. The common etiologies of pneumocephalus are brain trauma and cranial surgery. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with brain trauma who developed diffuse pneumocephalus after sneezing. CT scan was performed on arrival, and the image showed subarachnoid hemorrhage without pneumocephalus. On the seventh day after a big sneeze brain CT scan was re-performed, which showed pneumocephalus. After another ten days of treatment, the patient was discharged without any symptoms.
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NME1 suppression promotes growth, adhesion and implantation of endometrial stromal cells via Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signal pathways in the endometriotic milieu.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Is Nometastatic gene 23-H1 (NME1, also known as nm23-H1) involved in regulating the biological behavior of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and does it participate in the pathogenesis of endometriosis?
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Hemangiopericytomas in the spine: clinical features, classification, treatment, and long-term follow-up in 26 patients.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Intraspinal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare and malignant extra-axial tumor with a strong tendency to recur and metastasize. There is a paucity in the literature of large case series of patients with intraspinal HPCs.
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Ubiquitin at the crossroad of cell death and survival.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Ubiquitination is crucial for cellular processes, such as protein degradation, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle progression. Dysregulation of the ubiquitination network accounts for the development of numerous diseases, including cancer. Thus, targeting ubiquitination is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Both apoptosis and autophagy are involved in tumorigenesis and response to cancer therapy. Although both are categorized as types of cell death, autophagy is generally considered to have protective functions, including protecting cells from apoptosis under certain cellular stress conditions. This review highlights recent advances in understanding the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy by ubiquitination.
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Seizure semiology and electroencephalography in young children with lesional temporal lobe epilepsy.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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This study aimed to discuss the clinical features of seizure semiology and electroencephalography (EEG) in young children with lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
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Effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy on clinical outcomes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Few studies were reported on the comparison of clinical outcomes between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This study aimed to determine whether IMRT improves clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT in patients with GBM.
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[Impact of PAHs on the expression of PRDX in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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A peroxiredoxin6 (PRDX6)-like gene segment has been found in up-regulated cDNA libraries of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to benzo[a]pyrene(BaP). Analysis with basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene segment contains a characteristic motif which was encoded by Cys, illustrating that this gene segment belongs to PRDX. To verify the response of PRDX in E. feitida exposed to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four-week pollution experiments were conducted following the methods recommended by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The results showed that the expression of PRDX was up-regulated in earthworm exposed to 1.0 mg x kg(-1) Pyrene and BaP. It was indicated that PRDX in E. fetida was the potential molecular biomarkers of antioxidative stress caused by soil contamination.
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Structural and physicochemical property relationships of cruciferin homohexamers.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Heteromeric cruciferin from wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana and homomeric cruciferin CRUA, CRUB, and CRUC composed of identical subunits obtained from double-knockout mutant lines were investigated for their structural and physicochemical properties. A three-step chromatographic procedure allowed isolation of intact cruciferin hexamers with high purity (>95%). FT-IR and CD analysis of protein secondary structure composition revealed that all cruciferins were folded into higher order structures consisting of 44-50% ?-sheets and 7-9% ?-helices. The structural and physicochemical properties of homohexameric CRUC deviated from that of CRUA and CRUB and exhibited a compact, thermostable, and less hydrophobic structure, confirming the predictions made using 3D homology structure models.
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Acute stress regulates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: possible mechanisms.
Stress
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1?h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2?h before BV and 2-8?h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model.
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[Values of magnetic resonance spectrum imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis of rats].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To explore the values of magnetic resonance spectrum (MRS) in early diagnosis, quantization analysis and staging of hepatic fibrosis.
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Xiaochaihu Decoction attenuates the vicious circle between the oxidative stress and the ALP inactivation through LPS-catecholamines interactions in gut, liver and brain during CCI4+ethanol-induced mouse HCC.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Xiaochaihu Decoction (XCHD) prevents hepatocarcinogenesis in association with inhibition of oxidative stress. However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-catecholamines (CA) interactions in gut, liver and brain may play an important role in the status of oxidative stress. This study was to assess whether XCHD attenuates the vicious circle between oxidative stress and ALP inactivation through LPS-CA interactions.
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Dietary choline modulates immune responses, and gene expressions of TOR and eIF4E-binding protein2 in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on immune parameters, immune-related gene expression and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, Fish were challenged with AH and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly enhanced spleen and head kidney weights, spleen index, red blood cell and white blood cell counts, and intestinal Lactobacillus counts of juvenile Jian carp; whereas, intestinal Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila counts decreased. Moreover, the post-challenge survival rate, leucocyte phagocytic capacity, serum lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, hemagglutination titer, complement 3 and 4 contents, immunoglobulin M content, and anti-AH antibody titer were significantly enhanced by choline and the lowest in choline-deficient group, while serum total iron-binding capacity was the highest in choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of interleukin 10 in spleen and head kidney, target of rapamycin (TOR) in spleen and eIF4E-binding protein2 (4E-BP2) in head kidney significantly increased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expressions of interleukin 1?, tumor necrosis factor ? and transforming growth factor ?2 in spleen and head kidney, TOR in head kidney and 4E-BP2 in spleen significantly decreased. In conclusion, dietary choline improved disease resistance, enhanced the immune function, and regulated immune-related gene expression of juvenile Jian carp.
