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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tssk4 is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of sperm flagellum.
Mol. Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Tssk4 belongs to the Testis Specific Serine/threonine protein Kinase (TSSK) family, members of which play an important role in spermatogenesis and/or spermiogenesis. Several Tssk family proteins have extensively been studied. However, the exact function of Tssk4 remains unclear. A Tssk4 knockout mouse model was generated and the males were subfertile due to seriously decreased sperm motility. The ultrastructure of the Tssk4(-/-)sperm tail is disorganized at the midpiece-principal piece junction, leading to a severe bend in the sperm flagellum. One or more axonemal microtubule doublets are absent and the midpiece is fused with the principal piece. Furthermore, we identified the association between Tssk4 and Odf2, a prominent cytoskeletal protein of the outer dense fiber (ODF) in sperm flagellum. Tssk4 can change the phosphorylation state of Odf2 and conversely Odf2 potentiates the autophosphorylation activity of Tssk4. These findings reveal that Tssk4 is required for maintaining the structural integrity of sperm flagellum and male fertility.
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Zinc finger nucleases targeting the human papillomavirus E7 oncogene induce E7 disruption and a transformed phenotype in HPV 16/18-positive cervical cancer cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Purpose: Cervical cancer is mainly caused by infections of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Persistent expression of HR-HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 is implicated in malignant transformation. The aim was to provide proof-of-concept data to support use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting HPV E7 to treat HPV-related cervical cancer. Experimental Design: We designed and constructed ZFNs that could specifically recognize and cleave HPV16/18 E7 DNA. We tested the cleavage efficiency of selected ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 by using single strand annealing (SSA) assay. Cell viability and colony formation assays were used to estimate the inhibition of cell growth that received treatments of ZFNs. Gene disruption of HPV E7 and downstream genes were examined by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis assay were used to test the specificity and efficiency of induction of HPV type-specific apoptosis. We also introduced xenograft formation assays to estimate the potential of inhibition of HPV-related disease. Results: We found ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 disrupted HPV E7 oncogenes in HPV16/18-positive cervical cancer cells. Both ZFNs effectively leaded to inhibition of type -specific cervical cancer cell growth, and specifically induced apoptosis of corresponding HPV16- and HPV18-positive cervical cancer cell lines. ZFN16-E7-S2 and ZFN18-E7-S2 also repressed xenograft formation in vivo. Conclusion: ZFNs targeted HPV16/18 E7 could effectively induce disruption of E7 oncogenes, lead to type-specific and efficient growth inhibition and apoptosis of HPV-positive cells. ZFNs targeted HPV16/18 E7 oncogenes could be used as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of HPV-related cervical cancer.
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[The application of nasal ventilation function on sleep-disordered breathing disorders].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To explore the change of nasal ventilation function in a group of SDB patients and its relationship to PSG parameters.
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Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.
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Antibacterial wound dressing from chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers mats embedded with silver nanoparticles.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Novel antibacterial nanomaterials have been developed for biomedical applications. The present study involves the preparation and properties of antibacterial nanofibers from chitosan/polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers incorporated with silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized in situ after ultra violet (UV) with AgNO3 as precursor and chitosan/polyethylene oxide as reducing agent and protecting agent, respectively. Then the resultant solutions were electrospun into nanofibers. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrospun nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The resultant fibers exhibited uniform morphology with silver nanoparticles distributed throughout the fiber. Also, the fibers showed certain tensile strength and excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Sustained release of silver nanoparticles from fibers could last for over 72?h. The silver-containing chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers showed excellent cytocompatibility.
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Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Despite of tremendous research efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with disease progression remain partially elusive. In this study we show that the STAT3 small molecule inhibitor Stattic caused S-phase accumulation at low-dose levels and led to massive apoptosis at a relatively high-dose level in prostate cancer cells. STAT3 knockdown led to the disruption of the microvascular niche which tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and non-tumor initiating cells (non-TICs)depend on. Primary human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cell line contained high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhigh) subpopulations with stem cell-like characteristics, which expressed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) than that of non-ALDHhigh subpopulations. Stattic could singnificantly decreas the population of ALDHhigh prostate cancer cells even at low-dose levels. IL-6 can convert non-ALDHhigh cells to ALDHhigh cells in prostate cancer cell line as well as from cells derived from human prostate tumors, the conversion mediated by IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor or upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 knockdown significantly impaired the ability of prostate cancer cells to initiate development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Moreover, blockade of STAT3 signaling was significantly effective in eradicating the tumor-initiating and bulk tumor cancer cell populations in both prostate cancer cell-line xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. This data suggests that targeting both tumor initiating and differentiated cell populations by STAT3 inhibition is predicted to have greater efficacy for prostate cancer treatment.
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On the absence of sternal elements in Anchiornis (Paraves) and Sapeornis (Aves) and the complex early evolution of the avian sternum.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Anchiornis (Deinonychosauria: Troodontidae), the earliest known feathered dinosaur, and Sapeornis (Aves: Pygostylia), one of the basalmost Cretaceous birds, are both known from hundreds of specimens, although remarkably not one specimen preserves any sternal ossifications. We use histological analysis to confirm the absence of this element in adult specimens. Furthermore, the excellent preservation of soft-tissue structures in some specimens suggests that no chondrified sternum was present. Archaeopteryx, the oldest and most basal known bird, is known from only 10 specimens and the presence of a sternum is controversial; a chondrified sternum is widely considered to have been present. However, data from Anchiornis and Sapeornis suggest that a sternum may also have been completely absent in this important taxon, suggesting that the absence of a sternum could represent the plesiomorphic avian condition. Our discovery reveals an unexpected level of complexity in the early evolution of the avian sternum; the large amount of observable homoplasy is probably a direct result of the high degree of inherent developmental plasticity of the sternum compared with observations in other skeletal elements.
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Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules with elevated enzyme loading and enhanced catalytic activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules (HMCs) are synthesized through a hard-templating method. When utilized for enzyme immobilization and enzymatic catalysis, the open-mouthed HMCs show high enzyme loading capability, enhanced catalytic activity and desirable recycling stability, due to their fully exposed outer and inner surfaces.
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JAK2 inhibitors do not affect stem cells present in the spleens of patients with myelofibrosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Dysregulation of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling is central to the pathogenesis of myelofibrosis (MF). JAK2 inhibitor therapy in MF patients results in a rapid reduction of the degree of splenomegaly, yet the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. The in vitro treatment of splenic and peripheral blood MF CD34(+) cells with the JAK1/2/3 inhibitor, AZD1480, reduced the absolute number of CD34(+), CD34(+)CD90(+), and CD34(+)CXCR4(+) cells as well as assayable hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) irrespective of the JAK2 and calreticulin mutational status. Furthermore, AZD1480 treatment resulted in only a modest reduction in the proportion of HPCs that were JAK2V617F(+) or had a chromosomal abnormality. To study the effect of the drug on MF stem cells (MF-SCs), splenic CD34(+) cells were treated with AZD1480 and transplanted into immunodeficient mice. JAK2 inhibitor therapy did not affect the degree of human cell chimerism or the proportion of malignant donor cells. These data indicate that JAK2 inhibitor treatment affects a subpopulation of MF-HPCs, while sparing another HPC subpopulation as well as MF-SCs. This pattern of activity might account for the reduction in spleen size observed with JAK2 inhibitor therapy as well as the rapid increase in spleen size observed frequently with its discontinuation.
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Design, Synthesis and Biological Activity of Aromatic Diketone Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A series of aromatic diketone derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors and evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit the strand transfer process of HIV-1 integrase. The results indicate that (Z)-1-(3-acetyl-2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-3-(substituted)phenylprop-2-en-1-one (5a-5d) can moderately inhibit HIV-1 integrase. The cyclization and condensation products (6a-6c and 7e-7f) of compounds 5a-5d show poor inhibitory activity against HIV-1 integrase. The molecular docking results indicate that the different types of compounds act on HIV-1 integrase in different ways, and these results can explain the differences in the inhibitory activities.
