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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ammonium iodide-induced sulfonylation of alkenes with DMSO and water toward the synthesis of vinyl methyl sulfones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A novel ammonium iodide-induced sulfonylation of alkenes with DMSO and water toward the synthesis of vinyl methyl sulfones is described. The process proceeded smoothly under metal-free conditions with high stereoselectivity and good functional group tolerance. The reaction mechanism was revealed to proceed through a domino reaction of oxidation and elimination after the radical addition to alkenes.
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Fluorescent, MRI, and colorimetric chemical sensors for the first-row d-block metal ions.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Transition metals (d-blocks) are recognized as playing critical roles in biology, and they most often act as cofactors in diverse enzymes; however, improper regulation of transition metal stores is also connected to serious disorders. Therefore, the monitoring and imaging of transition metals are significant for biological research as well as clinical diagnosis. In this article, efforts have been made to review the chemical sensors that have been developed for the detection of the first-row d-block metals (except Cu and Zn): Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. We focus on the development of fluorescent sensors (fall into three classes: "turn-off", "turn-on", and ratiometric), colorimetric sensors, and responsive MRI contrast agents for these transition metals (242 references). Future work will be likely to fill in the blanks: (1) sensors for Sc, Ti, and V; (2) MRI sensors for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni; (3) ratiometric fluorescent sensors for Cr(6+), Mn(2+), and Ni(2+), explore new ways of sensing Fe(3+) or Cr(3+) without the proton interference, as well as extend applications of MRI sensors to living systems.
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The molecular evolution of rice stress-related genes.
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In the processes of evolution, plants have formed a perfect regulation system to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. However, there has not been any report about the molecular evolution of rice stress-related genes. We derived a family of 22 stress-related genes in rice from Plant Stress Gene Database, and analyzed it by bioinformatics and comparative genome method. The results showed that these genes are relatively conservative in low organisms, and their copy numbers increase along with the environmental changes and the evolution. We also found four conserved sequence motifs and three other specific motifs. We propose that these motifs are closely associated with the function of rice stress-related genes. The analysis of selection pressure showed that about 50% rice stress-related genes have positive selection sites, although they were subject to a strong purifying selection. Positive selection sites might be very significant for plants to adapt to environmental changes.
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Depth extension and sidelobe suppression in optical coherence tomography using pupil filters.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate a new focus engineering scheme to achieve both extended depth of focus (DOF) and sidelobe suppression in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system. Each of the illumination pupil function and the detection pupil function is modulated using an annular pupil filter implemented by center obscuration. The two pupil filters are arranged in a dark-field configuration such that the first sidelobe of the illumination point-spread function (PSF) matches the first minimum of the detection PSF in the lateral focal plane. We tested the feasibility of the proposed scheme numerically, and then constructed a dark-field OCT (DF-OCT) system to further verify its effectiveness experimentally. Simulation results show that a DOF gain of 4.2 can be achieved compared with a full aperture OCT (FA-OCT) system, with a suppression ratio of 2.9 dB for the first sidelobe compared with an annular-aperture bright-field OCT (BF-OCT) system. Experimental results show that the constructed DF-OCT extends the DOF by three-fold compared with the constructed FA-OCT, and suppresses the first sidelobe by 3.1 dB compared with the BF-OCT. The penalty for the extended DOF is an ~11.6 dB drop in sensitivity compared with the FA-OCT system.
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Nitric oxide negatively regulates AKT1-mediated potassium uptake through modulating vitamin B6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Nitric oxide (NO), an active signaling molecule in plants, is involved in numerous physiological processes and adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Under high-salt conditions, plants accumulate NO quickly, and reorganize Na(+) and K(+) contents. However, the molecular connection between NO and ion homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we report that NO lowers K(+) channel AKT1-mediated plant K(+) uptake by modulating vitamin B6 biosynthesis. In a screen for Arabidopsis NO-hypersensitive mutants, we isolated sno1 (sensitive to nitric oxide 1), which is allelic to the previously noted mutant sos4 (salt overly sensitive 4) that has impaired Na(+) and K(+) contents and overproduces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), an active form of vitamin B6. We showed that NO increased PLP and decreased K(+) levels in plant. NO induced SNO1 gene expression and enzyme activity, indicating that NO-triggered PLP accumulation mainly occurs through SNO1-mediated vitamin B6 salvage biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PLP significantly repressed the activity of K(+) channel AKT1 in the Xenopus oocyte system and Arabidopsis root protoplasts. Together, our results suggest that NO decreases K(+) absorption by promoting the synthesis of vitamin B6 PLP, which further represses the activity of K(+) channel AKT1 in Arabidopsis. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pivotal role of NO in modulating the homeostasis of vitamin B6 and potassium nutrition in plants, and shed light on the mechanism of NO in plant acclimation to environmental changes.
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A vascular endothelial growth factor activating transcription factor increases the endothelial progenitor cells population and induces therapeutic angiogenesis in a type 1 diabetic mouse with hindlimb ischemia.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Therapeutic angiogenesis has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and improve tissue perfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis. However, it has side effects that limit its therapeutic utility in vivo, especially at high concentrations. This study aimed to investigate whether an intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered zinc finger VEGF-activating transcription factor modulates the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and promotes therapeutic angiogenesis in a hindlimb ischemia model with type 1 diabetes.
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Crossover Formation During Rice Meiosis Relies on Interaction of OsMSH4 and OsMSH5.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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MSH4 encodes a MutS protein that plays a specialized role in meiosis. In eukaryotic species, such as budding yeast, mice, Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis, msh4 mutants display meiotic defects with a reduced number of chiasmata. Here, we characterized rice MSH4 by map-based cloning. In Osmsh4 mutants, the chiasma frequency was dramatically decreased to approximately 10% of the wild type, but the synaptonemal complex was normally installed. The double mutant analysis showed that in the Osmsh4 Osmsh5 mutant, the reduction of chiasmata was greater than other zmm mutants. This was consistent with the absence of localization for OsZIP4 and OsMER3 in Osmsh4, and suggests an earlier role for OsMSH4 and OsMSH5 than other ZMM proteins where they may be required to stabilize progenitor Holliday junctions. Using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, we verified the direct physical association between OsMSH4 and OsMSH5, OsMSH5 and HEI10 in plants for the first time. The MSH4-MSH5 heterodimer has been demonstrated in mammals to stabilize the formation of progenitor and double Holliday junctions (dHjs) that may be resolved as crossovers. We propose that OsMSH4 interacts with OsMSH5 to promote formation of the majority of crossovers in rice.
