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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors (TFs) function as key regulators of cellular growth and differentiation in eukaryotic organisms including fungi. We have previously identified MoAp1 and MoAtf1 as bZIP TFs in Magnaporthe oryzae and demonstrated that they regulate the oxidative stress response and are critical in conidiogenesis and pathogenicity. Studies of bZIP proteins could provide a novel strategy for controlling rice blast, but a systematic examination of the bZIP proteins has not been carried out. Here, we identified 19 additional bZIP TFs and characterized their functions. We found that the majority of these TFs exhibit active functions, most notably, in conidiogenesis. We showed that MoHac1 regulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response through a conserved unfolded protein response pathway, MoMetR controls amino acid metabolism to govern growth and differentiation, and MoBzip10 governs appressorium function and invasive hyphal growth. Moreover, MoBzip5 participates in appressorium formation through a pathway distinct from that MoBzip10, and MoMeaB appears to exert a regulatory role through nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization. Collectively, our results provide insights into shared and specific functions associated with each of these TFs and link the regulatory roles to the fungal growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, host penetration and pathogenicity.
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PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P.?sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean.
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Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that the regulators of G-protein signaling proteins regulate amino acid metabolism of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight regulators of G-protein (GTP-binding protein) signaling (RGS) proteins MoRgs1-MoRgs8 that orchestrate the growth, asexual/sexual production, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity. To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ?Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ?Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. In addition, we characterized MoLys20 (Lys is lysine), a homocitrate synthase, whose abundance was significantly decreased in the ?Morgs mutants. The ?Molys20 mutant is auxotrophic for lys and exogenous lys could partially rescue its auxotrophic defects. Deletion of MoLYS20 resulted in defects in conidiation and infection, as well as pathogenicity on rice. Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity.
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Threonine deaminase MoIlv1 is important for conidiogenesis and pathogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Threonine deaminase is the first critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which catalyzes threonine into NH2 and ketobutyrate acid. Previously, we identified and characterized two acetolactate synthases MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 that are involved in the second step of BCAA biosynthesis. Deletion of MoILV2 and MoILV6 resulted in auxotrophy for leucine, isoleucine, and valine and defects in conidiation, appressorial penetration, and pathogenicity. Here, we identified a threonine dehydratase, named MoIlv1, from M. oryzae. MoIlv1 is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ilv1p, which has an important role in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. To characterize the function of MoIlv1, a ?Moilv1 knock-out mutant was generated and analyzed. Disruption of MoILV1 resulted in abnormal conidial morphology, reduced conidiation, limited appressorium-mediated penetration, and attenuated virulence on both barley and rice seedlings. Further analysis by domain-specific deletion revealed that the PALP domain is indispensable for MoIlv1 function. Our study indicates that MoIlv1 is a protein involved in isoleucine biosynthesis that underlies the complex process governing morphogenesis, appressorium formation, invasive hyphae growth, and pathogenicity.
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ALY proteins participate in multifaceted Nep1Mo-triggered responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Previously, it was found that Nep1Mo (a Nep1-like protein from Magnaporthe oryzae) could trigger a variety of plant responses, including stomatal closure, hypersensitive cell death (HCD), and defence-related gene expression, in Nicotiana benthamiana. In this study, it was found that Nep1Mo-induced cell death could be inhibited by the virus-induced gene silencing of NbALY916 in N. benthamiana. NbALY916-silenced plants showed impaired Nep1Mo-induced stomatal closure, decreased Nep1Mo-induced production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells, and reduced Nep1Mo-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae. It also found that the deletion of AtALY4, an orthologue of NbALY916 in Arabidopsis thaliana, impaired Nep1Mo-triggered stomatal closure, HCD, and defence-related gene expression. The compromised stomatal closure observed in the NbALY916-silenced plants and AtALY4 mutants was inhibited by the application of H2O2 and sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor), and both Nep1Mo and H2O2 stimulated guard cell NO synthesis. Conversely, NO-induced stomatal closure was found not to require H2O2 synthesis; and NO treatment did not induce H2O2 production in guard cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NbAlY916/AtAlY4-H2O2-NO pathway mediates multiple Nep1Mo-triggered responses, including stomatal closure, HCD, and defence-related gene expression.
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MoLys2 is necessary for growth, conidiogenesis, lysine biosynthesis, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Amino acid biosyntheses are complex but essential processes in growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lysine biosynthesis via the ?-aminoadipate (AA) pathway involves several steps, including reduction of AA to AA 6-semialdehyde by AA reductase ScLys2. In filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, disruption of the LYS2 gene blocked the lysine biosynthesis but promoted the production of the secondary metabolite penicillin. In comparison, little is known about the function of AA reductase Lys2 in phytopathogenic fungi. We here characterized the functions of MoLys2, a homolog of ScLys2, from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Our results showed that the ?Molys2 mutants were auxotrophic for lysine. The ?Molys2 mutants also exhibited drastic reduction in pathogenicity on rice, inducing small disease lesions. Microscopic examination of the lesions revealed that the invasive hyphae of ?Molys2 mutants were mostly restricted to the primary infected leaf sheath cells. In addition, exogenous lysine restored the production of conidia and near wild-type appressoria differentiation, and rescued the defect of pathogenicity in conidia infection of detached barely and rice leaf sheath. Our results indicated that MoLys2 is necessary for lysine biosynthesis that affects growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity of the fungus. This study does implicate the potential for targeting lysine biosynthesis for the development of novel fungicides against M. oryzae.