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Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28 % CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95 % maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively.
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Acetylation-mediated proteasomal degradation of core histones during DNA repair and spermatogenesis.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Histone acetylation plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Proteasomes usually catalyze ATP- and polyubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that the proteasomes containing the activator PA200 catalyze the polyubiquitin-independent degradation of histones. Most proteasomes in mammalian testes ("spermatoproteasomes") contain a spermatid/sperm-specific ? subunit ?4 s/PSMA8 and/or the catalytic ? subunits of immunoproteasomes in addition to PA200. Deletion of PA200 in mice abolishes acetylation-dependent degradation of somatic core histones during DNA double-strand breaks and delays core histone disappearance in elongated spermatids. Purified PA200 greatly promotes ATP-independent proteasomal degradation of the acetylated core histones, but not polyubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, acetylation on histones is required for their binding to the bromodomain-like regions in PA200 and its yeast ortholog, Blm10. Thus, PA200/Blm10 specifically targets the core histones for acetylation-mediated degradation by proteasomes, providing mechanisms by which acetylation regulates histone degradation, DNA repair, and spermatogenesis.
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Dual-specific interaction to detect DNA on gold nanoparticles.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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An approach to selectively and efficiently detect single strand DNA is developed by using streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (StAuNPs) as efficient quenchers. The central concept for the successful detection is the combination the of streptavidin-biotin interaction with specific probe-target DNA hybridization. Biotin labeled probe DNAs act as "bridges" to bring Cy5 labeled targets to the particle surface and the fluorophore dye can be rapidly and efficiently quenched by StAuPNs. By measuring the changes of photoluminescence intensity of Cy5, an efficient, selective, and reversed detection of DNA hybridization is realized. The methodology may pave a new way for simple and rapid detections of biomolecules.
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The relationship between cognitive ability and depression: a longitudinal data analysis.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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There is literature indicating cognitive ability and depression are related, but few studies have examined the direction of the relationship. This study examined the relationship between depression levels and cognitive abilities from adolescence to early adulthood.
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Depression among Chinese university students: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N?=?5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16-35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mothers education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mothers education were susceptible to depression.
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Soybean ?-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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?-Conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of ?-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of ?-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by ?-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by ?-conglycinin. ?-Conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, ?-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene was reduced by ?-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) genes were increased by ?-conglycinin. However, ?-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that ?-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of ?-conglycinin-induced negative effects.
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Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana lines with altered seed storage protein profiles using synchrotron-powered FT-IR spectromicroscopy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing only one cruciferin subunit type (double-knockout; CRUAbc, CRUaBc, or CRUabC) or devoid of cruciferin (triple-knockout; CRU-) or napin (napin-RNAi) were generated using combined T-DNA insertions or RNA interference approaches. Seeds of double-knockout lines accumulated homohexameric cruciferin and contained similar protein levels as the wild type (WT). Chemical imaging of WT and double-knockout seeds using synchrotron FT-IR spectromicroscopy (amide I band, 1650 cm(-1), ?C?O) showed that proteins were concentrated in the cell center and protein storage vacuoles. Protein secondary structure features of the homohexameric cruciferin lines showed predominant ?-sheet content. The napin-RNAi line had lower ?-helix content than the WT. Lines entirely devoid of cruciferin had high ?-helix and low ?-sheet levels, indicating that structurally different proteins compensate for the loss of cruciferin. Lines producing homohexameric CRUC showed minimal changes in protein secondary structure after pepsin treatment, indicating low enzyme accessibility. The Synchrotron FT-IR technique provides information on protein secondary structure and changes to the structure within the cell.