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Lighting up fluoride ions in cellular mitochondria using a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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We report a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe () for detecting fluoride ions, for the first time, lighting up the fluoride ions in mitochondria with a strong green fluorescence. could be easily prepared as fluoride paper test strips to detect fluoride ions in aqueous solutions with a detection limit as low as 19 ppb.
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An "enhanced PET"-based fluorescent probe with ultrasensitivity for imaging basal and elesclomol-induced HClO in cancer cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidant stress have long been associated with cancer. Unfortunately, the role of HClO in tumor biology is much less clear than for other ROS. Herein, we report a BODIPY-based HClO probe (BClO) with ultrasensitivity, fast response (within 1 s), and high selectivity, in which the pyrrole group at the meso position has an "enhanced PET" effect on the BODIPY fluorophore. The detection limit is as low as 0.56 nM, which is the highest sensitivity achieved to date. BClO can be facilely synthesized by a Michael addition reaction of acryloyl chloride with 2,4-dimethylpyrrole and applied to image the basal HClO in cancer cells for the first time and the time-dependent HClO generation in MCF-7 cells stimulated by elesclomol, an effective experimental ROS-generating anticancer agent.
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[Analysis of factors related to complications of vascular surgeries: a single-center and prospective cohort study].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To analysis the factors related to the complications of vascular surgeries in a general hospital.
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Highly sensitive naphthalene-based two-photon fluorescent probe for in situ real-time bioimaging of ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 in living biosystems.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Detecting and imaging of ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 in living biosystems could provide much important valuable information for the diagnosis and intervention of cancer. Molecular probes, whose fluorescent signals are generated by cyclooxygenase-2, hold great potential for identification and enumeration of cyclooxygenase-2 in living biosystems. Although quite a few fluorescent probes have been reported for cyclooxygenase-2, the use fluorogenic probe with the excellent two-photon properties for the determination of ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 has been scarce. Herein, an "off-on" fluorescence probe (BTDAN-COX-2), able to report and image the presence of ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 in living biosystems, has been designed and evaluated. In order to improve sensitivity and specific selectivity of probe for ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2, BTDAN-COX-2 employed cyclooxygenase-2's inhibitor as recognition group, because it is a classical and efficient recognition group for cyclooxygenase-2. A polarity-sensitive naphthalene derivative (BTDAN) as fluorophore was introduced into the molecule to enhance two-photon properties of BTDAN-COX-2. In the absent of cyclooxygenase-2, BTDAN-COX-2 mainly exists in a folded conformation where probe fluorescence is quenched through photoinduced electron transfer between the fluorophore and the recognition group. Under the condition of existence of cyclooxygenase-2, fluorescence of probe is turned on, because photoinduced electron transfer between the fluorophore and the recognition group is restrained. BTDAN-COX-2 provides high signal-to-background staining for the ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 and has been successfully used to rapidly detect and image ultratrace cyclooxygenase-2 in living biosystems.
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Synthesis on winged graphene nanofibers and their electrochemical capacitive performance.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Assembly techniques of graphene have attracted intense attention since their performance strongly depends on the manners in which graphene nanosheets are arranged. In this work, we demonstrate a viable process to synthesize winged graphene nanofibers (G-NFs) which could generate optimized pore size distribution by the fiber-like feature of graphene. The G-NF frameworks were achieved by processing the precursor graphene oxide nanosheets with the following procedures: microwave (MW) irradiation, salt addition, freeze-drying, and chemical reduction. The resultant framework composed of winged G-NFs with a diameter of 200-500 nm and a length of 5-20 ?m. Moreover, the crimp degree of G-NFs can be rationally controlled by MW irradiation time. A formation mechanism of such winged G-NFs based on the synergistic effects from MW irradiation and solution ionic strength change has been proposed. With a practice in flexible electrode, after decorated with amorphous MnO2, the G-NF frameworks shows an enhanced specific capacitance compared to graphene nanosheets (G-NSs). This research has developed a controllable method to synthesis G-NFs, which can offer hierarchical pore structures, this kind of graphene nanostructure might enhance their performance in supercapacitor and related fields.
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Hospital-based program to increase child safety restraint use among birthing mothers in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To evaluate a hospital-based educational program to increase child safety restraint knowledge and use among birthing mothers.
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Low-dose three-dimensional reconstruction of the femur with unit free-form deformation.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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This paper describes a low-dose method for reconstructing three-dimensional models of femur, using a standard shape model (SSM) and two conventional x-ray images.
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A RING finger protein 114 (RNF114) homolog from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) possesses immune-regulation properties via modulating RIG-I signaling pathway-mediated interferon expression.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in immune regulation. The human RNF114 (RING finger protein 114), an ubiquitin ligase, was recently reported to be involved in immune response to double-stranded RNA in disease pathogenesis. Here, we identified a RNF114 homolog in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and investigated its potential role in immune response. The full-length cDNA of Chinese sturgeon RNF114 (csRNF114) contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 681 nucleotides coding a protein of 227 amino acids. csRNF114 shares the highest identity of 76% at amino acid level to other RNF114 homologs, clustering with bony fish RNF114s based on phylogenetic analysis. The main structural features of csRNF114, including a C3HC4 (Cys3-His-Cys4) RING domain, a C2HC (Cys2-His-Cys)-type zinc finger motif, a C2H2 (Cys2-His2)-type zinc finger motif, and a UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif), take csRNF114 as an ubiquitin ligase. csRNF114 mRNA was widely expressed in various tissues and significantly up-regulated in poly(I:C)-treated Chinese sturgeon. Over-expression of csRNF114 in HEK293T cells significantly promoted both basal and poly(I:C)-induced activation of interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) downstream retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway and expression of target genes type I interferon (IFN), which was nearly abolished by knockdown of RIG-I with specific human siRNA and by mutation of the C3HC4 RING domain (C28A/C31A) in csRNF114 as well. Furthermore, csRNF114 associated with ubiquitinated proteins in HEK293T cells, for which the C3HC4 RING domain was essential. These data suggested that an ubiquitin ligase RNF114 homolog with a potential role in antiviral response possibly through modulating RIG-I signaling pathway was cloned from Chinese sturgeon, which might contribute to our understanding of the immune biology of Chinese sturgeon.
