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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Image-guided thyroid nodule ablation: technical notes and critical appraisal.
Surg Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Image-guided thyroid nodule ablation is a relatively new technique for the management of thyroid disease. Notably, if there has been the correct patient selection and if they are performed in high volume centers and via a standardized technique, image-guided thyroid nodule ablation seems to be safe and effective and it can be used to treat thyroid goiters. However, there is still paucity of level 1 evidences and recommendation comparing ablation to surgical or to other non-surgical treatment modalities. Herein, some technical notes for the thyroid nodule ablation to achieve the critical view of safety are presented. Moreover, an additional remark and appraisal from a surgical point of view is described.
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Evidence-based Analysis on The Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Thyroid Surgery: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.
Surg Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Laryngeal nerve injuries are one the most critical complications during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Iatrogenic damages to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) are relevant in terms of clinical implications, economic costs, and for malpractice litigation. In order to minimize potential neural damages, a standardized surgical technique is mandatory. Intraoperatory neuromonitoring (IONM) of the RLN is an important adjunct to the traditional approach and is a reliable tool for neural mapping and in dissection and prognostication of postoperative neural function 4. Because of this, most of the iatrogenic damages are not related to direct transection, but they are visually undetectable. Notwithstanding the increasing use of IONM at this stage, there is still the need for prospective, randomized, well-powered, and well-designed trials in order to further validate (via evidence-based data) the role of IONM in thyroid surgery. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the scientific evidences on the clinical impact of IONM in thyroid surgery showing the unsolved problems and the future challenges.
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Evaluation of Plasma Exchange and Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration for the Treatment of Severe Avian Influenza A (H7N9): A Cohort Study.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a severe disease with high mortality. Hypercytokinemia is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis. This study was to investigate the efficiency of plasma exchange (PE)?+?continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the removal of inflammatory mediators and their benefits in the management of fluid overload and metabolic disturbance. In total, 40 H7N9-infected patients were admitted to our hospital. Sixteen critically ill H7N9-infected patients received combination of PE and CVVH. Data from these 16 patients were collected and analyzed. The effects of PE?+?CVVH on plasma cytokine/chemokine levels and clinical outcomes were examined. H7N9-infected patients had increased plasma levels compared to healthy controls. After 3?h of PE?+?CVVH treatment, the cytokine/chemokine levels descended remarkably to lower levels and were maintained thereafter. PE?+?CVVH also benefited the management of fluid, cardiovascular dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Of the 16 critically ill patients who received PE?+?CVVH, 10 patients survived. PE?+?CVVH decreased the plasma cytokine/chemokine levels significantly. PE?+?CVVH were also beneficial to the management of severe avian influenza A (H7N9).
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Elk-3 is a KLF4-regulated gene that modulates the phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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ETS family proteins play a role in immune responses. A unique member of this family, Elk-3, is a transcriptional repressor that regulates the expression of HO-1. Elk-3 is very sensitive to the effects of inflammatory mediators and is down-regulated by bacterial endotoxin (LPS). In the present study, exposure of mouse macrophages to Escherichia coli LPS resulted in decreased, full-length, and splice-variant isoforms of Elk-3. We isolated the Elk-3 promoter and demonstrated that LPS also decreased promoter activity. The Elk-3 promoter contains GC-rich regions that are putative binding sites for zinc-finger transcription factors, such as Sp1 and KLFs. Mutation of the GC-rich region from bp -613 to -603 blunted LPS-induced down-regulation of the Elk-3 promoter. Similar to the LPS response, coexpression of KLF4 led to repression of Elk-3 promoter activity, whereas coexpression of Sp1 increased activity. ChIP assays revealed that KLF4 binding to the Elk-3 promoter was increased by LPS exposure, and Sp1 binding was decreased. Thus, down-regulation of Elk-3 by bacterial LPS is regulated, in part, by the transcriptional repressor KLF4. Overexpression of Elk-3, in the presence of E. coli bacteria, resulted in decreased macrophage phagocytosis. To determine whether limited expression of HO-1 may contribute to this response, we exposed HO-1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages to E. coli and found a comparable reduction in bacterial phagocytosis. These data suggest that down-regulation of Elk-3 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 are important for macrophage function during the inflammatory response to infection.
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A comparative proteomic study of Homoharringtonine-induced apoptosis in leukemia K562 cells.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the changes in protein profiles of K562 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells in response to Homoharringtonine (HHT). HHT treatment significantly increased apoptosis of K562 cells. Proteomic analyses indicated that among 32 differentially expressed proteins, 13 of which were identified by mass spectrometry (9 down-regulated and 4 up-regulated). Aside from alterations in apoptotic proteins and proteins associated with transcription and translation, our data also revealed changes in oxidative stress response and redox reaction-related proteins, such as Heat shock proteins (Hsps), DJ-1, Thioredoxin. Specifically, these proteins were validated to decrease after HHT treatment in K562 cells and in primary CML cells by immunoblot analysis. Additionally, Hsps, DJ-1 and Thioredoxin, which were also shown to decrease in primary cells from imatinib-resistant patients, may be promising potential targets for mechanistic research and new clinical treatments.
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Synthesis of brassinosteroids analogues from laxogenin and their plant growth promotion.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Four steroid saponins (2-5) and three derivatives (6-8) were synthesised from laxogenin. Four of them were new compounds: (25R)-3?-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (3), (25R)-3?-(?-d-galactopyranosyloxy)-5?-spirostan-6-one (5), 3?,16-diacetyl-26-hydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (6) and 16-acetyl-3?,26-dihydroxy-5?-cholestan-6,22-dione (7). All the compounds showed plant growth-promoting activity in the radish hypocotyl elongation and cotyledon expansion bioassay. Above all, 2 and 6 were found to be more active.
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[Effects of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To determine the pregnancy outcomes related with maternal age in China.
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Real-time PCR quantification of six periodontal pathogens in saliva samples from healthy young adults.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for the evaluation of periodontal health has gained attention recently. Most published real-time PCR assays focused on quantification of bacteria in subgingival plaque, not in saliva. The aims of this study were to develop a real-time PCR assay for quantification of six periodontal pathogens in saliva and to establish a relationship between the amount of DNA (fg) and colony-forming unit (CFU).
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[Correlation between point mutation in ABL kinase and clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia patients].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To analyze the association of different types of ABL tyrosine point mutations and imatinib resistance to probe the relation between ABL tyrosine point mutations and the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
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Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics.