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Estimating the number of hand, foot and mouth disease amongst children aged under-five in Beijing during 2012, based on a telephone survey of healthcare seeking behavior.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Over the last decade, increases in the number of outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have shifted the disease into the public health spotlight in China. Children under the age of five years are particularly susceptible, with fatalities recorded. However, estimating the burden of HFMD has been difficult to conduct to date.
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Facile one-pot preparation of chitosan/calcium pyrophosphate hybrid microflowers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Flower-like chitosan/calcium pyrophosphate hybrid microparticles (microflowers) are prepared using a facile one-pot approach by combining ionotropic gelation with biomimetic mineralization. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanocomplexes are first synthesized through ionotropic gelation; meanwhile, excess TPP is partly hydrolyzed into pyrophosphate ions (P2O7(4-)). Upon addition of CaCl2, CS-TPP nanocomplexes serve as a versatile template, inducing in situ mineralization of Ca2P2O7 and directing its growth and assembly into microflowers. The whole preparation process can be completed within half an hour. The as-prepared microflowers are composed of 23.0% CS-TPP nanocomplexes and 77.0% Ca2P2O7 crystals. Mesopores (3.7 and 11.2 nm) and macropores coexist in the microflowers, indicating porous and hierarchical structures. The microflowers exhibit high efficiency in dye adsorption and enzymatic catalysis. Specifically, a high adsorption capacity of 520 mg g(-1) for Congo red is achieved. And the immobilized enzyme retains about 85% catalytic activity compared with that of the free enzyme. The facile one-pot preparation process ensures the broad applications of the porous hybrid microflowers.
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Polymerization of nitrogen in cesium azide under modest pressure.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Alkali metal azides can be used as starting materials in the synthesis of polymeric nitrogen, a potential high-energy-density material. The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in CsN3 have been studied up to 200 GPa using particle swarm optimization structure search combining with density functional theory. Three stable new phases with C2/m, P21/m, and P-1 structure at pressure of 6, 13, and 51 GPa are identified for the first time. The phase transition to chain like structure (P-1 phase) occurs at a modest pressure 51 GPa, the azide ions N3 (-) (linear chains of three N atoms with covalent bonds and interact weakly with each other) begin to show remarkable polymeric N properties in the CsN3 system. Throughout the stable pressure range, the structure is metallic and consists of N atoms in sp(2) hybridizations. Our study completes the structural evolution of CsN3 under pressure and reveals that the introduced Cs atoms are responsible for the decreased synthesis pressure comparing to pure molecular nitrogen under compression.
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Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be ?-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105.
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Disruption of HPV16-E7 by CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in HPV16 positive human cervical cancer cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been recognized as a major causative agent for cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, early genes E6 and E7 play important roles in maintaining malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. By using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats- (CRISPR-) associated protein system (CRISPR/Cas system), a widely used genome editing tool in many organisms, to target HPV16-E7 DNA in HPV positive cell lines, we showed for the first time that the HPV16-E7 single-guide RNA (sgRNA) guided CRISPR/Cas system could disrupt HPV16-E7 DNA at specific sites, inducing apoptosis and growth inhibition in HPV positive SiHa and Caski cells, but not in HPV negative C33A and HEK293 cells. Moreover, disruption of E7 DNA directly leads to downregulation of E7 protein and upregulation of tumor suppressor protein pRb. Therefore, our results suggest that HPV16-E7 gRNA guided CRISPR/Cas system might be used as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer.
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Pressure-driven variations of hydrogen bonding energy in ammonium azide (NH4N3): IR absorption and Raman scattering studies.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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In this study, high pressure infrared (IR) absorption and Raman scattering studies for ammonium azide (NH4N3) were carried out at room temperature up to 20 GPa and 22 GPa, respectively. For comparison and further assignment, the vibrational spectra at ambient conditions were calculated using CASTEP code, particularly for the far- and mid-IR modes. The recorded vibrational data consistently indicated a pressure-induced phase transition at 2.9 GPa. All observed vibrational modes maintained their identities at the high pressure phase, indicating that NH4N3 was still presented in the form of ammonium cations and azide anions linked by the hydrogen bond (N-H?N). Above 2.9 GPa, the relative magnitude of the torsional mode weakened and the N-H symmetric stretch displayed a redshift, indicating strengthened hydrogen bonding energy. The opposite effects were observed above 12 GPa, where the relative magnitude of the torsional mode strengthened and the N-H symmetric stretch reverted to a blueshift, indicating weakened hydrogen bonding energy. It can be concluded that the hydrogen bonding energy exhibited a weakening (0-2.9 GPa), strengthening (2.9-12 GPa), and then again weakening (12-22 GPa) phenomena with the increasing of compression. The hydrogen bonding energy changing with the increase of pressure can be ascribed to a phase transition at 2.9 GPa and a rotational or bending behavior of azide ions at 12 GPa.
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Curcumol induces HSC-T6 cell death through suppression of Bcl-2: Involvement of PI3K and NF-?B pathways.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The major feature in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis requires maintenance of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) phenotype by both proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, the induction of activated HSCs apoptosis has been proposed as an antifibrotic treatment strategy. Curcumol has pro-apoptotic activity in a number of cancer cell types. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the interruption of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by curcumol might induce apoptosis of activated HSCs. Our results indicated that curcumol-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by Annexin V staining, and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HSC-T6. Importantly, we show that the apoptotic effect of curcumol was specific to the activated HSCs (HSC-T6). Suppression of the NF-?B translocation via inhibition of I?B-? phosphorylation by the curcumol led to the inhibition of expression of NF-?B-regulated gene, e.g. Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in a PI3K-dependent manner, which is upstream of NF-?B activation. Also, curcumol-mediated apoptosis of HSC-T6 were reversed by LY294002 and Bay 11-7082. Taken together, our findings perfectly support the hypothesis and demonstrate that the inhibition of PI3K/NF-?B pathway by curcumol lead to HSC-T6 apoptosis. Thus, our study indicates that curcumol is a potential candidate for further preclinical study aimed at the treatment of liver fibrosis.
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Edge state modulation of bilayer Bi nanoribbons by atom adsorption.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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We investigated the behavior of edge states in two-dimensional bilayered Bi nanoribbons by atom adsorption based on the density functional method. We found that for a clean Bi zigzag ribbon the penetration depth of well-localized edge states is a function of the momentum-space width of the edge-state dispersion. Depending on the density of adsorbed H, Br and I atoms, respectively, the edge state can be changed from localized within a very narrow region to delocalized over the whole region in real space. Changes in atomic and electronic structures and topological insulator properties associated with the atomic adsorption on the edges of zigzag bilayer nanoribbon (ZBNR) are discussed. Our work suggests that ZBNR could be a possible candidate for nanoelectronic devices under some special conditions.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrogen sulfide releasing derivatives of 3-n-butylphthalide as potential antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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In the present study, a series of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releasing derivatives (8a–g and 9a–f) of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The most promising compound 8e significantly inhibited the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro, superior to NBP, ticlopidine hydrochloride and aspirin. Furthermore, 8e could slowly produce moderate levels of H2S in vitro, which could be beneficial for improving cardiovascular and cerebral circulation. Most importantly, 8e protected against the collagen and adrenaline induced thrombosis in mice, and exhibited greater antithrombotic activity than NBP and aspirin in rats. Overall, 8e could warrant further investigation for the treatment of thrombosis-related ischemic stroke.
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DNA methylation of microRNA-375 in impaired glucose tolerance.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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In the present study, the expression levels and DNA methylation status of microRNA (miRNA)-375 in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were analyzed and the role of DNA methylation of miRNA-375 in the pathogenesis of T2DM was investigated. Compared with the miR-375 levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=53), the samples from patients with IGT (n=44) exhibited downregulation of miR-375, while those from patients with T2DM (n=54) exhibited upregulation of miR-375 in the plasma. Additionally, the samples from patients with IGT were observed to be hypermethylated compared with those from patients with T2DM and NGT (P=0.042). Analysis of three CpG units (CpG1.2, CpG20 and CpG25.26.27) from 17 CpG sites (between -990 and -1,258 bp, relative to the transcription start site) revealed higher methylation levels in patients with IGT compared with those in patients with NGT (P<0.05). The methylation of two CpG units (CpG1.2 and CpG25.26.27) was higher in patients with IGT than in the patients with T2DM (P<0.05). Thus, the present study demonstrated that the miR-375 promoter was hypermethylated and the levels of miR-375 in the plasma were downregulated in the patients with IGT. DNA hypomethylation may have an important role in the regulation of miR-375 expression and may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM.