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Clinical and genetic analyses of a Chinese female with 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Abstract Aims: 17?-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by CYP17 gene mutations. This disease is clinically characterised by hypertension, hypokalaemia, sexual infantilism in females or pseudohermaphroditism in males, and adrenal hyperplasia. This study aims to investigate a rare case of 17OHD accompanied by both cystic ovaries and massive adrenal mass. Methods: This study performed clinical, hormonal, radiological and genetic analyses. Blood samples were collected from the patient for the genetic test. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the coding sequence abnormalities of CYP17 were assessed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis. Results: The genetic analysis of CYP17 revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the individual. One was a mis-sense mutation of c.1226 C?>?G, which changes codon 409 in exon 7 from proline (CCG) to arginine (CGG). Another was a mutation of p.Val311Asp,fs,330X, which was first reported in a compound heterozygote mutation of Y329fs and V311fs from a Chinese patient. Conclusion: This study presented a rare case of 17OHD accompanied by both cystic ovaries and massive adrenal mass. This study obtained significant information on the genotype-phenotype correlation of 17OHD.
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Influence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid presence in nanofibers and its alignment on the bone marrow stromal cells: cartilage regeneration.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Cartilage degeneration is the major cause of disability and poses several challenges to repair and regenerate. Conventional surgical treatments often induce fibrous tissues and compromise its function. Alternative tissue engineering strategies utilized scaffolds, factors and cells alone or in combination with some degree of success. This study reports the use of nanostructured biomimetic scaffold system in regulating the rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into chondrogenic lineage in vitro. The biometric scaffold is essentially a micro-porous polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral structure decorated with sparsely spaced bioactive PCL nanofibers. The bioactivity stems from the use of two major components of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) namely chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HYA). The PCL spiral structure was surface functionalized with PCL nanofibers encapsulated with CS (20% (w/w)) and HYA (0.2% (w/w)). In order to retain and sustain the release of CS and HYA nanofibers were cross-linked using carbodiimide chemistry. This study also evaluated the effect of nanofiber alignment on rBMSCs differentiation and evaluated the production of characteristic hyaline cartilage proteins namely collagen type II and aggrecan in vitro up to 28 days. Rat bone marrow derived stem cells cultured on the aligned nanofibers expressed significantly elevated levels of collagen type II and aggrecan secretions (western blots) as compared to scaffolds decorated with random fibers and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). This fiber alignment dependent expression of collagen type II and aggrecan secretion were further confirmed through immunofluorescence staining. This biomimetic and bioactive scaffold may serve as a serve as an efficient scaffold system for cartilage regeneration.
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A fluorescent probe for site I binding and sensitive discrimination of HSA from BSA.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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A fluorescent probe DH1 has been successfully developed to detect HSA via site I non-covalent bonding. DH1 shows a dramatic fluorescence enhancement towards HSA without interference from other proteins. The molecular docking method, for the first time, was utilized to provide deep insight into the sensing mechanism of the probe. Moreover, probe DH1 was successfully used to detect trace HSA in healthy human urine.
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Electrochemical aptasensor for mucin 1 based on dual signal amplification of poly(o-phenylenediamine) carrier and functionalized carbon nanotubes tracing tag.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Mucin 1 (MUC 1), as a most studied mucin, has become a useful marker for identifying breast cancer in the early stages. In this work, a novel method for the determination of MUC 1 in serum was developed based on a sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor, which combined a dual signal amplification strategy of poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Au nanoparticles (PoPD-AuNPs) hybrid film as carrier and AuNPs functionalized silica/multiwalled carbon nanotubes core-shell nanocomposites (AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs) as tracing tag. The PoPD-AuNPs film provides a suitable microenvironment for stabilizing the primary aptamer (Apt) assembly, and the AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs enhances the surface area for immobilizing abundant secondary Apts as well as load large amounts of electrochemical probe thionine (Thi). In the presence of MUC 1, the sandwich-type recognition reacted on the aptasensor surface, and the Thi-AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs nanoprobes were captured onto the electrode surface to form biocomplex. AuNPs and MWCNTs could facilitate the electron transfer from Thi to the electrode, thus amplifying the detection response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed sensing strategy provided a wider linear dynamic range over three orders of magnitude with the detection limit down to 1pM. Moreover, the aptasensor demonstrated good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility.
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A heterodinuclear metal complex for direct imaging of rRNA in living cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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A novel dual luminescence (523 nm and 615 nm) heterodinuclear RuIr complex for RNA detection was developed, which was successfully used to image rRNA in living cells.
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Surgical and pathological outcomes of abdominal radical trachelectomy versus hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the surgical and pathological outcomes for patients with early-stage cervical cancer after abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH).
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Thermally activated delayed fluorescence of fluorescein derivative for time-resolved and confocal fluorescence imaging.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Compared with fluorescence imaging utilizing fluorophores whose lifetimes are in the order of nanoseconds, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy has more advantages in monitoring target fluorescence. In this work, compound DCF-MPYM, which is based on a fluorescein derivative, showed long-lived luminescence (22.11 ?s in deaerated ethanol) and was used in time-resolved fluorescence imaging in living cells. Both nanosecond time-resolved transient difference absorption spectra and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) were employed to explain the long lifetime of the compound, which is rare in pure organic fluorophores without rare earth metals and heavy atoms. A mechanism of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) that considers the long wavelength fluorescence, large Stokes shift, and long-lived triplet state of DCF-MPYM was proposed. The energy gap (?EST) of DCF-MPYM between the singlet and triplet state was determined to be 28.36 meV by the decay rate of DF as a function of temperature. The ?E(ST) was small enough to allow efficient intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC, leading to efficient TADF at room temperature. The straightforward synthesis of DCF-MPYM and wide availability of its starting materials contribute to the excellent potential of the compound to replace luminescent lanthanide complexes in future time-resolved imaging technologies.