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Association of ATM Gene Polymorphism with PTC Metastasis in Female Patients.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is critical in the process of recognizing and repairing DNA lesions and is related to invasion and metastasis of malignancy. The incidence rate of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has increased for several decades and is higher in females than males. In this study, we want to investigate whether ATM polymorphisms are associated with gender-specific metastasis of PTC. 358 PTC patients in Northern China, including 109 males and 249 females, were included in our study. Four ATM single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Association between genotypes and the gender-specific risk of metastasis was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) under the unconditional logistic regression analysis. Significant associations were observed between rs189037 and metastasis of PTC in females under different models of inheritance (codominant model: OR = 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.56, P = 0.01 for GA versus GG and OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.74, P = 0.03 for AA versus GG, resp.; dominant model: OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.98, P = 0.04; overdominant model: OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.89, P = 0.02). However, no association remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Our findings suggest a possible association between ATM rs189037 polymorphisms and metastasis in female PTCs.
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Contrasting Effects of Ethylene Biosynthesis on Induced Plant Resistance against a Chewing and a Piercing-Sucking Herbivore in Rice.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Ethylene is a stress hormone with contrasting effects on herbivore resistance. However, it remains unknown whether these differences are plant- or herbivore-specific. We cloned a rice 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene, OsACS2, whose transcripts were rapidly up-regulated in response to mechanical wounding and infestation by two important pests: the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Antisense expression of OsACS2 (as-acs) reduced elicited ethylene emission, SSB-elicited trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI) activity, SSB-induced volatile release, and SSB resistance. Exogenous application of ACC restored TrypPI activity and SSB resistance. In contrast to SSB, BPH infestation increased volatile emission in as-acs lines. Accordingly, BPH preferred to feed and oviposit on wild-type (WT) plants-an effect that could be attributed to two repellent volatiles, 2-heptanone and 2-heptanol, that were emitted in higher amounts by as-acs plants. BPH honeydew excretion was reduced and natural enemy attraction was enhanced in as-acs lines, resulting in higher overall resistance to BPH. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling has contrasting, herbivore-specific effects on rice defense responses and resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking insect, and may mediate resistance trade-offs between herbivores of different feeding guilds in rice.
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BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations cooperatively identify the most aggressive papillary thyroid cancer with highest recurrence.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To investigate the prognostic value of the BRAF V600E mutation and the recently identified TERT promoter mutation chr5:1,295,228C>T (C228T), individually and in their coexistence, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
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A single-center experience of non-bioartificial liver support systems among Chinese patients with liver failure.
Int J Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Liver failure is one of the most deadly, prevalent, and costly diseases worldwide. Non-bioartificial liver support systems (NBALs) have been shown to be effective in improving the clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters of patients with liver failure. The main aim of this large case series analysis was to investigate the status of NBALs and their effectiveness in improving survival in liver-failure patients.
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[Effect of downregulation of Tiam1 by siRNA on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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To explore the effect of downregulation of Tiam1 by siRNA on the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) EC9706 cells, and provide theoretical basis for gene therapy of ESCC using Tiam1 as a molecular target.
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Multi-faced neuroprotective effects of geniposide depending on the RAGE-mediated signaling in an Alzheimer mouse model.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated signaling pathway is related to A?-induced pathogenic responses. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, could attenuate the oligomeric A?1-42-induced inflammatory response by blocking the ligation of A? to RAGE and suppressing the RAGE-mediated signaling in vitro. Here, we investigated whether geniposide can exert protective effects on the neuroinflammation and memory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. The results indicate that geniposide treatment significantly suppresses RAGE-dependent signaling (activation of ERK and I?B/NF-?B), the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and cerebral A? accumulation in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that geniposide augments synaptic plasticity by attenuating the A?-induced reduction of long-term potentiation and increasing the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude and frequency in hippocampal neurons. In addition, the intragastric administration of geniposide improves learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, these studies indicate that geniposide has profound multifaceted neuroprotective effects in an AD mouse model. Geniposide demonstrates its neuroprotection by inhibiting inflammation, ameliorating amyloid pathology and improving cognition. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic agent for halting and preventing AD progression.
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Double acoustic microresonator quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based on double acoustic microresonators (AmRs) is developed and experimentally investigated. The double AmR spectrophone configuration exhibits a strong acoustic coupling between the AmR and the quartz tuning fork, which results in a ?5??ms fast response time. Moreover, the double AmRs provide two independent detection channels that allow optical signal addition or cancellation from different optical wavelengths and facilitate rapid multigas sensing measurements, thereby avoiding laser beam combination.
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Dynamic 3D imaging based on acousto-optic heterodyne fringe interferometry.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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An acoustic-optics heterodyne fringe interferometry coupled with a three-camera system is developed for dynamic 3D imaging. In this system, first-order beams with a slight frequency difference diffracted from two acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) form a beat intensity fringe pattern. Setting the frequency of the trigger signal for the CCD cameras into four times the beat frequency, four-step phase-shifting fringe patterns can be obtained, and the wrapped phase map (WPM) can be calculated. Under the epipolar constraint among three cameras, the homologous points can be determined unambiguously with the assistant of a WPM; thus the 3D shape can be reconstructed while skipping the phase unwrapping step. Experimental results are presented to validate this approach.
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[Experimental research on establishing a blood glucose fluctuation model in diabetic rats].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To establish a blood glucose fluctuation model in diabetic rats.
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A laryngoscopy-based classification system for perioperative abnormal vocal cord movement in thyroid surgery.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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A retrospective cohort study to develop a classification scheme for abnormal vocal cord movement (AVCM) before and after thyroid surgery.
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Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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In the last few decades, there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies, and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries. Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.
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New strategy for reversible modulation of protein activity through site-specific conjugation of small molecule and polymer.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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A new strategy for accurate and reversible modulation of protein activity via simple conjugation of the sulfhydryl modifier and polymer with the introduced Cys residue in protein was developed in this study. With Escherichia coli inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) as a model protein, we used site-directed mutagenesis to generate a mutant PPase (PPC) with a substituted Cys residue at the specific Lys-148 site, which is within a conserved sequence near the active site and exposed to the surface of the PPC for chemical reaction. The site-specific conjugation of the mutated Cys residue in PPC with sulfhydryl modifier p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and pyridyl disulfide-functionalized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) resulted in obvious decrease or complete loss of the catalytic activity of PPC, due to the conformational change of PPC. Compared with the effect of small molecule modification (PCMB), the pHEMA conjugation led to greater inhibitory effect on protein activity due to the significant change of the tertiary structure of PPC after conjugation. Moreover, the protein activity can be restored to different extents by the treatment with different amount of reductive reagents, which can result in the dissociation between PPC and PCMB or pHEMA to recover the protein conformation. This study provides a new strategy for efficient control of protein activity at different levels by site-specific conjugation of a small molecule and polymer.