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Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001.
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Effects of Different Doses and Duration of Iron Supplementation on Curing Iron Deficiency Anemia: an Experimental Study.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Many controversies persist with respect to the dosage and therapeutic duration concerning iron deficiency anemia (IDA) treatment. To identify the most suitable cure, this study evaluated the effect of iron supplementation with different doses and for different time periods in rats with iron deficiency anemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups [normal control (NC), low- iron diet control (LC), normal doses of iron group (NI), middle dose of iron group (MI), and high dose of iron group (HI)]. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (2 and 4 weeks). The rats were maintained on low-iron diets and treated with oral iron dextran at different dosages. Finally, we investigated red blood cell parameters, iron absorption and metabolism, oxidative stress, and the antioxidant capacity. Our study indicated that through the administration of normal dose iron by gavage to IDA rats, the levels of the red blood cell parameters can be restored in only 2 weeks. In the HI group, iron absorption and transferrin receptor expressions were markedly reduced after 2 weeks. However, the iron content, ferritin and hepcidin expressions were notably increased, and the changes were more apparent after 4 weeks. With increasing doses of iron supplementation and durations of treatment, the liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the LC, MI, and HI groups was markedly increased, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were obviously reduced. This study demonstrated that the dose of iron treatment for IDA should be controlled in a safe range, and a reasonable duration is also critical for IDA therapeutics.
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Antiproliferative protein from the culture supernatant of Lentinula edodes C91-3 mycelia.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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We purified and isolated a novel protein (LFP(91-3)A2) with antitumor effect from Lentinula edodes C(91-3) liquid mycelial culture supernatant. LFP(91-3)A2 was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200HR). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis Mascot search showed LFP(91-3)A2 is a new protein with apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa. The effect on tumor cell proliferation was assessed by using MTT assay in vitro, and the LFP(91-3)A2 reduced tumor cell growth obviously in a dose dependent manner (5-15 ?g/mL) (p < 0.05), while it exhibited no toxic effect on normal chick embryo fibroblasts. The antiproliferative mechanism of LFP(91-3)A2 was found to be associated with inducing cell apoptosis by flow cytometry analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The LFP(91-3)A2 is a novel protein from Lentinula edodes with tumor-suppressive activity via inducing apoptosis of tumor cells without toxicity on normal cells and may be beneficial to natural products in clinical treatment.
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The orally bioavailable MDM2 antagonist RG7112 and pegylated interferon ? 2a target JAK2V617F-positive progenitor and stem cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The Philadelphia chromosomal-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) originate at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). The protracted clinical course of the MPNs has limited the use of potentially toxic treatment modalities, which may eliminate the responsible malignant clone. Treatment with low doses of RG7112, an orally available small-molecule inhibitor of p53-MDM2, both alone and combined with pegylated interferon ? 2a (Peg-IFN? 2a), significantly decreased MPN colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage and burst-forming unit-erythroid numbers and preferentially eliminated the total number of JAKV617F(+) MPN hematopoietic progenitor cells. The effects of RG7112 and Peg-IFN? 2a on MPN progenitor cells were dependent on blocking p53-MDM2 interactions and activating the p53 pathway, thereby increasing MPN CD34(+) cell apoptosis. Treatment of polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) CD34(+) cells with low doses of RG7112 and Peg-IFN? 2a before their transplantation into immune-deficient mice decreased the degree of donor-derived chimerism as well as the JAK2V617F allele burden, indicating that these drugs can each alone or in combination deplete MPN HSCs. These results provide a rationale for the use of combinations of low doses of RG7112 and Peg-IFN? 2a for the treatment of PV or PMF patients with the intent of altering their natural history.
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Aligned epitaxial SnO2 nanowires on sapphire: growth and device applications.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Semiconducting SnO2 nanowires have been used to demonstrate high-quality field-effect transistors, optically transparent devices, photodetectors, and gas sensors. However, controllable assembly of rutile SnO2 nanowires is necessary for scalable and practical device applications. Here, we demonstrate aligned, planar SnO2 nanowires grown on A-plane, M-plane, and R-plane sapphire substrates. These parallel nanowires can reach 100 ?m in length with sufficient density to be patterned photolithographically for field-effect transistors and sensor devices. As proof-of-concept, we show that transistors made this way can achieve on/off current ratios on the order of 10(6), mobilities around 71.68 cm(2)/V·s, and sufficiently high currents to drive external organic light-emitting diode displays. Furthermore, the aligned SnO2 nanowire devices are shown to be photosensitive to UV light with the capability to distinguish between 254 and 365 nm wavelengths. Their alignment is advantageous for polarized UV light detection; we have measured a polarization ratio of photoconductance (?) of 0.3. Lastly, we show that the nanowires can detect NO2 at a concentration of 0.2 ppb, making them a scalable, ultrasensitive gas sensing technology. Aligned SnO2 nanowires offer a straightforward method to fabricate scalable SnO2 nanodevices for a variety of future electronic applications.
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The relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and hematological malignancy.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the key enzyme for folate metabolism. Previous studies suggest a relationship between its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of C677T and A1298C with a variety of tumor susceptibility including hematological malignancy. SNP frequency distribution in different ethnic populations might lead to differences in disease susceptibility. There has been little research in Chinese people on the MTHFR SNP with the susceptibility of the hematological malignancy. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between MTHFR SNPs and hematological malignancy in Jiangsu province in China.
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Oncogenicity of LHX4 in colorectal cancer through Wnt/?-catenin/TCF4 cascade.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The LHX genes play an important role in a number of developmental processes. Potential roles of LHXs have been demonstrated in various neoplastic tissues as tumor suppressors or promoters depending on tumor status and types. The aim of this study was to investigate the function role of LHXs in the human colorectal cancer (CRC). The gene expression changes of LHXs in CRC tissues compared with noncancerous colorectal tissues was detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohositochemistry. And we identified the gene LHX4 that were significantly upregulated in CRC by QRT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we discovered that LHX4 promoted cancer cell proliferation in vitro, and LHX4 expression correlated with elevated ?-catenin levels in CRC and ?-catenin function was required for LHX4's oncogenic effects. Mechanistically, LHX4 facilitate TCF4 to bind to ?-catenin and form a stable LHX4/TCF4/?-catenin complex and transactive its downstream target gene. LHX4 mutations that disrupt the LHX4-?-catenin interaction partially prevent its function in tumor cells. All in all, LHX4 is a commonly activated tumor promoter that activate Wnt/?-catenin signaling in cancer cells of CRC.
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The Study on the factors affecting transformation efficiency of E. coli competent cells.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The preparation of competent cell is the central step of bacteria transformation and has a great impact on transformation efficiency of nucleic acid. The aim of the research was to study the factors such as ionic species, strain types, plasmid concentration, ice-bath time and incubation time. The result shows that ionic species is fatal to the transformation efficiency, preparation of competent cells by monovalent ions (Li(+),Na(+),K(+)) and tervalent ion (Al(3+)) do not have capacity of transformation, preparation of competent cells by bivalent ion (Ba(2+),Ca(2+),Mn(2+),Mg(2+),Sr(2+)) has capacity of transformation. On the whole, the efficiency of Ca(2+) was found to be the optimum bivalent ion, following by Sr(2+),Mn(2+),Mg(2+),Ba(2+). On the other factors that affecting transformation efficiency, the transformation efficiency was the best when plasmid concentration was 100ng/mL, and ice-bath time should be controlled at about 30 min and incubate time selected as 60 min. Experiment of natural transformation later proves the existence of the phenomenon of natural transformation and it's also related to factors such as calcium chloride concentration, plasmid concentration and others.
