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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Podosome-regulating kinesin KIF1C translocates to the cell periphery in a CLASP-dependent manner.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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The kinesin KIF1C is known to regulate podosomes, actin-rich adhesion structures, which remodel the extracellular matrix during physiological processes. Here we show that KIF1C is a player in the podosome-inducing signaling cascade. Upon induction of podosome formation by protein kinase C, KIF1C translocation to the cell periphery intensifies and KIF1C accumulates in the proximity of peripheral microtubules enriched with plus tip-associated proteins CLASPs and around podosomes. Importantly, without CLASPs, both KIF1C trafficking and podosome formation are suppressed. Moreover, chimeric mitochondria-targeted CLASP2 recruits KIF1C, suggesting a transient CLASP-KIF1C association. We propose that CLASP creates preferred microtubule tracks for KIF1C to promote podosome induction downstream of PKC.
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Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.
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Key -vertebral Screws Strategy for Main Thoracic Curve Correction in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The following study was a prospective radiographic and retrospective clinical data assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who underwent a key-vertebral screws strategy (KVSS) at a single institution with a minimum of two years follow-up.
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[Changhai fulcrum bending radiographic technique to assess curve flexibility in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To evaluate the role and value of Changhai fulcrum bending radiograph(CH-FBR) in curve flexibility assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS) patients.
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Genome wide analysis of sex difference in gene expression profiles of bone formations using sfx mice and BXD RI strains.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The objective of this study is to identify sex differentially expressed genes in bone using a mouse model of spontaneous fracture, sfx, which lacks the gene for L-gulonolactone oxidase (Gulo), a key enzyme in the ascorbic acid (AA) synthesis pathway. We first identified the genes that are differentially expressed in the femur between female and male in sfx mice. We then analyzed the potential gene network among those differentially expressed genes with whole genome expression profiles generated using spleens of female and male mice of a total of 67 BXD (C57BL/6J X DBA/2J) recombinant inbred (RI) and other strains. Our result indicated that there was a sex difference in the whole genome profiles in sfx mice as measured by the proportion of up- and downregulated genes. Several genes in the pathway of bone development are differentially expressed between the male and female of sfx mice. Comparison of gene network of up- and downregulated bone relevant genes also suggests a sex difference.
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Epirubicin combined with oxaliplatin and 5-day continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil as a first-line treatment for metastatic gastric cancer: treatment outcomes and analysis of prognostic factors.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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In order to confirm the efficacy, tolerability, and baseline prognostic factors of an epirubicin (EPR)-containing triplet regimen, the EOF5 regimen, in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC), we conducted the phase II trial and retrospective analysis.
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Screening of diagnostic markers for osteosarcoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Osteosarcoma, which is the most common type of highly malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, has poor diagnosis and 2-year survival rates of 15-20% following surgery or radiotherapy, and has therefore generated marked attention. In order to investigate the potential biomarkers for diagnosing osteosarcoma, the expression profiling data from normal and disease tissues were compared, respectively, and the differentially?expressed genes were analyzed by three different statistical tests. Interacting proteins were determined and an interaction network was constructed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database. Subsequently, the protein interaction network was decomposed and Gene Otology annotation using Cytoscape, Mcode and Bingo, was conducted on the function modules. Finally, three differentially?expressed genes GJA1, COL1A2 and COL5A2 were identified, and an interaction network was successfully generated with COL1A2 and COL5A2 at the core. From the results, it was observed that COL1A2 and COL5A2 interact with a number of genes of the matrix metalloprotease (MMP) family, including MMP1, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP14, TGF? and RUNX2. Furthermore, these genes have been confirmed to be important in the tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma. It was hypothesized that the upregulation of the COL gene family may be considered as a diagnostic marker for osteosarcoma and collagen may be administered as a therapy.
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Interleukin-7 expression and its effect on natural killer cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Decreased NK cell numbers and impairment of NK cell function are reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a member of the common gamma-chain (?c) cytokine superfamily that has well documented roles in lymphocyte development and homeostasis. The interleukin-7 receptor ? chain (IL-7R?) gene was identified as a top non-major histocompatibility complex-linked risk locus for MS. The objective of this study was to test biological function of IL-7/IL-7R? on NK cells in MS patients. We observed markedly lower IL-7 levels in MS sera, and relatively higher IL-7R? expression in NK cells of MS. Upon IL-7 stimulation, IL-7R? on NK cells from MS patients was significantly down-regulated compared with healthy controls (HCs). IL-7 induced a higher increase of IFN-? production in CD56(bright) NK cells and a pronounced enhancement of cytotoxicity in NK cells from MS. IL-7 did not impact the proliferation of NK cells differently in MS and HC. In contrast, IL-7 promoted a higher survival of CD56(bright) NK cells in MS and inhibited their apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 expression, but had no effect on CD56(dim) NK cell survival in MS. In conclusion, MS patients have lower serum IL-7 and a higher membrane IL-7R? expression on CD56(bright) NK cells. The skew at the IL-7 and IL-7R? level influences functional responsiveness of NK cells in MS.
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Candidemia: incidence rates, type of species, and risk factors at a tertiary care academic hospital in China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To investigate the incidence rates of candidemia in hospitalized patients and to identify differences in risk factors of patients with Candida albicans and non-C. albicans and with Candida guilliermondii and non-C. guilliermondii candidemia.