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The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 ?g L(-1) ) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Comparative analysis of vaspin in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy non-pregnant women.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To explore serum vaspin, leptin, and adiponectin levels and their correlation with insulin resistance (IR) in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy non-pregnant women. A total of 262 individuals, including pregnant women with GDM (n = 86), those without GDM (n = 92), and age-matched healthy non-pregnant women (n = 84) were enrolled in this case-control study. Vaspin, leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and lipid parameters were measured. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and body mass index were calculated. Data inferred higher concentrations of vaspin (2.72 ± 2.20 vs. 1.84 ± 1.57 vs. 0.81 ± 1.02) in GDM than during normal pregnancy and in non-pregnant women, higher leptin (23.42 ± 12.18 vs. 22.19 ± 10.55 vs. 12.10 ± 11.26), and lower adiponectin (4,164.83 ± 2,650.39 vs. 4,871.66 ± 2,803.51 vs. 7,202.85 ± 4,893.13) in GDM and normal pregnancy as compared to non-pregnant women (p < 0.05). Vaspin was positively correlated to leptin (r = 0.273, p = 0.012), HOMA-IR (r = 0.387, p = 0.000), and triglycerides (TG, r = 0.218, p = 0.046) in GDM. In addition, leptin was negatively correlated to adiponectin in GDM (r = -0.336, p = 0.002) and normal pregnancy (r = -0.256, p = 0.014). Furthermore, vaspin was significantly correlated to GDM and HOMA-IR, and the weight gain might play a vital role in the occurrence of GDM. During pregnancy, high vaspin concentration is significantly associated with IR in GDM.
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Girdin, an actin-binding protein, is critical for migration, adhesion, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Girdin, an actin-binding protein, possesses versatile functions in a multitude of cellular processes. Although several studies have shown that Girdin is involved in the cell DNA synthesis, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and cell motility, the molecular mechanisms of Girdin in tumor development and progression remain elusive. In this study, through over-expression and siRNA experiments, we found that Girdin increased migration of LN229 human glioblastoma cells. On the other hand, reducing Girdin impaired F-actin polymerization, which is essential for cell morphogenesis and motility. Matrix metalloproteinase 2, critical in human glioma migration and invasion, was down-regulated upon Girdin reduction and led to decreased invasion in vitro and in vivo. In addition, silencing Girdin expression impaired the phosphorylation of two important adhesion molecules, integrin ?1 and focal adhesion kinase, resulting in cell adhesion defects. Our immunohistochemical study on human gliomas tissue sections indicated that Girdin expression was positively related with glioma malignancy, supporting the in vitro and in vivo results from cell lines. Collectively, our findings suggest a critical role for Girdin in glioma infiltration. We show that reduction of Girdin, an actin-binding protein, leads to impaired F-actin polymerization and down-regulated expression of matrix metallopeptidase protein 2 (MMP-2), phosphorylated integrin ?1, and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which resulted in decreased migration, adhesion, and invasion of glioblastoma cells. Girdin was positively correlated with glioma malignancy and negatively associated with clinical prognosis, suggesting Girdin as a critical regulator in glioma infiltration.
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Ant colony optimization analysis on overall stability of high arch dam basis of field monitoring.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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A dam ant colony optimization (D-ACO) analysis of the overall stability of high arch dams on complicated foundations is presented in this paper. A modified ant colony optimization (ACO) model is proposed for obtaining dam concrete and rock mechanical parameters. A typical dam parameter feedback problem is proposed for nonlinear back-analysis numerical model based on field monitoring deformation and ACO. The basic principle of the proposed model is the establishment of the objective function of optimizing real concrete and rock mechanical parameter. The feedback analysis is then implemented with a modified ant colony algorithm. The algorithm performance is satisfactory, and the accuracy is verified. The m groups of feedback parameters, used to run a nonlinear FEM code, and the displacement and stress distribution are discussed. A feedback analysis of the deformation of the Lijiaxia arch dam and based on the modified ant colony optimization method is also conducted. By considering various material parameters obtained using different analysis methods, comparative analyses were conducted on dam displacements, stress distribution characteristics, and overall dam stability. The comparison results show that the proposal model can effectively solve for feedback multiple parameters of dam concrete and rock material and basically satisfy assessment requirements for geotechnical structural engineering discipline.
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Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds.
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Geniposide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear early and contribute to the disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be detected extensively in AD patients brains as well as in transgenic AD mice brains. Thus, treatments that result in attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may hold potential for AD treatment. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic properties. However, whether geniposide has any protective effect on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD transgenic mouse model has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that intragastric administration of geniposide significantly reduces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to improving learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Geniposide exerts protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice through suppressing the mitochondrial oxidative damage and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of cytochrome c oxidase. These studies indicate that geniposide may attenuate memory deficits through the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic reagent for halting and preventing AD progress.
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A simple, rapid one-step ELISA using antibody-antibody complex.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnostic testing and biological research. However, its time-consuming operation is a major drawback. The present work aims to establish a one-step ELISA method through the preparation of a primary antibody (Ab)-secondary Ab complex (Ab-Ab complex) in hopes of realizing more sensitive and faster detection of the trace amount of antigen (Ag). By controlling the mole ratio of the primary Ab to the secondary Ab, one-step ELISA can be successfully achieved. Compared with the traditional ELISA, the one-step ELISA could not only improve the detection sensitivity to 1 ng mL(-1) , but also reduce the operating time by 30%. Moreover, the signal intensity can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of the secondary Ab in the complex or by changing the color development time. This technique is further optimized to detect trace amounts of proteins adsorbed onto poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-modified silicon surfaces (Si-PVP), and the results are close to the radiolabeling method. It is concluded that the simple one-step ELISA can be used for the rapid detection of trace amount of protein. The method holds promise for the clinical detection of trace Ag in solution and on low-adsorption material surfaces.