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Systematic analysis of the lysine acetylome in Vibrio parahemolyticus.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Lysine acetylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspect of cells, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Vibrio parahemolyticus, a model marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of bacterial seafood-borne illness. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in this bacterium through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Overall, we identified 1413 lysine acetylation sites in 656 proteins, which account for 13.6% of the total proteins in the cells; this is the highest ratio of acetyl proteins that has so far been identified in bacteria. The bioinformatics analysis of the acetylome showed that the acetylated proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular functions and exhibit diverse subcellular localizations. More specifically, proteins related to protein biosynthesis and carbon metabolism are the preferential targets of lysine acetylation. Moreover, two types of acetylation motifs, a lysine or arginine at the +4/+5 positions and a tyrosine, histidine, or phenylalanine at the +1/+2 positions, were revealed from the analysis of the acetylome. Additionally, protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a wide range of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. This study provides a significant beginning for the in-depth exploration of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in V. parahemolyticus.
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Clinical experience of surgical intervention for severe acute pancreatitis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The controversy on the treatment strategy for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has never stopped for the past century. Even now surgical procedures play a decisive role in the treatment of SAP, especially in managing the related complications, but the rational indications, timing, and approaches of surgical intervention for SAP are still inconclusive.
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OsHUS1 facilitates accurate meiotic recombination in rice.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Meiotic recombination normally takes place between allelic sequences on homologs. This process can also occur between non-allelic homologous sequences. Such ectopic interaction events can lead to chromosome rearrangements and are normally avoided. However, much remains unknown about how these ectopic interaction events are sensed and eliminated. In this study, using a screen in rice, we characterized a homolog of HUS1 and explored its function in meiotic recombination. In Oshus1 mutants, in conjunction with nearly normal homologous pairing and synapsis, vigorous, aberrant ectopic interactions occurred between nonhomologous chromosomes, leading to multivalent formation and subsequent chromosome fragmentation. These ectopic interactions relied on programmed meiotic double strand breaks and were formed in a manner independent of the OsMER3-mediated interference-sensitive crossover pathway. Although early homologous recombination events occurred normally, the number of interference-sensitive crossovers was reduced in the absence of OsHUS1. Together, our results indicate that OsHUS1 might be involved in regulating ectopic interactions during meiosis, probably by forming the canonical RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex.
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Synthesis of novel perphenylcarbamated ?-cyclodextrin based chiral stationary phases via thiol-ene click chemistry.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Novel cyclodextrin (CD) chiral stationary phases (CD-CSPs) with well-defined structure have been successfully synthesized by immobilization of mono/di(10-undecenoyl)-perphenylaminocarbonyl ?-CD on the 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel via thiol-ene click chemistry. The phenyl carbamate groups on the rims of CD extended the cavity of CD-CSPs, which facilitated the formation of inclusion complex with various types of racemic compounds under RP mode, and also improved the ?-? stacking interaction, dipole-dipole interaction, and hydrogen bonding interaction with racemic compounds under normal phase mode. Fifteen racemic compounds were successfully separated on this CD-CSP with HPLC, and the chromatographic results also demonstrated that thiol-ene click chemistry affords a facile approach for preparation of CSPs.
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Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?
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Electrocatalytic activity of core/shell magnetic nanocomposite.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Electrically active magnetic nanocomposites (EAMNCs), Au nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline@Fe3O4 (AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4) with well-defined core/shell structure, were first synthesized by a simple method. The morphology and composition of the as-synthesized AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4 nanocomposite have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4 biocomposites were immobilized onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to construct an amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor. The effects of HRP dosage, solution pH, and the working potential on the current response toward H2O2 reduction were optimized to obtain the maximal sensitivity. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited a linear calibration response in the range of 0.05 to 0.35mM and 0.35 to 1.85mM, with a detection limit of 0.01mM (signal-to-noise ratio=3). The modified electrode could virtually eliminate the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) during the detection of H2O2. Furthermore, the biosensor was applied to detect H2O2 concentration in real samples, which showed acceptable accuracy with the traditional potassium permanganate titration.
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Neural network for nonsmooth, nonconvex constrained minimization via smooth approximation.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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A neural network based on smoothing approximation is presented for a class of nonsmooth, nonconvex constrained optimization problems, where the objective function is nonsmooth and nonconvex, the equality constraint functions are linear and the inequality constraint functions are nonsmooth, convex. This approach can find a Clarke stationary point of the optimization problem by following a continuous path defined by a solution of an ordinary differential equation. The global convergence is guaranteed if either the feasible set is bounded or the objective function is level bounded. Specially, the proposed network does not require: 1) the initial point to be feasible; 2) a prior penalty parameter to be chosen exactly; 3) a differential inclusion to be solved. Numerical experiments and comparisons with some existing algorithms are presented to illustrate the theoretical results and show the efficiency of the proposed network.
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[Type C2 proximal humeral fracture fixation using locking-plate with an intramedullary fibular allograft].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To investigate the clinical results of locking-plate with an intramedullary fibular allograft for type C2 proximal humeral fracture fixation.
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Lentivirus-Mediated Knockdown of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 subunit D Inhibits Proliferation of HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells.
Biosci. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Dysregulation of protein synthesis is emerging as a major contributory factor in cancer development. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D (eIF3D) is one member of the eIF3 family, which is essential for initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Acquaintance with eIF3D is little since it has been identified as a dispensable subunit of eIF3 complex. Recently, eIF3D was found to embed somatic mutations in human colorectal cancers, indicating its importance for tumor progression. To further probe into its action in colon cancer, we utilized lentivirus-mediated RNA interference to knock down eIF3D expression in one colon cancer cell line HCT116. Knockdown of eIF3D in HCT116 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that depletion of eIF3D led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced an excess accumulation of HCT116 cells in the sub-G1 phase representing apoptotic cells. Signaling pathways responsible for cell growth and apoptosis have also been found altered after eIF3D silencing, such as AMPK?, Bad, PRAS40, SAPK/JNK, GSK3?, and PARP. Taken together, these findings suggest that eIF3D might play an important role in colon cancer progression.
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Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL) on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.