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Pleiotropic function of the putative zinc-finger protein MoMsn2 in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase MoOsm1-mediated osmoregulation pathway plays crucial roles in stress responses, asexual and sexual development, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae. Utilizing an affinity purification approach, we identified the putative transcriptional activator MoMsn2 as a protein that interacts with MoOsm1 in vivo. Disruption of the MoMSN2 gene resulted in defects in aerial hyphal growth, conidial production, and infection of host plants. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of several genes involved in conidiophore formation was reduced in ?Momsn2, suggesting that MoMsn2 might function as a transcriptional regulator of these genes. Subsequently, MoCos1 was identified as one of the MoMsn2 targets through yeast one-hybrid analysis in which MoMsn2 binds to the AGGGG and CCCCT motif of the MoCOS1 promoter region. Phenotypic characterization showed that MoMsn2 was required for appressorium formation and penetration and pathogenicity. Although the ?Momsn2 mutant was tolerant to the cell-wall stressor Calcofluor white, it was sensitive to common osmotic stressors. Further analysis suggests that MoMsn2 is involved in the regulation of the cell-wall biosynthesis pathway. Finally, transcriptome data revealed that MoMsn2 modulates numerous genes participating in conidiation, infection, cell-wall integrity, and stress response. Collectively, our results led to a model in which MoMsn2 mediates a series of downstream genes that control aerial hyphal growth, conidiogenesis, appressorium formation, cell-wall biosynthesis, and infection and that also offer potential targets for the development of new disease management strategies.
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Comparison of the rhizosphere bacterial communities of Zigongdongdou soybean and a high-methionine transgenic line of this cultivar.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have shown that methionine from root exudates affects the rhizosphere bacterial population involved in soil nitrogen fixation. A transgenic line of Zigongdongdou soybean cultivar (ZD91) that expresses Arabidopsis cystathionine ?-synthase resulting in an increased methionine production was examined for its influence to the rhizosphere bacterial population. Using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis of the V4 region and DNA extracted from bacterial consortia collected from the rhizosphere of soybean plants grown in an agricultural field at the pod-setting stage, we characterized the populational structure of the bacterial community involved. In total, 87,267 sequences (approximately 10,908 per sample) were analyzed. We found that Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia constitute the dominant taxonomic groups in either the ZD91 transgenic line or parental cultivar ZD, and that there was no statistically significant difference in the rhizosphere bacterial community structure between the two cultivars.
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Acetolactate synthases MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 are required for infection-related morphogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Amino acids are important components in the metabolism of a variety of pathogens, plants and animals. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyses the first common step in leucine, isoleucine and valine biosynthesis, and is the target of several classes of inhibitors. Here, MoIlv2, an orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae?ALS catalytic subunit Ilv2, and MoIlv6, an orthologue of the S.?cerevisiae?ALS regulatory subunit Ilv6, were identified. To characterize MoILV2 and MoILV6 functions, we generated the deletion mutants ?Moilv2 and ?Moilv6. Phenotypic analysis showed that both mutants were auxotrophic for leucine, isoleucine and valine, and were defective in conidial morphogenesis, appressorial penetration and pathogenicity. Further studies suggested that MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 play a critical role in maintaining the balance of intracellular amino acid levels. MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 are both localized to the mitochondria and the signal peptide of MoIlv6 is critical for its localization. In summary, our evidence indicates that MoIlv2 plays a crucial role in isoleucine and valine biosynthesis, whereas MoIlv6 contributes to isoleucine and leucine biosynthesis; both genes are required for fungal pathogenicity. This study indicates the potential of targeting branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis for anti-rice blast management.
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Low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reverses A?(1-42)-mediated memory deficits in rats.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Accumulating evidence shows the disruption of hippocampal neurotrophins secretion leads to memory deficits in Alzheimers disease (AD) animal models. Invasive injection of exogenous neurotrophins into hippocampus reverses spatial memory deficits, but its clinical application is limited by traumatic brain injury during the injection procedure. Notably, recent studies have demonstrated that noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increases endogenous neurotrophins contents in the brain of normal rats. Whether low-frequency rTMS can reverse A?(1-42)-mediated decrease in hippocampal neurotrophins contents and spatial memory impairment is still unclear. Here, we reported that severe deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory were observed in an A?(1-42)-induced toxicity rat model. Furthermore, neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF) and NMDA-receptor levels were decreased after A? injection. However, low-frequency rTMS markedly reversed the decrease in neurotrophins contents. And the rTMS-induced increment of neurotrophins up-regulated hippocampal NMDA-receptor expression. Moreover, low-frequency rTMS rescued deficits in LTP and spatial memory of rats with A?-injection. These results indicate that low-frequency rTMS noninvasively and effectively increases hippocampal neurotrophins and NMDA-receptor contents in A?(1-42)-induced toxicity model rats, which helps to enhance hippocampal LTP and reverses A?(1-42)-mediated memory deficits.
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The Phytophthora sojae Avr1d gene encodes an RxLR-dEER effector with presence and absence polymorphisms among pathogen strains.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Soybean root and stem rot is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. The interaction between P. sojae and soybean fits the "gene-for-gene" hypothesis. Although more than 10 P. sojae avirulence (Avr) effectors have been genetically identified, nearly half of genetically defined avr genes have been cloned. In a previous bioinformatic and global transcriptional analysis, we identified a P. sojae RxLR effector, Avr1d, which was 125 amino acids in length. Mapping data demonstrated that Avr1d presence or absence in the genome was co-segregated with the Avr1d avirulence phenotype in F2 populations. Transient expression of the Avr1d gene using co-bombardment in soybean isogenic lines revealed that this gene triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Rps1d. Sequencing of Avr1d genes in different P. sojae strains revealed two Avr1d alleles. Although polymorphic, the two Avr1d alleles could trigger Rps1d-mediated HR. P. sojae strains carrying either of the alleles were avirulent on Rps1d soybean lines. Avr1d was upregulated during the germinating cyst and early infection stages. Furthermore, transient expression of Avr1d in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed BAX-induced cell death and enhanced P. capsici infection. Avr1d also suppressed effector-triggered immunity induction by associating with Avr1b and Rps1b, suggestive of a role in suppressing plant immunity.