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Tiam1 siRNA enhanced the sensitivity of sorafenib on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vivo.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Our previous study demonstrated that Tiam1 was highly expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic role of Tiam1 siRNA in combination with sorafenib in xenografted human ESCC. Our results demonstrated that expression of Tiam1 protein in EC9706 cells was significantly higher than those in ESCC cells (Eca109 and EC1) and normal esophageal epithelial cells Het-1A (P?
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[The distribution of 24 elements in urine from Shenzhen residents].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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This study aims to describe the distribution of 24 elements in urine of Shenzhen residents.
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Geniposide attenuates oligomeric A?(1-42)-induced inflammatory response by targeting RAGE-dependent signaling in BV2 cells.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The neuroinflammation induced by amyloid-? (A?) is one of the key events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progress in which microglia are the main cells involved. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates and enhances A?-induced microglial activation and leads to induction of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits a broad spectrum anti-inflammatory effect as well as neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. However, the effects of geniposide on A?-mediated microglial pathways have not been fully discovered. Here, we demonstrate that geniposide treatment significantly blocks A?-induced RAGE-dependent signaling (activation of ERK and NF-?B) along with the production of TNF-? and IL-1? in cultured BV2 microglia cells. Notably, based on the data from coimmunoprecipitation assay, we infer that geniposide exerts protective effects on A?-induced inflammatroy response through blocking A? binding to RAGE and suppressing the RAGE-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that geniposide is a potent suppressor of neuroflammation through inhibiting RAGE-dependent signaling pathway. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation that is involved in neurological diseases such as AD.
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Associations between rs965513/rs944289 and papillary thyroid carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of rs965513 (9q22.33) and rs944289 (14q13.3) may be involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). But, relevant genetic studies reported different results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to derive a more precise assessment of the association of rs965513/rs944289 polymorphism with PTC risk. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, ISI Web of knowledge, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar Search database, SinoMed (Chinese), CNKI (Chinese), GeNii (Japanese) and ICHUSHI (Japanese) (update to December, 2013). A total of eight case-control studies with 52,363 subjects for rs965513 and 51,120 subjects for rs944289 were included. The results showed significant associations of rs965513/rs944289 with PTC risk existed in overall population (for rs965513, A vs. G: OR 1.71 (1.56-1.86); for rs944289, T vs. C: OR 1.29 (1.23-1.37)). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there were significant associations in Asians (for rs965513, A vs. G: OR 1.48 (1.27-1.73); for rs944289, T vs. C: OR 1.35 (1.18-1.55)), in Europeans (for rs965513, A vs. G: OR 1.74 (1.61-1.88); for rs944289, T vs. C: OR 1.24 (1.14-1.34)), and in Americans (for rs965513, A vs. G: OR 2.00 (1.76-2.27); for rs944289, T vs. C: OR 1.29 (1.14-1.47)). In conclusion, Rs965513 [A] and rs944289 [T] are risk factors of PTC. Effect estimate for rs965513 polymorphism is higher in Americans than in Asians.
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Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs.
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Strategies for protein NMR in Escherichia coli.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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In-cell NMR spectroscopy provides insight into protein conformation, dynamics, and function at atomic resolution in living cells. Systematic evaluation of isotopic-labeling strategies is necessary to observe the target protein in the sea of other molecules in the cell. Here, we investigate the detectability, sensitivity, and resolution of in-cell NMR spectra of the globular proteins GB1, ubiquitin, calmodulin, and bcl-xl-cutloop, resulting from uniform (15)N enrichment (with and without deuteration), selective (15)N-Leu enrichment, (13)C-methyl enrichment of isoleucine, leucine, valine, and alanine, fractional (13)C enrichment, and (19)F labeling. Most of the target proteins can be observed by (19)F labeling and (13)C enrichment with direct detection because selectively labeling suppresses background signals and because deuteration improves in-cell spectra. Our results demonstrate that the detectability of proteins is determined by weak interactions with intercellular components and that choosing appropriate labeling strategies is critical for the success of in-cell protein NMR studies.
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TERT promoter mutations and their association with BRAF V600E mutation and aggressive clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Promoter mutations chr5:1,295,228C>T and chr5:1,295,250C>T (termed C228T and C250T, respectively) in the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been reported in various cancers and need to be further investigated in thyroid cancer.
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Correlation study of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis with the levels of COX-2 and PGE2 in prostatic secretion.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The prostatitis syndrome is a multifactorial condition of largely unknown etiology. This study is to analyze the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with the chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNBP).
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Angiotensin II plasma levels are linked to disease severity and predict fatal outcomes in H7N9-infected patients.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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A novel influenza A (H7N9) virus of avian origin emerged in eastern China in the spring of 2013. This virus causes severe disease in humans, including acute and often lethal respiratory failure. As of January 2014, 275 cases of H7N9-infected patients had been reported, highlighting the urgency of identifying biomarkers for predicting disease severity and fatal outcomes. Here, we show that plasma levels of angiotensin II, a major regulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, are markedly elevated in H7N9 patients and are associated with disease progression. Moreover, the sustained high levels of angiotensin II in these patients are strongly correlated with mortality. The predictive value of angiotensin II is higher than that of C-reactive protein and some clinical parameters such as the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen). Our findings indicate that angiotensin II is a biomarker for lethality in flu infections.
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Rapid detection of isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by use of real-time-PCR-based melting curve analysis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The MeltPro TB/INH assay, recently approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration, is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test specially designed to detect 30 isoniazid (INH) resistance mutations in katG position 315 (katG 315), the inhA promoter (positions -17 to -8), inhA position 94, and the ahpC promoter (positions -44 to -30 and -15 to 3) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we evaluated both the analytical performance and clinical performance of this assay. Analytical studies with corresponding panels demonstrated that the accuracy for detection of different mutation types (10 wild-type samples and 12 mutant type samples), the limit of detection (2×10(3) to 2×10(4) bacilli/ml), reproducibility (standard deviation [SD], <0.4°C), and the lowest heteroresistance level (40%) all met the parameters preset by the kit. The assay could be run on five types of real-time PCR machines, with the shortest running time (105 min) obtained with the LightCycler 480 II. Clinical studies enrolled 1,096 clinical isolates collected from three geographically different tuberculosis centers, including 437 INH-resistant isolates and 659 INH-susceptible isolates characterized by traditional drug susceptibility testing on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/INH assay were 90.8% and 96.4%, respectively. DNA sequencing analysis showed that, except for the 5 mutants outside the detection range of the MeltPro assay, a concordance rate between the two methods of 99.1% (457/461) was obtained. Among the 26 mutation types detected, katG S315T (AGC?ACC), inhA -15C?T, katG S315N (AGC?AAC), and ahpC promoter -10C?T accounted for more than 90%. Overall, the MeltPro TB/INH assay represents a reliable and rapid tool for the detection of INH resistance in clinical isolates.
