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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Magnetically recoverable Ni/C catalysts with hierarchical structure and high-stability for selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Here we report that magnetic Ni/C catalysts with hierarchical structure can be fabricated from a mixture of nickel acetate, polyethylene glycol-200 and furfural by a one-step hydrothermal method, followed by calcination. It has been found that the calcination temperature is the key factor affecting the structure, morphology and the catalytic performance of the Ni/C catalysts. Of the as-made catalysts, the Ni/C sample calcined at 300 °C features small-size metallic Ni particles with high dispersion in the carbon matrix and a unique hierarchical structure, and has the highest rate of conversion of o-chloronitrobenzene with high selectivity to o-chloroanilines. The concerned Ni/C catalysts are magnetic due to the presence of metallic Ni particles, which makes their recovery easy after the reaction by an external magnetic field. The recovered Ni/C catalysts can be recycled at least ten times without obvious loss both in Ni loading and the catalytic performance. This kind of catalyst is also active for the selective hydrogenation of other nitroarenes to the corresponding anilines.
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HIV risk among female sex workers with different patterns of drug use behaviors in Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Although many researchers found that drug use behaviors significantly increased HIV risk, few of them investigated the association between HIV risk and different drug use behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The current study examines demographic and behavioral risk factors as well as the infections of HIV, syphilis, and among a subgroup of FSWs who are injection drug users (IDU) or noninjection drug users (NIDU) in comparison to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) nondrug users (non-DU). We conducted secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data from Guangxi China. A self-administered, standard behavioral surveillance survey was completed by a total of 12,622 FSWs recruited from Guangxi, China. The Guangxi 2010 NSS sample included 2.6% NIDU and 0.5% IDU. Compared to non-DU, IDU were more likely to report no condom use in the last sex act (aOR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.65, 6.40), inconsistent condom use in the past month (aOR = 4.88, 95%CI = 2.66, 8.96), having an HIV testing (aOR = 2.48, 95%CI = 1.34, 4.58), infections of HIV (aOR = 42.60, 95%CI = 9.45, 192.06), syphilis (aOR = 4.13, 95%CI = 1.86, 9.16), and HCV (aOR = 74.54, 95%CI = 30.26, 183.61). NIDU had 2.89 times higher than non-DU to report a history of sexually transmitted disease and 26% less likely to report inconsistent condom use in the past month (p < 0.05). We called for tailored, accessible, and nonjudgmental drug treatments coupled with effective sexual risk reduction interventions to help FSWs with various drug use problems to reduce their vulnerability and susceptibility of HIV risk in China as well as other cultural settings.
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Prognostic analysis of orthostatic intolerance using survival model in children.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a common disease at pediatric period which has a serious impact on physical and mental health of children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of related factors on the prognosis of children with OI.
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Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed.
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Social Support and Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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While the relationship between social support and psychological well-being has been well established, limited studies have explored how social support might affect condom use among female sex workers (FSWs). Using cross-sectional data from 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi China, we examined how different forms of support from diverse sources may influence condom use among FSWs. Friends, co-workers, and stable partners were FSWs' main sources of social support. Social support from diverse sources differently impact FSWs' condom use. Policy-makers need to consider complicated profile of social support received by FSWs and create supportive environment for FSWs to protect them from HIV risks.
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Quality of Life Questionnaire-Bronchiectasis: final psychometric analyses and determination of minimal important difference scores.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The Quality of Life-Bronchiectasis (QOL-B), a self-administered, patient-reported outcome measure assessing symptoms, functioning and health-related quality of life for patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, contains 37 items on 8 scales (Respiratory Symptoms, Physical, Role, Emotional and Social Functioning, Vitality, Health Perceptions and Treatment Burden).
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Social context factors, refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use among female sex workers in China.
Psychol Health Med
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use.
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System light-loading technology for mHealth: Manifold-learning-based medical data cleansing and clinical trials in WE-CARE Project.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major issue to public health. It contributes 41% to the Chinese death rate each year. This huge loss encouraged us to develop a Wearable Efficient teleCARdiology systEm (WE-CARE) for early warning and prevention of CVD risks in real time. WE-CARE is expected to work 24/7 online for mobile health (mHealth) applications. Unfortunately, this purpose is often disrupted in system experiments and clinical trials, even if related enabling technologies work properly. This phenomenon is rooted in the overload issue of complex Electrocardiogram (ECG) data in terms of system integration. In this study, our main objective is to get a system light-loading technology to enable mHealth with a benchmarked ECG anomaly recognition rate. To achieve this objective, we propose an approach to purify clinical features from ECG raw data based on manifold learning, called the Manifold-based ECG-feature Purification algorithm. Our clinical trials verify that our proposal can detect anomalies with a recognition rate of up to 94% which is highly valuable in daily public health-risk alert applications based on clinical criteria. Most importantly, the experiment results demonstrate that the WE-CARE system enabled by our proposal can enhance system reliability by at least two times and reduce false negative rates to 0.76%, and extend the battery life by 40.54%, in the system integration level.
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Female sex workers and their gatekeepers in China: implications for HIV/STI prevention.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention programs requires us to take advantage of the unique and crucial roles of gatekeepers. We conclude with a call for structural interventions to protect FSWs' occupational health and safety.
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Oral GS-5806 activity in a respiratory syncytial virus challenge study.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infant hospitalizations and is increasingly recognized as a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. No accepted antiviral treatment exists.
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Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes ('group homes') in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children's wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child-caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children.
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Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S(optical) = 0.51-0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent ? with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ? 0.5 MPa W(-1) and energy conversion of ? 0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications.