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The actin-regulating kinase homologue MoArk1 plays a pleiotropic function in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Endocytosis is an essential cellular process in eukaryotic cells that involves concordant functions of clathrin and adaptor proteins, various protein and lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ark1p is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase (SPK) family that affects profoundly the organization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. To study the function of MoArk1, an Ark1p homologue identified in Magnaporthe oryzae, we disrupted the MoARK1 gene and characterized the ?Moark1 mutant strain. The ?Moark1 mutant exhibited various defects ranging from mycelial growth and conidial formation to appressorium-mediated host infection. The ?Moark1 mutant also exhibited decreased appressorium turgor pressure and attenuated virulence on rice and barley. In addition, the ?Moark1 mutant displayed defects in endocytosis and formation of the Spitzenkörper, and was hyposensitive to exogenous oxidative stress. Moreover, a MoArk1-green fluorescent protein (MoArk1-GFP) fusion protein showed an actin-like localization pattern by localizing to the apical regions of hyphae. This pattern of localization appeared to be regulated by the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins MoSec22 and MoVam7. Finally, detailed analysis revealed that the proline-rich region within the MoArk1 serine/threonine kinase (S_TKc) domain was critical for endocytosis, subcellular localization and pathogenicity. These results collectively suggest that MoArk1 exhibits conserved functions in endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton organization, which may underlie growth, cell wall integrity and virulence of the fungus.
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Shared and distinct functions of two Gti1/Pac2 family proteins in growth, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Gti1/Pac2 are conserved family proteins that regulate morphogenic transition in yeasts such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans, and they also control toxin production and pathogenicity in filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. To test the functions of Gti1/Pac2 paralogues MoGti1 and MoPac2 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we generated respective ?Mogti1 and ?Mopac2 mutant strains. We found that MoGti1 and MoPac2 exhibit shared and distinct roles in hyphal growth, conidiation, sexual reproduction, stress responses, surface hydrophobility, invasive hyphal growth and pathogenicity. Consistent with the putative conserved function of MoGti1, we showed that MoGti1-GFP is localized to the nucleus, whereas MoPac2-GFP is mainly found in the cytoplasm. In addition, we provided evidence that the nuclear localization of MoGti1 could be subject to regulation by MoPmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, we found that the reduced pathogenicity in the ?Mopac2 mutant corresponds with an increased expression of plant defence genes, including PR1a, AOS2, LOX1, PAD4, and CHT1. Taken together, our studies provide a comprehensive analysis of two similar but distinct Gti1/Pac2 family proteins in M.?oryzae, which underlines the important yet conserved functions of these family proteins in plant pathogenic fungi.
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Occurrence and biomagnification of organohalogen pollutants in two terrestrial predatory food chains.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP), were determined in three raptor species, namely, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), and little owl (Athene noctua), as well as in their primary prey items: Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). DDTs were the predominant pollutants in avian species followed by PBDEs and PCBs, then minimally contribution of HBCDs and DP. Inter-species differences in the PBDE congener profiles were observed between the owls and the common kestrels, with relatively high contributions of lower brominated congeners in the owls but highly brominated congeners in the kestrels. This result may partly be attributed to a possible greater in vivo biotransformation of highly brominated BDE congeners in owls than in kestrels. ?-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomer with a preferential enrichment of (-)-enantiomer in all the samples. No stereoselective bioaccumulation was found for DP isomers in the investigated species. Biomagnification factor (BMF) values were generally higher in the rat-owl food chain than in the sparrow-kestrel food chain. Despite this food chain-specific biomagnification, the relationships between the log BMF and log KOW of PCBs and PBDEs followed a similar function in the two food chains, except for BDE-47, -99, and -100 in the sparrow-kestrel feeding relationship.
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Silencing of G proteins uncovers diversified plant responses when challenged by three elicitors in Nicotiana benthamiana.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Signalling through heterotrimeric G protein composed of ?-, ?- and ?-subunits is essential in numerous physiological processes. Here we show that this prototypical G protein complex acts mechanistically by controlling elicitor sensitivity towards hypersensitive response (HR) and stomatal closure in Nicotiana benthamiana. G?-, G?1-, and G?2-silenced plants were generated using virus-induced gene silencing. All silenced plants were treated with Xanthomonas oryzae harpin, Magnaporthe oryzae Nep1 and Phytophthora boehmeriae boehmerin, respectively. HR was dramatically impaired in G?- and G?2-silenced plants treated with harpin, indicating that harpin-, rather than Nep1- or boehmerin-triggered HR, is G?- and G?2-dependent. Moreover, all G?-, G?1- and G?2-silenced plants significantly impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure, elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production and active oxygen species accumulation in guard cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of G? and G? subunits involvement in stomatal closure in response to elicitors. Furthermore, silencing of G?, G?1 and G?2 has an effect on the transcription of plant defence-related genes when challenged by three elicitors. In conclusion, silencing of G protein subunits results in many interesting plant cell responses, revealing that plant immunity systems employ both conserved and distinct G protein pathways to sense elicitors from distinct phytopathogens formed during plant-microbe evolution.
