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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6 (3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas.
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Genetic diversity of picocyanobacteria in tibetan lakes: assessing the endemic and universal distributions.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The phylogenetic diversity of picocyanobacteria in seven alkaline lakes on the Tibetan Plateau was analyzed using the molecular marker 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. A total of 1,077 environmental sequences retrieved from the seven lakes were grouped into seven picocyanobacterial clusters, with two clusters newly described here. Each of the lakes was dominated by only one or two clusters, while different lakes could have disparate communities, suggesting low alpha diversity but high beta diversity of picocyanobacteria in these high-altitude freshwater and saline lakes. Several globally distributed clusters were found in these Tibetan lakes, such as subalpine cluster I and the Cyanobium gracile cluster. Although other clusters likely exhibit geographic restriction to the plateau temporally, reflecting endemicity, they can indeed be distributed widely on the plateau. Lakes with similar salinities may have similar genetic populations despite a large geographic distance. Canonical correspondence analysis identified salinity as the only environmental factor that may in part explain the diversity variations among lakes. Mantel tests suggested that the community similarities among lakes are independent of geographic distance. A portion of the picocyanobacterial clusters appear to be restricted to a narrow salinity range, while others are likely adapted to a broad range. A seasonal survey of Lake Namucuo across 3 years did not show season-related variations in diversity, and depth-related population partitioning was observed along a vertical profile of the lake. Our study emphasizes the high dispersive potential of picocyanobacteria and suggests that the regional distribution may result from adaptation to specified environments.
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ViRBase: a resource for virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Increasing evidence reveals that diverse non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critically important roles in viral infection. Viruses can use diverse ncRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression to establish a host environment conducive to the completion of the viral life cycle. Many host cellular ncRNAs can also directly or indirectly influence viral replication and even target virus genomes. ViRBase (http://www.rna-society.org/virbase) aims to provide the scientific community with a resource for efficient browsing and visualization of virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions and interaction networks in viral infection. The current version of ViRBase documents more than 12 000 viral and cellular ncRNA-associated virus-virus, virus-host, host-virus and host-host interactions involving more than 460 non-redundant ncRNAs and 4400 protein-coding genes from between more than 60 viruses and 20 hosts. Users can query, browse and manipulate these virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions. ViRBase will be of help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular virus-host ncRNA-associated interaction networks in viral infection.
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Accelerated NMR Spectroscopy with Low-Rank Reconstruction.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Accelerated multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is a prerequisite for high-throughput applications, studying short-lived molecular systems and monitoring chemical reactions in real time. Non-uniform sampling is a common approach to reduce the measurement time. Here, a new method for high-quality spectra reconstruction from non-uniformly sampled data is introduced, which is based on recent developments in the field of signal processing theory and uses the so far unexploited general property of the NMR signal, its low rank. Using experimental and simulated data, we demonstrate that the low-rank reconstruction is a viable alternative to the current state-of-the-art technique compressed sensing. In particular, the low-rank approach is good in preserving of low-intensity broad peaks, and thus increases the effective sensitivity in the reconstructed spectra.
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Fast 3D gradient shimming by only 2×2 pixels in XY plane for NMR-solution samples.
J. Magn. Reson.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Shimming is an essential process for most NMR experiments, and time saving in this process is desired. Here we propose a fast 3D gradient shimming with a low resolution of only 2×2 pixels in the XY plane, and the number of pixels in the Z direction remains unchanged. The proposed pulse sequences employ the selective excitation and the convection compensation. Consequently, the fast 3D gradient shimming adapts to a wide range of samples on regular NMR spectrometers.
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Common variants near ABCA1 and in PMM2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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We performed a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,007 cases with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG) and 1,009 controls from southern China. We observed genome-wide significant association at multiple SNPs near ABCA1 at 9q31.1 (rs2487032; P = 1.66 × 10(-8)) and suggestive evidence of association in PMM2 at 16p13.2 (rs3785176; P = 3.18 × 10(-6)). We replicated these findings in a set of 525 HPG cases and 912 controls from Singapore and a further set of 1,374 POAG cases and 4,053 controls from China. We observed genome-wide significant association with more than one SNP at the two loci (P = 2.79 × 10(-19) for rs2487032 representing ABCA1 and P = 5.77 × 10(-10) for rs3785176 representing PMM2). Both ABCA1 and PMM2 are expressed in the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve and other ocular tissues. In addition, ABCA1 is highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, a finding consistent with it having a role in the development of glaucoma.
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From cell membrane to the nucleus: an emerging role of E-cadherin in gene transcriptional regulation.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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E-cadherin is a well-known mediator of cell-cell adherens junctions. However, many other functions of E-cadherin have been reported. Collectively, the available data suggest that E-cadherin may also act as a gene transcriptional regulator. Here, evidence supporting this claim is reviewed, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. E-cadherin has been shown to modulate the activity of several notable cell signalling pathways, and given that most of these pathways in turn regulate gene expression, we proposed that E-cadherin may regulate gene transcription by affecting these pathways. Additionally, E-cadherin has been shown to accumulate in the nucleus where documentation of an E-cadherin fragment bound to DNA suggests that E-cadherin may directly regulate gene transcription. In summary, from the cell membrane to the nucleus, a role for E-cadherin in gene transcription may be emerging. Studies specifically focused on this potential role would allow for a more thorough understanding of this transmembrane glycoprotein in mediating intra- and intercellular activities.
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AUF1 is recruited to the stress granules induced by coxsackievirus B3.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granules that are formed in cells when stress occurs. In this study, we found that SGs formed in cells infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), evidenced with the co-localization of some accepted SG markers in the viral infection-induced granules. We further discovered that adenosine-uridine (AU)-rich element RNA binding factor 1 (AUF1), which can bind to mRNAs and regulate their translation, was recruited to the SGs in response to high dose of CVB3 by detecting the co-localization of AUF1 with SG markers. Similar results were also observed in the enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected cells. Finally, we demonstrated that AUF1 was also recruited to arsenite-induced SGs, suggesting that the recruitment of AUF1 to SG is not a specific response to viral infection. In summary, our data indicate that both CVB3 and EV71 infections can induce SG formation, and AUF1 is a novel SG component upon the viral infections. Our findings may shed light on understanding the picornavirus-host interaction.