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The chemotherapeutic potential of PEG-b-PLGA copolymer micelles that combine chloroquine as autophagy inhibitor and docetaxel as an anti-cancer drug.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Micelles may be the nanocarrier that is used most often in the area of nanomedicine due to its promising performance and technical simplicity. However, like the original drugs, micellar formulation may arouse intracellular autophagy that deteriorates their advantages for efficient drug delivery. There has been no report in the literature that involves the fate of micelles after successfully internalized into the cancer cells. In this study, we show by using docetaxel-loaded PEG-b-PLGA micelles as a micellar model that the micelles do arouse intracellular autophagy and are thus subject to degradation through the endo-lysosome pathway. Moreover, we show that co-administration of the micellar formulation with autophagy inhibitor such as chloroquine (CQ) could significantly enhance their therapeutic effects. The docetaxel-loaded PEG-b-PLGA micelles are formulated by the membrane dialysis method, which are of 7.1% drug loading and 72.8% drug encapsulation efficiency in a size range of around 40 nm with narrow size distribution. Autophagy degradation and inhibition are investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy with various biological makers. We show that the IC50 values of the drug formulated in the PEG-b-PLGA micelles after 24 h treatment MCF-7 cancer cells with no autophagy inhibitor or in combination with CQ were 22.30 ± 1.32 and 1.75 ± 0.43 ?g/mL respectively, which indicated a 12-fold more efficient treatment with CQ. The in vivo investigation further confirmed the advantages of such a strategy. The findings may provide advanced knowledge for development of nanomedicine for clinical application.
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Practice and perception of parental HIV disclosure to children in Beijing, China.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To explore parental disclosure practices and perceptions among HIV-positive parents in urban China, we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 HIV-positive parents in Beijing in 2011. The disclosure rate was low (17%), and unplanned disclosure was common. Most parents chose not to disclose because of concerns regarding their children's young age, concerns about potentially negative psychological impacts on the children, potential secondary disclosure by the children to others, and perceived stigma associated with HIV infection and the causes of such infection (e.g., homosexual behaviors). Parents considered that an appropriate disclosure should be well-planned, cautious, and a gradual process conducted in a comfortable and relaxed environment when both parents and children were calm. We concluded that it was important to (a) provide professional guidance and services about disclosure to children for HIV-positive parents in China, (b) reduce or eliminate HIV-related stigma, (c) set up support groups among HIV-positive parents, and (d) tailor disclosure strategies for different populations of various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.
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Efficacy of theory-based HIV behavioral prevention among rural-to-urban migrants in China: a randomized controlled trial.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).
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Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells enhances the migration of hepatoma cells through CXCR4 up-regulation and F-actin remodeling.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Interactions between tumors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can regulate cancer cell behavior and cancer progression. Rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rMSCs) were isolated and purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Conditioned media from rMSCs (MSC-CM) was prepared, and its role in cancer cell migration and the underlying molecular mechanism were investigated. MSC-CM increased the migration and up-regulated the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in rat hepatoma cells (CBRH-7919). F-actin remodeling was observed, and the Young's modulus was decreased in CBRH-7919 cells. A CXCR4 inhibitor suppressed the MSC-CM-induced CXCR4 expression and migration, restored the decrease in the Young's modulus and disrupted the formation of F-actin. MSC-CM thus promotes CBRH-7919 cell migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing F-actin formation through up-regulation of CXCR4 expression. MSC-CM may therefore have a positive impact on cancer metastases and underlines a potential safety issue associated with clinical applications of MSCs.
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Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.
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Positive youth development in rural China: The role of parental migration.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This study examined how parental rural-to-urban migration may affect left-behind children's development in rural China. We used two-wave data collected on 864 rural youth age 10-17 years in the Guangxi Province, China in 2010. We tested psychometric properties of a positive youth development (PYD) model theorized and corroborated in the US, compared a range of developmental outcomes among rural youth by their parental migration status, and explored the mediating role of family economic and social resources in observed associations between developmental outcomes and parental migration. The results showed the PYD model had some international validity although modifications would be needed to make it more suitable to Chinese settings. Little difference in the PYD outcomes was detected by parental migration status. On other outcomes (i.e., self-rated health, school grades, educational aspirations, problem behavior), positive influences of parental migration were observed. Increased income but not social resources in migrant families helped explain some of these patterns. The take-home message from this study is that parental migration is not necessarily an injurious situation for youth development. To advance our knowledge about the developmental significance of parental migration for rural Chinese youth, we urgently need large-scale representative surveys to collect comprehensive and longitudinal information about rural children's developmental trajectories and their multilevel social contexts to identify key resources of PYD in order to better help migrant and non-migrant families nurture thriving youth in rural China.
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Accumulation of extracellular hyaluronan by hyaluronan synthase 3 promotes tumor growth and modulates the pancreatic cancer microenvironment.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Extensive accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is found in pancreatic cancer. The role of hyaluronan synthases 2 and 3 (HAS2, 3) was investigated in pancreatic cancer growth and the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of HAS3 increased hyaluronan synthesis in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo, overexpression of HAS3 led to faster growing xenograft tumors with abundant extracellular hyaluronan accumulation. Treatment with pegylated human recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) removed extracellular hyaluronan and dramatically decreased the growth rate of BxPC-3 HAS3 tumors compared to parental tumors. PEGPH20 had a weaker effect on HAS2-overexpressing tumors which grew more slowly and contained both extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan. Accumulation of hyaluronan was associated with loss of plasma membrane E-cadherin and accumulation of cytoplasmic ?-catenin, suggesting disruption of adherens junctions. PEGPH20 decreased the amount of nuclear hypoxia-related proteins and induced translocation of E-cadherin and ?-catenin to the plasma membrane. Translocation of E-cadherin was also seen in tumors from a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and in a human non-small cell lung cancer sample from a patient treated with PEGPH20. In conclusion, hyaluronan accumulation by HAS3 favors pancreatic cancer growth, at least in part by decreasing epithelial cell adhesion, and PEGPH20 inhibits these changes and suppresses tumor growth.