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Microtubule segment stabilization by RASSF1A is required for proper microtubule dynamics and Golgi integrity.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The tumor suppressor and microtubule-associated protein Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) has a major effect on many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. RASSF1A expression is frequently silenced in cancer and is associated with increased metastasis. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that RASSF1A regulates microtubule organization and dynamics in interphase cells, as well as its effect on Golgi integrity and cell polarity. Our results show that RASSF1A uses a unique microtubule-binding pattern to promote site-specific microtubule rescues, and loss of RASSF1A leads to decreased microtubule stability. Furthermore, RASSF1A-associated stable microtubule segments are necessary to prevent Golgi fragmentation and dispersal in cancer cells and maintain a polarized cell front. These results indicate that RASSF1A is a key regulator in the fine tuning of microtubule dynamics in interphase cells and proper Golgi organization and cell polarity.
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Platinum-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab first-line for Asian patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Results of an open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus cetuximab as first-line treatment in Chinese and Korean patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
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Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system.
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Efficient iris recognition based on optimal subfeature selection and weighted subregion fusion.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, we propose three discriminative feature selection strategies and weighted subregion matching method to improve the performance of iris recognition system. Firstly, we introduce the process of feature extraction and representation based on scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) in detail. Secondly, three strategies are described, which are orientation probability distribution function (OPDF) based strategy to delete some redundant feature keypoints, magnitude probability distribution function (MPDF) based strategy to reduce dimensionality of feature element, and compounded strategy combined OPDF and MPDF to further select optimal subfeature. Thirdly, to make matching more effective, this paper proposes a novel matching method based on weighted sub-region matching fusion. Particle swarm optimization is utilized to accelerate achieve different sub-region's weights and then weighted different subregions' matching scores to generate the final decision. The experimental results, on three public and renowned iris databases (CASIA-V3 Interval, Lamp, and MMU-V1), demonstrate that our proposed methods outperform some of the existing methods in terms of correct recognition rate, equal error rate, and computation complexity.
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Downregulation of MicroRNA-30 Facilitates Podocyte Injury and Is Prevented by Glucocorticoids.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for podocyte homeostasis, and the miR-30 family may be responsible for this action. However, the exact roles and clinical relevance of miR-30s remain unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of the miR-30 family in the podocytes of patients with FSGS and found that all members are downregulated. Treating cultured human podocytes with TGF-?, LPS, or puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) also downregulated the miR-30 family. Podocyte cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis caused by treatment with TGF-? or PAN were ameliorated by exogenous miR-30 expression and aggravated by miR-30 knockdown. Moreover, we found that miR-30s exert their protective roles by direct inhibition of Notch1 and p53, which mediate podocyte injury. In rats, treatment with PAN substantially downregulated podocyte miR-30s and induced proteinuria and podocyte injury; however, transfer of exogenous miR-30a to podocytes of PAN-treated rats ameliorated proteinuria and podocyte injury and reduced Notch1 activation. Finally, we demonstrated that glucocorticoid treatment maintains miR-30 expression in cultured podocytes treated with TGF-?, LPS, or PAN and in the podocytes of PAN-treated rats. Glucocorticoid-sustained miR-30 expression associated with reduced Notch1 activation and alleviated podocyte damage. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-30s protect podocytes by targeting Notch1 and p53 and that the loss of miR-30s facilitates podocyte injury. In addition, sustained miR-30 expression may be a novel mechanism underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating podocytopathy.
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MiR-223 downregulation promotes glomerular endothelial cell activation by upregulating importin ?4 and ?5 in IgA nephropathy.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2013
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Glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) contribute to renal injuries in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Here we profiled microRNAs (miRNAs) in GEnCs treated with conditioned medium from human mesangial cells in vitro. Levels of miR-223 in GEnCs decreased after incubation with the medium prepared with pIgA from patients with glomerular endothelial proliferation and were also decreased in the glomerular tissues of patients with glomerular endothelial proliferation. Mesangial-derived IL-6 caused miR-223 levels to decrease. The addition of exogenous miR-223 inhibited cell proliferation, ICAM-1 expression, and monocyte adhesion. The NF-?B and STAT3 signaling pathways collaborate during the activation process. MiR-223 mimics inhibited the nuclear localization and DNA binding of p65 and STAT3 but had no effect on the expression of upstream molecules. Instead, importin ?4 and ?5 (multipurpose nuclear transport receptors), validated as targets of miR-223, were responsible for the nuclear transport of p65 and STAT3. Importin ?4 and ?5 siRNA inhibited the nuclear localization of p65 and STAT3 and prevented cell proliferation and monocyte adhesion. The level of miR-223 in circulating endothelial cells was decreased and related to the clinical and pathological parameters. Thus, miR-223 downregulation promotes glomerular endothelial cell activation by upregulating importin ?4 and ?5 in IgAN. Monitoring the level of miR-223 in circulating endothelial cells may provide a noninvasive method for evaluating the severity of IgAN.Kidney International advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.469.
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Biomechanical comparison of posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by finite element analysis.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure may reduce many of the risks and limitations associated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). However, little is known about the biomechanical difference between PLIF and TLIF.
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Rhein protects pancreatic ?-cells from dynamin-related protein-1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cell apoptosis under hyperglycemia.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Rhein, an anthraquinone compound isolated from rhubarb, has been shown to improve glucose metabolism disorders in diabetic mice. The mechanism underlying the protective effect of rhein, however, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rhein can protect the pancreatic ?-cells against hyperglycemia-induced cell apoptosis through stabilizing mitochondrial morphology. Oral administration of rhein for 8 or 16 weeks in db/db mice significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) level and improved glucose tolerance. Cell apoptosis assay using both pancreatic sections and cultured pancreatic ?-cells indicated that rhein strongly inhibited ?-cell apoptosis. Morphological study showed that rhein was mainly localized at ?-cell mitochondria and rhein could preserve mitochondrial ultrastructure by abolishing hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) expression. Western blot and functional analysis confirmed that rhein protected the pancreatic ?-cells against hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis via suppressing mitochondrial Drp1 level. Finally, mechanistic study further suggested that decreased Drp1 level by rhein might be due to its effect on reducing cellular reactive oxygen species. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time that rhein can serve as a novel therapeutic agent for hyperglycemia treatment and rhein protects pancreatic ?-cells from apoptosis by blocking the hyperglycemia-induced Drp1 expression.