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Optimization of liquid media and biosafety assessment for algae-lysing bacterium NP23.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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To control algal bloom caused by nutrient pollution, a wild-type algae-lysing bacterium was isolated from the Baiguishan reservoir in Henan province of China and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain NP23. Algal culture medium was optimized by applying a Placket-Burman design to obtain a high cell concentration of NP23. Three minerals (i.e., 0.6% KNO3, 0.001% MnSO4·H2O, and 0.3% K2HPO4) were found to be independent factors critical for obtaining the highest cell concentration of 10(13) CFU/mL, which was 10(4) times that of the control. In the algae-lysing experiment, the strain exhibited a high lysis rate for the 4 algae test species, namely, Chlorella vulgari, Scenedesmus, Microcystis wesenbergii, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity tests showed that the bacterium NP23 had no toxic and mutagenic effects on fish, even in large doses such as 10(7) or 10(9) CFU/mL. Thus, Enterobacter sp. strain NP23 has strong potential application in the microbial algae-lysing project.
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Gut microbial diversity in rat model induced by rhubarb.
Exp. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Rhubarb is often used to establish chronic diarrhea and spleen (Pi)-deficiency syndrome animal models in China. In this study, we utilized the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method to detect changes in bacterial diversity in feces and the bowel mucosa associated with this model. Total microbial genomic DNA from the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum), cecum, and feces of normal and rhubarb-exposed rats were used as templates for the ERIC-PCR analysis. We found that the fecal microbial composition did not correspond to the bowel bacteria mix. More bacterial diversity was observed in the ileum of rhubarb-exposed rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, a 380 bp product was found to be increased in rhubarb-exposed rats both in faces and the bowel mucosa. The product was cloned and sequenced and showed high similarity with regions of the Bacteroides genome. AS a result of discriminant analysis with the SPSS software, the Canonical Discriminant Function Formulae for model rats was established.
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In vitro human fecal microbial metabolism of Forsythoside A and biological activities of its metabolites.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Forsythoside A (FTA) by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its intestinal metabolism and its pharmacological activities. FTA was incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate its metabolic process, and highly sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was performed using MetaboLynx™ software for metabolite analysis. Caffeic acid (CA) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) were obtained by hydrolysis of FTA, and CA was further hydrogenated to form 3,4-dihydroxybenzenepropionic acid (DCA). The anticomplementary, antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities of FTA and its metabolites by human fecal microflora were evaluated in vitro with a hemolysis assay, the agar disc-diffusion method, the MIC value and the gel clot LAL assay, respectively. The metabolites showed higher biological activity than FTA, especially HT and DCA. Orally administered FTA may be metabolized to HT and DCA, and the pharmacological effects of FTA may be dependent on intestinal bacterial metabolism.
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Control of Cellular Motility by Neuropilin-mediated Physical Interactions.
Biomol Concepts
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The Neuropilin (Nrp) family are multi-functional cell surface receptors with critical roles in a number of different cell and tissue types. A core aspect of Nrp function is in ligand-dependent cellular migration, where it controls the multi-step process of cellular motility through integration of ligand binding and receptor signaling. At a molecular level, Nrp's role in migration is intimately connected to control of adhesive interactions and cytoskeletal reorganization. Here we review the physiological role of Nrp in cellular adhesion and motility in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. We also discuss the emerging pathological role of Nrp in tumor cell migration and metastasis, providing motivation for continued efforts towards developing Nrp inhibitors.
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Alteration of naïve and memory B-cell subset in chronic graft-versus-host disease patients after treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties and exhibit promising efficacy against chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), little is known about the immune changes by which MSCs ameliorate cGVHD in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that B lymphocytes might play an important role in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. In this study, we investigated changes in the numbers, phenotypes, and subpopulations of B lymphocytes in cGVHD patients who showed a complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or no response (NR) after MSC treatment. We found that the frequencies and numbers of CD27(+) memory and pre-germinal center B lymphocytes were significantly increased in the CR and PR cGVHD patients after MSC treatment but decreased in the NR patients. A further analysis of CR/PR cGVHD patients showed that MSC treatment led to a decrease in the plasma levels of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and increased expression of the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) on peripheral B lymphocytes but no changes in plasma BAFF levels or BAFF-R expression on B lymphocytes in NR patients. Overall, our findings imply that MSCs might exert therapeutic effects in cGVHD patients, accompanied by alteration of naïve and memory B-cell subsets, modulating plasma BAFF levels and BAFF-R expression on B lymphocytes.
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Effects of Nano-MnO2 on dopaminergic neurons and the spatial learning capability of rats.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive cell number decreased significantly compared with nano-MnO2 group. The alteration of spatial learning abilities of rats induced by nano-MnO2 may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte activation.
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Oxidative stress and antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens: state of the art, methodologies, and future trends.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Despite the significant advances of modern medicine and the availability of a wide variety of antibiotics for the treatment of microbial infections, there is an alarming increase of multiresistant bacterial pathogens. This chapter discusses the status of bacterial resistance mechanisms and the relationship with oxidative stress and provides an overview of the methods used to assess oxidative conditions and their contribution to the antibiotic resistance.
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Maternal repeated oral exposure to microcystin-LR affects neurobehaviors in developing rats.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Microcystins are toxic peptides secreted by certain water blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The most widely studied microcystin is microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which exhibits hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. However, limited information is available regarding the effects on offspring following maternal exposure. The present study was conducted to observe the effects of progestational exposure to MC-LR on postnatal development in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (28 d old) were randomly divided into a control group and 3 treatment groups (1.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, 5.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, and 20.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt), with 7 rats per group. The MC-LR was administered through gavage once every 48?h for 8 wk. Pure water was used as control. Each female rat was mated with an unexposed adult male rat. Motor development, behavioral development, and learning ability of pups were detected using surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance tests on postnatal day 7. Open-field and Morris water maze tests were performed on postnatal day 28 and day 60. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant indices in the rat hippocampus were also detected. Pups from the MC-LR-treated groups had significantly lower scores than controls in the cliff avoidance test (p?