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Targeting cyclic hypoxia to prevent malignant progression and therapeutic resistance of cancers.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Emerging evidence shows that cyclic hypoxia exists in most solid cancers. It is believed that under cyclic hypoxic conditions cancer cells exhibit more malignant biological behaviors than under chronic hypoxic conditions. In this review, we provide a collection of evidence showing the molecular mechanisms by which cyclic hypoxia induces aggressiveness, malignant progression, and therapeutic resistance in cancers. Moreover, we propose that cyclic hypoxia is responsible for the regulation of cancer stem cells, which possess typical biological characteristics of therapeutic resistance. Based on the present findings, some key factors regulated by cyclic hypoxia may serve as potential targets for the prevention of malignant progression and the treatment of solid cancers. Much research is necessary to gain further insights into the biological aspects of cyclic hypoxia in the development and progression of cancers.
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[Clinicopathologic features and risk factors of bilateral cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathologic features and associated risk factors for bilateral neck node metastasis (BNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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GABA Promotes Human ?-Cell Proliferation and Modulates Glucose Homeostasis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) exerts protective and regenerative effects on mouse islet ?-cells. However, in humans it is unknown whether it can increase ?-cell mass and improve glucose homeostasis. To address this question, we transplanted a suboptimal mass of human islets into immunodeficient NOD-scid-? mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. GABA treatment increased grafted ?-cell proliferation, while decreasing apoptosis, leading to enhanced ?-cell mass. This was associated with increased circulating human insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Importantly, GABA administration lowered blood glucose levels and improved glucose excursion rates. We investigated GABA receptor expression and signaling mechanisms. In human islets, GABA activated a calcium-dependent signaling pathway through both GABA A receptor and GABA B receptor. This activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and CREB-IRS-2 signaling pathways that convey GABA signals responsible for ?-cell proliferation and survival. Our findings suggest that GABA regulates human ?-cell mass and may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes or improvement of islet transplantation.
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The role of perceived social support in loneliness and self-esteem among children affected by HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal multilevel analysis in rural China.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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To delineate the trajectories of loneliness and self-esteem over time among children affected by parental HIV and AIDS, and to examine how their perceived social support (PSS) influenced initial scores and change rates of these two psychological outcomes.
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Intercrossed Carbon Nanorings with Pure Surface States as Low-Cost and Environment-Friendly Phosphors for White-Light-Emitting Diodes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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As an important energy-saving technique, white-light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) have been seeking for low-cost and environment-friendly substitutes for rare-earth-based expensive phosphors or Pd(2+) /Cd(2+) -based toxic quantum dots (QDs). In this work, precursors and chemical processes were elaborately designed to synthesize intercrossed carbon nanorings (IC-CNRs) with relatively pure hydroxy surface states for the first time, which enable them to overcome the aggregation-induced quenching (AIQ) effect, and to emit stable yellow-orange luminescence in both colloidal and solid states. As a direct benefit of such scarce solid luminescence from carbon nanomaterials, W-LEDs with color coordinate at (0.28, 0.27), which is close to pure white light (0.33, 0.33), were achieved through using these low-temperature-synthesized and toxic ion-free IC-CNRs as solid phosphors on blue LED chips. This work demonstrates that the design of surface states plays a crucial role in exploring new functions of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials.
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Predictive factors associated with gefitinib response in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A number of different clinical characteristics have been reported to singly correlate with therapeutic activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to identify predictive factors associated with prognostic benefits of gefitinib.
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Role of total hip replacement arthroplasty between transplantation and acute kidney injury.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a severely disabling complication of steroid immunosuppression in renal transplant patients. The increased number of patients undergoing transplantation has increased the number of transplant recipients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty (THRA). In this study, we retrospectively assessed patients who underwent THRA from May 2004 to February 2014, and evaluated their demographic and clinical characteristics, the results of peri-operative laboratory tests, the amounts of fluids transfused during surgery, and anesthesia time. Our results found that post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) was significantly associated with transplantation, and transplantation was an independent factor predictive of post-operative AKI, so transplant recipients are at risk for AKI following THRA. Total hip replacement is a safe and effective treatment for transplant recipients and, in view of their limited life expectancy, should be considered at an early stage in their treatment.
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Enantioselective ruthenium(II)/Xyl-SunPhos/Daipen-catalyzed hydrogenation of ?-ketoamides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A series of ?-hydroxy amides were synthesized with high enantioselectivities (up to 99%) using asymmetric hydrogenation of the corresponding ?-ketoamides in the presence of Ru-Xyl-SunPhos-Daipen catalyst providing key building blocks for a variety of naturally occurring and biologically active compounds.
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Cloning and Characterization of a Multifunctional Promoter from Maize (Zea mays L.).
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The use of tissue-specific promoters to drive the expression of target genes during certain developmental stages or in specific organs can prevent unnecessary gene expression caused by constitutive promoters. Utilizing heterologous promoters to regulate the expression of genes in transgenic receptors can help prevent gene silencing. Here, we engineered heterologous maize promoters that regulate gene-specific expression in rice plant receptors. We performed a histochemical and quantitative ?-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis of the Zea mays legumin1 (ZM-LEGF) gene promoter and detailed detection of stably transformed rice expressing the GUS gene under the control of the promoter of ZM-LEGF (pZM-LEGF) and its truncated promoters throughout development. When the promoter sequence was truncated, the location and intensity of GUS expression changed. The results suggest that the sequence from -140 to +41 is a critical region that confers the expression of the entire promoter. Truncation of pZM-LEG (3'-deleted region of pZM-LEGF) markedly increased the GUS activity, with the core cis-elements located in the -273 to -140 regions, namely pZM-LEG6. Detailed analysis of pZM-LEG6::GUS T2 transformant rice seeds and plant tissues at different developmental stages indicated that this promoter is an ideal vegetative tissue-specific promoter that can serve as a valuable tool for transgenic rice breeding and genetic engineering studies.