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Apatinib for chemotherapy-refractory advanced metastatic gastric cancer: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, phase II trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC) who do not respond to or who experience progression with second-line chemotherapy have no treatment options that clearly confer a survival benefit. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of apatinib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, as a treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with mGC.
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Golgi as an MTOC: making microtubules for its own good.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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In cells, microtubules (MTs) are nucleated at MT-organizing centers (MTOCs). The centrosome-based MTOCs organize radial MT arrays, which are often not optimal for polarized trafficking. A recently discovered subset of non-centrosomal MTs nucleated at the Golgi has proven to be indispensable for the Golgi organization, post-Golgi trafficking and cell polarity. Here, we summarize the history of this discovery, known molecular prerequisites of MT nucleation at the Golgi and unique functions of Golgi-derived MTs.
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Fuzzy Clustering Analysis of Osteosarcoma Related Genes.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone-tumor with a peak manifestation during the second and third decade of life. In order to explore the influence of genetic factors on the mechanism of osteosarcoma by analyzing the inter relationship between osteosarcoma and its related genes, and then provide potential genetic references for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma, we collected osteosarcoma related gene sequences in Genebank of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and local alignment analysis for a pair of sequences was carried out to identify the measurement association among related sequences. Then fuzzy clustering method was used for clustering analysis so as to contact the unknown genes through the consistent osteosarcoma related genes in one class. From the result of fuzzy clustering analysis, we could classify the osteosarcoma related genes into two groups and deduced that the genes clustered into one group had similar function. Based on this knowledge, we found more genes related to the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma and these genes could exert similar function as Runx2, a risk factor confirmed in osteosarcoma, this study may help better understand the genetic mechanism and provide new molecular markers and therapies for osteosarcoma.
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A dynamic interplay between alternative polyadenylation and microRNA regulation: implications for cancer (Review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Alternative polyadenylation and microRNA regulation are both mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Alternative polyadenylation often results in mRNA isoforms with the same coding sequence but different lengths of 3 UTRs, while microRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to specific mRNA 3 UTRs. In this sense, different isoforms of an mRNA may be differentially regulated by microRNAs, sometimes resulting in cellular proliferation and this mechanism is being speculated on as a potential cause for cancer development.
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Biomechanical comparison of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with 1 or 2 cages by finite-element analysis.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion with 1 cage have been shown to have similar biomechanics compared with the use of 2 cages. However, there have been no reports on the biomechanical differences between using 1 or 2 cages in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery.
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Correction of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using pedicle screw instrumentation: does implant density influence the correction?
Spine
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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A single-center, retrospective study of 39 consecutive patients with Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), all operated by a single surgeon using identical surgical technique and type of instrumentation (pedicle screws).
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Characterization and risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in apartment buildings in harbin, china.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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This study analyzed the risk of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the apartment buildings (including bedrooms, living rooms, kitchens and study rooms) in Harbin, China. The concentration of total VOCs in bedrooms showed the lowest value with an average of 482.6 mg/m(3). 32.33 % of total measured VOCs correspond to aromatic hydrocarbons. The major chemical forms of the identified VOCs in other 3 types of rooms were alcohols which contributed to 30.66 % (in living rooms), 36.55 % (in kitchens) and 35.43 % (in study rooms) separately. Formaldehyde was the pollutant of highest concern given its high chronic toxic and carcinogenic risk levels according to the health assessment. Other pollutants of concern for human heal risks were benzene and naphthalene. The non-cancer risk by the exposure to naphthalene ranged from 2.39 to 2.80 in 4 target groups, which is more than 1.0 considered as a hazarded level to human health.
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Identification of radioresistance-associated proteins in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines by proteomic analysis.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment modality for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but in some cases, the disease is radioresistant. This study aimed to identify proteins potentially responsible for radioresistance of NPC by a proteomic approach.
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Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoners dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agents partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.
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Combination of Osteopontin with Peritumoral Infiltrating Macrophages is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Resection.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Crosstalk between a tumor and the microenvironment plays a key role in tumor progression and metastasis. This study was performed to elucidate the prognostic significance of combining tumor-secreted osteopontin (OPN) with microenvironment-associated peritumoral macrophages (PTMs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially for those with early-stage disease.
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Gene expression profile analysis of human intervertebral disc degeneration.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate the biogenesis and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. The gene expression profiles of 37 disc tissue samples obtained from patients with herniated discs and degenerative disc disease collected by the National Cancer Institute Cooperative Tissue Network were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes between more and less degenerated discs were identified by significant analysis of microarray. A total of 555 genes were significantly overexpressed in more degenerated discs with a false discovery rate of < 3%. Functional annotation showed that these genes were significantly associated with membrane-bound vesicles, calcium ion binding and extracellular matrix. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that these genes, including previously reported genes such as fibronectin, COL2A1 and ?-catenin, may play key roles in disc degeneration. Unsupervised clustering indicated that the widely used morphology-based Thompson grading system was only marginally associated with the molecular classification of intervertebral disc degeneration. These findings indicate that detailed, systematic gene analysis may be a useful way of studying the biology of intervertebral disc degeneration.