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Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.
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Normal liver stiffness in healthy adults assessed by real-time shear wave elastography and factors that influence this method.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) is a novel two-dimensional elastographic method that is used to estimate the severity of liver fibrosis. However, the normal range of liver stiffness (LS) and the possible factors that influence SWE are not well understood. The aims of the current study are to define the normal range of LS in healthy subjects and to explore the factors that may affect SWE. A total of 509 healthy subjects underwent SWE to determine the stiffness of their livers, and the effects of gender, age and body mass index (BMI) on LS were analyzed. The effects of different factors on SWE, including the testing position, measurement depth and size of the region of interest (ROI), were analyzed in 137 subjects. SWE imaging was successfully performed in 502 healthy subjects (98.6%, 502/509). The mean value of the SWE measurements in 502 individuals was 5.10 ± 1.02 kPa, and the 95% confidence interval was 5.02-5.19 kPa (range: 2.4-8.7 kPa). We found that the detective position within the liver had a significant impact on the liver stiffness measurement (LSM), and the lowest coefficient of variation (CV = 8%) was obtained for LSMs made at segment V. LS was greater at a depth >5 cm (5.78 ± 1.66 kPa) compared with depths ?5 cm (4.66 ± 0.77 kPa, p < 0.001); LS was also greater in men than in women (5.45 ± 1.02 kPa vs. 4.89 ± 0.96 kPa, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the LS values regarding the size of the ROI, age or BMI (all p > 0.05). The mean LS value in all 502 healthy subjects was 5.10 ± 1.02 kPa. The mean LS value obtained by SWE was not influenced by the size of the ROI, age or BMI, but the mean value was significantly influenced by the different segments of the liver, the detection depth and gender.
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Psychological stress induced hippocampus zinc dyshomeostasis and depression-like behavior in rats.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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There are strong evidences showed that psychological stress (PS) could result in depression. Recently, many attentions were paid to the roles of corticosterone (CORT) and zinc dyshomeostasis in the development of depression. In this study, we investigated the zinc level in rat hippocampus after exposure to PS and accompanied behavior change. Male SD rats were randomly divided into the control and PS groups. Each group had two subgroups: 7-d group and 14-d group. A communication box was used to produce the PS model in rats. Compared to control group, the PS-treated group showed decreased total zinc levels and increased free zinc levels observed by TSQ staining in hippocampus. Meanwhile, there were significant decreases in mRNA expressions of zinc transporters including ZnT1, ZnT3 and ZIP1 and metallothionein (MT) contents in hippocampus. Moreover, the increased immobility time in forced swim test (FST), lower movement time and total movement distance and longer immobile time in spontaneous activity test were demonstrated in rats after PS exposure. These results suggested that the depression-like behavior in PS-treated rats might be correlated with zinc dyshomeostasis including decreased zinc contents and increased free zinc in hippocampus which was related to changes in zinc transporters and MT expressions.
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Threonine deaminase MoIlv1 is important for conidiogenesis and pathogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Threonine deaminase is the first critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which catalyzes threonine into NH2 and ketobutyrate acid. Previously, we identified and characterized two acetolactate synthases MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 that are involved in the second step of BCAA biosynthesis. Deletion of MoILV2 and MoILV6 resulted in auxotrophy for leucine, isoleucine, and valine and defects in conidiation, appressorial penetration, and pathogenicity. Here, we identified a threonine dehydratase, named MoIlv1, from M. oryzae. MoIlv1 is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ilv1p, which has an important role in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. To characterize the function of MoIlv1, a ?Moilv1 knock-out mutant was generated and analyzed. Disruption of MoILV1 resulted in abnormal conidial morphology, reduced conidiation, limited appressorium-mediated penetration, and attenuated virulence on both barley and rice seedlings. Further analysis by domain-specific deletion revealed that the PALP domain is indispensable for MoIlv1 function. Our study indicates that MoIlv1 is a protein involved in isoleucine biosynthesis that underlies the complex process governing morphogenesis, appressorium formation, invasive hyphae growth, and pathogenicity.
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Spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventories and soil erosion from earth-banked terraces in the Yimeng Mountains, China.
J Environ Radioact
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The Yimeng Mountains is one of China's most susceptible regions to soil erosion. In this region, slopes are composed of granite- or gneiss-derived soils that are commonly cultivated using earth-banked terraces. Based on the (137)Cs measurement for nine reference cores, the present study analysed the spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventory and soil erosion using 105 sampling points in a seven-level earth-banked terrace system. The mean (137)Cs inventory, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and allowable error for the nine reference cores were 987 Bq m(-2), 71 Bq m(-2), 7%, and 6%, respectively, values that may reflect the heterogeneity of the initial (137)Cs fallout deposit. Within each terrace, the (137)Cs inventory generally increases from the rear edge to the front edge, accompanied by a decrease in the erosion rate. This results from planation by tillage and rainfall runoff during the development of the earth-banked terraces. Across the entire seven-level terrace system, (137)Cs inventories decrease from the highest terrace downwards, but increase in the lower terraces, whereas erosion rate displays the opposite trend. These trends are the result of the combined effects of the earth-bank segmented hillslope, the limited protection of the earth banks, and rainfall runoff in combination with tillage. The high coefficients of variation of (137)Cs inventories for the 21 sampling rows, with a mean value of 44%, demonstrate the combined effects of variations in original microtopography, anthropogenic disturbance, the incohesive soils weathered from underlying granite, and the warm climate. Although earth-banked terraces can reduce soil erosion to some extent, the estimated erosion rates for the study area are still very high.
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miR-195 inhibits the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells by targeting IGF1R.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in multiple human cancers. Accumulating evidence reveals that aberrant expression of miRNAs contributes to the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we identified miR-195 as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC cells, whose expression level was dramatically decreased in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-195 suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis-related traits in vitro. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) was identified as a direct target of miR-195 in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, restoration of IGF1R remarkably attenuated the tumor suppressive effects of miR-195 on NSCLC cells. Our data suggest that miR-195 may be involved in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC partially by targeting IGF1R.
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The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Salinity has a great influence on plant growth and distribution. A few existing reports on Artemisia annua L. response to salinity are concentrated on plant growth and artemisinin content; the physiological response and salt damage mitigation are yet to be understood. In this study, the physiological response of varying salt stresses (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mM NaCl) on A. annua L. and the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (0.05 or 0.1 mM) at 300-mM salt stress were investigated. Plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and mineral element level were determined. In general, increasing salt concentration significantly reduced plant growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were stimulated by salt treatment to a higher enzyme activity in treated plants than those in untreated plants. Content of proline had a visible range of increment in the salt-treated plants. Distribution of mineral elements was in inconformity: Na(+) and Ca(2+) were mainly accumulated in the roots; K(+) and Mg(2+) were concentrated in leaves and stems, respectively. Alleviation of growth arrest was observed with exogenous applications of salicylic acid (SA) under salt stress conditions. The activity of SOD and POD was notably enhanced by SA, but the CAT action was suppressed. While exogenous SA had no discernible effect on proline content, it effectively inhibited excessive Na(+) absorption and promoted Mg(2+) absorption. Ca(2+) and K(+) contents showed a slight reduction when supplemented with SA. Overall, the positive effect of SA towards resistance to the salinity of A. annua will provide some practical basis for A. annua cultivation.