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[Metformin inhibits the proliferation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma Fadu cells and enhances the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of cells].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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To investigate the role of metformin on the growth inhibition induced by chemotherapeutic agents in hypopharyngeal carcinoma Fadu cells.
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Autophagy activation contributes to the neuroprotection of remote ischemic perconditioning against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPer) has been proved to provide potent cardioprotection. However, there are few studies on neuroprotection of RIPer. This study aims to clarify the neuroprotective effect of RIPer and the role of autophagy induced by RIPer against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats to imitate focal cerebral ischemia. RIPer was carried out 4 cycles of 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion, with a thin elastic band tourniquet encircled on the bilateral femoral arteries at the start of 10 min after MCAO. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and autophagy inducer rapamycin were administered respectively to determine the contribution of autophagy in RIPer. Neurologic deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, Nissl staining, TUNEL assay, immunohistochemistry and western blot was performed to analyze the neuroprotection of RIPer and the contribution of autophagy in RIPer. RIPer significantly exerted neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway was activated by RIPer treatment. 3-MA reversed the neuroprotective effects induced by RIPer, whereas rapamycin ameliorated the brain ischemic injury. Autophagy activation contributes to the neuroprotection by RIPer against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
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Ursolic acid reduces oxidative stress to alleviate early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA), a well-known anti-oxidative reagent, has been reported to protect the brain against ischemic stoke. However, the potential role of UA in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effect of UA against EBI following SAH, and to demonstrate whether the effect is associated with its powerful antioxidant property. Male SD rats were divided into vehicle-treated sham, vehicle-treated SAH, and UA-treated SAH groups. The endovascular puncture model was used to induce SAH and all the rats were subsequently sacrificed at 48h after SAH. The results show that UA administration could significantly attenuate EBI (including brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, neural cell apoptosis, and neurological deficient) after SAH in rats and up-regulate the antioxidative levels in the rat cerebral cortex, suggesting that administration of UA in experimental SAH rats could alleviate brain injury symptom, potentially through its powerful antioxidant property. Hence, we concluded that UA might be a novel therapeutic agent for EBI following SAH.
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A quarter century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe.
Health Psychol Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland on an HIV prevention intervention, Focus on Youth. Over the next 25 years the questions being addressed by Focus on Youth, reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved--and if so, how? During its next phase, the Focus on Youth team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including UNAIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an "effective" intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next phase as researchers and public health workers realized that the dissemination to a new community of an intervention developed and found to be effective in one community requires change. The central questions during this time included: What changes or kinds of changes can be made to an intervention without undermining its effectiveness? What aspects of an intervention cannot be changed without potentially undermining its effectiveness? What constitutes a "change"? Who should be involved in this decision-making? These efforts culminated in our current phase, one focused on implementation. We must learn more about the factors that allow an intervention to survive and thrive and selectively target these critical factors. The main objective of this paper is to review our experiences and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating Focus on Youth in a wide range of socio-cultural settings over the past a quarter of century.
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Potential role of the OPG/RANK/RANKL axis in prostate cancer invasion and bone metastasis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are key regulators of bone metabolism under both normal and pathological conditions, including prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases. However, little is known concerning the expression and function of these regulators in prostate tumor samples and PCa cells and their correlation with invasion and bone metastasis. In the present study, we determined the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in 3 human PCa cell lines and 40 PCa patient samples by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As controls, samples from 20 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate epithelial RWPE2 cells were also included in the analyses. The effects of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG as well as RANK knockdown on PCa invasion were examined in Transwell assays. Immunohistochemical staining detected little RANK, OPG and RANKL expression in hyperplasia prostate while the percentages of positivity were increased to 50, 45 and 52.5%, respectively, in prostate tumor tissues. OPG and sRANKL levels in the prostate tumor samples as measured by ELISA were ~10-fold that in the BPHs (P<0.01) and the levels were higher in aggressive tumors than non-aggressive ones (P<0.05). The sRANKL level in the serum of PCa patients was the same as that in the patients with BPH, yet the serum OPG levels correlated with the tissue levels (R2=0.620, P<0.01, which both showed a 10-fold increase in PCa over BPH (P<0.01) with higher levels in aggressive PCa than non-aggressive ones (P<0.05). Consistent with the tissue analyses, expression levels of RANK mRNA and protein were detected in multiple human PCa cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The treatment of PCa cells with RANKL significantly increased the number of invaded cells (P<0.01), which was suppressed by the decoy receptor OPG. RANK siRNA transfection dramatically dampened the stimulatory effect of RANKL on PCa cell invasion. Our findings indicate that the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG may be used as diagnostic markers to identify patients at high risk for aggressive PCa and that the effective suppression of PCa cell migration by OPG via the blockage of RANKL activity represents a potential therapeutic strategy for interfering with prostate tumor metastasis and progression to bone.
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Fold Rise in Antibody Titers by Measured by Glycoprotein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Is an Excellent Correlate of Protection for a Herpes Zoster Vaccine, Demonstrated via the Vaccine Efficacy Curve.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The phase III Zostavax Efficacy and Safety Trial of 1 dose of licensed zoster vaccine (ZV; Zostavax; Merck) in 50-59-year-olds showed approximately 70% vaccine efficacy (VE) to reduce the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ). An objective of the trial was to assess immune response biomarkers measuring antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) by glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as correlates of protection (CoPs) against HZ.
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HIV-related behavioral risk factors among older female sex workers in Guangxi, China.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Previous literature suggests a high rate of HIV infections among older female sex workers (FSWs) in China. However, limited data are available regarding HIV- related behavioral risk factors among this population. In the current study, we aim to examine the demographic and behavioral factors that place older FSWs at a high risk of HIV infection. We conducted secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data from Guangxi, China. A self-administered, standard behavioral surveillance survey was completed by a total of 12,622 FSWs in Guangxi, China. The Guangxi 2010 NSS sample included 19.4% FSWs aged 35 years or older ("older FSWs"). The overall HIV prevalence was 1.0% for the entire sample with 2.0% among older FSWs and 0.8% among younger ones. Older age was an independent predictor of unprotected sex, injection drug use, and a self-reported history of syphilis infection. Future HIV prevention interventions targeting FSWs should consider older FSWs' vulnerable status. Efforts are needed to address their financial needs and invest in skills for socio-economic empowerment.