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WNT3 Inhibits Cerebellar Granule Neuron Progenitor Proliferation and Medulloblastoma Formation via MAPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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During normal cerebellar development, the remarkable expansion of granule cell progenitors (GCPs) generates a population of granule neurons that outnumbers the total neuronal population of the cerebral cortex, and provides a model for identifying signaling pathways that may be defective in medulloblastoma. While many studies focus on identifying pathways that promote growth of GCPs, a critical unanswered question concerns the identification of signaling pathways that block mitogenic stimulation and induce early steps in differentiation. Here we identify WNT3 as a novel suppressor of GCP proliferation during cerebellar development and an inhibitor of medulloblastoma growth in mice. WNT3, produced in early postnatal cerebellum, inhibits GCP proliferation by down-regulating pro-proliferative target genes of the mitogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1. WNT3 suppresses GCP growth through a non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, activating prototypic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the Ras-dependent extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK5, instead of the classical ?-catenin pathway. Inhibition of MAPK activity using a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of WNT3 on GCP proliferation. Importantly, WNT3 inhibits proliferation of medulloblastoma tumor growth in mouse models by a similar mechanism. Thus, the present study suggests a novel role for WNT3 as a regulator of neurogenesis and repressor of neural tumors.
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Quantification of asymmetric microtubule nucleation at subcellular structures.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Cell polarization is important for multiple physiological processes. In polarized cells, microtubules (MTs) are organized into a spatially polarized array. Generally, in nondifferentiated cells, it is assumed that MTs are symmetrically nucleated exclusively from centrosome [microtubule organizing center (MTOC)] and then reorganized into the asymmetric array. We have recently identified the Golgi complex as an additional MTOC that asymmetrically nucleates MTs toward one side of the cell. Methods used for alternative MTOC identification include microtubule regrowth after complete drug-induced depolymerization and tracking of growing microtubules using fluorescently labeled MT +TIP binding proteins in living cells. These approaches can be used for quantification of MT nucleation sites at diverse subcellular structures.
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Cortactin controls cell motility and lamellipodial dynamics by regulating ECM secretion.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Branched actin assembly is critical for both cell motility and membrane trafficking. The branched actin regulator cortactin is generally considered to promote cell migration by controlling leading-edge lamellipodial dynamics. However, recent reports indicate that lamellipodia are not required for cell movement, suggesting an alternate mechanism.
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Proper regulation of Cdc42 activity is required for tight actin concentration at the equator during cytokinesis in adherent mammalian cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Cytokinesis in mammalian cells requires actin assembly at the equatorial region. Although functions of RhoA in this process have been well established, additional mechanisms are likely involved. We have examined if Cdc42 is involved in actin assembly during cytokinesis. Depletion of Cdc42 had no apparent effects on the duration of cytokinesis, while overexpression of constitutively active Cdc42 (CACdc42) caused cytokinesis failure in normal rat kidney epithelial cells. Cells depleted of Cdc42 displayed abnormal cell morphology and caused a failure of tight accumulation of actin and RhoA at the equator. In contrast, in cells overexpressing CACdc42, actin formed abnormal bundles and RhoA was largely eliminated from the equator. Our results suggest that accurate regulation of Cdc42 activity is crucial for proper equatorial actin assembly and RhoA localization during cytokinesis. Notably, our observations also suggest that tight actin concentration is not essential for cytokinesis in adherent mammalian cells.
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Compound K increases type I procollagen level and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and level in ultraviolet-A-irradiated fibroblasts.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Ginsenosides have many biomedical efficacies, such as anti-aging, antioxidation, and anti-inflammatory activities. Compound K (CK), one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides, mediates the antimetastatic and anti-allergic activities of the ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CK on level of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and protein level in ultraviolet (UV)A-irradiated fibroblasts.
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Prediction of postoperative trunk imbalance after posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
J Pediatr Orthop B
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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The objective of this retrospective study was to explore, which radiographic parameters, immediately after posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), best correlate with subjacent disc wedging at a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Sixty-four consecutive AIS patients who underwent posterior pedicle screw-only instrumentation were studied. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were obtained to measure various parameters regarding global coronal, shoulder, sagittal, and regional balance. Specific correlation of these parameters to selected 2-year postoperative disc wedging and lowest-instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt and translation were analyzed. The average lateral disc opening changed from 4.59±4.75 preoperatively to 1.46±2.82 at 2 weeks and 2.81±6.43 at 2 years postoperatively. Two-year postoperative lateral disc opening significantly correlated with the 2-week postoperative lateral disc opening, C7 plumbline relative to the posterior-superior corner of the first sacral vertebra distance, and LIV-center sacral vertical line (CSVL) distance (r=0.7433, P<0.0001). The two-year postoperative LIV tilt significantly correlated with the 2-week postoperative LIV tilt, T12-LIV lordosis, LIV-CSVL distance, and C7-CSVL distance (r=0.8879, P<0.0001). Two-year postoperative LIV-CSVL significantly correlated with 2-week postoperative LIV-CSVL distance and lateral disc opening (r=0.6104, P<0.0001). Two-year postoperative disc wedging, LIV tilt, and LIV translation occurred most often when disc wedging and LIV deviation or obliquity existed immediately postoperatively. This study identified a potential indicator for AIS repair. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative correction are important for avoiding subjacent regional imbalance after scoliosis fusion.
