The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5), cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-?B and progesterone and ?-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer.
In many different human disorders, the cellular glycome is altered. An interesting but poorly understood alteration occurs in the mucin-type O-glycome, in which there is aberrant expression of the truncated O-glycans Tn (GalNAc?1-Ser/Thr) and its sialylated version sialyl-Tn (STn) (Neu5Ac?2,6GalNAc?1-Ser/Thr). Both Tn and STn are tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens and tumor biomarkers, since they are not expressed normally and appear early in tumorigenesis. Moreover, their expression is strongly associated with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis. The Tn and STn antigens are also expressed in other human diseases and disorders, such as Tn syndrome and IgA nephropathy. The major pathological mechanism for expression of the Tn and STn antigens is compromised T-synthase activity, resulting from alteration of the X-linked gene that encodes for Cosmc, a molecular chaperone specifically required for the correct folding of T-synthase to form active enzyme. This review will summarize our current understanding of the Tn and STn antigens in terms of their biochemistry and role in pathology.
In the present work, the nanocomposite of MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (MoO2-OMC) was synthesized for the first time using a carbon thermal reduction route and the mesoporous carbon as the nanoreactor. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Furthermore, this nanocomposite was used as an anode material for Li-ion intercalation and exhibited large reversible capacity, high rate performance, and good cycling stability. For instance, a high reversible capacity of 689 mAh g(-1) can remain after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It is worth mentioning that the MoO2-OMC nanocomposite electrode can attain a high reversible capacity of 401 mAh g(-1) at a current density as high as 2 A g(-1). These results might be due to the intrinsic characteristics of nanocomposite, which offered a better accommodation of the strain and volume changes and a shorter path for Li-ion and electron transport, leading to the improved capacity and enhanced rate capability.
Loss of T-synthase (uridine diphosphate galactose:N-acetylgalactosaminyl-?1-Ser/Thr ?3galactosyltransferase), a key enzyme required for the formation of mucin-type core 1 O-glycans, is observed in several human diseases, including cancer, Tn syndrome and IgA nephropathy, but current methods to assay the enzyme use radioactive substrates and complicated isolation of the product. Here we report the development of a novel fluorescent assay to measure its activity in a variety of tumor cell lines. Deficiencies in T-synthase activity correlate with mutations in the gene encoding the molecular chaperone Cosmc that is required for folding the T-synthase. This new high-throughput assay allows for facile screening of tumor specimens and other biological material for T-synthase activity and could be used diagnostically.
Cosmc is a molecular chaperone thought to be required for expression of active T-synthase, the only enzyme that galactosylates the Tn antigen (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr-R) to form core 1 Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen) during mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis. Here we show that ablation of the X-linked Cosmc gene in mice causes embryonic lethality and Tn antigen expression. Loss of Cosmc is associated with loss of T-synthase but not other enzymes required for glycoprotein biosynthesis, demonstrating that Cosmc is specific in vivo for the T-synthase. We generated genetically mosaic mice with a targeted Cosmc deletion and survivors exhibited abnormalities correlated with Tn antigen expression that are related to several human diseases.
Ternary oxide Zn(2)Ti(3)O(8) nanowires were first synthesized and used as the anode material in a rechargeable lithium-ion battery, which displayed a very reversible charge-discharge capacity and excellent cycling stability.
Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi ?3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Gal?1-3GalNAc?-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAc?1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer.
Platelets express a variety of membrane and secreted glycoproteins, but the importance of glycosylation to platelet functions is poorly understood. To explore the importance of O-glycosylation, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of Cosmc in murine endothelial/hematopoietic cells (EHC) (EHC Cosmc(-/y)). X-linked Cosmc encodes an essential chaperone that regulates protein O-glycosylation. This targeted mutation resulted in lethal perinatal hemorrhage in the majority of mice, and the surviving mice displayed severely prolonged tail-bleeding times and macrothrombocytopenia. EHC Cosmc(-/y) platelets exhibited a marked decrease in GPIb-IX-V function and agonist-mediated integrin ?IIb?3 activation, associated with loss of interactions with von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, respectively. Significantly, three O-glycosylated glycoproteins, GPIb?, ?IIb, and GPVI normally on platelet surfaces that play essential roles in platelet functions, were partially proteolyzed in EHC Cosmc(-/y) platelets. These results demonstrate that extended O-glycans are required for normal biogenesis of the platelets as well as the expression and functions of their essential glycoproteins, and that variations in O-glycosylation may contribute to altered hemostasis.
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