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New GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys ZIC-HILIC composites: synthesis and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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GO-PEI-Au-L-Cys composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on a GO surface using polyethylenimine as reducing and stabilizing reagents, followed by L-cysteine immobilization through an Au-S bond. The composites were applied as a kind of novel ZIC-HILIC material to achieve highly selective enrichment of glycopeptides from biological samples.
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Collagen functionalized bioactive nanofiber matrices for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: bone tissue engineering.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Scaffold architecture, surface topography, biochemical and mechanical cues have been shown to significantly improve cellular events and in vivo tissue regeneration. Specifically electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained tremendous interest due to their intrinsic structural resemblance to native tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). The present study reports on the electrospun nanofiber matrices of polycaprolactone (PCL)-chitosan (CS) blends and effect of type I collagen surface functionalization in regulating rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into osteogenic lineage. Collagen was covalently attached to blend nanofibers via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling. Bead-free smooth nanofibers (diameter-700-850 nm) obtained at the optimized conditions of polymer concentration and electrospinning parameters were used for the study. EDC collagen coupling resulted in 0.120+/-0.016 micro g of collagen immobilization onto a 1 cm2 area of the PCL/CS nanofibers, which was 2.6-folds higher than the amount of collagen that can be retained by physical adsorption. Significantly improved rBMSCs adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was observed on the collagen functionalized COL-PCULCS nanofiber matrices as compared to control groups. Osteogenic phenotypic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were found to be significantly higher on COL-PCL/CS nanofiber matrices as compared to controls. Elevated gene expression profiles of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcin (0CN), osteopontin (OPN) and ALP further corroborate the osteoinductive nature of the collagen functionalized PCL/CS nanofiber matrices. These fiber matrices and modification techniques could be extended to other scaffold systems for tissue engineering applications.
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Macro-/micro-environment-sensitive chemosensing and biological imaging.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Environment-related parameters, including viscosity, polarity, temperature, hypoxia, and pH, play pivotal roles in controlling the physical or chemical behaviors of local molecules. In particular, in a biological environment, such factors predominantly determine the biological properties of the local environment or reflect corresponding status alterations. Abnormal changes in these factors would cause cellular malfunction or become a hallmark of the occurrence of severe diseases. Therefore, in recent years, they have increasingly attracted research interest from the fields of chemistry and biological chemistry. With the emergence of fluorescence sensing and imaging technology, several fluorescent chemosensors have been designed to respond to such parameters and to further map their distributions and variations in vitro/in vivo. In this work, we have reviewed a number of various environment-responsive chemosensors related to fluorescent recognition of viscosity, polarity, temperature, hypoxia, and pH that have been reported thus far.
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Myotubularin-related phosphatase 3 promotes growth of colorectal cancer cells.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Due to changes in lifestyle, particularly changes in dietary habits, colorectal cancer (CRC) increased in recent years despite advances in treatment. Nearly one million new cases diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths make CRC a leading cause of cancer mortality. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of myotubularin-related phosphatase 3 (MTMR3) in CRC cell growth via lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) transduction in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW1116. The effect of MTMR3 knockdown on cell growth was evaluated by MTT, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays. The effect of MTMR3 knockdown on cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry with Annexin V/7-AAD double staining. The activation of apoptotic markers, Bad and PARP, was detected using Intracellular Signaling Array. Knockdown of MTMR3 resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation in both HCT116 and SW1116 cells. Moreover, knockdown of MTMR3 led to S phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of MTMR3 induced cell apoptosis via phosphorylation of Bad and cleavage of PARP. These results indicate that MTMR3 may play an important role in the progression of CRC and suggest that siRNA mediated silencing of MTMR3 could be an effective tool in CRC treatment.
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Preparation of hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Hydrazide chemistry is a powerful technique in glycopeptides enrichment. However, the low density of the monolayer hydrazine groups on the conventional hydrazine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles limits the efficiency of glycopeptides enrichment. Herein, a novel magnetic nanoparticle grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (GMA) brushes was fabricated via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and a large amount of hydrazine groups were further introduced to the GMA brushes by ring-opening the epoxy groups with hydrazine hydrate. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2) demonstrated the high specificity of capturing glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of the sample comprising a standard non-glycosylated protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and four standard glycoproteins with a weight ratio of 50?:?1, and the detection limit was as low as 130 fmol. In the analysis of a real complex biological sample, the tryptic digest of hepatocellular carcinoma, 179 glycosites were identified by the Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2 nanoparticles, surpassing that of 68 glycosites by Fe3O4@SiO2-single-NHNH2 (with monolayer hydrazine groups on the surface). It can be expected that the magnetic nanoparticles modified with hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes via RAFT technique will improve the specificity and the binding capacity of glycopeptides from complex samples, and show great potential in the analysis of protein glycosylation in biological samples.
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A "distorted-BODIPY"-based fluorescent probe for imaging of cellular viscosity in live cells.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Cellular viscosity is a critical factor in governing diffusion-mediated cellular processes and is linked to a number of diseases and pathologies. Fluorescent molecular rotors (FMRs) have recently been developed to determine viscosity in solutions or biological fluid. Herein, we report a "distorted-BODIPY"-based probe BV-1 for cellular viscosity, which is different from the conventional "pure rotors". In BV-1, the internal steric hindrance between the meso-CHO group and the 1,7-dimethyl group forced the boron-dipyrrin framework to be distorted, which mainly caused nonradiative deactivation in low-viscosity environment. BV-1 gave high sensitivity (x=0.62) together with stringent selectivity to viscosity, thus enabling viscosity mapping in live cells. Significantly, the increase of cytoplasmic viscosity during apoptosis was observed by BV-1 in real time.
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Severe diffuse axon injury in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata following a concussion blow.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We investigated the axonal morphological changes and expression of both tau protein and ?-APP following concussion to the medulla oblongata, in a rat model of chronic alcoholism.