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SPEG interacts with myotubularin, and its deficiency causes centronuclear myopathy with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are characterized by muscle weakness and increased numbers of central nuclei within myofibers. X-linked myotubular myopathy, the most common severe form of CNM, is caused by mutations in MTM1, encoding myotubularin (MTM1), a lipid phosphatase. To increase our understanding of MTM1 function, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify MTM1-interacting proteins. Striated muscle preferentially expressed protein kinase (SPEG), the product of SPEG complex locus (SPEG), was identified as an MTM1-interacting protein, confirmed by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies. SPEG knockout has been previously associated with severe dilated cardiomyopathy in a mouse model. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified three unrelated CNM-affected probands, including two with documented dilated cardiomyopathy, carrying homozygous or compound-heterozygous SPEG mutations. SPEG was markedly reduced or absent in two individuals whose muscle was available for immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies. Examination of muscle samples from Speg-knockout mice revealed an increased frequency of central nuclei, as seen in human subjects. SPEG localizes in a double line, flanking desmin over the Z lines, and is apparently in alignment with the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Examination of human and murine MTM1-deficient muscles revealed similar abnormalities in staining patterns for both desmin and SPEG. Our results suggest that mutations in SPEG, encoding SPEG, cause a CNM phenotype as a result of its interaction with MTM1. SPEG is present in cardiac muscle, where it plays a critical role; therefore, individuals with SPEG mutations additionally present with dilated cardiomyopathy.
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Dynamic behavior of lymphocyte subgroups correlates with clinical outcomes in human H7N9 infection.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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To investigate peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups response to the H7N9 virus and identify potential correlations between the anti-viral response and clinical outcomes in infected patients.
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Origin and characteristics of the recombinant novel avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus isolate ck/CH/LJL/111054.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Recombination among infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions that occur in the genome, is thought to contribute to the emergence of new IBV variants. In this study an IBV, ck/CH/LJL/111054, was isolated from a H120-vaccinated chicken, which presented with a suspected IBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 subunit sequence confirmed that strain ck/CH/LJL/111054 is of the Connecticut-type; however, further extensive full-length genomic analysis identified the occurrence of recombination events. Therefore, strain ck/CH/LJL/111054 may have originated from recombination events between Conn- and Mass-like strains at three recombination breakpoints: two located within the nsp3 gene sequence and one in the nsp12 gene sequence. Further, the uptake of the 5' untranslated regions, nsp2, parts of nsp3, nsp4-11, and parts of nsp 12 from Mass-like virus by ck/CH/LJL/111054 might have resulted in changes in viral replication efficiency rather than antigenic changes, via cross-neutralization analysis with the H120 strain. Recombination events coupled with the accumulation of mutations in the ck/CH/LJL/111054 genome may account for its increased virulence in specific-pathogen free chickens.
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Are the SNPs of NKX2-1 associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Han population of Northern China?
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is one of the most common tumors of the thyroid gland. The common risk factors of PTC include ionizing radiation, positive family history, and thyroid nodular disease. PTC was identified in Europeans by conducting a genome-wide association study, and a strong association signal with PTC was observed in rs944289 and NKX2-1 (located at the 14q13.3 locus), which was probably the genetic risk factor of PTC. This study aimed to examine the association of this gene with PTC in Chinese. A total of 354 patients with PTC and 360 healthy control subjects from the Han population of Northern China were recruited in the study. These individuals were genotyped to determine rs12589672, rs12894724, rs2076751, and rs944289. The association of rs944289 with PTC was obtained (C vs. T, P = 0.027, OR = 1.264, 95% CI = 1.026 - 1.557; and C/C - C/T vs. T/T, P = 0.034, OR = 1.474, 95% CI = 1.028 - 2.112). Conducting a subgroup analysis, we found a marginal difference in the allele frequency distribution of rs944289 (adjusted P = 0.062) between the patients with PTC and multi-nodular goiter and the control subjects. We also observed an interaction (P = 0.029; OR = 2.578, 95% CI = 1.104 - 6.023) between rs944289 and diabetes in patients with PTC. In conclusion, rs944289 was associated with an increased risk of PTC in the Han population of Northern China, but no clear association was observed in either of the tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of NKX2-1.
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Metabolic profiling of the tissue-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish distributing widely along the coast in north China. In this work, we studied the differential metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in digestive gland and gill tissues from M. galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics. The differential metabolic responses in the two tissue types were detected, except the similarly altered taurine and betaine. These metabolic responses suggested that V. harveyi mainly induced osmotic disruption and reduced energy demand via the metabolic pathways of glucose synthesis and ATP/AMP conversion in mussel digestive gland. In mussel gill tissues, V. harveyi basically caused osmotic stress and possible reduced energy demand as shown by the elevated phosphocholine that is involved in one of the metabolic pathways of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocholine. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (superoxide dismutase with copper and zinc, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear oxidative and immune stresses in both digestive gland and gill tissues. However, the mRNA expression levels of both lysozyme and defensin in digestive gland were more significantly up-regulated than those in gill from V. harveyi-challenged mussel M. galloprovincialis, meaning that the immune organ, digestive gland, was more sensitive than gill. Overall, our results indicated that V. harveyi could induce tissue-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis.
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125I-radiolabeling, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation: three tools to compare protein adsorption on surfaces of different wettability.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The extent of protein adsorption is an important consideration in the biocompatibility of biomaterials. Various experimental methods can be used to determine the quantity of protein adsorbed, but the results usually differ. In the present work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to prepare a series of model gold surfaces varying systematically in water wettability, from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Three commonly used methods, namely, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and (125)I-radiolabeling, were employed to quantify fibrinogen (Fg) adsorption on these surfaces. This approach allows a direct comparison of the mass of Fg adsorbed using these three techniques. The results from all three methods showed that protein adsorption increases with increasing surface hydrophobicity. The increase in the mass of Fg adsorbed with increasing surface hydrophobicity in the SPR data was parallel to that from (125)I-radiolabeling, but the absolute values were different and there does not seem to be a "universally congruent" relationship between the two methods for surfaces with varying wettability. For QCM-D, the variation in protein adsorption with wettability was different from that for SPR and radiolabeling. On the more hydrophobic surfaces, QCM-D gave an adsorbed mass much higher than from the two other methods, possibly because QCM-D measures both the adsorbed Fg and its associated water. However, on the more hydrophilic surfaces, the adsorbed mass from QCM-D was slightly greater than that from SPR, and both were smaller than from (125)I-radiolabeling; this was true no matter whether the Sauerbrey equation or the Voigt model was used to convert QCM-D data to adsorbed mass.