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Depletion of PKM2 leads to impaired glycolysis and cell death in 2-demethoxy-2,3-ethylenediamino hypocrellin B-photoinduced A549 cells.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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2-Demethoxy-2,3-ethylenediamino hypocrellin B (EDAHB) is an efficient photosensitizer that mediates cancer cell apoptosis. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in its antitumour activity, we used proteomics technology to identify candidate targets in A549 cells using EDAHB-mediated photodynamic therapy (EDAHB-PDT). The protein profile changes between untreated and PDT-treated A549 cells were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially expressed protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry; and 15 differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05) were identified in PDT-treated A549 cells compared with untreated cells. Among them, the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a key enzyme involved in glycolysis, was found to be significantly decreased in A549 cells following EDAHB-PDT. Transient ectopic over-expression of PKM2 attenuated death of EDAHB-PDT-treated A549 cells, whereas knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference increased the photocytotoxicity of EDAHB. Moreover, a decrease in lactate production was detected in PDT-treated A549 cells. These observations suggest that PKM2 plays an important role in the antitumour action of EDAHB-PDT; thus, it may be a potential molecular target to increase the efficacy of PDT in cancer therapy.
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A virus-like particle based bivalent vaccine confers dual protection against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Enterovirus 71(EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease which has been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, causing significant morbidity and mortality in young children. Co-circulation of and co-infection by both viruses underscores the importance and urgency of developing vaccines against both viruses simultaneously. Here we report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a bivalent combination vaccine comprised of EV71 and CA16 virus-like particles (VLPs). We show that monovalent EV71- or CA16-VLPs-elicited serum antibodies exhibited potent neutralization effect on the homotypic virus but little or no effect on the heterotypic one, whereas the antisera against the bivalent vaccine formulation were able to efficiently neutralize both EV71 and CA16, indicating there is no immunological interference between the two antigens with respect to their ability to induce virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. Passive immunization with monovalent VLP vaccines protected mice against a homotypic virus challenge but not heterotypic infection. Surprisingly, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease was observed in mice passively transferred with mono-specific anti-CA16 VLP sera and subsequently challenged with EV71. In contrast, the bivalent VLP vaccine conferred full protection against lethal challenge by either EV71 or CA16, thus eliminating the potential of ADE. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that the bivalent VLP approach represents a safe and efficacious vaccine strategy for both EV71 and CA16.
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Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution.
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Regulation of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel ?1 subunit expression by muscle RING finger protein 1 in diabetic vessels.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel, expressed abundantly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is a key determinant of vascular tone. BK channel activity is tightly regulated by its accessory ?1 subunit (BK-?1). However, BK channel function is impaired in diabetic vessels by increased ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent BK-?1 protein degradation. Muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1), a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase, is implicated in many cardiac and skeletal muscle diseases. However, the role of MuRF1 in the regulation of vascular BK channel and coronary function has not been examined. In this study, we hypothesized that MuRF1 participated in BK-?1 proteolysis, leading to the down-regulation of BK channel activation and impaired coronary function in diabetes. Combining patch clamp and molecular biological approaches, we found that MuRF1 expression was enhanced, accompanied by reduced BK-?1 expression, in high glucose-cultured human coronary SMCs and in diabetic vessels. Knockdown of MuRF1 by siRNA in cultured human SMCs attenuated BK-?1 ubiquitination and increased BK-?1 expression, whereas adenoviral expression of MuRF1 in mouse coronary arteries reduced BK-?1 expression and diminished BK channel-mediated vasodilation. Physical interaction between the N terminus of BK-?1 and the coiled-coil domain of MuRF1 was demonstrated by pulldown assay. Moreover, MuRF1 expression was regulated by NF-?B. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of proteasome and NF-?B activities preserved BK-?1 expression and BK-channel-mediated coronary vasodilation in diabetic mice. Hence, our results provide the first evidence that the up-regulation of NF-?B-dependent MuRF1 expression is a novel mechanism that leads to BK channelopathy and vasculopathy in diabetes.
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Nrf2: bane or blessing in cancer?
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element pathway serves a major function in endogenous cytoprotection in normal cells. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that mainly regulates the expression of a wide array of genes that produce the antioxidants and other proteins responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. Nrf2 mediates the chemoprevention of cancer in normal cells.
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Nitrogen and phosphorus addition impact soil N?O emission in a secondary tropical forest of South China.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nutrient availability greatly regulates ecosystem processes and functions of tropical forests. However, few studies have explored impacts of N addition (aN), P addition (aP) and N × P interaction on tropical forests N?O fluxes. We established an N and P addition experiment in a tropical forest to test whether: (1) N addition would increase N?O emission and nitrification, and (2) P addition would increase N?O emission and N transformations. Nitrogen and P addition had no effect on N mineralization and nitrification. Soil microbial biomass was increased following P addition in wet seasons. aN increased 39% N?O emission as compared to control (43.3 ?gN?O-N m(-2)h(-1)). aP did not increase N?O emission. Overall, N?O emission was 60% greater for aNP relative to the control, but significant difference was observed only in wet seasons, when N?O emission was 78% greater for aNP relative to the control. Our results suggested that increasing N deposition will enhance soil N?O emission, and there would be N × P interaction on N?O emission in wet seasons. Given elevated N deposition in future, P addition in this tropical soil will stimulate soil microbial activities in wet seasons, which will further enhance soil N?O emission.
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A remarkable new genus of Tettigarctidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Tianyuprosbole zhengi, a remarkable new genus and species of Tettigarctidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadoidea), is described based on a whole-bodied fossil from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, northeastern China. The new species possesses a tegmen similar to that of Cicadoprosbole, the type genus of Cicadoprosbolinae, and has an exceedingly expanded pronotum as the extant genus Tettigarcta. This specimen provides new insights in the evolution and taxonomy of tettigarctids.
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Study on synthesis, crystal structure, antioxidant and DNA-binding of mono-, di- and poly-nuclear lanthanides complexes with bis(N-salicylidene)-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamine.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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A Schiff base ligand bis(N-salicylidene)-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamine H2L have been prepared. Reaction of the shape-specific designed ligand with Ln(NO3)3?6H2O afforded three novel complexes, namely, Sm(L)(NO3)(DMF)(H2O) 1, [Eu(H2L)2(NO3)3]n2 and Tb2(L)2(NO3)23. The ligand and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. It is noteworthy that the complexes demonstrate three different types of the structure which changed according to the charge density and acidity of the lanthanide. Complex 1 is a discrete mononuclear species that Sm(III) ion is nine-coordinated in the structure and forming a distorted tricapped trigonal prism geometry. Complex 2 is possessed a 1-D ribbon framework constructed from an extended array of ten-coordinated Eu(3+) centers and the Schiff base ligands. Complex 3 is revealed as a centrosymmetric binuclear neutral entity, in which Tb(III) ion is eight-coordinated with the coordination surround of distorted square antiprism geometry. In order to explore the relationship between the structure and biological properties, the DNA-binding properties have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence, and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that the ligand and complexes bind to DNA via groove modes. The intrinsic binding constants Kb of the complexes 1-3 are (1.19±0.112)×10(5), (4.22±0.086)×10(4) and (3.89±0.104)×10(4) M(-)(1) respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant activity experiments show that these compounds also exhibit good antioxidant activities against OH· and O2(-·) in vitro studies.
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Umbilical cord blood cells regulate the differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in hypoxic ischemic neonatal rats via the hedgehog signaling pathway.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Transplantation of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) promotes the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs), but it has been unclear whether the proliferating NSCs can differentiate into mature neural cells. Therefore, we explored the effects of UCBMC transplantation on the differentiation of endogenous NSCs and their underlying mechanisms. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left carotid ligation followed by hypoxic stress. UCBMC were transplanted 24h after hypoxia ischemia (HI). BrdU/?-tubulin/HNA/DAPI, BrdU/GFAP/HNA/DAPI, Ngn1/DAPI, and BMP4/DAPI were measured by immunofluorescence staining; Shh, Gli1, Ngn1, and BMP4 proteins were measured by western-blot analysis 28 days after transplantation. More newborn neurons and fewer astrocytes were observed in the HI+UCBMC group, its neuronal percentage was higher, and glial percentage was lower compared with the N+UCBMC (P<0.05) and HI+PBS groups (P<0.01), while fewer newborn neurons and more newborn astrocytes were found in the HI+cyclopamine (an antagonist of the hedgehog protein)+UCBMC group compared with the HI+UCBMC group (P<0.01). The expression of Shh, Gli1, and Ngn1 proteins was higher and BMP4 protein was lower in the HI+UCBMC compared with the HI+PBS group (P<0.01) and the HI+cyclopamine+UCBMC group (P<0.01). Linear regression analysis showed that the differentiation of NSCs correlated with expression of Ngn1 and BMP4 proteins (P<0.01). In conclusion, UCBMC promote neuronal differentiation and reduce glial differentiation in hypoxic ischemic neonatal rats via the hedgehog signaling pathway.