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Fidelity of Implementation of an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Program among Bahamian Sixth Grade Students.
Prev Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The Bahamian Ministry of Education has elected to implement at a national level in all Bahamian government grade six classes an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention [Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)]. This study explores fidelity of implementation of the intervention, factors that may influence implementation fidelity, and the impact of variations in the implementation fidelity on student outcomes. Data were collected in the first wave of national implementation in 2011, involving 35 government primary schools and 110 teachers and 2,811 students. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships among factors which facilitated or impeded teachers' implementation of FOYC. Results indicate that teachers taught 16.3 out of 30 core activities, 24.9 out of 46 total activities, and 4.4 out of 8 sessions on average. The strongest predictor of implementation fidelity was teacher comfort level with the FOYC curriculum. Teachers who did not perceive the FOYC intervention to be important for their students or who had attended only part of a FOYC training workshop were more likely to change the curriculum. Increased duration of experience as a teacher (>10 years) was negatively associated with fidelity of implementation. Teacher's perception of the importance of the FOYC intervention and implementation fidelity had direct positive effects on students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, reproductive health skills, protective intentions, and self-efficacy. Youth did not appear to benefit from FOYC if two or fewer sessions were delivered. We concluded that an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention can be implemented at a national level. Prior training of teachers in the intervention curriculum, teacher perception of the importance of the intervention, and fewer years as a teacher are associated with implementation fidelity. Implementation fidelity is associated with improved student outcomes.
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Incorporation of Conserved Nucleoprotein into Influenza Virus-Like Particles Could Provoke a Broad Protective Immune Response in BALB/c Mice and Chickens.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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We engineered influenza A/goose/GD/1996 (H5N1) (clade 0) virus-like particles (VLPs) by coinfecting Sf9 cells with triple/quadruple recombinant baculovirus that expressed hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix 1 (M1) with or without nucleoprotein (NP). VLP3 (HA, NA, and M1) and VLP4 (HA, NA, M1, and NP) vaccines (containing 1?g HA) with oil emulsion were administered to mice and chickens by intramuscular injection, and the immune responses were analyzed. The VLP-vaccinated mice demonstrated high antigen specific antibody titers and effective cellular immune responses. The mice and chickens vaccinated with VLP4 demonstrated more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than those vaccinated with VLP3. The VLP4 vaccine afforded 100% protection against a heterologous lethal influenza virus challenge (clade 2.3.4) whereas the VLP3 vaccine conferred 50% protection in chickens. These results implied that the incorporation of conserved NP protein into the VLPs could elicit a broad protective immune response in BALB/c mice and chickens. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report describing the immunological profile of the NP-containing VLPs vaccines in mice and chicken models, and the results demonstrate that the non-infectious, genome less VLPs, particularly those containing NP, represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control pandemic influenza.
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Violence Against Chinese Female Sex Workers From Their Stable Partners: A Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of stable partnerships. Out of the 1,022 FSWs, 743 reported ever having a stable partnership and 430 (more than half) of those reported experiencing IPV. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent friction, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSWs. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSWs need to consider the influence of their stable partners.
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Hepatocyte necroptosis induced by ischemic acute kidney injury in rats.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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While ischemic acute kidney injury (IAKI) is known often to cause hepatic injury, little is known about necroptosis involved in the hepatic injury. The purposes of this study were to identify necroptosis involvement and observe morphological changes of hepatocytes in hepatic injury induced by IAKI in rats. Based on successfully established IAKI rat models, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay illustrated a significant higher level of tumor necrosis factor a in serums of IAKI animals. Tumor necrosis factor receptor a (TNFRa) and receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPk3) showed significant higher expressions in immunoblot analyses and positive hepatocytes of RIPk3 immunohistochemical staining were also evident in livers of IAKI rats. In addition, light microscopy revealed necrotic lesions that contain hepatocytes ongoing necroptosis besides necrotic cells in IAKI livers. Electron microscopy revealed at least three types of necrotic hepatocytes, they were edema necrosis, vacuolization necrosis, and necroptosis. Hepatocytes undergoing necroptosis had both necrosis and apoptosis morphological characteristics, they were necrosis cytoplasm and apoptosis-like nucleus. Among cellular organelles of hepatocyte with necrosis, membranous structures, such as cell membrane, endoplasmic reticular system, and mitochondria were more vulnerable to the stress of IAKI and deformed nucleuses varied in shape and lytic or pyknotic chromatin appearances were noted under insults of IAKI. In conclusion, hepatocyte undergoing necroptosis, RIPk3-mediated necroptosis partly contributes to hepatic necrosis induced by IAKI. Both membranous structures and nucleuses of hepatocyte were vulnerable to ischemic acute kidney injury.
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Research on phosphorus loads and characteristics of adsorption and release in surface sediments of Nanyang Lake and Weishan Lake in China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The characteristics of phosphate adsorption and the transformation of phosphorus forms in the release process of the sediments in Nanyang Lake and Weishan Lake are researched. Distribution of maximal amount of phosphorus adsorbed (Q max) is 112.76 and 93.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the adsorption processes of Nanyang Lake and Weishan Lake reach equilibrium after 48 h. Total maximal amount of phosphorus adsorbed is the amount of Q max and native adsorbed phosphorus (NAP). The m is the sum of the adsorption efficiency of the sediments adsorbing the phosphorus coming from external sources and the phosphorus desorbed from the sediments. Mutual transformation between phosphorus forms exists in the process of phosphorus release. The contents of NH4Cl-P, BD-P, and HCl-P in the sediments reduced, and the content of NaOH-P increased in the process. But the amount of NaOH-P increased is less than the amount of NH4Cl-P, BD-P, and HCl-P reduced. So other forms of phosphorus transformation relations exist.