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Preparation of zirconium oxy ion-imprinted particle for the selective separation of trace zirconium ion from water.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Zr(IV) oxy ion-imprinted particle (Zr-IIP) was prepared using the metal ion imprinting technique in a sol-gel process on the surface of amino-silica. The dosages of zirconium ions as imprinted target, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) as a functional monomer and teraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a cross-linker were optimized. The prepared Zr-IIP and Zr(IV) oxy ion non-imprinted particle (Zr-NIP) were characterized. pH effect, binding ability and the selectivity were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Zr-IIP had an excellent binding capacity and selectivity in the water. The equilibrium data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir model for Zr(IV) binding onto Zr-IIP, respectively. The saturate binding capacity of Zr-IIP was found to be 196.08 ?mol g(-1), which was 18 times higher than that of Zr-NIP. The sequence of binding efficiency of Zr-IIP for various ions was Zr(IV)>Cu(II)>Sb(III)>Eu(III). The coordination number has an important effect on the dimensional binding capacity. The equilibrium binding capacity of Zr-IIP for Zr(IV) decreased little under various concentrations of Pb(II) ions. The analysis of relative selectivity coefficient (Kr) indicated that the Zr-IIP had an appreciable binding specificity towards Zr(IV) although the competitive ions coexisted in the water. The Zr-IIP could serve as an efficient selective material for recovering or removing zirconium from the water environment.
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Thermostability of Probiotics and Their ? -Galactosidases and the Potential for Bean Products.
Biotechnol Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Soybeans and other pulses contain oligosaccharides which may cause intestinal disturbances such as flatulence. This study was undertaken to investigate ? -galactosidase-producing probiotics added to frozen foods which can survive warming treatments used in thawing and consumption of the pulses. The maximum ? -galactosidase activity (1.26?U/mg protein) was found in Bifidobacterium breve S46. Lactobacillus casei had the highest ? -galactosidase thermostability among the various strains, with D values of 35, 29, and 9.3 minutes at 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was less affected than viable cells by heating. However, the D values of two bacterial enzymes were lower than those of three commercial ? -galactosidase-containing products. Freshly grown cells and their enzymes were more stable than the rehydrated cultures and their enzymes. Practical Application. Enzymes and cultures can be added to foods in order to enhance the digestibility of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. However since many foods are warmed, it is important that the thermostability of the enzymes be assessed. This paper provides data on the stability of ? -galactosidase, which could potentially be added to food matrices containing stachyose or raffinose, such as beans.
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Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Kojic Acid Grafted Chitosan Oligosaccharide.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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A novel water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) derivative, chitosan oligosaccharide/kojic acid grafts assigned as COS/KA, was prepared by using the selective partial alkylation of N-benzylidene COS and chlorokojic acid in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and pyridine (Py). The derivative was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, (1)H NMR, TGA, SEM, and XRD techniques, which showed that the alkylation reaction took place at the C-6 and C-3 positions of COS. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) for COS/KA was from 0.38 to 1.21, and the product exhibited an excellent solubility in organic solvents and distilled water. The antibacterial results indicated that the antibacterial activity of COS/KA was strengthened relative to COS with the increase of DS for Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . These findings provide important supports for developing new antibacterial agents and expand the scope of application of COS in the food industry.
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Gene expression responses in Suaeda salsa after cadmium exposure.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Coastal line is now polluted by many kinds of sewage including heavy metals discharged by intensive human activities. Cadmium is a nonessential heavy metal for organisms and can cause many kinds of adverse effect on the organisms. Suaeda salsa, a pioneer halophyte in intertidal zone of the Bohai coast, was proved to have cadmium-tolerant capacity. Given that, S. salsa was suggested as a potential coastal bio-indicator plant for cadmium contamination in the intertidal zone. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the responsive mechanism of S. salsa to cadmium since few studies focus on this subject till now. In the present study, six genes were selected to investigate the variation profiles of mRNA expression by fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR, including those involved in myo-inositol synthesis, redox reaction, salt-tolerant reaction. Results showed that cadmium exposure significantly modulate the mRNA expressions of MIPS, Nhx1, CAT2, GST, Prx Q genes. It suggested that cadmium exposure exerted an oxidative stress on S. salsa, disturbed Na(+) homeostasis across membranes and interfered with the metabolism of inositol. In addition, CAT2 gene could be used as a gene marker in S. salsa to indicate cadmium pollution.
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[Removal of high-abundance proteins in plasma of the obese by improved TCA/acetone precipitation method].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To develop an improved trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation method for removal of high-abundance proteins in plasma of the obese.
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Methanospirillum psychrodurum sp. nov., isolated from the wetland soil of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A psychrotolerant methanogenic strain X-18T, was isolated from the soil of Madoi wetland at Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Cells were wavy rods (11-62 ?m long) with blunt tapered ends and Gram-negative stained. Strain X-18T grew strict anaerobically and produced methane exclusively from H2/CO2. Growth occurred in the temperature range of 4-32 °C and optimally at 25 °C. Growth pH ranged from 6.5-8.0 and optimally at 7.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain X-18T was 44.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase indicated that strain X-18T affiliated to the genus Methanospirillium, and was most related to Methanospirillum lacunae Ki8-1T at 96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. However, strain X-18T was distinguished from the existing Methanospirillium spp. by the lower growth temperature and obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strain X-18T can represent a novel species of the genus Methanospirillum, for which Methanospirillum psychrodurum sp. nov. is proposed and strain X-18T is assigned as the type strain (=CGMCC 1.5186T=JCM 19216T).