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Optical reading of contaminants in aqueous media based on gold nanoparticles.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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With increasing trends of global population growth, urbanization, pollution over-exploitation, and climate change, the safe water supply has become a global issue and is threatening our society in terms of sustainable development. Therefore, there is a growing need for a water-monitoring platform with the capability of rapidness, specificity, low-cost, and robustness. This review summarizes the recent developments in the design and application of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based optical assays to detect contaminants in aqueous media with a high performance. First, a brief discussion on the correlation between the optical reading strategy and the optical properties of AuNPs is presented. Then, we summarize the principle behind AuNP-based optical assays to detect different contaminants, such as toxic metal ion, anion, and pesticides, according to different optical reading strategies: colorimetry, scattering, and fluorescence. Finally, the comparison of these assays and the outlook of AuNP-based optical detection are discussed.
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Conservative therapy with metformin plus megestrol acetate for endometrial atypical hyperplasia.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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To compare the efficacy of metformin plus megestrol acetate (MA) with that of MA alone for treating endometrial atypical hyperplasia (EAH).
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A ratiometric fluorescent probe for determining Pd2+ ions based on coordination.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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An aniline-rhodamine-based ratiometric fluorescent probe (RI) was designed and synthesized. , the metal coordinating chromophoric ligand, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity for Pd(2+) ions with a detection limit of 73.8 nM. This method of Pd(2+) detection had a 10 min response time.
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Naphthylamine-rhodamine-based ratiometric fluorescent probe for the determination of Pd2+ ions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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A naphthylamine-rhodamine hybrid ratiometric and colorimetric fluorescent probe (RN) was designed and synthesized. RN can identify Pd(2+) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the probe can be used to monitor Pd(2+) ions in live mice by fluorescence imaging.
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Dendrimer-grafted graphene oxide nanosheets as novel support for trypsin immobilization to achieve fast on-plate digestion of proteins.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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In this study, dendrimer grafted graphene oxide nanosheets (dGO) were prepared by covalent reaction. The successful synthesis of dGO was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectra, Raman spectra, Thermo gravimetric analysis and Zeta potential. Taking advantages of large surface area, excellent biocompatibility and abundant functional groups, dGO provided an ideal substrate for trypsin immobilization. Trypsin-linked dGO was synthesized through covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde as coupling agents. The amount of trypsin immobilized on dGO nanosheets was calculated to be about 649 ± 20 mg/g. The activity of immobilized trypsin could be maintained for over 10 days at 4 °C. On-plate proteolysis could be performed without removing trypsin-linked dGO, because dGO did not interfere with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis. By such an immobilized enzymatic reactor, standard proteins could be efficiently digested within 15 min, with sequence coverages comparable or better than those obtained by conventional over-night in-solution digestion. Furthermore, trypsin-linked dGO showed high sensitivity when applied to trace samples analysis. All these results demonstrated that the developed dGO based enzymatic reactor might provide a promising tool for high throughput proteome identification.
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Synthesis of zwitterionic polymer brushes hybrid silica nanoparticles via controlled polymerization for highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) materials have been increasingly attractive in glycopeptide enrichment. However, the traditional ZIC-HILIC materials are modified with monolayer zwitterionic molecules on the surface, therefore, the hydrophilicity, detection sensitivity and loading capacity are limited. In this work, we synthesized novel silica nanoparticles with uniform poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-(3-sul-fopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (PMSA) brushes grafted onto the surface via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization (denoted as SiO2-RAFT@PMSA). The resulting SiO2-RAFT@PMSA nanoparticles demonstrated low detection limit (10 fmol) and high recovery yield (over 88%) for glycopeptide enrichment from tryptic digest of human IgG. The SiO2-RAFT@PMSA nanoparticles were further applied for the analysis of mouse liver glycoproteome, a total number of 303 unique N-glycosylation sites corresponding to 185 glycoproteins was reliably profiled in three replicate nano-LC-MS/MS runs. Significantly, more glycopeptides were identified than those of nanoparticles, monolayer MSA molecules modified SiO2@single-MSA and nonuniform multi-layer PMSA brushes coated SiO2@PMSA, as well as commercial ZIC@HILIC beads and Click Maltose beads. The excellent performance of SiO2-RAFT@PMSA nanoparticles results from the non-fouling property, a large quantity of functional molecules and suitable link arms provided by uniform PMSA brushes, as well as efficient interaction between glycopeptides and uniform PMSA brushes. It is concluded that the synthesized SiO2-RAFT@PMSA nanoparticles exhibit great potential in glycoproteome analysis. Moreover, this strategy to modify nanopaticles with uniform polymer brushes via RAFT polymerization can also be explored to design other types of materials for bioseparation application.
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Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10(-10) M-2.5 × 10(-4) M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.
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Primary appendiceal lymphoma presenting as suspected perforated acute appendicitis: clinical, sonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for extranodal involvement by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, primary appendiceal lymphomas presenting as perforated acute appendicitis are very rare: they occur in only 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphoma cases. The management of this condition is still controversial, and a multimodality approach (e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) is the optimal treatment. In these cases, appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas typically manifest with acute symptoms in patients with no prior lymphoma history. Additionally, we treated our patient with a right hemicolectomy and postoperative multiagent chemotherapy.
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Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent) has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE) is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent.
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Development of an open source software module for enhanced visualization during MR-guided interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In 2010, gynecologic malignancies were the 4th leading cause of death in U.S. women and for patients with extensive primary or recurrent disease, treatment with interstitial brachytherapy may be an option. However, brachytherapy requires precise insertion of hollow catheters with introducers into the tumor in order to eradicate the cancer. In this study, a software solution to assist interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy has been investigated and the software has been realized as an own module under (3D) Slicer, which is a free open source software platform for (translational) biomedical research. The developed research module allows on-time processing of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) data over a direct DICOM connection to a MR scanner. Afterwards follows a multi-stage registration of CAD models of the medical brachytherapy devices (template, obturator) to the patient's MR images, enabling the virtual placement of interstitial needles to assist the physician during the intervention.
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Polymer-ceramic spiral structured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effect of hydroxyapatite composition on human fetal osteoblasts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA), a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs) were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and type I collagen (Col-1) were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA?PCL?=?1?4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic ratios. Amongst the different nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds, the 1?4 weight ratio of HA and PCL is shown to be the most optimal composition for bone tissue regeneration.