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Chimeric influenza-virus-like particles containing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 protein and the influenza virus HA and M1 proteins.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza are acute, highly contagious swine diseases. These diseases pose severe threats for the swine industry and cause heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we have developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H3N2 influenza virus and investigated its immunogenicity in mice. The HA and M1 proteins from the H3N2 influenza virus and the PRRSV GP5 protein fused to the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the NA protein were both incorporated into the chimeric VLPs. Analysis of the immune responses showed that the chimeric VLPs elicited serum antibodies specific for both PRRSV GP5 and the H3N2 HA protein, and they stimulated cellular immune responses compared to the responses to equivalent amounts of inactivated viruses. Taken together, the results suggested that the chimeric VLP vaccine represents a potential strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control PRRSV and H3N2 influenza virus.
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Accumulation of connective tissue growth factor+ cells during the early phase of rat traumatic brain injury.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Glial scar formation is a common histopathological feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrogliosis and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) are key components of scar formation and blood-brain barrier modulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is considered a cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-?.
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Resin composites reinforced by nanoscaled fibers or tubes for dental regeneration.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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It has been stated clearly that nanofillers could make an enhancement on the mechanical performances of dental composites. In order to address current shortage of traditional dental composites, fillers in forms of nanofibers or nanotubes are broadly regarded as ideal candidates to greatly increase mechanical performances of dental composites with low content of fillers. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to reinforce mechanical performances of dental composites, including polymeric nanofibers, metallic nanofibers or nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers or nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. The first purpose of current paper was to confirm the enhancement of nanofibers or nanotubes' reinforcement on the mechanical performances of dental restorative composite. The second purpose was to make a general description about the reinforcement mechanism of nanofibers and nanotubes, especially, the impact of formation of interphase boundary interaction and nanofibers themselves on the advanced mechanical behaviors of the dental composites. By means of the formation of interface interaction and poststretching nanofibers, reinforced effect of dental composites by sorts of nanofibers/nanotubes has been successfully obtained.
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Application of ultrasound on monitoring the evolution of the collagen fiber reinforced nHAC/CS composites in vivo.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To date, fiber reinforce scaffolds have been largely applied to repair hard and soft tissues. Meanwhile, monitoring the scaffolds for long periods in vivo is recognized as a crucial issue before its wide use. As a consequence, there is a growing need for noninvasive and convenient methods to analyze the implantation remolding process in situ and in real time. In this paper, diagnostic medical ultrasound was used to monitor the in vivo bone formation and degradation process of the novel mineralized collagen fiber reinforced composite which is synthesized by chitosan (CS), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), and collagen fiber (Col). To observe the impact of cells on bone remodeling process, the scaffolds were planted into the back of the SD rats with and without rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Systematic data of scaffolds in vivo was extracted from ultrasound images. Significant consistency between the data from the ultrasound and DXA could be observed (P < 0.05). This indicated that ultrasound may serve as a feasible alternative for noninvasive monitoring the evolution of scaffolds in situ during cell growth.
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System analysis of microRNAs in the development and aluminium stress responses of the maize root system.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) that down-regulate target genes through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNA is known to play an important role in the root development and environmental responses in both the Arabidopsis and rice. However, little information is available to form a complete view of miRNAs in the development of the maize root system and Al stress responses in maize. Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from the early developmental stage of primary roots (PRY), the later developmental stage of maize primary roots (PRO), seminal roots (SR) and crown roots (CR). Through integrative analysis, we identified 278 miRNAs (246 conserved and 32 novel ones) and found that the expression patterns of miRNAs differed dramatically in different maize roots. The potential targets of the identified conserved and novel miRNAs were also predicted. In addition, our data showed that CR is more resistant to Al stress compared with PR and SR, and the differentially expressed miRNAs are likely to play significant roles in different roots in response to environmental stress such as Al stress. Here, we demonstrate that the expression patterns of miRNAs are highly diversified in different maize roots. The differentially expressed miRNAs are correlated with both the development and environmental responses in the maize root. This study not only improves our knowledge about the roles of miRNAs in maize root development but also reveals the potential role of miRNAs in the environmental responses of different maize roots.
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Recombinant influenza H1, H5 and H9 hemagglutinins containing replaced H3 hemagglutinin transmembrane domain showed enhanced heterosubtypic protection in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and irregular pandemics. A vaccine with heterosubtypic protection (hetero-protection) has been needed. In the present study, various influenza H1, H3, H5, and H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins were expressed in insect cells, and then mice were subcutaneously immunized with the expressed HA proteins, and challenged by influenza A viruses (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) or A/chicken/Guangdong/96 (H9N2)). The results first showed that wild-type H3 hemagglutinin (HA) (H3-WT), but not a transmembrane domain (TM) mutant, had hetero-protection against both H1N1 and H9N2 with survival rates of 17% and 33% respectively, and that wild-type H1 (H1-WT), H5 (H5-WT) and H9 (H9-WT) had no hetero-protection against H1N1 or H9N2 except for H5-WT against H1N1 with a survival rate of 17%. Then the H3-WT TM replaced the TMs of H1-WT, H5-WT and H9-WT to generate recombinant H1-TM, H5-TM and H9-TM respectively, and whether the H3-WT TM-dependent hetero-protection could be transferred to these TM mutants was investigated. The results showed that the H3-WT TM-dependent hetero-protection was transferable. H1-TM against H9N2 and H9-TM against H1N1 were with survival rates of 33% and 17% respectively, and H5-TM against both H1N1 and H9N2 with survival rates of 50% and 17% respectively. Furthermore, higher dosage H5-TM scored 100% hetero-protection against H1N1. These results demonstrated that replacement of the TMs of non-H3 HAs with H3-WT TM could enhance their hetero-protection. These findings would help the development of future influenza vaccines against pandemics such as the recently appeared H7N9 infection.