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Hospital nurses' comfort in and frequency of delivering heart failure self-care education.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Nurses are expected to deliver pre-discharge heart failure education in 8 content areas: what heart failure means, medications, diet, activity, weight monitoring, fluid restriction, signs/symptoms of worsening condition and signs/symptoms of fluid overload.
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Changing Trends in the American Diet and the Rising Prevalence of Kidney Stones.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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To evaluate the trends in the American diet over the last 40 years (1974-2010), during which time the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set has documented an increase in stone prevalence from 3.8% to 8.8%.
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Ursolic acid induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and suppression of ERK1/2 MAPK in HeLa cells.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various tumors. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of UA-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Here, we reported that UA induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in HeLa cells, as shown by release of cytosol cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, reduction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increase of Bax and Bak. UA down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas phosphorylation of JNK was unchanged. The roles of ERK1/2 and p38 were further confirmed using the ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). U0126 markedly increased UA-induced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the increase of cytosol cytochrome c, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3, but SB203580 had little effects on the above characters, suggesting the ERK1/2 signaling pathway is required for apoptosis. Furthermore, UA up-regulated DUSP 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 mRNA expressions, which may be a clue for the role of dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. These data suggested that the apoptotic mechanism of UA treatment in HeLa cells was through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and closely associated with the suppression of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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Intestinal bacterial metabolism and anti-complement activities of three major components of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the metabolism of Entadae Semen by human fecal bacteria to clarify the relationship between its pharmacological activities and intestinal metabolism. Three major components (phaseoloidin, entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside and entadamide A) were isolated and identified from Entadae Semen and then incubated with human fecal microflora in vitro to investigate the metabolic processes. The metabolites were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-complement activities of the three components and their metabolites produced by human fecal microflora were evaluated in vitro using a hemolysis assay. Phaseoloidin and entadamide A-?-D-glucopyranoside were metabolized into their respective aglycones during the incubation process, which enhanced their anti-complement effects. These results indicated that the presence of intestinal bacteria likely plays an important role and that the pharmacological effects of Entadae Semen may be dependent on intestinal bacterial metabolism.
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Community knowledge and experience of mosquitoes and personal prevention and control practices in lhasa, tibet.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude, latitude and longitude regions worldwide.
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Reversing effect and mechanism of soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein on multidrug resistance in human lung cancer A549/DDP cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Lung cancer is the primary malignancy of the lung and is the leading cause of cancer?associated mortality in China. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an essential aspect of lung cancer treatment failure and a popular topic of investigation in tumor studies. Previous studies have demonstrated that soluble resistance?related calcium?binding protein (Sorcin) is involved in the MDR of various types of human tumor, and that silencing Sorcin was able to reverse the MDR of several types of cultured human cancer cells. However, the effect and potential mechanism underlying the ability of Sorcin to reverse MDR in human lung cancer remains to be fully elucidated. The present study examined the role of Sorcin in the reversal of MDR in human lung cancer A549/DDP cells. The effects included increased drug sensitivity to cisplatin, apoptotic rate, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and intracellular accumulation of rhodamine?123, and decreased expression of multidrug resistance gene 1, lung resistance protein, multidrug resistance?associated protein, glutathione S?transferase ?, ATP?binding cassette transporter A2 (ABCA2), ABCA5, B?cell lymphoma 2 and P?glycoprotein, and the depletion of glutathione in Sorcin?silenced A549/DDP cells. The present study also revealed that there was a downregulation of p?Akt and phosphorylated extracellular signal?regulated kinase (p?ERK), and a decreased transcriptional activation of nuclear factor ?B, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5 and nuclear factor of activated T?cells following silencing of Sorcin. The results indicated that Sorcin may be used as a potential therapeutic target for MDR through inhibiting the Akt and ERK pathways in human lung cancer.
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Induction of neutralizing antibodies to influenza A virus H7N9 by inactivated whole virus in mice and nonhuman primates.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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We evaluated the immunogenicity of hemagglutinin (HA) in the context of inactivated H7N9/AH/1/13-PR8 whole-virion. At 4weeks after immunization with 15?g HA, mice produced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers of 1:192 and neutralizing antibodies of 1:317. Aluminum hydroxide (alum), or a booster immunization, or both increased HI to 1:768, 1:384, 1:896 and neutralizing antibodies to 1:1868, 1:2302, 1:10,000, respectively. Macaques generated HI of 1:190 or 1:360 and virus neutralizing titers of 1:280 or 1:658 at 3weeks after immunization with HA alone or with alum. Sera from immunized mice and macaques protected mice from infection of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), suggesting an H7N9 vaccine is immunologically feasible.
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[Oseltamivir resistance among pandemic A(H1N1)2009 viruses between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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To study the prevalence of oseltamivir-resistance among pandemic A (H1N1)2009 viruses isolated from patients in Guangzhou between 2009 and 2011, and to provide more information for clinical usage of oseltamivir.
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Parallel computing of patch-based nonlocal operator and its application in compressed sensing MRI.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Magnetic resonance imaging has been benefited from compressed sensing in improving imaging speed. But the computation time of compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) is relatively long due to its iterative reconstruction process. Recently, a patch-based nonlocal operator (PANO) has been applied in CS-MRI to significantly reduce the reconstruction error by making use of self-similarity in images. But the two major steps in PANO, learning similarities and performing 3D wavelet transform, require extensive computations. In this paper, a parallel architecture based on multicore processors is proposed to accelerate computations of PANO. Simulation results demonstrate that the acceleration factor approaches the number of CPU cores and overall PANO-based CS-MRI reconstruction can be accomplished in several seconds.
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Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: outcomes with expanded indications.
Int Braz J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Tubeless PCNL has been utilized to shorten hospital stay and improve patient postoperative pain control. Prior studies have excluded those patients with significant bleeding or other complications. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of tubeless PCNL in all patients irrespective of intraoperative outcome.