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[Analysis of docosahexenoic acid in human blood using heterocyclic derivatization-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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A method was developed and validated for the analysis of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in human blood by heterocyclic derivatization-gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) was used as the reaction reagent of DHA heterocyclic derivatization and the most optimal reaction conditions of this reaction were optimized. Multiple reaction monitoring and internal standard calibration curve were applied to detect DHA by GC-MS/MS. The linear range for the determination of DHA was 0.07 - 10 microg/mL (r(2) = 0.9991). The limit of detection (S/N = 2.8) was 0.02 microg/mL and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) was 0.07 microg/mL. The average recoveries of DHA at three spiked levels of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 microg ranged from 94.40% to 103.13% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 1.51% - 3.16%. The method was simple, accurate, reliable and small amount of sample was required. It was suitable for detecting the contents of DHA in human blood.
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A novel fluorescent sensor for detection of highly reactive oxygen species, and for imaging such endogenous hROS in the mitochondria of living cells.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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A new dye, PTZ-Cy2, based on a hybrid cyanine–phenothiazine platform, is described. Oxidation by highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) involves attack at the thiazine sulfur atom and destruction of the p conjugation of the cyaninemoiety. Dual fluorescence emissions are enhanced dramatically at ?(em) 470 nm and 595 nm, and PTZ-Cy2 thus serves both as an absorbance ratiometric and a fluorescent "off-on" sensor for detecting hROS. Moreover PTZ-Cy2 shows selectivity for hROS over other oxidants, and gives a highly sensitive response to such endogenous species within the mitochondria of living cells.
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Fluorescence Discrimination of Cancer from Inflammation by Molecular Response to COX-2 Enzymes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Accurate identification of cancer from inflammation and normal tissue in a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative fashion is important for cancer diagnosis and resection during surgery. Here we report the use of cyclooxygenase-2 as a marker for identification of cancer from inflammation and the design of a novel smart COX-2-specific fluorogenic probe (NANQ-IMC6). The probes fluorescence is "turned on" in both inflammations and cancers where COX-2 is overexpressed. Intriguingly, the fluorescent emission is quite different at these two sites with different expression level of COX-2. Hence, NANQ-IMC6 can not only distinguish normal cells/tissues from cancer cells/tissues but also distinguish the latter from sites of inflammation lesions by the different fluorescence recognition of NANQ-IMC6 for COX-2 enzymes. Following spraying with the NANQ-IMC6 solution, cancerous tissue, inflamed tissues, and normal tissues can be accurately discriminated in vivo by the unaided eye using a hand-held ultraviolet lamp emitting at 365 nm. So the probe may have potential application varying from cancer inflammation diagnosis to guiding tumor resection during surgery.
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Endovascular Stent-Graft Treatment for a Traumatic Vertebrovertebral Arteriovenous Fistula with Pseudoaneurysm.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The rarely occurring vertebrovertebral arteriovenous fistula (VVAVF) is characterized by abnormal direct communications between the vertebral artery or its branches and the neighboring venous system. We present our experience using a stent graft to occlude a chronic, traumatic VVAVF. A 40-year-old woman with dizziness and loud bruits from the occiput underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which revealed a VVAVF with pseudoaneurysm at the C5-C6 level, with retrograde flow from the right vertebral artery. A stent graft was placed across the fistula after balloon dilation. The fistula and pseudoaneurysm disappeared immediately. After 9 months, the patient remained asymptomatic with a patent stent.
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Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices.
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Genetic variants in RAN, DICER and HIWI of microRNA biogenesis genes and risk of cervical carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Recent evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is implicated in cancer development and progression. Based on the important role of miRNA biogenesis genes in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that genetic variations of the miRNA biogenesis genes may modulate susceptibility to cervical cancer.
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Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg(-1) and up to 22,727.3 W kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.
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A near-infrared dye based on BODIPY for tracking morphology changes in mitochondria.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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M-DPT, a BODIPY-based water soluble near-infrared fluorescent probe with thiophene at the 1,7-position, is synthesized. M-DPT is found to possess high specificity to mitochondria, superior photostability, and appreciable tolerance to microenvironmental changes. Thus, this probe is a highly suitable imaging agent for targeting mitochondria and tracking morphology changes.
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Laminin Functionalized Biomimetic Nanofibers For Nerve Tissue Engineering.
J Biomater Tissue Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Large-gap peripheral nerve injuries present a significant challenge for nerve regeneration due to lack of suitable grafts, insufficient cell penetration, and repair. Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds, functionalized on the surface with extracellular matrix proteins, can lead to novel therapies for repair and regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves. Here, nanofibrous scaffolds electrospun from blends of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and chitosan were fabricated. Taking advantage of the amine groups on the chitosan, the surface of the scaffolds were functionalized with laminin by carbodiimide based crosslinking. Crosslinking allowed laminin to be attached to the surfaces of the PCL-chitosan nanofibers at relatively high concentrations that were not possible using conventional adsorption methods. The nanofibrous meshes were tested for wettability, mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation. Blending of chitosan with PCL provided more favorable surfaces for attachment of Schwann cells due to the reduction of the contact angle in comparison to neat PCL. Proliferation rates of Schwann cells grown on PCL-chitosan scaffolds with crosslinked laminin were significantly higher than the rates for PCL-chitosan nanofibrous matrices with adsorbed laminin. PCL-chitosan scaffolds with modified surfaces via crosslinking of laminin could potentially serves as versatile substrates with excellent mechanical and surface properties for in vivo cell delivery for nerve tissue engineering applications.
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Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a u.s. Retail market.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 ?g/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.
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A highly specific BODIPY-based probe localized in mitochondria for HClO imaging.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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An oxime containing fluorescent probe based on a BODIPY scaffold was successfully designed and used for HClO determination with rapid response, low detection limits and high selectivity. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the probe could permeate the mitochondria and made possible the fast fluorescent imaging of endogenous HClO.