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Novel human single chain antibody fragments that are rapidly internalizing effectively target epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesotheliomas.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Human antibodies targeting all subtypes of mesothelioma could be useful to image and treat this deadly disease. Here we report tumor targeting of a novel internalizing human single chain antibody fragment (scFv) labeled with (??m)Tc ((??m)Tc-M40) in murine models of mesothelioma of both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatoid (VAMT-1) origins. (??m)Tc-M40 was taken up rapidly and specifically by both subtype tumor cells in vitro, with 68% to 92% internalized within 1 hour. The specificity of binding was evidenced by blocking (up to 95%) with 10-fold excess of unlabeled M40. In animal studies, tumors of both subtypes were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT as early as 1 hour postinjection of (??m)Tc-M40. Tumor uptake measured as percent of injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) at 3 hours was 4.38 and 5.84 for M28 and VAMT-1 tumors, respectively, significantly greater than all organs or tissues studied (liver, 2.62%ID/g; other organs or tissues <1.7%ID/g), except the kidneys (130.7%ID/g), giving tumor-to-blood ratios of 5:1 and 7:1 and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 45:1 and 60:1, for M28 and VAMT-1, respectively. The target-mediated uptake was confirmed by a nearly 70% reduction in tumor activity following administration of 10-fold excess of unlabeled scFv. Taken together, these results indicate that M40 can rapidly and specifically target epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumor cells, demonstrating the potential of this agent as a versatile targeting ligand for imaging and therapy of all subtypes of mesothelioma.
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Special stains in Mohs surgery.
Dermatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The excellent cure rates associated with Mohs micrographic surgery depend on accurate interpretation of complete and high-quality microscopic frozen sections. Reliable interpretation of microscopic slides is only possible if the surgeon can distinguish tumor cells from surrounding normal tissue. By highlighting tumor cells with a chromogen that is visible on light microscopy, immunostaining allows the Mohs surgeon to distinguish tumor from normal cells in these challenging scenarios. This article focuses on practical aspects involving the most commonly used immunostains in dermatologic surgery, including MART-1 for melanocytic neoplasms, cytokeratin stains for keratinocytic neoplasms, and CD34 stains for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
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Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty.
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Knockdown of akt sensitizes osteosarcoma cells to apoptosis induced by Cisplatin treatment.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Akt plays an important role in the inhibition of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy and other stimuli. We therefore investigated if knockdown of Akt2 promoted drug-induced apoptosis in cultured osteosarcoma cells in vitro. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with Akt2 siRNA. The sensitivity of the transformed cell line to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin was assessed. Reduced expression of Akt2 did not directly inhibit the growth rate of the transfected cells; however, it significantly increased their sensitivity to cisplatin. Knockdown of Akt2, together with cisplatin treatment, promoted the expression of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). It is possible that the augmentation of cisplatin cytotoxicity may be mediated by PUMA activation. The results of this study suggest that knockdown of Akt2 expression may have therapeutic applications in enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma.
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An adapted Chinese version of neck pain and disability scale: validity and reliability.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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This is a validation study to evaluate validity and reliability of a translated and culturally adapted Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD).
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Hematopoietic Fas deficiency does not affect experimental atherosclerotic lesion formation despite inducing a proatherogenic state.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The Fas death receptor (CD95) is expressed on macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and T cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Given the dual roles of Fas in both apoptotic and nonapoptotic signaling, the aim of the present study was to test the effect of hematopoietic Fas deficiency on experimental atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice (Ldlr(-/-)). Bone marrow from Fas(-/-) mice was used to reconstitute irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model for atherosclerosis. After 16 weeks on an 0.5% cholesterol diet, no differences were noted in brachiocephalic artery lesion size, cellularity, or vessel wall apoptosis. However, Ldlr(-/-) mice reconstituted with Fas(-/-) hematopoietic cells had elevated hyperlipidemia [80% increase, relative to wild-type (WT) controls; P < 0.001] and showed marked elevation of plasma levels of CXCL1/KC, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 subunit p70, and soluble Fas ligand (P < 0.01), as well as systemic microvascular inflammation. It was not possible to assess later stages of atherosclerosis because of increased mortality in Fas(-/-) bone marrow recipients. Our data indicate that hematopoietic Fas deficiency does not affect early atherosclerotic lesion development in Ldlr(-/-) mice.
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Extracellular administration of BCL2 protein reduces apoptosis and improves survival in a murine model of sepsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In experimental sepsis there is prominent apoptosis of various cell types, and genetic manipulation of death and survival pathways has been shown to modulate organ injury and survival.
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Thoracic curve correction after posterior fusion and instrumentation of structural lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Spontaneous thoracic curve correction may occur following selective anterior spinal fusion in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, a few reports have described outcomes in patients following selective posterior fusion. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess curve correction in AIS patients with major lumbar curves and secondary thoracic curves after selective posterior fusion of the major curve.
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The effect of internalizing human single chain antibody fragment on liposome targeting to epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Immunoliposomes (ILs) anchored with internalizing human antibodies capable of targeting all subtypes of mesothelioma can be useful for targeted imaging and therapy of this malignant disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate both the in vitro and in vivo tumor targeted internalization of novel internalizing human single chain antibody (scFv) anchored ILs on both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatoid (VAMT-1) subtypes of human mesothelioma. ILs were prepared by post-insertion of mesothelioma-targeting human scFv (M1) onto preformed liposomes and radiolabeled with (111)In ((111)In-IL-M1), along with control non-targeted liposomes ((111)In-CL). Incubation of (111)In-IL-M1 with M28, VAMT-1, and a control non-tumorigenic cell line (BPH-1) at 37 °C for 24 h revealed efficient binding and rapid internalization of ILs into both subtypes of tumor cells but not into the BPH-1 cells; internalization accounted for approximately 81-94% of total cell accumulation in mesothelioma cells compared to 37-55% in control cells. In tumor-bearing mice intravenous (i.v.) injection of (111)In-IL-M1 led to remarkable tumor accumulation: 4% and 4.7% injected dose per gram (% ID/g) for M28 and VAMT-1 tumors, respectively, 48 h after injection. Furthermore, tumor uptake of (111)In-IL-M1 in live xenograft animal models was verified by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). In contrast, i.v. injection of (111)In-CL in tumor-bearing mice revealed very low uptake in both subtypes of mesothelioma, 48 h after injection. In conclusion, M1 scFv-anchored ILs showed selective tumor targeting and rapid internalization into both epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of human mesothelioma, demonstrating its potential as a promising vector for enhanced tumor drug targeting.