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Outcomes of infected cardiovascular implantable devices in dialysis patients.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Dialysis patients are at a higher risk for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection-related hospitalizations. We compared the outcomes and cost for dialysis and non-dialysis patients hospitalized with CIED infections.
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Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for maximal recovery of active monacolins and removal of toxic citrinin from red yeast rice by a full factorial design coupled with response surface methodology.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This study optimised the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to achieve maximal recovery of active monacolins with minimal contents of citrinin from red yeast rice (RYR). A central composite design after a full factorial design was utilised to examine the different UAE parameters. The studies revealed that HAc%, extraction time and EtOH% had significant influences on the recovery yield of monacolins, while HAc% and EtOH% were key factors for the elimination of citrinin. The resulting optimal conditions were as follows: ultrasound power of 250W, HAc% of 7.7%, RYR amount of 0.2g (solvent-to-solid ratio 40mL/g), extraction time of 50.7min, EtOH% of 57.2% and extraction temperature of 20°C. Under these conditions, at least 94.7% of monacolins was recovered and 87.7% of citrinin was removed from RYR. This optimised UAE condition was further evaluated for potential industrial application in manufacturing of RYR as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
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Can 24-hour urine stone risk profiles predict urinary stone composition?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Distinguishing calcium oxalate from uric acid stones is critical to identify those patients who may benefit from dissolution therapy and can also help direct preventive measures for stone growth. We aim to study whether 24-hour urine analysis may predict the urinary stone composition.
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LincRNA-p21 enhances the sensitivity of radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer by targeting the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Recent studies show that long intergenic noncoding RNA-p21 (lincRNA-p21) is aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers in the world. Radiotherapy is considered as a standard preoperative treatment approach to reduce local recurrence for local advanced rectal cancer. However, a considerable number of rectal cancers are resistant to radiotherapy. In the present study, we evaluated the role of lincRNA?p21 in radiotherapy for CRC and detected the possible molecular mechanism. By expression profile analysis, we demonstrated that lincRNA-p21 decreases in CRC cell lines and tissue samples, which contributes to the elevation of ?-catenin in CRC. We further showed that lincRNA?p21 increases following X-ray treatment, and enforced expression of the lincRNA enhances the sensitivity of radiotherapy for CRC by promoting cell apoptosis. Suppression of the ?-catenin signaling pathway and elevation of the pro-apoptosis gene Noxa expression may help explain the role of lincRNA-p21 in CRC radiotherapy. The present study not only deepens our understanding of the mechanism of radiotherapy for CRC, but it also provides a potential target for CRC radiotherapy.
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Comparative effectiveness of early versus conventional timing of dialysis initiation in advanced CKD.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Previous observational studies examining outcomes associated with the timing of dialysis therapy initiation in the United States have often been limited by lead time and survivor bias.
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Construction and characterization of a thermostable whole-cell chitinolytic enzyme using yeast surface display.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To develop a novel yeast whole-cell biocatalyst by yeast surface display technology that can hydrolyze chitin, the chitinaseC gene from Serratia marcescens AS1.1652 strain was cloned and subcloned into the yeast surface display plasmid pYD1, and the recombinant plasmid pYD1/SmchiC was electroporated into Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 cell. Aga2p-SmChiC fusion protein was expressed and anchored on the yeast cell surface by induction with galactose, which was verified by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The chitinolytic activity of the yeast whole-cell biocatalyst or partially purified enzyme was detected by agar plate clear zone test, SDS-PAGE zymography and dinitrosalicylic acid method. The results showed that the chitinaseC gene from S. marcescens AS1.1652 strain was successfully cloned and expressed on the yeast cell surface, Aga2p-SmChiC fusion protein with molecular weight (67 kDa) was determined. Tests on the effect of temperature and pH on enzyme activity and stability revealed that the yeast whole-cell biocatalyst and partially purified enzyme possessed both thermal stability and activity, and even maintained some activity under acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. The optimum reaction temperature and pH value were set at 52 °C and 5.0, respectively. Yeast surface display technology succeeded in preparing a yeast whole-cell biocatalyst with chitinolytic activity, and the utilization of chitin could benefit from this process of enzyme preparation.
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Solar hydrogen from an aqueous, noble-metal-free hybrid system in a continuous-flow sampling reaction system.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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We introduce the visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction as catalyzed by a cobaloxime/carbon nitride (C3N4) noble-metal-free hybrid photosystem by using a continuous-flow sampling reaction system. The photocatalytic H2 evolution rate is highly dependent on the structure of C3N4, in which porous C3N4 shows the best activity compared with bulk C3N4 (lamellar) and C3N4 nanosheets. When using porous C3N4, the system is neither affected by the solution pH, nor the C3N4 concentration, nor the structure of the cobaloxime complex.
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A novel transgenic mouse model of Chinese Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2L.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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We previously found that the K141N mutation in heat shock protein B8 (HSPB8) was responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2L in a large Chinese family. The objective of the present study was to generate a transgenic mouse model bearing the K141N mutation in the human HSPB8 gene, and to determine whether this (K141N)HSPB8 transgenic mouse model would manifest the clinical phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2L, and consequently be suitable for use in studies of disease pathogenesis. Transgenic mice overexpressing (K141N)HSPB8 were generated using K141N mutant HSPB8 cDNA cloned into a pCAGGS plasmid driven by a human cytomegalovirus expression system. PCR and western blot analysis confirmed integration of the (K141N)HSPB8 gene and widespread expression in tissues of the transgenic mice. The (K141N)HSPB8 transgenic mice exhibited decreased muscle strength in the hind limbs and impaired motor coordination, but no obvious sensory disturbance at 6 months of age by behavioral assessment. Electrophysiological analysis showed that the compound motor action potential amplitude in the sciatic nerve was significantly decreased, but motor nerve conduction velocity remained normal at 6 months of age. Pathological analysis of the sciatic nerve showed reduced myelinated fiber density, notable axonal edema and vacuolar degeneration in (K141N)HSPB8 transgenic mice, suggesting axonal involvement in the peripheral nerve damage in these animals. These findings indicate that the (K141N)HSPB8 transgenic mouse successfully models Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2L and can be used to study the pathogenesis of the disease.