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Transient silencing mediated by in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNA indicates that PsCdc14 is required for sporangial development in a soybean root rot pathogen.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2011
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In many eukaryotic organisms, Cdc14 phosphatase regulates multiple biological events during anaphase and is essential for mitosis. It has been shown that Cdc14 is required for sporulation in the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans; however, the role that the Cdc14 homolog (PsCdc14) plays in the soil-borne soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae remains ambiguous. PsCdc14 is highly expressed in sporulation, zoospore, and cyst life stages, but not in vegetative mycelia and infection stages, suggesting that it contributes to asexual reproduction and thus the spread of the disease. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mediates gene silencing, a post-transcriptional and highly conserved process in eukaryotes, involving specific gene silencing through degradation of target mRNA. We combined in vitro dsRNA synthesis and a polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation system to construct a dsRNA-mediated transient gene silencing system; and then performed a functional analysis of PsCdc14 in P. sojae. PsCdc14 mRNA was dramatically reduced in transformants after protoplasts were exposed in in vitro synthesized PsCdc14 dsRNA, resulting in low sporangial production and abnormal development in P. sojae silencing lines. Furthermore, dsRNA-mediated transient gene silencing could enable elucidation of P. sojae rapid gene function, facilitating our understanding of the development and pathogenicity mechanisms of this oomycete fungus.
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Eight RGS and RGS-like proteins orchestrate growth, differentiation, and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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A previous study identified MoRgs1 as an RGS protein that negative regulates G-protein signaling to control developmental processes such as conidiation and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we characterized additional seven RGS and RGS-like proteins (MoRgs2 through MoRgs8). We found that MoRgs1 and MoRgs4 positively regulate surface hydrophobicity, conidiation, and mating. Indifference to MoRgs1, MoRgs4 has a role in regulating laccase and peroxidase activities. MoRgs1, MoRgs2, MoRgs3, MoRgs4, MoRgs6, and MoRgs7 are important for germ tube growth and appressorium formation. Interestingly, MoRgs7 and MoRgs8 exhibit a unique domain structure in which the RGS domain is linked to a seven-transmembrane motif, a hallmark of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We have also shown that MoRgs1 regulates mating through negative regulation of G? MoMagB and is involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity. While all proteins appear to be involved in the control of intracellular cAMP levels, only MoRgs1, MoRgs3, MoRgs4, and MoRgs7 are required for full virulence. Taking together, in addition to MoRgs1 functions as a prominent RGS protein in M. oryzae, MoRgs4 and other RGS and RGS-like proteins are also involved in a complex process governing asexual/sexual development, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity.
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Transcriptional programming and functional interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector repertoire.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants.
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Phytophthora sojae avirulence effector Avr3b is a secreted NADH and ADP-ribose pyrophosphorylase that modulates plant immunity.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. However, the virulence functions of oomycete and fungal Avr effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genetics to identify Avr3b, a new Avr gene from Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen that causes soybean root rot. Avr3b encodes a secreted protein with the RXLR host-targeting motif and C-terminal W and Nudix hydrolase motifs. Some isolates of P. sojae evade perception by the soybean R gene Rps3b through sequence mutation in Avr3b and lowered transcript accumulation. Transient expression of Avr3b in Nicotiana benthamiana increased susceptibility to P. capsici and P. parasitica, with significantly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around invasion sites. Biochemical assays confirmed that Avr3b is an ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase, as predicted from the Nudix motif. Deletion of the Nudix motif of Avr3b abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of key residues in Nudix motif significantly impaired Avr3b virulence function but not the avirulence activity. Some Nudix hydrolases act as negative regulators of plant immunity, and thus Avr3b might be delivered into host cells as a Nudix hydrolase to impair host immunity. Avr3b homologues are present in several sequenced Phytophthora genomes, suggesting that Phytophthora pathogens might share similar strategies to suppress plant immunity.
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The function of MoGlk1 in integration of glucose and ammonium utilization in Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Hexokinases are conserved proteins functioning in glucose sensing and signaling. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains several hexokinases, including MoHxk1 (hexokinase) and MoGlk1 (glucokinase) encoded respectively by MoHXK1 and MoGLK1 genes. The heterologous expression of MoGlk1 and MoHxk1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed their conserved functions. Disruption of MoHXK1 resulted in growth reduction in medium containing fructose as the sole carbon source, whereas disruption of MoGLK1 did not cause the similar defect. However, the ?Moglk1 mutant displayed decreased proton extrusion and a lower biomass in the presence of ammonium, suggesting a decline in the utilization of ammonium. Additionally, the MoGLK1 allele lacking catalytic activity restored growth to the ?Moglk1 mutant. Moreover, the expression of MoPMA1 encoding a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase decreased in the ?Moglk1 mutant that can be suppressed by glucose and G-6-P. Thus, MoGlk1, but not MoHxk1, regulates ammonium utilization through a mechanism that is independent from its catalytic activity.
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MoVam7, a conserved SNARE involved in vacuole assembly, is required for growth, endocytosis, ROS accumulation, and pathogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play a central role in membrane fusion and vesicle transport of eukaryotic organisms including fungi. We previously identified MoSce22 as a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNARE protein Sec22 to be involved in growth, stress resistance, and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we provide evidences that MoVam7, an ortholog of S. cerevisiae SNARE protein Vam7, exerts conserved functions in vacuolar morphogenesis and functions in pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Staining with neutral red and FM4-64 revealed the presence of abnormal fragmented vacuoles and an absence of the Spitzenkörper body in the ?Movam7 mutant. The ?Movam7 mutant also exhibited reduced vegetative growth, poor conidiation, and failure to produce the infection structure appressorium. Additionally, treatments with cell wall perturbing agents indicated weakened cell walls and altered distributions of the cell wall component chitin. Furthermore, the ?Movam7 mutant showed a reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hyphal apex and failed to cause diseases on the rice plant. In summary, our studies indicate that MoVam7, like MoSec22, is a component of the SNARE complex whose functions in vacuole assembly also underlies the growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Further studies of MoVam7, MoSec22, and additional members of the SNARE complex are likely to reveal critical mechanisms in vacuole formation and membrane trafficking that is linked to fungal pathogenicity.