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Metabolomic analysis revealed the differential responses in two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important marine aquaculture shellfish. This species has several pedigrees including White, Zebra, Liangdao Red and Marine Red distributing in the coastal areas in North China. In this work, we studied the metabolic differences induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from White and Zebra clams using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses (e.g., amino acids, glucose, glycogen, ATP and succinate) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (ATP synthase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear disruption in energy metabolism and immune stresses in both White and Zebra clam hepatopancreas. However, V. harveyi caused obvious osmotic stress in Zebra clam hepatopancreas, which was not observed in V. harveyi-challenged White clams samples. In addition, V. harveyi challenge induced more severe disruption in energy metabolism and immune stress in White clams than in Zebra clams. Overall, our results indicated that the biological differences between different pedigrees of R. philippinarum should be considered in immunity studies.
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Avian-Origin Influenza A(H7N9) Infection in Influenza A(H7N9)-Affected Areas of China: A Serological Study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Serological surveillance conducted in areas of an outbreak of influenza A(H7N9) infection in China found no seropositivity for antibodies specific for avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) among 1129 individuals of the general population, whereas >6% of 396 poultry workers were positive (on the basis of a hemagglutination inhibition titer of ? 80) for this subtype, confirming that infected poultry is the principal source of human infections and that subclinical infections are possible. Fourteen days after symptom onset, elevated levels of antibodies to A(H7N9) were found in 65.8% of patients (25/38) who survived but in only 28.6% of those (2/7) who died, suggesting that the presence of antibodies may improve clinical outcome in infected patients.
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Higher expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, and 8 in ocular Behcets disease.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To investigate the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 3, 4, and 8 in the pathogenesis of Behcets disease (BD).
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Differential metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the important marine aquaculture species in North China. However, pathogens can often cause diseases and lead to massive mortalities and economic losses of clam. In this work, we compared the metabolic responses induced by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges towards hepatopancreas of clam using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses suggested that both V. anguillarum and V. splendidus induced disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, oxidative and immune stresses with different mechanisms, as indicated by correspondingly differential metabolic biomarkers (e.g., amino acids, ATP, glucose, glycogen, taurine, betaine, choline and hypotaurine) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes including ATP synthase, ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme. However, V. anguillarum caused more severe oxidative and immune stresses in clam hepatopancreas than V. splendidus. Our results indicated that metabolomics could be used to elucidate the biological effects of pathogens to the marine clam R. philippinarum.
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[Relationship between the body mass index, waist circumference and lipids levels among adults in Shenzhen].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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To study the relationship between the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and lipids levels, dyslipidemia among adults.
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Lotus-leaf-like topography predominates over adsorbed ECM proteins in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) surface/cell interactions.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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It is well-known that extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins mediate cell/surface interactions. However, introduction of a specific surface topography may disturb the correlation between ECM proteins adsorption and cells adhesion on a given surface. In present study, lotus-leaf-like topography was introduced on the surface of a biodegradable material, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx). Protein adsorption and cell interactions with this lotus-leaf-like surface (designated PHBHHx-L) were investigated. Water contact angle data indicated that the hydrophobicity of PHBHHx was enhanced by the introduction of lotus-leaf-like topography. The adsorption of extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin and vitronectin) on PHBHHx-L was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with flat PHBHHx, adsorption on the PHBHHx-L surface increased by ~260% for fibronectin and ~40% for vitronectin. In contrast, fibroblast and endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation were reduced on the PHBHHx-L compared to the flat polymer surface. These results suggest that the inhibition of cell adhesion and proliferation caused by the lotus-leaf-like topography dominates over the effect of the adsorbed adhesive proteins in promoting adhesion and proliferation. It can be concluded that the lotus-leaf-like topography plays a dominant role in cell/PHBHHx-L interactions. The present findings indicate the complexity of the interplay among surface topography, adsorbed proteins, and cell-surface interactions.
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Analytical solution to predicting gaseous mass flow rates of microchannels in a wide range of Knudsen numbers.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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To predict the gaseous mass flow rate of microchannels, conventional analytical solutions based on the Navier-Stokes equation or volume diffusion hydrodynamics (bivelocity hydrodynamics) associated with first-order or second-order slip boundary condition are not very successful, especially in high-Knudsen-number flow. An analytical solution which agrees with experimental data to a Knudsen number of 50 is presented in this paper. To achieve this goal, a concept of effective volume diffusion is defined. Then, with a general slip boundary condition, the gaseous mass flow rate of microchannel is derived by solving the momentum equation of this effective volume diffusion hydrodynamics. Compared with six other analytical solutions and one group of numerical solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation, this solution is validated by three groups of experimental data. The results not only illustrate an improvement of this solution compared with other analytical solutions but also show the importance of the effective volume diffusion hydrodynamics for compressible microfluids.
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A comparative study of pigeons and chickens experimentally infected with PPMV-1 to determine antigenic relationships between PPMV-1 and NDV strains.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To compare the pathogenicity of PPMV-1 in pigeons and chickens, both species of birds were experimentally infected with strain pi/CH/LHLJ/110822, which was isolated from a pigeon in China. The clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological changes were observed in pigeons inoculated with pi/CH/LHLJ/110822. The morbidity and mortality rates were 80% and 70% in pigeons, respectively, whereas there were no clinical signs or gross lesions in chickens inoculated with the same strain. The viral loads in tissue samples were detected by real-time RT-PCR, indicating that six tissue samples (i.e., kidney, lung, brain, trachea, Harderian glands, and proventriculus) had detectable viral RNA in all dead pigeons, and significant differences in viral loads between pigeons and chickens were observed in several tissue samples (i.e., Harderian glands, proventriculus, duodenum, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine) on 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in brain tissue on 7 dpi. In general, viral loads in pigeons were higher than those in chickens, whereas antibody titers in pigeons were lower than those in chickens. These results showed differences in pathogenicity, efficiency of viral RNA replication, and humoral immunity, indicating different susceptibilities between the host species. Additionally, the cross hemagglutination inhibition assay and cross virus neutralization tests demonstrated that pi/CH/LHLJ/110822 antigenicity was different from those of strains La Sota and F48E9.
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Association of the ATM gene polymorphisms with papillary thyroid cancer.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, yet few genetic markers of PTC risk useful for screening exist. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene and PTC risk. 358 patients with PTC and 360 healthy controls were included in the case-control study. Four ATM SNPs (rs664677, rs373759, rs4988099, and rs189037) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The analysis of genetic data was performed using the SNPStats program. The allele frequencies and genotype distributions of the four ATM SNPs were not different between PTC patients and controls. We did not observe any tendency of increasing the frequency of the risk allele from controls, patients without metastasis to patients with metastasis (P trend > 0.05). Interestingly, the AG genotype of rs373759 was associated with PTC risk under an overdominant model of inheritance (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95 % CI, 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03). No haplotype was observed to be significantly associated with PTC risk. Our results suggest that heterozygosity for the ATM rs373759 polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for PTC.