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Knockdown of glucose-regulated protein 78 abrogates chemoresistance of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells to cisplatin induced by unfolded protein in response to severe hypoxia.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Hypoxia renders tumor cells with reduced sensitivity and increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. One of the possible mechanisms underlying this unfavorable status is activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions, due to the upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression. GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein and a key regulator of the UPR, has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancer. However, the role of GRP78 in regulating the cell growth and apoptosis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells, with regard to the severity of hypoxia, remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and under what circumstances, GRP78 is associated with hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. For this purpose, cells from the FaDu human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions for different time periods. No significant changes in GRP78 and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) protein expression levels were revealed under moderately hypoxic conditions (oxygen concentration, 1%), but these levels were changed over time under severely hypoxic conditions (oxygen concentration, <0.02%). This indicated that severe hypoxia, rather than moderate hypoxia, leads to UPR activation in hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of GRP78 with short hairpin RNA inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis under severely hypoxic conditions, even with cisplatin treatment, indicating that GRP78 confers FaDu cells resistant to chemotherapy in response to severe hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of GRP78 resulted in a significant increase in CHOP and Bax expression levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 expression levels with simultaneous increase in the levels of apoptosis under severely hypoxic conditions. It was concluded that severe hypoxia leads to UPR activation and elevation of GRP78 expression, promoting cell survival and inducing chemoresistance. Silencing of GRP78 may block the pro-survival arm of UPR, simultaneously promoting proapoptotic signaling through induction of CHOP. Downregulation of GRP78 may be a promising strategy for overcoming the resistance of hypopharyngeal cancer to chemotherapy.
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?-Catenin regulates membrane potential in muscle cells by regulating the ?2 subunit of Na,K-ATPase.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Muscle ?-catenin has been shown to play a role in the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Our previous studies showed that muscle-specific conditional knockout of ?-catenin (HSA-?-cat(-/-) ) results in early postnatal death in mice. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of muscle cells from HSA-?-cat(-/-) and control mice, and found that, in the absence of muscle ?-catenin, the resting membrane potential (RMP) depolarised in muscle cells from the diaphragm, gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Furthermore, in a primary line of mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cells) transfected with small-interfering RNAs targeting ?-catenin, the RMP was depolarised as well. Finally, the expression levels of the ?2 subunit of sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase were reduced by ?-catenin knockdown in vitro or deletion in vivo. These results suggest a possible mechanism underlying the depolarised RMP in the absence of muscle ?-catenin, and provide additional evidence supporting a role for ?-catenin in the development of NMJs.
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The link between impaired theory of mind and executive function in children with cerebral palsy.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between theory of mind (ToM) deficits and executive function (EF) impairments in children with cerebral palsy (CP), 42 CP with children and 42 typically developing (TD) children, acting as controls, were assessed on the tasks of ToM (false belief and faux pas) and EF (inhibition, updating and shifting). Results showed that CP children had deficits both in ToM and EF tasks. The correlation analyses showed that two EF components (inhibition and updating) were strongly related to false belief and faux pas in both two groups. We also found correlation between shifting and false belief and faux pas. However, this correlation was only found in TD children and not in children with CP. These findings suggest that children with CP lag behind TD children in both ToM and EF. Further, the results reveal, interestingly, that ToM deficits in CP children might be related to their inhibition and updating impairments, but not to shifting impairments.
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Delta-like ligand 4: A predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-Notch signaling is important in tumor angiogenesis; however, the prognostic value of D114 detection in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether the presence of high Dll4 expression levels was correlated with poor prognosis in CCRCC following curative resection. The D114 expression levels in four paired samples of CCRCC tissues and adjacent normal renal tissues were assayed by western blotting. Surgical specimens comprised 121 CCRCC tissue samples and 65 normal renal tissue samples, obtained from patients with CCRCC. The specimens were immunohistochemically assessed to determine Dll4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression levels. The prognostic significance of Dll4 expression levels was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. The correlation between Dll4 expression levels and VEGFR-2 expression levels, tumor stage, tumor grade and metastasis, was examined by ?(2) test and multivariate logistic regression. As determined by the western blotting results, Dll4 protein expression levels were significantly increased in CCRCC tissues compared with those in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. From the analysis of the surgical specimens, 53 (43.8%) CCRCC patients exhibited immunohistochemically high Dll4 expression levels and 68 (56.2%) patients exhibited low Dll4 expression levels. The survival curves revealed that the patients with high Dll4 expression levels had significantly shorter survival times than the patients with low Dll4 expression levels (P<0.001). Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that the presence of high Dll4 expression levels was independently associated with reduced overall survival and progression-free survival times (P=0.021 and 0.034, respectively). A positive correlation was also identified between Dll4 and VEGFR-2 expression levels (P=0.001). In conclusion, the results show that the presence of high Dll4 expression levels was clearly associated with high VEGFR-2 expression levels, tumor grade, tumor stage and poor prognosis in CCRCC patients. Therefore, inhibition of Dll4 may exert potent growth inhibitory effects on tumors resistant to anti-VEGF therapies for CCRCC.
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Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs.
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Cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices reflected by event-related potentials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human voice is a gender discriminating cue and is important to mate selection. This study employed electrophysiological recordings to examine whether there is specific cerebral activity when presented with opposite-sex voices as compared to same-sex voices. Male voices and female voices were pseudo-randomly presented to male and female participants. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to determine the gender of each voice. A late positivity (LP) response around 750 ms after voice onset was elicited by opposite-sex voices, as reflected by a positive deflection of the ERP to opposite-sex voices than that to same-sex voices. This LP response was prominent around parieto-occipital recording sites, and it suggests an opposite-sex specific process, which may reflect emotion- and/or reward-related cerebral activity. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to press a key when hearing a non-voice pure tone and not give any response when they heard voice stimuli. In this task, no difference were found between the ERP to same-sex voices and that to opposite-sex voices, suggesting that the cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices may disappear without gender-related attention. These results provide significant implications on cognitive mechanisms with regard to opposite-sex specific voice processing.