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Simulated gastrointestinal tract metabolism and pharmacological activities of water extract of Scutellaria baicalensis roots.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE SCUTELLARIA BAICALENSIS: Georgi (Labiatae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, etc. The present study was to understand the metabolism of the root of Scutellaria baicalensis (a.k.a. Huangqin in Chinese) in the gastrointestinal tract and the correlation between the metabolites and their respective pharmacological activities.
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AIM2 mediates inflammation-associated renal damage in hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis by regulating caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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AIM2 plays an important role in innate immunity, but its role in regulating the immune response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) is unknown. We hypothesized that AIM2 expression is positively correlated with HBV-mediated inflammation in patients with HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN), potentiating inflammation and leading to renal damage. We therefore analyzed the expression of AIM2 and inflammatory factors in HBV-GN tissues and cell lines relative to the inflammatory response to HBV infection and HBV status.
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Genetic mapping of fiber color genes on two brown cotton cultivars in Xinjiang.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present study, genetic linkage analysis was carried out to map the fiber color loci Lc 1 and Lc 2 on two brown cotton cultivars with SSR and EST-SSR markers in the reference map by F2 segregation populations. The Lc 1 locus carried by Xincaimian6 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was flanked by the marker NAU2862 and NAU1043 on the long arm of Chromosome 07, with genetic distance 7.8 cM and 3.8 cM, respectively. The Lc 2 carried by Xincaimian 5 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was flanked by the marker NAU5433 and NAU2968 on the short arm of Chromosome 06, with genetic distance 4.4 cM and 7.4 cM respectively. Moreover, the marker NAU3735 and marker NAU5434 co-segregated with the Lc 1 and the Lc 2 locus, respectively. The results of marker association studies with these two loci provides the basic information for the final isolation of these important genes in colored cotton, and these linkage markers also could facilitate application of marker assisted selection in the future.
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Endoscopic biopsy in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a retrospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are often located in the deep mucosa or submucosa, and the efficacy of endoscopic biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of GI-NENs is not fully understood.
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Predicting local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the influence of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue's control and prevention purpose.
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Topological organization of the "small-world" visual attention network in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Disrupted sustained attention is one of the most significant behavioral impairments in this disorder. We mapped systems-level topological properties of the neural network responsible for sustained attention during a visual sustained task, on the premise that strong associations between anomalies in network features and clinical measures of ADHD would emerge.
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Characteristics of heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition in sediments collected from the tributaries in three Gorges Reservoir, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) tributaries were determined and studied. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in sediment of TGR tributaries were higher than the local background values of soils and sediments in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cu, Ni, and Hg were at the "slightly polluted" level and Cd was ranked as the "moderately polluted" level in tributary sediments of TGR. The assessment by Potential Ecological Risk Index showed that Hg and Cd were the predominant elements in tributary sediments in TGR. The Pb isotopic ratios in sediments varied from 1.171 to 1.202 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.459 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb in TGR. All Pb isotopic ratios in sediments were similar to those from coal combustion, lead ores (the mining activities and smelting process), and cement material, indicating that these anthropogenic inputs may be the main sources for Pb pollution in sediments of TGR tributaries.
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Dissecting the molecular mechanism of ionizing radiation-induced tissue damage in the feather follicle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex morphology. We find that IR induces defects in feather formation in a dose-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed at 5 Gy. A transient, reversible perturbation of feather growth was induced at 10 Gy, leading to defects in the feather structure. This perturbation became irreversible at 20 Gy. Molecular and cellular analysis revealed P53 activation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the pathobiology. IR also induces patterning defects in feather formation, with disrupted branching morphogenesis. This perturbation is mediated by cytokine production and Stat1 activation, as manipulation of cytokine levels or ectopic Stat1 over-expression also led to irregular feather branching. Furthermore, AG-490, a chemical inhibitor of Stat1 signaling, can partially rescue IR-induced tissue damage. Our results suggest that the feather follicle could serve as a useful model to address the in vivo impact of the many mechanisms of IR-induced tissue damage.
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Association between ACE I/D polymorphism and pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese population.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem worldwide. The objective of the current study is to investigate the possible association of ACE I/D polymorphism with pulmonary TB (PTB) for Chinese in Sichuan province. Three hundred eighty-six PTB patients and 398 healthy controls were genotyped to analyze the I/D polymorphism using PCR method. The results showed that the I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to PTB for Chinese (D vs. I: OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26, and P=0.77; DD vs. II+DI: OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.73-1.63, and P=0.68; DD+DI vs. II: OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74-1.33, and P=0.98). The I/D polymorphism in the ACE gene may not a risk factor for PTB in Chinese.
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A high frequency of peripheral blood NKG2D+NK and NKT cells in euthyroid patients with new onset hashimotos thyroiditis-a pilot study.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells at the early stage of the HT process. A total of 45 euthyroid patients with new onset HT and 40 age/gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells and their function by flow cytometry. In comparison with that in HC, significantly higher percentages of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK, NKG2D+, NKp30+ NK and NKT cells, but significantly lower percentages of NKG2A+, KIR2DL3+ inhibitory NK and NKT cells were detected in the HT patients. Furthermore, the percentages of NKG2D+ NK cells were correlated positively with the concentrations of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in the HT patients. Moreover, the percentages of inducible IFN-? and CD107a+ NK cells in the HT patients were significantly higher than those in HC. Our data suggest that activated NK cells may participate in the early pathogenic process of HT.