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Two phosphodiesterase genes, PDEL and PDEH, regulate development and pathogenicity by modulating intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular responses, such as growth, morphogenesis, and/or pathogenicity of eukaryotic organisms such as fungi. As a second messenger, cAMP is important in the activation of downstream effector molecules. The balance of intracellular cAMP levels depends on biosynthesis by adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and hydrolysis by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEases). The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains a high-affinity (PdeH/Pde2) and a low-affinity (PdeL/Pde1) PDEases, and a previous study showed that PdeH has a major role in asexual differentiation and pathogenicity. Here, we show that PdeL is required for asexual development and conidial morphology, and it also plays a minor role in regulating cAMP signaling. This is in contrast to PdeH whose mutation resulted in major defects in conidial morphology, cell wall integrity, and surface hydrophobicity, as well as a significant reduction in pathogenicity. Consistent with both PdeH and PdeL functioning in cAMP signaling, disruption of PDEH only partially rescued the mutant phenotype of ?magB and ?pka1. Further studies suggest that PdeH might function through a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of pathogenicity factor Mpg1 during surface hydrophobicity and pathogenic development. Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies.
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The bZIP transcription factor MoAP1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H?O?, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H?O?, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H?O?, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT) and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein) genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH) and MGG_15157 (MoACT) showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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The role of vacuolar processing enzymes in plant immunity.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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Proteases play important roles in plant innate immunity. In this mini-review, we describe the current view on the role of a plant protease, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), and the first identified plant caspase-1-like protein, in plant immunity. In the past several years, VPEs were determined to play important roles in various types of cell death in plants. Early studies demonstrated the identification of VPE as a vacuolar hydrolytic protein responsible for maturation of vacuolar proteins. Later, Nicotiana benthamiana VPE was reported to mediate virus-induced hypersensitive response by regulating membrane collapse. The ortholog of VPE in Arabidopsis is also suggested to be involved in both mycotoxin-induced cell death and developmental cell death. However, the role of VPE in elicitor-signaling is still unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated the involvement of VPE in elicitor signal transduction to induce stomatal closure and defense responses, including defense gene expression and hypersensitive cell death.
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Two host cytoplasmic effectors are required for pathogenesis of Phytophthora sojae by suppression of host defenses.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Phytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence similarity, of which three are putative pseudogenes. Functional analysis shows that the two functional genes encode proteins with predicted nuclear localization signals that induce contrasting responses when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). PsCRN63 induces cell death, while PsCRN115 suppresses cell death elicited by the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein (PsojNIP) or PsCRN63. Expression of CRN fragments with deleted signal peptides and FLAK motifs demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal portions of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115 are sufficient for their activities. However, the predicted nuclear localization signal is required for PsCRN63 to induce cell death but not for PsCRN115 to suppress cell death. Furthermore, silencing of the PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 genes in P. sojae stable transformants leads to a reduction of virulence on soybean. Intriguingly, the silenced transformants lose the ability to suppress host cell death and callose deposition on inoculated plants. These results suggest a role for CRN effectors in the suppression of host defense responses.
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The basic leucine zipper transcription factor Moatf1 mediates oxidative stress responses and is necessary for full virulence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, leading to enormous losses of rice production. Here, we characterized a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, Moatf1, in M. oryzae, a homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATF/CREB that regulates the oxidative stress response. Moatf1 deletion caused retarded vegetative growth of mycelia, and the Moatf1 mutant exhibited higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) than did the wild-type strain. The mutant showed severely reduced activity of extracellular enzymes and transcription level of laccases and peroxidases and exhibited significantly reduced virulence on rice cultivar CO-39. On rice leaf sheath, most of the infectious hyphae of the mutant became swollen and displayed restricted growth in primary infected cells. Defense response was strongly activated in plants infected by the mutant. Diamino benzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H(2)O(2) around Moatf1 mutant appressoria and rice cells with Moatf1 hyphae that was absent in the wild type. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase by diphenyleneiodonium prevented host-derived H(2)O(2) accumulation and restored infectious hyphal growth of the mutant in rice cells. Thus, we conclude that Moatf1 is necessary for full virulence of M. oryzae by regulating the transcription of laccases and peroxidases to impair reactive oxygen species-mediated plant defense.
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PsSAK1, a stress-activated MAP kinase of Phytophthora sojae, is required for zoospore viability and infection of soybean.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are universal and evolutionarily conserved signal transduction modules in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, PsSAK1, which encodes a stress-activated MAPK of Phytophthora sojae, was identified. PsSAK1 is highly conserved in oomycetes, and it represents a novel group of MAPK due to its pleckstrin homology domain. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PsSAK1 expression was upregulated in zoospores and cysts and during early infection. In addition, its expression was induced by osmotic and oxidative stress mediated by NaCl and H(2)O(2), respectively. To elucidate the function, the expression of PsSAK1 was silenced using stable transformation of P. sojae. The silencing of PsSAK1 did not impair hyphal growth, sporulation, or oospore production but severely hindered zoospore development, in that the silenced strains showed quicker encystment and a lower germination ratio than the wild type. PsSAK1-silenced mutants produced much longer germ tubes and could not colonize either wounded or unwounded soybean leaves. Our results indicate that PsSAK1 is an important regulator of zoospore development and pathogenicity in P. sojae.