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In vitro interceptive and reparative effects of myo-inositol against copper-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant system disturbance in primary cultured fish enterocytes.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Our previous study reported that a nutrient antioxidant, myo-inositol (MI), can protect fish from Cu-induced oxidative injury; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze potential pathways. First, to investigate the hypothesis that MI protects enterocytes against Cu toxicity via the intercept pathway, enterocytes were treated with different concentrations of MI (0-75mg/L medium) in the presence of 6mg/L of Cu for 24h (Experiment 1). Next, we investigated the potential reparative role of MI after a Cu challenge (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that cells exposed to Cu alone for 24h exhibited increases in lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and protein oxidation (P<0.05). Notably, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on LDH release was observed with all doses of MI. Moreover, co-treatment with MI completely inhibited Cu-induced protein carbonyl (PC) formation. However, Cu-induced lipid peroxidation was not altered by MI co-treatment. Additionally, Cu exposure suppressed total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD and catalase (CAT) activities, and these changes were completely blocked by co-treatment with sufficient MI concentrations. In contrast, cells exposed to Cu exhibited adaptive increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). Interestingly, the Cu-stimulated increases in these antioxidants were blocked by co-treatment with sufficient MI concentrations. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that cell injury (LDH release), lipid peroxidation (MDA formation) and protein oxidation induced by Cu were reversed by subsequent MI treatment. Meanwhile, Cu-induced decreases in alkaline phosphatase (AKP), anti-superoxide anion (ASA), T-SOD and CuZnSOD activities were completely restored by subsequent MI treatment, while the reduced CAT activity was partially restored. However, MI rescues partially restored the adaptive increase in GPx activity induced by Cu, whereas the adaptive increase in reduced GSH content was completely reversed by 75mg/L of MI. However, subsequent MI treatments did not alter the induction of GST activity by Cu. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MI not only protected enterocytes from Cu-induced oxidative damage but also increased the repair activity in primary enterocytes after challenge with Cu. Moreover, MI-mediated increases in antioxidant enzyme activities contributed to lipid and protein oxidant repair.
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Simultaneous determination of contents of three active components in jiejia tincture by HPLC method.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of the study was to determine the contents of three active components in Jiejia tincture by establishing HPLC method. Test articles were prepared by ultrasonic extraction. Separation was performed using a Kromasil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) chromatographic column, and gradient elution was performed with acetonitrile-0.3% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase at a volumetric flow rate of 0.80 mL/min. The contents of catechin, baicalin and berberine in Jiejia tincture were determined at the wavelength of 276 nm and a column temperature of 30 ?. The results revealed that catechin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 100?800 µg/mL (r=0.9997); baicalin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 15?120 µg/mL (r=0.9996), and berberine at the range of 7?56 µg/mL (r=0.9995). Their average recovery rates were 99.67% (RSD 1.01%, n=6), 98.7% (RSD 1.93%, n=6) and 100.5% (RSD 2.88%, n=6) respectively. The study concluded that the high-performance liquid chromatography established in this study was simple, accurate and reproducible, and can also be used in the determination of catechin, baicalin and berberine contents in Jiejia tincture.
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Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction promotes growth of decidual stromal cells in human first-trimester pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor CD44 are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role in early pregnancy remains unclear. Here, we found that primary decidual stromal cells (DSCs) continuously secreted HA and expressed its receptor CD44. Pregnancy-associated hormones up-regulated HA synthetase (HAS) 2 transcription and HA release from DSCs. High molecular weight-HA (HMW-HA), but not medium molecular weight (MMW-HA) or low molecular weight (LMW-HA), promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of DSCs in a CD44-dependent manner. The in-cell Western analysis revealed HMW-HA activated PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK1/2 signaling pathways time-dependently. Blocking these pathways by specific inhibitor LY294002 or U0126 abrogated HMW-HA-regulated DSc proliferation and apoptosis. Finally, we have found that HA content, HA molecular weight, HAS2 mRNA level, and CD44 expression were significantly decreased in DSCs from unexplained miscarriage compared with the normal pregnancy. Collectively, our results indicate that higher level and greater molecular mass of HA at maternal-fetal interface contributes to DSc growth and maintenance of DSCs in human early pregnancy.
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Threonine affects intestinal function, protein synthesis and gene expression of TOR in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4-25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0-275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG.
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The dysfunction of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells contributes to the abortion of mice caused by Toxoplasma gondii excreted-secreted antigens in early pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that is highly prevalent in human and warm-blooded animals throughout the world, leading to potentially severe congenital infections. Although the abortion caused by T. gondii is believed to be dependent on the timing of maternal infection during pregnancy, the mechanism remains unclear. This study was focused on the effects of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens on pregnant outcomes and CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells at different stages of pregnancy. The results showed that in mice the frequency and suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells were diminished after injection of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early and intermediate stages of pregnancy. The abortion caused by T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early pregnancy could be partly prevented by adoptively transferring of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from the mice injected with T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at late pregnancy, but not from the mice with the same treatment at early pregnancy. Furthermore, T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens induced apoptosis of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells of mice in early and intermediate stages of pregnancy by down-regulating their Bcl-2 expressions and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study provides new insights into the mechanism that T. gondii infection is the high risk factor for abortion in early pregnancy.
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[The association of non-specific chronic inflammation with dendritic cells in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To evaluate the changes in the number and maturation of lung tissue dendritic cells (DCs) and to assess the chronic inflammation in a cigarette smoke-induced COPD model in rats.
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