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Targeting SVCT for enhanced drug absorption: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel vitamin C conjugated prodrug of saquinavir.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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In order to improve oral absorption, a novel prodrug of saquinavir (Saq), ascorbyl-succinic-saquinavir (AA-Su-Saq) targeting sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) was synthesized and evaluated. Aqueous solubility, stability and cytotoxicity were determined. Affinity of AA-Su-Saq towards efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and recognition of AA-Su-Saq by SVCT were studied. Transepithelial permeability across polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells were determined. Metabolic stability of AA-Su-Saq in rat liver microsomes was investigated. AA-Su-Saq appears to be fairly stable in both DPBS and Caco-2 cells with half lives of 9.65 and 5.73 h, respectively. Uptake of [(3)H]Saquinavir accelerated by 2.7 and 1.9 fold in the presence of 50 ?M Saq and AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Cellular accumulation of [(14)C]AA diminished by about 50-70% relative to control in the presence of 200 ?M AA-Su-Saq in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Uptake of AA-Su-Saq was lowered by 27% and 34% in the presence of 5mM AA in MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq was elevated about 4-5 fold and efflux index reduced by about 13-15 fold across the polarized MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. Absorptive permeability of AA-Su-Saq decreased 44% in the presence of 5mM AA across MDCK-MDR1 cells. AA-Su-Saq was devoid of cytotoxicity over the concentration range studied. AA-Su-Saq significantly enhanced the metabolic stability but lowered the affinity towards CYP3A4. In conclusion, prodrug modification of Saq through conjugation to AA via a linker significantly raised the absorptive permeability and metabolic stability. Such modification also caused significant evading of P-gp mediated efflux and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism. SVCT targeted prodrug approach can be an attractive strategy to enhance the oral absorption and systemic bioavailability of anti-HIV protease inhibitors.
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Prognostic value of interleukin 2 and interleukin 15 in peritumoral hepatic tissues for patients with hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Th1/Th2-like cytokine mRNA levels in non-cancerous hepatic tissues from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with metastases and recurrence. This study evaluated the prognostic values of intratumoral and peritumoral Th1/Th2 cytokine protein levels in patients with HCC after curative resection.
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Nanoparticles modified with tumor-targeting scFv deliver siRNA and miRNA for cancer therapy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Targeted delivery of RNA-based therapeutics for cancer therapy remains a challenge. We have developed a LPH (liposome-polycation-hyaluronic acid) nanoparticle formulation modified with tumor-targeting single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) into experimental lung metastasis of murine B16F10 melanoma. The siRNAs delivered by the scFv targeted nanoparticles efficiently downregulated the target genes (c-Myc/MDM2/VEGF) in the lung metastasis. Two daily intravenous injections of the combined siRNAs in the GC4-targeted nanoparticles significantly reduced the tumor load in the lung. miRNA-34a (miR-34a) induced apoptosis, inhibited survivin expression, and downregulated MAPK pathway in B16F10 cells. miR-34a delivered by the GC4-targeted nanoparticles significantly downregulated the survivin expression in the metastatic tumor and reduced tumor load in the lung. When miR-34a and siRNAs were co-formulated in GC4-targeted nanoparticles, an enhanced anticancer effect was observed.
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Identification of internalizing human single-chain antibodies targeting brain tumor sphere cells.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor for which there is no curative treatment to date. Resistance to conventional therapies and tumor recurrence pose major challenges to treatment and management of this disease, and therefore new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Previous studies by other investigators have shown that a subpopulation of GBM cells can grow as neurosphere-like cells when cultured in restrictive medium and exhibits enhanced tumor-initiating ability and resistance to therapy. We report here the identification of internalizing human single-chain antibodies (scFv) targeting GBM tumor sphere cells. We selected a large naive phage antibody display library on the glycosylation-dependent CD133 epitope-positive subpopulation of GBM cells grown as tumor spheres and identified internalizing scFvs that target tumor sphere cells broadly, as well as scFvs that target the CD133-positive subpopulation. These scFvs were found to be efficiently internalized by GBM tumor sphere cells. One scFv GC4 inhibited self-renewal of GBM tumor sphere cells in vitro. We have further developed a full-length human IgG1 based on this scFv, and found that it potently inhibits proliferation of GBM tumor sphere cells and GBM cells grown in regular nonselective medium. Taken together, these results show that internalizing human scFvs targeting brain tumor sphere cells can be readily identified from a phage antibody display library, which could be useful for further development of novel therapies that target subpopulations of GBM cells to combat recurrence and resistance to treatment.
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Treatment of db/db diabetic mice with triptolide: a novel therapy for diabetic nephropathy.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Current research on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) suggests many important factors; metabolic disturbance, haemodynamic abnormity, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, innate immune system activation and podocyte lesion. Triptolide, which is active diterpene purified from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immunosuppressive and podocyte-protective effects. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of triptolide on DN in db/db diabetic mice and studied the potential mechanisms.
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Gastric carcinoma in China: Current status and future perspectives (Review).