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Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies.
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Practical observations on the performance of bare silica in hydrophilic interaction compared with C18 reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The kinetic performance of a bare silica and C18 phase prepared from the same sub-2?m and 3.5?m base materials were compared in the HILIC and RP mode using both charged and neutral solutes. The HILIC column was characterised using the neutral solute 5-hydroxymethyluridine, the weak base cytosine, and the strong base nortriptyline, the latter having sufficient retention also in the RP mode to allow comparison of performance. Naphthalene was also used as a simple neutral substance to evaluate the RP column alone. The retention factors of all substances were adjusted to give similar values (k'?5.5) at their respective optimum linear velocities. Reduced van Deemter b-coefficients (determined by curve fitting and by the peak parking method, using a novel procedure involving switching to a dummy column) were significantly lower in HILIC for all substances compared with those found under RP conditions. Against expectation, c-coefficients were always lower in RP when compared with HILIC using sub-2?m particles. While measurement of these coefficients is complicated by retention shifts caused by the influence of high pressure and by frictional heating effects, broadly similar results were obtained on larger particle (3.5?m) phases. The mechanism of the separations was further investigated by examining the effect of buffer concentration on retention. It was concluded that HILIC can sometimes show somewhat inferior performance to RP for fast analysis at high mobile phase velocity, but clearly shows advantages when high column efficiencies, using longer columns at low flow velocity, are employed. The latter result is attributable to the lower viscosity of the mobile phase in HILIC and the reduced pressure requirement as well as the lower b-coefficients.
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Deciding between using the first or second drop of blood for the self monitoring of blood glucose.
Prim Care Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To explore whether the first or the second drop of blood is more suitable for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG).
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Proteomic analysis of pakchoi leaves and roots under glycine-nitrogen conditions.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The physiological and differential proteomic responses of pakchoi leaves and roots to glycine-nitrogen (Gly-N) treatments were determined. Two pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L. Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee) cultivars, 'Huawang' and 'Wuyueman', were grown under sterile hydroponic conditions with different N forms (Gly-N and nitrate-N). Gly-N-treated pakchoi exhibited decreased fresh weights, total N uptake, leaf areas, and net photosynthetic rates than those treated with nitrate-N. Differentially regulated proteins were selected after image analysis and identified using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 23 proteins was up- or down-regulated following Gly-N treatment. These spots are involved in several processes, such as energy synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active antioxidant defense mechanisms, that could enhance plant adaptation to Gly-N. The superior Gly tolerance of 'Huawang' was predominantly associated with a less severe down-regulation of proteins that are involved in the electron transport chain and N metabolism. Other factors could include less ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase turnover or a higher up-regulation of stress defense proteins. These characteristics demonstrated that maintaining ATP synthesis, N metabolism, photosynthesis, and active defense mechanisms play a critical role in pakchoi adaptation to Gly-N.
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Increased exosomal microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a levels in the cervicovaginal lavage specimens of patients with cervical cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Well-run screening programs for cervical cancer in the population at risk have been shown to result in a sharp decrease in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in a number of large populations. Expression patterns of a recently identified biomarker family, microRNA, appear to be characteristic of tumor type and developmental origin. Several tumors have been reported to actively release exosomes carrying microRNAs. The present study has determined the association of microRNAs with cervical cancer-derived exosomes. The cervical cancer-derived exosomes were enriched in the cervicovaginal lavages specimens and the abundance of exosomes and exosomal microRNAs was detected by electron microscopy, western blot analysis, RT-qPCR and microRNA target reporter vector. The microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a, which were up-regulated in cervical cancer patients, were associated with the high levels of cervical cancer-derived exosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrated the abundance of exosomes in the cervicovaginal lavage specimens of women with cervical cancer. Furthermore, our results indicated that abnormally high levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a existed in the cervical cancer-derived exosomes and the two microRNAs were functional in 293T cells.
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Biofunctionalized polymer-lipid supported mesoporous silica nanoparticles for release of chemotherapeutics in multidrug resistant cancer cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. A polymer-lipid supported mesoporous silica nanoparticle (PLS-MSNs) is described here to facilitate intracellular delivery of anticancer drug and enhance the antitumor efficacy against MDR breast cancer cells. By coating MSNs with a synthetic dual-functional polymer-lipid material P123-DOPE, the supported membrane acted as an intact barrier against the escape of encapsulated drugs before reaching the target cells, leading to depolymerization and triggered storm release of loaded irinotecan (CPT-11) in acidic endosomal pH of tumor cells. In addition, P123-DOPE can inhibit breast cancer resistance protein (BCPR) mediated CPT-11 efflux in drug resistant MCF-7/BCRP breast cancer cells, thus acting as a "door blocker". Compared to free CPT-11, PLS-MSNs resulted in a maximum increase in the intracellular CPT-11 concentration (12.9-fold), had 7.1-fold higher cytotoxicity and processed a stronger cell cycle arrest in MCF-7/BCRP cells. Moreover, CPT-11 loaded PLS-MSNs showed high therapeutic performance and low toxicity in BALB/c nude mice bearing drug resistant breast tumors, with an inhibition rate of 81.2% compared to free CPT-11 treatment group. The reported PLS-MSNs provide promising applicability in future preclinical and clinical MDR cancer treatment.
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Chrysanthemum morifolium extract attenuates high-fat milk-induced fatty liver through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-mediated mechanism in mice.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Some polyphenols derived from plants may ameliorate hyperlipidemic fatty livers; therefore, we hypothesized that polyphenol-rich Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) may exert an inhibitory effect on the formation of hyperlipidemic fatty livers in mice. This study aimed to examine the effects of CME on lipids in blood and liver and on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-mediated gene expression. Mice with hyperlipidemic fatty livers induced by orally administering high-fat milk via gavage and being simultaneously treated with 75 to 300 mg/kg CME for 6 weeks. After CME addition, the serum total cholesterol levels and hepatic weight coefficients decreased, but no significant reduction in the serum triacylglycerol levels were observed. It is important to note that CME might decrease hepatic lipid accumulation, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and fatty acid synthase expression and increase hepatic PPAR?, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase expression. However, the expected reduction in hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA expression was not observed. These findings demonstrate that polyphenol-rich CME may prevent hyperlipidemic fatty liver in mice, and its mechanisms may be related to the modulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, FAS, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase 1 expression through the PPAR?-mediated pathway.
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Bacillus cereus AR156-Induced Resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum Is Associated with Priming of Defense Responses in Loquat Fruit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effectiveness of a biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus AR156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. Treatment of fruit with B. cereus AR156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. The treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, ?-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were also increased by treatment. Transcripts of three defense-related genes were enhanced only in fruit undergoing both B. cereus AR156 treatment and C. acutatum inoculation compared with those receiving either intervention alone. These results suggest that the disease resistance against C. acutatum in loquat fruit is enhanced by B. cereus AR156 and that the induced resistance is associated with induction and priming of defense responses in the fruit.