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Mechanistic Basis for the Potent Anti-Angiogenic Activity of Semaphorin 3F.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), an essential type I transmembrane receptor, binds two secreted ligand families, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and class III Semaphorin (Sema3). VEGF-A and Sema3F have opposing roles in regulating Nrp1 vascular function in angiogenesis. VEGF-A functions as one of the most potent pro-angiogenic cytokines, while Sema3F is a uniquely potent endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. Sema3 family members require proteolytic processing by furin to allow competitive binding to Nrp1. We demonstrate that the furin-processed C-terminal domain of Sema3F (C-furSema) potently inhibits VEGF-A-dependent activation of endothelial cells. We find that this potent activity is due to unique heterobivalent engagement of Nrp1 by two distinct sites in the C-terminal domain of Sema3F. One of the sites is the C-terminal arginine, liberated by furin cleavage, and the other is a novel upstream helical motif centered on the intermolecular disulfide. Using a novel chimeric C-furSema, we demonstrate that combining a single C-terminal arginine with the helical motif is necessary and sufficient for potent inhibition of binding of VEGF-A to Nrp1. We further demonstrate that the multiple furin-processed variants of Sema3A, with the altered proximity of the two binding motifs, have dramatically different potencies. This suggests that furin processing not only switches Sema3 to an activated form but also, depending on the site processed, can also tune potency. These data establish the basis for potent competitive binding of Sema3 to Nrp1 and provide a basis for the design of bivalent Nrp inhibitors.
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Wedelia chinensis inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cell growth by inducing G2/M arrest in a Chk1-dependent pathway.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Although Wedelia chinensis, an herb in traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of inflammation, the effects of W. chinensis on cancer cell growth and the related molecular mechanisms behind these effects have largely remained unexplored to date. In the present study, W. chinensis plant extracts were obtained using either ethanol (E), petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) or butyl alcohol (BA). Then, extracts were examined for bioactivity in vitro via MTT assay in five human cancer cell lines. Our results showed that one subfraction of the EA extract (EA6) was cytotoxic to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE-1 cells, among all cell lines evaluated. Treatment of CNE-1 cells with EA6 resulted in significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and modest apoptosis. EA6 induced Chk1 activation and inhibition of Chk1 in CNE-1 cells by RNA interference (RNAi) markedly abrogated EA6-mediated G2/M arrest and abolished EA6-induced cytotoxicity. EA6 treatment resulted in notable reduction of c-myc expression in CNE-1 cells, whereas silencing Chk1 inhibited such effects of EA6. Our results indicate that Chk1 is a novel molecular target of EA6 in NPC cells and also suggest an intervention strategy for NPC by EA6 exploring its molecular mechanisms of action.
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CMV Viremia Is Associated With a Decreased Incidence of BKV Reactivation after Kidney and Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and BK virus (BKV) infections can cause significant morbidity after kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant. There are limited data on the epidemiology and interactions between these two viral pathogens.
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Identification of metastasis-associated genes in colorectal cancer through an integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Identification of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis genes is one of the most important issues in CRC research. For the purpose of mining CRC metastasis-associated genes, an integrated analysis of microarray data was presented, by combined with evidence acquired from comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data.
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Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances.
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A rat model to study Blastocytis subtype 1 infections.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Blastocytis sp. is the most common enteric protozoan in human, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. To study the infectious effects of Blastocytis sp. on tissue damage, we orally challenged the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with different doses of Blastocytis subtype1 (ST1) and examined the histological changes. We found that there was no difference of disease incidence among the Blastocytis ST1-infected groups challenged with different doses of the protozoan. Histological results showed that the lamina propria was infected by Blastocytis ST1 in the vacuolar form, along with the mucus membrane slough and inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria. Compared to the uninfected group, the histological scores were significantly higher in the infected groups. However, groups infected with various doses of Blastocystis ST1 showed no difference in terms of histological scores. In conclusion, this study indicates that the SD rats can be easily infected with Blastocytis ST1 even with low dose of cysts, and the histopathological effects of the infection in the intestine of the infected rats show individual differences.
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Chikungunya emergency in China: microevolution and genetic analysis for a local outbreak.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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A small-scale local chikungunya outbreak occurred in a Guangdong village of southern China in October 2010. The five chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) isolated from the epidemic and three other imported cases obtained from the same period were sequenced and analyzed for phylogenesis. The results demonstrated that all of the eight sequences were clustered in the Eastern, Central, Southern, and African group. However, the local strains and imported isolates showed different sequence variations. A226V in E1 gene and V264A in E2 gene were detected in all three imported isolates, the unique substitutions S250P in E1 gene and H313Y in E2 genes could be observed in four of the five local strains. These significant variations might be some of the causes for the outbreak. It would be an important event for CHIKV to have mutated adaption to the local mosquitoes in China, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.
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Two novel MPZ mutations in Chinese CMT patients.
J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To investigate the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene mutation and related clinical features in Chinese Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) patients, we screened the coding sequence of MPZ in 70 unrelated CMT index patients after excluding the PMP22 duplication, Cx32 and MFN2 mutations. We found four different missense mutations: c.194C>T, c.242A>T, c.371C>T, and c.419C>G. The frequency of MPZ mutation was approximately 4.35% of the total, 3.08% of CMT1, and 6% of CMT2. Mutations c.242A>T and c.419C>G are novel. The mutation c.242A>T exhibited late onset and rapidly progressive CMT2 phenotype. The mutation c.419C>G exhibited relatively late onset and slowly progressive CMT1 phenotype.
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Seasonal variation and controlling factors of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in freshwater river sediments in the Taihu Lake region of China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recently recognized as an important pathway for the removal of fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic systems. However, the functions of anammox in freshwater river systems remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of anammox activity in two rivers in the Taihu Lake region in China during a seasonal survey. Homogenized sediments were incubated with (15)N-labeled NO3(-) and NH4(+) amendments to determine the potential importance of the anammox process relative to canonical denitrification. Production of (29)N2 and (30)N2 in slurries was determined using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Potential anammox rates in the two river sediments ranged from 0.11±0.07 to 6.79±1.28 ?mol N m(-2) h(-1) and the remove of N by anammox accounted for 0.8±0.00% to 10.7±0.03% of total N2 production. Potential anammox rates varied spatially and temporally in the two rivers, with the highest and lowest mean anammox rates appearing during summer and early autumn and during winter, respectively. The variation of the percentage of anammox to total N2 production displayed the same trend with potential anammox rates. Water temperature and NO3(-) content in sediments were the main factors affecting anammox activity. Anammox bacteria were detected in sediment samples using barcode pyrosequencing. The 16S rRNA anammox gene sequences in the river sediments were affiliated with Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Jettenia, and Candidatus Scalindua, among which C. Kuenenia dominated the anammox bacterial communities. Our results confirmed the presence of anammox bacteria but their role is relatively small in removing fixed N from freshwater river systems.
