The goal of this study was to identify cancer-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), analyze their biological functions and investigate the mechanism(s) of cancer occurrence and development, which may provide a theoretical foundation for bladder cancer (BCa) therapy. We downloaded the mRNA expression profiling dataset GSE13507 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database; the dataset includes 165 BCa and 68 control samples. T?tests were used to identify DEGs. To further study the biological functions of the identified DEGs, we performed a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Next, we built a network of potentially interacting pathways to study the synergistic relationships among DEGs. A total of 12,105 genes were identified as DEGs, of which 5,239 were upregulated and 6,866 were downregulated in BCa. The DEGs encoding activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) proteins, nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and interleukin (IL)-10 were revealed to participate in the significantly enriched immune pathways that were downregulated in BCa. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed 7 significantly upregulated and 47 significantly downregulated pathways enriched among the DEGs. We found a crosstalk interaction among a total of 44 pathways in the network of BCa-affected pathways. In conclusion, our results show that BCa involves dysfunctions in multiple systems. Our study is expected to pave ways for immune and inflammatory research and provide molecular insights for cancer therapy.
BackgroundProstate cancer (PCa) is a biologically heterogeneous disease with considerable variation in clinical aggressiveness. In this study, bioinformatics was used to detect the patterns of gene expression alterations of PCa patients.MethodsThe gene expression profile GSE21034 and GSE21036 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Significantly changed mRNA transcripts and microRNAs were identified between subtypes with favorable (cluster 2) and unfavorable (cluster 5) prognosis by two-side unequal variances t test. MicroRNAs and their potential target genes were identified by TargetScan and miRTarBase, respectively. Besides, the overlapped genes between the target genes of microRNAs and mRNA transcripts were assessed by Fisher¿ exact test (one side). The functional annotation was performed by DAVID, followed by construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network.ResultsCompared to cluster 2, 1556 up-regulated and 1288 down-regulated transcripts were identified in cluster 5. Total 28 microRNAs were up-regulated and 30 microRNAs were down-regulated in cluster 5. Besides, 12 microRNAs target transcripts were significantly overlapped with down-regulated transcripts in cluster 5 with none of them was found overlapped with up-regulated transcripts. Functional annotation showed that cell cycle was the most significant function. In the PPI network, BRCA1, CDK1, TK1 and TRAF2 were hub protein of signature genes in cluster 5, and TGFBR1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 were hub proteins of signature gnens in cluster 2.ConclusionsOur findings raise the possibility that genes related with cell cycle and dysregulated miRNA at diagnosis might have clinical utility in distinguishing low- from high-risk PCa patients.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_156.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria-lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-?B, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which arises preferentially in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Even with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, PEL continues to cause high mortality rates, requiring the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PEL xenograft models employing immunodeficient mice have been used to study the in vivo effects of a variety of therapeutic approaches. However, it remains unclear whether these xenograft models entirely reflect clinical presentations of KSHV(+) PEL, especially given the recent description of extracavitary solid tumor variants arising in patients. In addition, effusion and solid tumor cells propagated in vivo exhibit unique biology, differing from one another or from their parental cell lines propagated through in vitro culture. Therefore, we used a KSHV(+) PEL/BCBL-1 xenograft model involving non-obese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, and compared characteristics of effusion and solid tumors with their parent cell culture-derived counterparts. Our results indicate that although this xenograft model can be used for study of effusion and solid lymphoma observed in patients, tumor cells in vivo display unique features to those passed in vitro, including viral lytic gene expression profile, rate of solid tumor development, the host proteins and the complex of tumor microenvironment. These items should be carefully considered when the xenograft model is used for testing novel therapeutic strategies against KSHV-related lymphoma.
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