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New specimens of Yanornis indicate a piscivorous diet and modern alimentary canal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A crop adapted for an herbivorous diet of seeds has previously been documented in the Early Cretaceous birds Sapeornis and Hongshanornis. Here we report on several specimens of Yanornis that preserve a crop containing fish. One specimen preserves two whole fish in the oesophagus, indicating that Early Cretaceous birds shared trophic specializations with Neornithes for the increased energetic demands of flight--namely the storing of food for later consumption when the stomach is full. Whole fish also indicate that despite their presence, teeth were not used to orally process food, suggesting the hypertrophied dentition in this taxon were utilized in prey capture. The presence of macerated fish bones in the crop of other specimens indicates the highly efficient advanced muscular system of peristalsis responsible for moving ingested items between different segments of the alimentary canal was also in place. Despite the fact many features of the modern avian alimentary canal are inferred to compensate for the absence of teeth in birds (expandable oesophagus, grinding gizzard), the derived alimentary canal was apparently present in toothed Cretaceous birds. Although Yanornis was considered to have switched their diet from piscivorous to herbivorous, based on position and morphology we reinterpret the gastroliths reported in one specimen as sand impacted in the intestines, and reconstruct the taxon as primarily piscivorous. This is a novel interpretation for fossilized gastroliths, and the first documentation of this condition in the fossil record.
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Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline.
Chem Cent J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline.
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Epidemiological analysis, detection, and comparison of space-time patterns of beijing hand-foot-mouth disease (2008-2012).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mostly affects the health of infants and preschool children. Many studies of HFMD in different regions have been published. However, the epidemiological characteristics and space-time patterns of individual-level HFMD cases in a major city such as Beijing are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological features and identify high relative risk space-time HFMD clusters at a fine spatial scale.
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Bisphenol A enhances kisspeptin neurons in anteroventral periventricular nucleus of female mice.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, adversely affects female reproductive health. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found that oral administration (p.o.) of BPA (20 ??g/kg) to adult female mice at proestrus, but not at estrus or diestrus, significantly increased the levels of plasma E?, LH and FSH, and Gnrh mRNA within 6 ?h. The administration of BPA at proestrus, but not at diestrus, could elevate the levels of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin protein in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) within 6 ?h. In contrast, the level of Kiss1 mRNA in arcuate nucleus (ARC) was hardly altered by BPA administration. In addition, at proestrus, a single injection (i.c.v.) of BPA dose-dependently enhanced the AVPV-kisspeptin expression within 6 ?h, this was sensitive to E? depletion by ovariectomy and an estrogen receptor ? (ER?) antagonist. Similarly, the injection of BPA (i.c.v.) at proestrus could elevate the levels of plasma E?, LH, and Gnrh mRNA within 6 ?h in a dose-dependent manner, which was blocked by antagonists of GPR54 or ER?. Injection of BPA (i.c.v.) at proestrus failed to alter the timing and peak concentration of LH-surge generation. In ovariectomized mice, the application of E? induced a dose-dependent increase in the AVPV-Kiss1 mRNA level, indicating 'E?-induced positive feedback', which was enhanced by BPA injection (i.c.v.). The levels of Er? (Esr1) and Er? (Esr2) mRNAs in AVPV and ARC did not differ significantly between vehicle-and BPA-treated groups. This study provides in vivo evidence that exposure of adult female mice to a low dose of BPA disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive endocrine system through enhancing AVPV-kisspeptin expression and release.
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Redox-active quinones induces genome-wide DNA methylation changes by an iron-mediated and Tet-dependent mechanism.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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DNA methylation has been proven to be a critical epigenetic mark important for various cellular processes. Here, we report that redox-active quinones, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in natural products, cancer therapeutics and environment, stimulate the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC in vivo, and increase 5hmC in 5751 genes in cells. 5hmC increase is associated with significantly altered gene expression of 3414 genes. Interestingly, in quinone-treated cells, labile iron-sensitive protein ferritin light chain showed a significant increase at both mRNA and protein levels indicating a role of iron regulation in stimulating Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation. Consistently, the deprivation of cellular labile iron using specific chelator blocked the 5hmC increase, and a delivery of labile iron increased the 5hmC level. Moreover, both Tet1/Tet2 knockout and dimethyloxalylglycine-induced Tet inhibition diminished the 5hmC increase. These results suggest an iron-regulated Tet-dependent DNA demethylation mechanism mediated by redox-active biomolecules.
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Polymerization of nitrogen in lithium azide.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Additional electrons can drastically change the bonding trend of light elements. For example, N atoms in alkali metal azides form the linear N3(-) anions instead of N2 molecules with the introduction of additional electrons. The effect of the additional electrons on the polymerization of N under pressure is important and thus far unclear. Using first principles density functional methods and the particle swarm optimization structure search algorithm, we systematically study the evolution of LiN3 structures under pressures up to 600 GPa. A stable structure featuring polymerized N under pressures higher than 375 GPa is identified for the first time. It consists of zig-zag N polymer chains that are formed by N5(-) five-member rings sharing N-N pairs. Throughout the stable pressure range, the structure is insulating and consists of N atoms in sp(3) hybridizations. Comparing with the atomic and electronic structures of previous phases, our study completes the structural evolution of LiN3 under pressure and reveals the structural changes which are accompanied and driven by the change of atomic orbital hybridization, first from sp to sp(2) and then from sp(2) to sp(3).
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Incorporating mobile nanospheres in the lumen of hybrid microcapsules for enhanced enzymatic activity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Physical encapsulation of enzymes in microcapsules, as a mild, controllable method, has been widely utilized for enzyme immobilization. However, this method often suffers from the big mass transfer resistance from the capsule lumen. In this study, a novel biocatalysis system with enhanced catalytic activity is constructed through coencapsulating enzymes and nanospheres in the lumen of protamine/silica hybrid microcapsules, which are synthesized through the synergy of biomimetic silicification and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. When utilized as the host for catalase (CAT) encapsulation, the hybrid microcapsules maintain high mechanical stability, high enzyme loading, and low enzyme leaching. Particularly, because of the existence of mobile nanospheres, the mass transfer resistance in the microcapsules is significantly reduced because of the vigorous agitation, thus acquiring an enhanced catalytic activity. Our strategy may also find applications in drug delivery and biosensor fields.
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Photoactivation and saturated emission in blended conjugated polymer nanoparticles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Blended poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1,3}-thiadiazole)] (PFBT)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) conjugated polymer nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by conventional and single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy. The particles exhibit red emission and improved quantum efficiency resulting from highly efficient energy transfer from donor PFBT to acceptor MEH-PPV as well as suppression of MEH-PPV aggregation. Photobleaching results indicate better photostability in the blended sample compared to undoped MEH-PPV nanoparticles and photoactivation of donor emission, which could be useful for single-molecule localization-based super-resolution microscopy. Single blended nanoparticles exhibit bright fluorescence as well as saturation behavior at very low excitation intensities. These and other properties of the blended conjugated polymer nanoparticles could provide substantial improvements in resolution when employed in super-resolution microscopy.
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Chimeric Virus-Like Particle Vaccines Displaying Conserved Enterovirus 71 Epitopes Elicit Protective Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice through Divergent Mechanisms.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, food, and mouth disease, which frequently occurs in young children. Since there are 11 subgenotypes (A, B1 to B5, and C1 to C5) within EV71, an EV71 vaccine capable of protecting against all of these subgenotypes is desirable. We report here the vaccine potential and protective mechanism of two chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) presenting conserved neutralizing epitopes of EV71. We show that fusions of hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) with the SP55 or SP70 epitope of EV71, designated HBcSP55 and HBcSP70, respectively, can be rapidly generated and self-assembled into VLPs with the epitopes displayed on the surface. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced carrier- and epitope-specific antibody responses in mice. Anti-HBcSP55 and anti-HBcSP70 sera, but not anti-HBc sera, were able to neutralize in vitro multiple genotypes and strains of EV71. Importantly, passive immunization with anti-HBcSP55 or anti-HBcSP70 sera protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 infections. Interestingly, anti-HBcSP70 sera could inhibit EV71 attachment to susceptible cells, whereas anti-HBcSP55 sera could not. However, both antisera were able to neutralize EV71 infection in vitro at the postattachment stage. The divergent mechanism of neutralization and protection conferred by anti-SP70 and anti-SP55 sera is in part attributed to their respective ability to bind authentic viral particles. Collectively, our study not only demonstrates that chimeric VLPs displaying the SP55 and SP70 epitopes are promising candidates for a broad-spectrum EV71 vaccine but also reveals distinct mechanisms of neutralization by the SP55- and SP70-targeted antibodies.