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The relationship between five widely-evaluated variants in CDKN2A/B and CDKAL1 genes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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The genes encoding two cyclin-dependent kinases-inhibitor-2A/B (CDKN2A/B) and 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein-like 1 (CDKAL1) have been investigated extensively in associations with type 2 diabetes; the results, however, are often irreproducible. We therefore sought to evaluate these associations by performing a meta-analysis on five widely-evaluated variants from the two genes. There were 38 studies (patients/controls: 51,940/52,234) for rs10811661, 16 studies (20,029/24,419) for rs564398 in CDKN2A/B gene, and 27 studies (28,383/47,635) for rs7756992, 26 studies (28,816/31,713) for rs7754840, 21 studies (29,260/38,400) for rs10946398 in CDKAL1 gene. Overall risk estimates for type 2 diabetes conferred by rs10811661-T, rs564398-A, rs7754840-C, rs7756992-G, and rs10946398-C alleles were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.10-1.23; P<0.0005; I(2)=83.9%), 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.21; P=0.051; I(2)=88.3%), 1.24 (95% CI: 1.18-1.3; P<0.0005; I(2)=74.3%), 1.2 (95% CI: 1.11-1.3; P<0.0005; I(2)=92.0%), and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.1-1.29; P<0.0005; I(2)=90.8%), respectively. There was evident publication bias for rs564398 and rs7754840. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity showed remarkable divergences in risk estimate for rs564398 between Asians (odds ratio [OR]=1.01; 95% CI: 0.86-1.19; P=0.868) and Caucasians (OR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P=0.012) (P<0.05). For all variants examined, the results of studies in retrospective design or with population-based controls were comparative with that of overall studies. In meta-regression analyses, age was found to exert a significant influence on the association between rs10811661 and type 2 diabetes (P=0.003), as well as between rs7754840 and gender (P=0.034). Taken together, our findings provide evidence for a significant contribution of CDKN2A/B gene rs10811661 and CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 and rs10946398 to type 2 diabetes.
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Magnetic resonance image reconstruction using trained geometric directions in 2D redundant wavelets domain and non-convex optimization.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Reducing scanning time is significantly important for MRI. Compressed sensing has shown promising results by undersampling the k-space data to speed up imaging. Sparsity of an image plays an important role in compressed sensing MRI to reduce the image artifacts. Recently, the method of patch-based directional wavelets (PBDW) which trains geometric directions from undersampled data has been proposed. It has better performance in preserving image edges than conventional sparsifying transforms. However, obvious artifacts are presented in the smooth region when the data are highly undersampled. In addition, the original PBDW-based method does not hold obvious improvement for radial and fully 2D random sampling patterns. In this paper, the PBDW-based MRI reconstruction is improved from two aspects: 1) An efficient non-convex minimization algorithm is modified to enhance image quality; 2) PBDW are extended into shift-invariant discrete wavelet domain to enhance the ability of transform on sparsifying piecewise smooth image features. Numerical simulation results on vivo magnetic resonance images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the original PBDW in terms of removing artifacts and preserving edges.
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Dyadobacter tibetensis sp. nov., isolated from glacial ice core.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated Y620-1(T), was isolated from a glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate shared 93.6-95.1?% similarity with type strains of species of the genus Dyadobacter. The major fatty acids of strain Y620-1(T) were summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH), iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?1?5c and iso-C17?:?0 3-OH. The predominant isoprenoid quinone and polar lipid were MK-7 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), respectively. The DNA G+C content was 44.4±0.3 mol% (Tm). Flexirubin-type pigment was produced. The novel isolate was classified in the genus Dyadobacter, but a number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished the novel isolate from type strains of species of the genus Dyadobacter. From these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is evident that strain Y620-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Dyadobacter, for which the name Dyadobacter tibetensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y620-1(T) (?=?JCM 18589(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12215(T)).
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Autologous transplantation of GDNF-expressing mesenchymal stem cells protects against MPTP-induced damage in cynomolgus monkeys.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has shown beneficial effects in models of Parkinsons disease. The mild results observed in the double-blind clinical trial by intraputamenal infusion of recombinant GDNF proteins warrant a search for alternative delivery methods. In this study, we investigated the function of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing GDNF (GDNF-MSCs) for protection against MPTP-induced injury in cynomolgus monkeys. MSCs were obtained from the bone marrow of individual monkeys and gene-modified to express GDNF. Following unilateral engraftment of GDNF-MSCs into the striatum and substantia nigra, the animals were challenged with MPTP to induce a stable systemic Parkinsonian state. The motor functions were spared in the contralateral limbs of monkeys receiving GDNF-MSCs, but not in those receiving MSCs alone. In the striatum of the grafted hemisphere, dopamine levels were higher and dopamine uptake was enhanced. The results suggest that autologous MSCs may be a safe vehicle to deliver GDNF for enhancing nigro-striatum functions.
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Magnetic resonance image reconstruction from undersampled measurements using a patch-based nonlocal operator.
Med Image Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Compressed sensing MRI (CS-MRI) has shown great potential in reducing data acquisition time in MRI. Sparsity or compressibility plays an important role to reduce the image reconstruction error. Conventional CS-MRI typically uses a pre-defined sparsifying transform such as wavelet or finite difference, which sometimes does not lead to a sufficient sparse representation for the image to be reconstructed. In this paper, we design a patch-based nonlocal operator (PANO) to sparsify magnetic resonance images by making use of the similarity of image patches. The definition of PANO results in sparse representation for similar patches and allows us to establish a general formulation to trade the sparsity of these patches with the data consistency. It also provides feasibility to incorporate prior information learnt from undersampled data or another contrast image, which leads to optimized sparse representation of images to be reconstructed. Simulation results on in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method achieves lower reconstruction error and higher visual quality than conventional CS-MRI methods.