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R-SNARE homolog MoSec22 is required for conidiogenesis, cell wall integrity, and pathogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate intracellular vesicle fusion, which is an essential cellular process of the eukaryotic cells. To investigate the role of SNARE proteins in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, MoSec22, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNARE protein Sec22, was identified and the MoSEC22 gene disrupted. MoSec22 restored a S. cerevisiae sec22 mutant in resistance to cell wall perturbing agents, and the ?Mosec22 mutant also exhibited defects in mycelial growth, conidial production, and infection of the host plant. Treatment with oxidative stress inducers indicated a breach in cell wall integrity, and staining and quantification assays suggested abnormal chitin deposition on the lateral walls of hyphae of the ?Mosec22 mutant. Furthermore, hypersensitivity to the oxidative stress correlates with the reduced expression of the extracellular enzymes peroxidases and laccases. Our study thus provides new evidence on the conserved function of Sec22 among fungal organisms and indicates that MoSec22 has a role in maintaining cell wall integrity affecting the growth, morphogenesis, and virulence of M. oryzae.
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The role of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) from Nicotiana benthamiana in the elicitor-triggered hypersensitive response and stomatal closure.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Elicitors/pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger the plant immune system, leading to rapid programmed cell death (hypersensitive response, HR) and stomatal closure. Previous reports have shown that the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), a cysteine proteinase responsible for the maturation of vacuolar proteins, has caspase-1-like activity and mediates TMV- and mycotoxin-induced cell death. The role of VPE from Nicotiana benthamiana in the response to three elicitors: bacterial harpin, fungal Nep1, and oomycete boehmerin, is described here. Single-silenced (NbVPE1a or NbVPE1b) and dual-silenced (NbVPE1a/1b) N. benthamiana plants were produced by virus-induced gene silencing. Although NbVPE silencing does not affect H(2)O(2) accumulation triggered by boehmerin, harpin, or Nep1, the HR is absent in NbVPE1a- and NbVPE1a/1b-silenced plants treated with harpin alone. However, NbVPE-silenced plants develop a normal HR after boehmerin and Nep1 treatment. These results suggest that harpin-triggered HR is VPE-dependent. Surprisingly, all gene-silenced plants show significantly impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells. Dual-silenced plants show increased elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. The accumulation of transcripts associated with defence and cell redox is modified by VPE silencing in elicitor signalling. Overall, these results indicate that VPE from N. benthamiana functions not only in elicitor-induced HR, but also in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that VPE may be involved in elicitor-triggered immunity.
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A two-component histidine kinase, MoSLN1, is required for cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.
Curr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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A two-component signal transduction system is a common mechanism for environmental sensing in bacteria. The functions of the two-component molecules have been also well characterized in the lower eukaryotic fungi in recent years. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histidine kinase Sln1p is a major component of the two-component signaling pathways and a key regulator of the osmolarity response. To determine the function of MoSLN1, a Sln1 homolog of Magnaporthe oryzae, we cloned the MoSLN1 gene and generated specific mutants using gene knock-out strategy. Disruption of MoSLN1 resulted in hypersensitivity to various stresses, reduced sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agent Calcofluor white, and loss of pathogenicity, mainly due to a penetration defect. Additionally, we showed that MoSLN1 is involved in oxidative signaling through modulation of intra- and extracellular peroxidase activities. These results indicate that MoSLN1 functions as a pathogenicity factor that plays a role in responses to osmotic stress, the cell wall integrity, and the activity of peroxidases.
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GPR11, a putative seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, controls zoospore development and virulence of Phytophthora sojae.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2009
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a large receptor family involved in a broad spectrum of cell signaling. To understand signaling mechanisms mediated by GPCRs in Phytophthora sojae, we identified and characterized the PsGPR11 gene, which encodes a putative seven-transmembrane GPCR. An expression analysis revealed that PsGPR11 was differentially expressed during asexual development. The highest expression level occurred in zoospores and was upregulated during early infection. PsGPR11-deficienct transformants were obtained by gene silencing strategies. Silenced transformants exhibited no differences in hyphal growth or morphology, sporangium production or size, or mating behavior. However, the release of zoospores from sporangia was severely impaired in the silenced transformants, and about 50% of the sporangia did not completely release their zoospores. Zoospore encystment and germination were also impaired, and zoospores of the transformants lost their pathogenicity to soybean. In addition, no interaction was observed between PsGPR11 and PsGPA1 with a conventional yeast two-hybrid assay, and the transcriptional levels of some genes which were identified as being negatively regulated by PsGPA1 were not clearly altered in PsGPR11-silenced mutants. These results suggest that PsGPR11-mediated signaling controls P. sojae zoospore development and virulence through the pathways independent of G protein.
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G protein alpha subunit may help zoospore to find the infection site and influence the expression of RGS protein.
Commun Integr Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Sensing chemical signal secreted from host root and find the best site for penetration are crucial for initiating infection of Phytophthora zoospore. G protein alpha subunit of P. sojae participates in not only the chemotaxis to soybean isoflavone, but also finding penetrating site. Furthermore, although calcium signal pathways are influenced by Galpha, other signal pathways also influenced by G protein remain to be discovered. In this addendum, we describe an RGS protein, PsRGS6, is expressed downregulated in zoospores of Galpha silenced mutant. This result indicates that the expression of Galpha and RGS protein may be influenced by each other. Some differences between Galpha mutants of P. infestans and P. sojae may be due to the different developmental procedures.