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in China, with an estimated 380,000 new cases each year, accounting for more than 40% of the worldwide annual cancer incidence. There is geographical clustering of the distribution of gastric cancer in China, with most of the high-risk areas being rural. D2 resection is the standard lymphadenectomy for curative resection in China, but more extensive lymphadenectomy is conducted for selected patients. Perioperative chemotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can be combined with surgery. It remains uncertain which option is best, but if surgery is insufficient, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. In the palliative setting, although there is no standard first-line chemotherapy, regimens based on taxane, oxaliplatin or capecitabine, or the epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil regimen and its modifications are the most common options selected by Chinese oncologists. Several studies to evaluate target therapy are ongoing, but it is too early to draw any conclusions. However, the development of target therapy is likely to become a milestone in the treatment of gastric cancer.
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Examining the technology acceptance for dismantling of waste printed circuit boards in light of recycling and environmental concerns.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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The dismantling of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) and the recovery of their useful materials can lead to serious environmental impacts mainly due to their complicated physical structure and the variety of toxic elements contained in their material composition. So far, less attention has been paid to their responsible recycling compared to that of bare printed circuit boards. Combined with other materials recovery process, proper dismantling of PCBAs is beneficial to conserve scarce resources, reuse the components, and eliminate or safely dispose of hazardous materials. In analyzing the generation, resources potential and hazardous risk of scrap PCBAs, technologies used for the dismantling of waste PCBAs have been widely investigated and reviewed from the aspects of both industrial application and laboratory-scale studies. In addition, the feasibility of PCBA dismantling has been discussed, the determinants of which, including the heating conditions and mechanical properties have been identified. Moreover, this paper evaluates the environmental consequences caused by the dismantling of PCBAs.
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Targeting prostate cancer cells in vivo using a rapidly internalizing novel human single-chain antibody fragment.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Human antibodies targeting prostate cancer cell surface epitopes may be useful for imaging and therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tumor targeting of an internalizing human antibody fragment, a small-size platform, to provide high contrast in a mouse model of human prostate carcinoma.
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Coronal deformity correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients using the fulcrum-bending radiograph: a prospective comparative analysis of the proximal thoracic, main thoracic, and thoracolumbar/lumbar curves.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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The aim of the prospective, comparative radiographic analysis was to determine the role of the fulcrum-bending radiograph (FBR) for the assessment of the proximal thoracic (PT), main thoracic (MT), and the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves in patients undergoing posterior spinal pedicle screw fixation and fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The FBR demonstrated statistically better correction than other preoperative methods for the assessment of frontal plane correction of the MT curves. The fulcrum-bending correction index (FBCI) has been considered a superior method than the correction rate for comparing curve correction undergoing posterior spinal fusion because it accounts for the curve flexibility. However, their applicability to assess the PT and TL/L curves in AIS patients remains speculative. The relation between FBR and correction obtained by pedicle screws fixation is still unknown. Thirty-eight consecutive AIS patients who underwent pedicle screw fixation and posterior fusion were included in this study. The assessment of preoperative radiographs included standing posterior-anterior (PA), FBR, supine side-bending, and postoperative standing PA and lateral plain radiographs. The flexibility of the curve, as well as the FBCI, was calculated for all patients. Postoperatively, radiographs were assessed at immediate (i.e. 1 week), 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up. Cobb angles were obtained from the PT, MT, and TL/L curves. The study consisted of 9 PT, 37 MT, and 12 TL/L curves, with a mean age of 15.1 years. The mean FBR flexibility of the PT, MT, and the TL/L curves was 42.6, 61.1, and 66.2%, respectively. The mean operative correction rates in the PT, MT, and TL/L curves were 43.4, 69.3, and 73.9%, respectively, and the mean FBCI was 103.8, 117.0, and 114.8%, respectively. Fulcrum-bending flexibility was positively correlated with the operative correction rate in PT, MT, and TL/L curves. Although the correction rate in MT and TL/L curves was higher than PT curves, the FBCI in PT, MT, and TL/L curves was not significantly different (p < 0.05). The FBR can be used to assist in the assessment of PT, MT, and TL/L curve corrections in AIS patients. When curve flexibility is taken into account by FBR, the ability of pedicle screws to correct PT, MT, and TL/L curves is the same.
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Extracellular BCL2 proteins are danger-associated molecular patterns that reduce tissue damage in murine models of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury contributes to organ dysfunction in a variety of clinical disorders, including myocardial infarction, stroke, organ transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. Recent investigations have demonstrated that apoptosis as an important mechanism of cell death leading to organ dysfunction following I/R. Intracellular danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released during cell death can activate cytoprotective responses by engaging receptors of the innate immune system.
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Successful use of posterior instrumented spinal fusion alone for scoliosis in 19 patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 followed up for at least 25 months.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Posterior instrumented fusion alone has been considered inadequate to correct scoliosis in most patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) because of their weak bone structure. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the extension of fusion one level beyond the conventional fusion level would enable posterior instrumented fusion alone to be as effective as anterior-posterior fusion in treating patients with NF-1 and scoliosis who are more than 10 years old and whose scoliosis is <90 degrees .
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Cardiac Na+ current regulation by pyridine nucleotides.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Mutations in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like (GPD1-L) protein reduce cardiac Na+ current (I(Na)) and cause Brugada Syndrome (BrS). GPD1-L has >80% amino acid homology with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is involved in NAD-dependent energy metabolism.