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Donor-derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with low-dose tacrolimus prevent acute rejection after renal transplantation: a clinical pilot study.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The deleterious side effects of calcineurin inhibitors have impaired long-term survival after renal allograft. New immunotherapy regimens that minimize or even eliminate calcineurin inhibitors are required to improve transplantation outcome. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a unique cell population with immunosuppressive function and prolong allograft survival in experimental organ transplant models.
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Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of climate change.
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The impact of surveillance and rapid reduction in immunosuppression to control BK virus-related graft injury in kidney transplantation.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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We prospectively screened 609 consecutive kidney (538) and kidney-pancreas (71) transplant recipients for BK viremia over a 4-year interval using polymerase chain reaction viral load detection and protocol kidney biopsies. We found that BK viremia is common at our center: total cases 26.7%, cases during first year 21.3% (mean 4 months), and recipients with ? 10 000 copies/ml 12.3%. We found few predictive clinical or demographic risk factors for any BK viremia or viral loads ? 10,000 copies/ml, other than prior treatment of biopsy confirmed acute rejection and/or higher immunosuppressive blood levels of tacrolimus (P = 0.001) or mycophenolate mofetil (P = 0.007). Viral loads at diagnosis (<10 000 copies/ml) demonstrated little impact on graft function or survival. However, rising copy numbers demand early reductions in immunosuppressive drug doses of at least 30-50%. Viral loads >185 000 copies/ml at diagnosis were predictive of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN; OR: 113.25, 95% CI: 17.22-744.6, P < 0.001). Surveillance for BK viremia and rapid reduction of immunosuppression limited the incidence of BKVAN to 1.3%. The addition of leflunomide or ciprofloxacin to immunosuppressive dose reduction did not result in greater rates of viral clearance. These data support the role of early surveillance for BK viremia to limit the impact on transplant outcome, although the most effective schedule for screening awaits further investigation.
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Mycetocola zhadangensis sp. nov., isolated from snow.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain ZD1-4(T), was isolated from the Zhadang Glacier snow pit. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed highest similarity (98.8%) to that of Mycetocola manganoxydans MB1-14(T). The major fatty acids of strain ZD1-4(T) were anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?0), C(18?:?0) and anteiso-C(17:0). It possessed diphosphatidylglycerol as one of the major polar lipids, and MK-10 and MK-11 as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. The DNA G+C content of strain ZD1-4(T) was 63.8 ± 0.2 mol% (T(m)). A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished this bacterium from the type strains of other species of the genus Mycetocola. Moreover, the novel isolate showed only approximately 50% DNA-DNA relatedness with M. manganoxydans MB1-14(T). According to these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is evident that strain ZD1-4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mycetocola, for which the name Mycetocola zhadangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZD1-4(T) (?=KACC 16570(T)?=CGMCC 1.12042(T)).
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Assembly of ZIF nanostructures around free Pt nanoparticles: efficient size-selective catalysts for hydrogenation of alkenes under mild conditions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Encapsulation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) was achieved via assembly of ZIF nanostructures around the pre-formed "unprotected" NPs. Ptn@ZIF-8 showed efficient size-selective hydrogenation ability due to the uniform microporous structure.
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Identification of Plasma Metabolomic Profiling for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Using an UPLC/TOF/MS Platform.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Epidemiological studies indicated that esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still one of the most common causes of cancer incidence in the world. Searching for valuable markers including circulating endogenous metabolites associated with the risk of esophageal cancer, is extremely important A comparative metabolomics study was performed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze 53 pairs of plasma samples from ESCC patients and healthy controls recruited in Huaian, China. The result identified a metabolomic profiling of plasma including 25 upregulated metabolites and five downregulated metabolites, for early diagnosis of ESCC. With a database-based verification protocol, 11 molecules were identified, and six upregulated molecules of interest in ESCC were found to belong to phospholipids as follows: phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and sphinganine 1-phosphate. Clinical estimation of metabolic biomarkers through hierarchical cluster analysis in plasma samples from 17 ESCC patients and 29 healthy volunteers indicated that the present metabolite profile could distinguish ESCC patients from healthy individuals. The cluster of aberrant expression of these metabolites in ESCC indicates the critical role of phospholipid metabolism in the oncogenesis of ESCC and suggests its potential ability to assess the risk of ESCC development in addition to currently used risk factors.
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Tryptase promotes atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage in ApoE-/- mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis plaque development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery plaque area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes plaque haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had plaque haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery plaque showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment.
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White matter changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment detected by diffusion tensor imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Compared to normal aging adults, individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have significantly increased risk for progressing into Alzheimers disease (AD). Autopsy studies found that most of the brains of aMCI cases showed anatomical features associated with AD pathology. The recent development of non-invasive neuroimaging technique, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), makes it possible to investigate the microstructures of the cerebral white matter in vivo. We hypothesized that disrupted white matter (WM) integrity existed in aMCI. So we used DTI technique, by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), to test the brain structures involved in patients with aMCI. DTI scans were collected from 40 patients with aMCI, and 28 normal controls (NC). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses of whole-brain FA and MD images in each individual and group comparisons were carried out. Compared to NC, aMCI patients showed significant FA reduction bilaterally, in the association and projection fibers of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiation, right posterior thalamic radiation and right sagittal stratum. aMCI patients also showed significantly increased MD widespreadly in the association and projection fibers of frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, and corpus callosum. Assessment of the WM integrity of the frontal, parietal, temporal lobes, and corpus callosum by using DTI measures may aid early diagnosis of aMCI.
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Impact of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on changes in cardiac structure and function of left ventricular dysfunction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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A comprehensive evaluation of the benefits of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on cardiac remodeling is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the impact of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on changes in cardiac structure and function of left ventricular dysfunction.
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Endoscopic-guided versus fluoroscopic-guided renal access for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comparative analysis.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To evaluate the intraoperative outcomes of percutaneous renal access using fluoroscopic-guided access (FGA) vs endoscopic-guided access (EGA).
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Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.