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The role of respiratory burst oxidase homologues in elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Active oxygen species (AOS) are central components of the defence reactions of plants against pathogens. Plant respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOH) of gp91(phox), a plasma membrane protein of the neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, play a prominent role in AOS production. The role of two RBOH from Nicotiana benthamiana, NbrbohA and NbrbohB that encode plant NADPH oxidase in the process of elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive cell death is described here. NbrbohA was constitutively expressed at a low level, whereas NbrbohB was induced when protein elicitors exist (such as boehmerin, harpin, or INF1). The virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) method was used to produce single-silenced (NbrbohA or NbrbohB) and double-silenced (NbrbohA and NbrbohB) N. benthamiana plants. The hypersensitive response (HR) of cell death and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression of these gene-silenced N. benthamiana plants, induced by various elicitors, are examined. The HR cell death and transcript accumulation of genes related to the defence response (PR1) were slightly affected, suggesting that RBOH are not essential for elicitor-induced HR and activation of these genes. Interestingly, gene-silenced plants impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production, but not elicitor-induced cytosolic calcium ion accumulation and elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. These results indicate that RBOH from N. benthamiana function in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, but not in elicitor-induced HR.
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The PsCZF1 gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein is required for growth, development and pathogenesis in Phytophthora sojae.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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The C(2)H(2) zinc finger proteins form one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in eukaryotes. We identified a Phytophthora sojae C(2)H(2) zinc finger (PsCZF1), that is highly conserved in sequenced oomycete pathogens. In transformants of P. sojae containing the PsCZF1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, GUS activity was highly induced in the P. sojae oospore stage and upregulated after infection. To elucidate the function of PsCZF1, its expression was silenced by introducing anti-sense constructs into P sojae. PsCZF1-silenced transformants did not exhibit altered cell size or morphology of sporangia and hyphae; however, hyphal growth rate was reduced by around 50% in the mutants. PsCZF1-deficient mutants were also impaired in production of oospores, swimming zoospores and germinating cysts, indicating that the gene is involved in various stages of the life cycle. Furthermore, we found that PsCZF1-deficient mutants lost virulence on host soybean cultivars. Our results suggest that this oomycete-specific C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein plays an important role in growth, development, and pathogenesis; therefore, PsCZF1 might be an attractive oomycete-specific target for chemical fungicide screening.
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MgCRZ1, a transcription factor of Magnaporthe grisea, controls growth, development and is involved in full virulence.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Calcineurin, a conserved Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase, is an important mediator of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in many organisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcineurin positively regulates transcription in response to stress by dephosphorylating the transcription factor Crz1p. Here we describe the identification, cloning, and function of the gene encoding the Magnaporthe grisea CRZ1 homolog, MgCRZ1. Specifically, we demonstrated that MgCRZ1 partially complemented a yeast Deltacrz1 mutant and exhibited Ca(2+) and calcineurin activity-dependent cellular localization. Targeted disruption of MgCRZ1 resulted in hypersensitivity to Ca(2+). Compared with the wild-type Guy11 strain, the Deltacrz1 mutants formed significantly reduced numbers of conidia and a large portion of abnormal appressoria (>50%) that exhibited little or no melanin production. Lipid metabolism was delayed, and the level of turgor pressure within the appressoria declined, thereby notably attenuating mutant pathogenicity. We conclude that MgCRZ1 is essential for growth, development, and full virulence of M. grisea.
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The LCB2 subunit of the sphingolip biosynthesis enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase can function as an attenuator of the hypersensitive response and Bax-induced cell death.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Previous results showed that expression of the gene encoding the LONG-CHAIN BASE2 (LCB(2)) subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), designated BcLCB(2), from nonheading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis) was up-regulated during hypersensitive cell death (HCD) induced by the Phytophthora boehmeriae elicitor PB90. Overexpression of BcLCB(2) in Nicotiana tabacum leaves suppressed the HCD normally initiated by elicitors and PB90-triggered H(2)O(2) accumulation. BcLCB(2) also functioned as a suppressor of mouse Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein-mediated HCD and cell death caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. BcLCB(2) overexpression suppressed Bax- and oxidant stress-triggered yeast cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation induced by Bax was compromised in BcLCB(2)-overexpressing yeast cells. The findings that NbLCB(2) silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced elicitor-triggered HCD, combined with the fact that myriocin, a potent inhibitor of SPT, had no effect on Bax-induced programmed cell death, suggested that suppression of cell death was not involved in the dominant-negative effect that resulted from BcLCB(2) overexpression. A BcLCB(2) mutant assay showed that the suppression was not involved in SPT activity. The results suggest that plant HCD and stress-induced yeast cell death might share a common signal transduction pathway involving LCB(2), and that LCB(2) protects against cell death by inhibiting ROS accumulation, this inhibition being independent of SPT activity.
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Inhalation cancer risk associated with exposure to complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in an electronic waste and urban area in South China.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
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Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profiles within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounted for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (<0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area.
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The role of G-proteins in plant immunity.
Plant Signal Behav
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Heterotrimeric G-proteins play an important regulatory role in multiple physiological processes, including the plant immune response, and substantial progress has been made in elucidating the G-protein-mediated defense-signaling network. This mini-review discusses the importance of G-proteins in plant immunity. We also provide an overview of how G-proteins affect plant cell death and stomatal movement. Our recent studies demonstrated that G-proteins are involved in signal transduction and induction of stomatal closure and defense responses. We also discuss future directions for G-protein signaling studies involving plant immunity.