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[The stability of synthesized EGFP mRNA in vitro transfected into human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To identify human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and increase the stability of the in vitro synthesized EGFP mRNA through modification.
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Preparation of ultrathin, robust protein microcapsules through template-mediated interfacial reaction between amine and catechol groups.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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A novel approach to the synthesis of protein microcapsules is developed through template-mediated interfacial reaction. Protein-doped CaCO3 templates are first synthetized via coprecipitation and then coated with a catechol-containing alginate (AlgDA) layer. Afterward, the templates are exposed to ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA) solution to dissolve CaCO3. During CaCO3 dissolution, the generated CO2 gas pushes protein molecules moving to the AlgDA layer, and thereby Michael addition and Schiff base reactions proceed, forming the shell of protein microcapsules. Three kinds of proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin, catalase, and protamine sulfate, are utilized. The shell thickness of microcapsule varies from 25 to 82 nm as the doping amount of protein increased from 2 to 6 mg per 66 mg CaCO3. The protein microcapsules have a robust but flexible shell and can be reversibly deformed upon exposure to osmotic pressure. The bioactivity of protein microcapsules is demonstrated through enzymatic catalysis experiments. The protein microcapsules remain about 80% enzymatic activity of the equivalent free protein. Hopefully, our approach could be extended to many other applications such as drug/gene delivery, tissue scaffolds, and catalysis due to the universality of Michael reaction and Schiff base reactions.
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Unique caudal plumage of Jeholornis and complex tail evolution in early birds.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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The Early Cretaceous bird Jeholornis was previously only known to have a distally restricted ornamental frond of tail feathers. We describe a previously unrecognized fan-shaped tract of feathers situated dorsal to the proximal caudal vertebrae. The position and morphology of these feathers is reminiscent of the specialized upper tail coverts observed in males of some sexually dimorphic neornithines. As in the neornithine tail, the unique "two-tail" plumage in Jeholornis probably evolved as the result of complex interactions between natural and sexual selective pressures and served both aerodynamic and ornamental functions. We suggest that the proximal fan would have helped to streamline the body and reduce drag whereas the distal frond was primarily ornamental. Jeholornis reveals that tail evolution was complex and not a simple progression from frond to fan.
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Polydopamine microcapsules with different wall structures prepared by a template-mediated method for enzyme immobilization.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Microcapsules with diverse wall structures may exhibit different performance in specific applications. In the present study, three kinds of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) microcapsules with different wall structures have been prepared by a template-mediated method. More specifically, three types of CaCO3 microspheres (poly(allylamine hydrochloride), (PAH)-doped CaCO3; pure-CaCO3; and poly(styrene sulfonate sodium), (PSS)-doped CaCO3) were synthesized as sacrificial templates, which were then treated by dopamine to obtain the corresponding PDA-CaCO3 microspheres. Through treating these microspheres with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA-2Na) to remove CaCO3, three types of PDA microcapsules were acquired: that was (1) PAH-PDA microcapsule with a thick (?600 nm) and highly porous capsule wall composed of interconnected networks, (2) pure-PDA microcapsule with a thick (?600 nm) and less porous capsule wall, (3) PSS-PDA microcapsule with a thin (?70 nm) and dense capsule wall. Several characterizations confirmed that a higher degree in porosity and interconnectivity of the capsule wall would lead to a higher mass transfer coefficient. When serving as the carrier for catalase (CAT) immobilization, these enzyme-encapsulated PDA microcapsules showed distinct structure-related activity and stability. In particular, PAH-PDA microcapsules with a wall of highly interconnected networks displayed several significant advantages, including increases in enzyme encapsulation efficiency and enzyme activity/stability and a decrease in enzyme leaching in comparison with other two types of PDA microcapsules. Besides, this hierarchically structured PAH-PDA microcapsule may find other promising applications in biocatalysis, biosensors, drug delivery, etc.
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A Simple and Reliable Method for Distinguishing Danshen in Salvia: Simultaneous Quantification of Six Active Compositions by HPLC.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A simple and reliable method for distinguishing Danshen is important to evaluate the quality and clinical efficiency of these species. An HPLC method was developed for the determination of protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA in 23 samples of Salvia. The analytes were separated on an Agilent XDB C18 reversed-phase column coupled with a Phenomenex C18 guard column using a gradient elution of acetonitile-0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate 0.8 mL/min and UV detection at 280 nm. The method allowing the simultaneous quantification of six major active compositions was optimized and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification. The LOD ranged from 0.019 to 0.850 µg/mL (R(2) ? 0.9998). Accuracy, precision and reproducibility were all within the required limits. The average recovery between 96.49 and 102.16% and the relative standard deviations were <3.01%. Based on the six compositions content and clustering result, this research results suggest that these six major active compositions could be distinguishing markers for Danshen and non-Danshen.
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[Simultaneous determination of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A method for the simultaneous determination of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography with variable wavelengths was established. After degreased with petroleum ether, extracted, purified with SPE, and concentrated, the sample was separated on a C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate and methanol, and detected at 230, 510, 484 and 510 nm, separately. The saccharin sodium and synthetic colours were separated with this method. The recoveries were 88.6% - 97.1% with the RSD < 5%. The limit of detection was 0.05 mg/kg for all the analytes. The proposed method is simple, reliable and reproducible, and especially suitable for a lot of sample detections of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings.
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(-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibits TNF-?-induced PAI-1 production in vascular endothelial cells.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea, reduces the incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) accelerates thrombus formation upon ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. However, it is not known whether or not EGCG inhibits PAI-1 production induced by tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in endothelial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that EGCG might have an inhibitory effect on PAI-1 production induced by TNF-?. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and incubated with TNF-? and/or EGCG. The expression of p-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) protein was quantified by Western blotting, and PAI-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that TNF-? increased PAI-1 production in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, and EGCG prevented TNF-?-mediated PAI-1 production and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 (20 ?mol/L), downregulated TNF-?-induced PAI-1 expression 57.69 ± 2.46% (P < 0.01), but had no effect in cells pretreated with EGCG. TNF-? stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in TNFR1, an effect that was abolished by pretreatment with EGCG. These results suggest that EGCG could provide vascular benefits in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as decreased thrombus formation associated with ruptured atherosclerotic plaques.
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The Role of Th17/IL-17 in the Pathogenesis of Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Children.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Background: This work aims to explore the role of Th17 and IL-17 signaling in the pathogenesis of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) in children and podocyte injury, children with PNS were divided into minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and non-minimal change nephrotic syndrome [NMCNS, including mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)]. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to observe the circulating frequency of Th17 cells and the apoptosis of podocytes by annexinV-FITC/PI. Serum IL-1? and IL-6 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Fas and FasL expressions in podocytes were examined by FCM analysis using a direct immunofluorescence method. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was applied to measure the mRNA expressions of RORc, IL-23p19, Nephrin, WT1, Synaptopodin, Podocalyxin, Fas, and FasL. The IL-17 and IL-1? expression in renal biopsy tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of WT1, Caspase 8, and Caspase 3 in podocyte cell culture were also measured using immunocytochemistry. Results: Circulating frequencies of Th17 cells, mRNA levels of RORc and IL-23p19, and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1? were higher in the MCNS and NMCNS groups than in the control group (all P < 0.05), and were higher in the NMCNS group than in the MCNS group (all P < 0.05). The expressions of IL-17 and IL-1? in renal biopsy tissue were higher in the MCNS, MsPGN, and FSGS groups than in the control group (all P < 0.05). Recombinant murine IL-17 (rmIL-17) had no effect on the expressions of Nephrin, Synaptopodin, and WT1 of mouse podocytes, but caused an decrease in the expression of podocalyxin as well as promoted apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, rmIL-17 increased the expression of Fas, Casepase-8, and Casepase-3, but had no effect on that of FasL. Conclusion : Th17/IL-17 may contribute to the pathogenesis of PNS by decreasing the podocalyxin level and inducing podocyte apoptosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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