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Effect of preoperative brace treatment on quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis following corrective surgery.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Bracing is frequently used for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Such treatment is not always effective, and corrective surgery may be warranted. Brace treatment has been suggested to negatively affect quality of life. This study assessed postoperative quality of life and surgical outcome in Chinese patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and failed brace treatment. Ninety-four patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent simple posterior corrective surgery and pedicle screw fixation were studied. The patients were divided into 2 groups: brace and surgery treatment (BS group) and surgery with no brace treatment (S group). Radiological parameters were assessed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and >2 years postoperatively. Postoperative quality of life was determined using the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire. The preoperative minor curve Cobb angle was significantly greater in the BS group (34.9 degrees vs 29.4 degrees ; P=.037). Postoperative radiological parameters in the coronal and sagittal planes were similar. There were a significantly higher number of fused vertebrae in BS compared to S group patients (10.3 vs 9.6; P=.044). There were no significant postoperative differences between groups in function/activity, pain, mental health, or satisfaction of management as determined by the SRS-22. Self-image/appearance scores were significantly higher in BS compared to S group patients (4.0 vs 3.8; P=.010). Preoperative brace treatment may be a risk factor for minor curve progression but does not appear to significantly influence surgical outcome. Postoperative self-perceived quality of life is not negatively affected by preoperative brace treatment.
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MSC p43 required for axonal development in motor neurons.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Neuron connectivity and correct neural function largely depend on axonal integrity. Neurofilaments (NFs) constitute the main cytoskeletal network maintaining the structural integrity of neurons and exhibit dynamic changes during axonal and dendritic growth. However, the mechanisms underlying axonal development and maintenance remain poorly understood. Here, we identify that multisynthetase complex p43 (MSC p43) is essential for NF assembly and axon maintenance. The MSC p43 protein was predominantly expressed in central neurons and interacted with NF light subunit in vivo. Mice lacking MSC p43 exhibited axon degeneration in motor neurons, defective neuromuscular junctions, muscular atrophy, and motor dysfunction. Furthermore, MSC p43 depletion in mice caused disorganization of the axonal NF network. Mechanistically, MSC p43 is required for maintaining normal phosphorylation levels of NFs. Thus, MSC p43 is indispensable in maintaining axonal integrity. Its dysfunction may underlie the NF disorganization and axon degeneration associated with motor neuron degenerative diseases.
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Gp78, an ER associated E3, promotes SOD1 and ataxin-3 degradation.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and ataxin-3 are two neurodegenerative disease proteins in association with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Machado-Joseph disease/spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. Both normal and mutant types of SOD1 and ataxin-3 are degraded by the proteasome. It was recently reported that these two proteins are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mammalian gp78 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here, we show that gp78 interacts with both SOD1 and ataxin-3. Overexpression of gp78 promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of these two proteins, whereas knockdown of gp78 stabilizes them. Moreover, gp78 represses aggregate formation of mutant SOD1 and protect cells against mutant SOD1-induced cell death. Furthermore, gp78 is increased in cells transfected with these two mutant proteins as well as in ALS mice. Thus, our results suggest that gp78 functions in the regulation of SOD1 and ataxin-3 to target them for ERAD.
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Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma presenting with neuromuscular manifestation.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder. We describe a patient with PHPT who presented with progressive proximal limbs weakness and dystrophic changes of leg muscles. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were elevated and serum phosphorus was low. Neck computerized tomography scan showed a parenchymatous tumor in the right lobe of the thyroid. The tumor presented as a cold nodule in the dual-phase single-agent Tc-99m MIBI scan. The right lobectomy examination confirmed the diagnosis of an intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma of the right gland.
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase regulates cardiac function and fibrosis.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant that protects the heart from ischemia and the lung from inflammation and fibrosis. The role of cardiac EC-SOD under normal conditions and injury remains unclear. Cardiac toxicity, a common side effect of doxorubicin, involves oxidative stress. We hypothesize that EC-SOD is critical for normal cardiac function and protects the heart from oxidant-induced fibrosis and loss of function. C57BL/6 and EC-SOD-null mice were treated with doxorubicin, 15 mg/kg (i.p.). After 15 days, echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. Left ventricle (LV) tissue was used to assess fibrosis and inflammation by staining, Western blot, and hydroxyproline analysis. At baseline, EC-SOD-null mice have LV wall thinning and increases in LV end diastolic dimensions compared to wild-type mice but have normal cardiac function. After doxorubicin, EC-SOD-null mice have decreases in fractional shortening not apparent in WT mice. Lack of EC-SOD also leads to increases in myocardial apoptosis and significantly more LV fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Administration of the metalloporphyrin AEOL 10150 abrogates the loss of cardiac function, and potentially fibrosis, associated with doxorubicin treatment in both wild-type and EC-SOD KO mice. EC-SOD is critical for normal cardiac morphology and protects the heart from oxidant-induced fibrosis, apoptosis, and loss of function. The antioxidant metalloporphyrin AEOL 10150 effectively protects cardiac function from doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in vivo. These findings identify targets for the use of antioxidant agents in oxidant-induced cardiac fibrosis.
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Single-staged anterior and posterior spinal fusion: a safe and effective alternative for severe and rigid adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in China.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Delayed treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is common in Mainland China because of the lack of public education about health care resulting in the reluctance to undergo surgery. This leads to a high incidence of complex cases where surgeons may not be trained in advanced procedures. We report the efficacy of single-staged anterior and posterior spinal fusion for correction of severe AIS in China.
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Comparison of selective anterior versus posterior screw instrumentation in Lenke5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Retrospective review of anterior and posterior fusions for treatment of Lenke5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
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Shoulder balance after surgery in patients with Lenke Type 2 scoliosis corrected with the segmental pedicle screw technique.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Lenke Type 2 criteria in scoliosis correction with the segmental pedicle screw (PS) technique, with emphasis on shoulder balance.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.