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The Nicotiana benthamiana mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and WRKY transcription factor participate in Nep1(Mo)-triggered plant responses.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
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Many bacterial, fungal, and oomycete species secrete necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLP) that trigger programmed cell death (PCD) and innate immune responses in dicotyledonous plants. However, how NLP induce such immune responses is not understood. Here, we show that silencing of the MAPKKK?-MEK2-WIPK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade through virus-induced gene silencing compromises hydrogen peroxide accumulation and PCD induced by Nep1(Mo) from Magnaporthe oryzae. WIPK interacts with NbWRKY2, a transcription factor in Nicotiana benthamiana, in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an effector pathway that mediates Nep1(Mo)-induced cell death. Unexpectedly, salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK)- and NbWRKY2-silenced plants showed impaired Nep1(Mo)-induced stomatal closure, decreased Nep1(Mo)-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells, and a reduction in Nep1(Mo)-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae. Expression studies by real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that the MEK2-WIPK-NbWRKY2 pathway regulated Nep1(Mo)triggered NO accumulation could be partly dependent on nitrate reductase, which was implicated in NO synthesis. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the MAPK cascade is involved in Nep1(Mo)-triggered plant responses and MAPK signaling associated with PCD exhibits shared and distinct components with that for stomatal closure.
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The RxLR effector Avh241 from Phytophthora sojae requires plasma membrane localization to induce plant cell death.
New Phytol.
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• The Phytophthora sojae genome encodes hundreds of RxLR effectors predicted to manipulate various plant defense responses, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized in detail the P. sojae RxLR effector Avh241. • To determine the function and localization of Avh241, we transiently expressed it on different plants. Silencing of Avh241 in P. sojae, we determined its virulence during infection. Through the assay of promoting infection by Phytophthora capsici to Nicotiana benthamiana, we further confirmed this virulence role. • Avh241 induced cell death in several different plants and localized to the plant plasma membrane. An N-terminal motif within Avh241 was important for membrane localization and cell death-inducing activity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases, NbMEK2 and NbWIPK, were required for the cell death triggered by Avh241 in N. benthamiana. Avh241 was important for the pathogens full virulence on soybean. Avh241 could also promote infection by P. capsici and the membrane localization motif was not required to promote infection. • This work suggests that Avh241 interacts with the plant immune system via at least two different mechanisms, one recognized by plants dependent on subcellular localization and one promoting infection independent on membrane localization.
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A Myb transcription factor of Phytophthora sojae, regulated by MAP kinase PsSAK1, is required for zoospore development.
PLoS ONE
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PsSAK1, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase from Phytophthora sojae, plays an important role in host infection and zoospore viability. However, the downstream mechanism of PsSAK1 remains unclear. In this study, the 3-tag digital gene expression (DGE) profiling method was applied to sequence the global transcriptional sequence of PsSAK1-silenced mutants during the cysts stage and 1.5 h after inoculation onto susceptible soybean leaf tissues. Compared with the gene expression levels of the recipient P. sojae strain, several candidates of Myb family were differentially expressed (up or down) in response to the loss of PsSAK1, including of a R2R3-type Myb transcription factor, PsMYB1. qRT-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of PsMYB1 decreased due to PsSAK1 silencing. The transcriptional level of PsMYB1 increased during sporulating hyphae, in germinated cysts, and early infection. Silencing of PsMYB1 results in three phenotypes: a) no cleavage of the cytoplasm into uninucleate zoospores or release of normal zoospores, b) direct germination of sporangia, and c) afunction in zoospore-mediated plant infection. Our data indicate that the PsMYB1 transcription factor functions downstream of MAP kinase PsSAK1 and is required for zoospore development of P. sojae.
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Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Phytophthora sojae.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
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Phytophthora sojae is a devastating pathogen that causes soybean Phytophthora root rot. This study reports the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the A3aPro element for visual detection of P. sojae. The A3aPro-LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target element in < 80 min at 64 °C and was evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The specificity was evaluated against P. sojae, Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp., and true fungi isolates. Magnesium pyrophosphate resulting from the LAMP of P. sojae could be detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. Phytophthora sojae DNA products were visualized as a ladder-like banding pattern on 2% gel electrophoresis. A positive colour (sky blue) was only observed in the presence of P. sojae with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue prior to amplification, whereas none of other isolates showed a colour change. The detection limit of the A3aPro-specific LAMP assay for P. sojae was 10 pg ?L(-1) of genomic DNA per reaction. The assay also detected P. sojae from diseased soybean tissues and residues. These results suggest that the A3aPro-LAMP assay reported here can be used for the visual detection of P. sojae in plants and production fields.
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MoSwi6, an APSES family transcription factor, interacts with MoMps1 and is required for hyphal and conidial morphogenesis, appressorial function and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
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The Magnaporthe oryzae mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MoMps1 plays a critical role in the regulation of various developmental processes, including cell wall integrity, stress responses and pathogenicity. To identify potential effectors of MoMps1, we characterized the function of MoSwi6, a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi6 downstream of MAPK Slt2 signalling. MoSwi6 interacted with MoMps1 both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a possible functional link analogous to Swi6-Slt2 in S. cerevisiae. Targeted gene disruption of MoSWI6 resulted in multiple developmental defects, including reduced hyphal growth, abnormal formation of conidia and appressoria, and impaired appressorium function. The reduction in appressorial turgor pressure also contributed to an attenuation of pathogenicity. The ?Moswi6 mutant also displayed a defect in cell wall integrity, was hypersensitive to oxidative stress, and showed a significant reduction in transcription and activity of extracellular enzymes, including peroxidases and laccases. Collectively, these roles are similar to those of MoMps1, confirming that MoSwi6 functions in the MoMps1 pathway to govern growth, development and full pathogenicity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.