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[Plasma proteomic research on obesity subtype and non-obesity subtype of T2DM].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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With the increasingly serious epidemic situation of diabetes, plasma proteomic method and OFFGEL electrophoresis have been applied for screening different proteins between obese and non-obese T2DM patients, which may be used to further explain the mechanism of T2DM.
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Establishment of a pancreatic ? cell proliferation model in vitro and a platform for diabetes drug screening.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Diabetes, a disease resulting from loss of functional ? cells, is globally an increasingly important condition. Based on the islet-differentiation ability of ductal epithelial cells and stimulating ? cell proliferation ability of the Reg I? gene, we aimed to establish an in vitro pancreatic ? cell proliferation model for screening therapeutic drugs of diabetes in the future. Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were isolated from male Wistar rats, and induced to differentiate into pancreatic ? cells. Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot, RT-PCR analysis, and dithizone staining were used to characterize the cells. Rat Reg I? protein was transiently expressed in vitro by transfection of HEK 293 cells with the PCMV6-entry-REG Ia plasmid, and expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis, proliferation assay, and apoptosis assay. The pancreatic ? cell proliferation model was further validated by a proliferation assay using differentiated pancreatic ? cells treated with transfection supernatant. Finally, we have successfully established an in vitro pancreatic ? cells proliferation model using transiently expressed rat Reg I? protein and differentiated pancreatic ? cells from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. This model could be used as a platform to screen new drugs for islet neogenesis to cure diabetes, especially Chinese herbal drugs in the future.
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(19) F NMR spectroscopy as a probe of cytoplasmic viscosity and weak protein interactions in living cells.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Protein mobility in living cells is vital for cell function. Both cytosolic viscosity and weak protein-protein interactions affect mobility, but examining viscosity and weak interaction effects is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the use of (19) F NMR spectroscopy to measure cytoplasmic viscosity and to characterize nonspecific protein-protein interactions in living Escherichia coli cells. The origins of resonance broadening in Escherichia coli cells were also investigated. We found that sample inhomogeneity has a negligible effect on resonance broadening, the cytoplasmic viscosity is only about 2-3 times that of water, and ubiquitous transient weak protein-protein interactions in the cytosol play a significant role in governing the detection of proteins by using in-cell NMR spectroscopy.
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Transcriptome analysis of chicken kidney tissues following coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus infection.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a prototype of the Coronaviridae family, is an economically important causative agent of infectious bronchitis in chickens and causes an acute and highly contagious upper respiratory tract infections that may lead to nephritis. However, the molecular antiviral mechanisms of chickens to IBV infection remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted global gene expression profiling of chicken kidney tissue after nephropathogenic IBV infection to better understand the interactions between host and virus.
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[Exploratory study on the association between different iodine nutrition and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Shenzhen City].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To investigate the association between different iodine nutrition and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in a representative sample of subjects in Shenzhen.
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Aptamer-modified micro/nanostructured surfaces: efficient capture of Ramos cells in serum environment.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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For potential applications in the isolation and enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), we have developed gold nanoparticle layers (GNPLs) of different roughness modified with TD05 aptamers (GNPL-APT). In serum-free binary cell mixtures containing Ramos cancer cells and CEM cells, the density of Ramos cells adherent to highly rough GNPL-APT was 19 times that of CEM cells. However, in serum-containing conditions, the specificity of GNPL-APT for Ramos cells was much reduced. To improve Ramos specificity in the presence of serum, we attached the TD05 aptamer to the layers via poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) as an antifouling spacer (GNPL-POEGMA-APT). In serum-containing environment GNPL-POEGMA-APT showed an enhanced selectivity for Ramos cells, which increased with increasing surface roughness. The results of this study indicate that surfaces combining appropriate chemical composition and micro/nano roughness structures may be useful for cell separation, including the isolation of cancer cells for diagnosis.
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Preparation, characterization, biodistribution and antitumor efficacy of hydroxycamptothecin nanosuspensions.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) has shown activity against a broad spectrum of cancers, but its therapeutic efficacy is impaired by its poor solubility and delivery challenges. In this study, HCPT nanosuspensions were prepared with precipitation-combined ultrasonication and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The HCPT nanosuspensions were spherical with a smooth surface and a small size of 150-200 nm. The lyophilized powders for the HCPT nanosuspensions were amorphous and displayed sustained release in vitro. Compared to commercial HCPT injection, in vivo experiments with HCPT nanosuspensions showed significantly increased HCPT concentrations in the blood and all tissues of the tested as well as improved tumor targetability and liver targetability. Meanwhile, nanosuspensions displayed better anticancer efficacy than injection on H22 bearing mice (81.20% vs. 56.39%, in tumor inhibition rate). Therefore, HCPT nanosuspensions seem very promising for the treatment of hepatic cancer.
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Generation of single-domain antibody multimers with three different self-associating peptides.
Protein Eng. Des. Sel.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Conventional Y-shaped antibodies have been widely used in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. Their large size result in disadvantages in certain applications, which makes production difficult. Different parts of an antibody have been used to replace the whole antibody to make it smaller. Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) derived from the camelid heavy chain antibodies are among the smallest antibody fragments engineered for various applications. To improve the affinity of these single- sdAbs for correspondent antigens and provide suitable size of reagents for various applications, we fused an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor sdAb EG2 to self-associating peptides, RHCC derived from a right-handed coiled-coil peptide of an archaebacterium, COMPcc from human cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and C4bp? derived from human plasma C4-binding protein ?-chain, respectively, to make multimeric antibodies. The multimeric antibodies were expressed as soluble cytoplasmic proteins to spontaneously form tetramers, pentamers or heptamers and were purified by affinity chromatography. The avidity of multimeric forms of sdAbs compared with that of the monomeric form of sdAbs was increased without altering binding specificity.
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Bortezomib modulates regulatory T cell subpopulations in the process of acute graft-versus-host disease.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) combines the wide application of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Recent studies indicate that it is possible to reduce the incidence and severity of aGVHD by using bortezomib. In this study, we explored the changes of T cell subsets after allo-BMT with bortezomib, in order to elucidate the mechanism by which bortezomib attenuates aGVHD.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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