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An ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing platform for Hg(2+) based on a density controllable metal-organic hybrid microarray.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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A novel electrochemical Hg(2+) biosensor was developed on the basis of a metal-organic hybrid microarray, in which the nicking endonuclease (NE) assisted target-triggered strand release strategy was realized via the DNA cyclic amplification technique. The metal-organic hybrid microarray was fabricated using the SAM of 1, 4-benzenendithiol as soft template, and the density of the microarray could be adjusted by controlling the surface coverage of 1,4-benzenendithiol molecules. In the presence of Hg(2+), capture DNA (cDNA) with an indicator at one end could hybridize with the reporter DNA (rDNA) through the stable T-Hg(2+)-T linkage, forming the nicking recognition site. After the nicking reaction, the electrochemical indicator dissociated from the electrode surface. The released rDNA and Hg(2+) could be reused in the sensing system and initiate the next cycle, and more electroactive indicator dissociated from the electrode surface, resulting in a significant signal decrease. The constructed DNA biosensor could detect Hg(2+) in a wide linear range from 15pM to 500nM, with an ultrasensitive detection limit of 5pM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, good reproducibility and high selectivity towards other divalent ions. The proposed sensing system also showed a promising potential for the application in real aquatic product sample analysis.
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Identification and characterization of transforming growth factor ? induced gene (TGFBIG) from Branchiostoma belcheri: Insights into evolution of TGFBI family.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The transforming growth factor ? induced gene (TGFBIG) encodes a protein (TGFBI) which plays important roles in many biological processes. However, no TGFBIG homolog has been reported in B. belcheri. Here, we identified a TGFBI-like gene from B. belcheri and extensively studied the evolutionary history of TGFBI family. We found that the amphioxus genome contains a TGFBIG homolog designated as AmphiTGFBI which encodes a protein with 5 Fas1 domains. The TGFBIGs were present in a common ancestor with Amphimedon queenslandica. We also demonstrated expression patterns of AmphiTGFBI in five amphioxus tissues. Interestingly, the gene structures and conserved motifs of invertebrate TGFBIGs were found to present regular changes in the evolution. Positive selection and Fas1 domain loss might cause the regular changes of gene structures and conserved motifs in invertebrate TGFBIGs during evolution. Together, our findings provided an insight into the evolution of the TGFBI family.
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An off-on COX-2-specific fluorescent probe: targeting the Golgi apparatus of cancer cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Identifying cancer cells and quantifying cancer-related events in particular organelles in a rapid and sensitive fashion are important for early diagnosis and for studies on pathology and therapeutics of cancers. Herein a smart "off-on" cyclooxygenase-2-specific fluorescence probe (ANQ-IMC-6), able to report the presence of cancer cells and to image Golgi-related events, has been designed and evaluated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been used as imaging target in the probe design, since this enzyme is a biomarker of virtually all cancer cell lines. In the free state in aqueous solution, ANQ-IMC-6 mainly exists in a folded conformation where probe fluorescence is quenched through photoinduced electron transfer between the fluorophore acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (ANQ) and the recognition group, indomethacin (IMC). Fluorescence is turned on, by restraining the photoinduced electron transfer, when ANQ-IMC-6 is forced to adopt the unfolded state following binding to COX-2 in the Golgi apparatus of cancer cells. ANQ-IMC-6 provides high signal-to-background staining and has been successfully used to rapidly differentiate cancer cells from normal cells when using flow cytometry and one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopic imaging. Furthermore, ANQ-IMC-6 may be able to visualize dynamic changes of the Golgi apparatus during cancer cell apoptosis, with possible application to early diagnosis.
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DNA methylation changes in photoperiod-thermo-sensitive male sterile rice PA64S under two different conditions.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Epigenetic modification can occur at a high frequency in crop plants and might generate phenotypic variation without changes in DNA sequences. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that may contribute to environmentally-induced phenotypic variations by regulating gene expression. Rice Photoperiod-Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PTGMS) lines can transform from sterility to fertility under lower temperatures and short-day (SD) conditions during anther development. So far, little is known about the DNA methylation variation of PTGMS throughout the genome in rice. In this study, we investigated DNA cytosine methylation alterations in the young panicles of PTGMS line PA64S under two different conditions using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method. Compared with the DNA methylation level of PA64S under lower temperatures and SD conditions (fertility), higher methylation was observed in PA64S (sterility). The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments were successfully obtained and annotated. Three methylated fragments, which are homologous to D2, NAD7 and psaA, were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and their expression levels were also evaluated by qPCR. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that five of the six selected methylated genes were downregulated in PA64S (sterility). These results suggested that DNA methylation may be involved in the sterility-fertility transition of PA64S under two different environmental conditions.
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Evolutionary rate patterns of genes involved in the Drosophila Toll and Imd signaling pathway.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To survive in a hostile environment, insects have evolved an innate immune system to defend against infection. Studies have shown that natural selection may drive the evolution of immune system-related proteins. Yet, how network architecture influences protein sequence evolution remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the molecular evolutionary patterns of genes in the Toll and Imd innate immune signaling pathways across six Drosophila genomes within the context of a functional network.
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A ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe for hydrazine and its in vivo applications.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Based on modulation of the conjugated polymethine ?-electron system of a cyanine dye derivative, a ratiometric near-infared fluorescent probe (Cy7A) for hydrazine (N2H4) has been designed and synthesized. Cy7A can be selectively hydrazinolysized with great changes in its fluorescent excitation/emission profiles, which makes it possible to detect N2H4 in water samples and living cells and, for the first time, visualize N2H4 in living mice.
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Colourimetric and fluorescent probes for the optical detection of palladium ions.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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In recent years, the development of optical probes to analyse trace palladium ions (Pd(2+)) has attracted great attention because of the residual palladium released by catalytic converters or from various Pd-catalysed reactions. These residual palladium ions may cause potential health hazards. This review provides a brief introduction to the new methods used to determine trace amounts of Pd(2+), which then mainly focuses on the different reporting systems and unique mechanisms of the colourimetric and fluorescent probes used to detect Pd(2+), including Pd(2+) complex formation or Pd-catalysed reactions.
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Development and validation of a surgical training simulator with haptic feedback for learning bone-sawing skill.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Bone sawing or cutting is widely used for bone removal processes in bone surgery. It is an essential skill that surgeons should execute with a high level of experience and sensitive force perception. Surgical training simulators, with virtual and haptic feedback functions, can offer a safe, repeatable and cost-effective alternative to traditional surgeries. In this research, we developed a surgical training simulator with virtual and haptic force feedback for maxillofacial surgery, and we validated the effects on the learning of bone-sawing skills through empirical evaluation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.