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Clinical study of the hypothesis of endogenous collateral wind on acute coronary syndrome: a review.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), is a serious threat to people's health, and life, and in recent years, the incidence has increased yearly. This study was to propose the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine.
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Nanohybrids from NiCoAl-LDH coupled with carbon for pseudocapacitors: understanding the role of nano-structured carbon.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are one of the great potential electrode materials for pseudocapacitors. However, the aggregation and low conductivity of these metal compounds will constrain electrolyte ion and electron transfer and further affect their electrochemical performances. The nano-structured carbon coupled with the LDH matrix can act as an active component or conducting scaffold to enhance or improve the rate capacity and cycle life. Here, various nano-structured carbon species, including zero-dimensional carbon black (CB), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and CNT/RGO composites were used to couple with the NiCoAl-LDHs to construct LDH-carbon nanohybrid electrodes for pseudocapacitors, and the role of the nanostructured carbon was investigated and discussed in terms of the pore structure of nanohybrids and electrical conductivity. The results show that all of the carbons can be well incorporated into the LDH nanosheets to form homogeneous nanohybrid materials. The pore structure properties and electrical conductivity of nanohybrids have statistically significant effects on the electrochemical performances of the LDH-carbon nanohybrids. Of the electrodes adopted, the nanohybrid electrode consisting of NiCoAl-LDHs, CNTs, and RGO exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance as high as 1188 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the synergistic effect of NiCoAl-LDHs, RGO, and CNTs, in which the RGO nanosheets are favorable for high specific surface area while the CNT has a fast electron transport path for enhancing the electrical conductivity of nanohybrids. This will shed a new light on the effect of nano-structured carbon within the electrode matrix on the electrochemical activity and open a new way for the carbon-related electrode configuration/design for supercapacitors, and other energy storage and conversion devices.
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Relationship between female sex workers and gatekeeper: The impact on female sex workers mental health in China.
Psychol Health Med
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Global literature suggests that gatekeepers exert enormous influences on lives of female sex workers (FSWs). However, virtually no available studies have examined the FSW-gatekeeper relationship (F-G relationship) and its impact on FSWs mental health. The current study was conducted in 2008-2009 in two cities of southwest China. A total of 1022 FSW were recruited through community outreach from nine different types of commercial sex establishments. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to depict the association between F-G relationship and measures of FSWs mental health. Findings of the current study revealed that FSW with a close relationship with their gatekeepers reported a better mental health status. After adjusting for demographics and potential confounders of mental health, F-G relationship was positively associated with hopefulness (?? = .09, 95% CI = .01, .16), but negatively associated with perceived stigma (?? = -.25, 95% CI = -.44, -.07), suicidal intention or attempt (aOR = .90, 95% CI = .83, .99), and loneliness (?? = -.29, 95% CI = -.47, -.12). F-G relationship is an independent predictor of mental health of FSW over and above potential confounders including partner violence and substance use. Future health promotion programs targeting FSW need to recognize the role of gatekeepers in the life of FSW and engage them in a socially and legally acceptable way in safeguarding or improving mental health status of FSW in China.
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Apolipoprotein A-IV Reduces Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through the Nuclear Receptor NR1D1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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We recently showed that apoA-IV improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing pancreatic insulin secretion in the presence of elevated level of glucose. We therefore examined whether apoA-IV also regulates glucose metabolism through the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The ability of apoA-IV to lower gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production was measured in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type mice, and primary mouse hepatocytes. The transcriptional regulation of G6Pase and PEPCK by apoA-IV was determined by the luciferase activity assay. Using bacterial two-hybrid library screening, NR1D1 was identified as a putative apoA-IV-binding protein. The co-localization and interaction between apoA-IV and NR1D1 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay and co-immunopricipitation. Enhanced recruitment of NR1D1 and activity by apoA-IV to G6Pase promoter was verified with ChIP and luciferase assay. Down-regulation of apoA-IV on gluconeogenic genes is mediated through NR1D1 as illustrated in cells with NR1D1 knockdown by siRNA. We find that apoA-IV: 1) suppresses the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase in hepatocytes; 2) decreases hepatic glucose production; 3) binds and activates nuclear receptor NR1D1 and stimulates NR1D1 expression; and 4) in cells lacking NR1D1, fails to inhibit PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression; 5) higher hepatic glucose production and higher gluconeogenic gene expression in apoA-IV-/- mice. We conclude that apoA-IV inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by decreasing G6Pase and PEPCK gene expression through NR1D1. This novel regulatory pathway connects an influx of energy as fat from the gut (and subsequent apoA-IV secretion) with inhibition of hepatic glucose production.
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Sexual communication, safer sex self-efficacy, and condom use among young Chinese migrants in Beijing, China.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Mediation effect of sexual communication on the relationship between safer sex self-efficacy and condom use was tested among 307 homosexually active migrant men, 376 heterosexually active migrant men, and 265 heterosexually active migrant women. The study found certain aspects of sexual communication mediated the effect of self-efficacy on condom use among the three samples. The findings underscored the importance of including components that promote safer sex self-efficacy and sexual communication in HIV prevention interventions for Chinese migrants.
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The impact of parental HIV/AIDS on childrens cognitive ability in rural China.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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This study examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on childrens cognitive ability. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1625 children aged 6-18 years, including 755 AIDS orphans, 466 vulnerable children, and 404 comparison children in rural China. Participants completed measures of demographic information and the assessment of cognitive ability (verbal comprehension ability and perceptual reasoning ability). Results showed that the cognitive ability was lower among children affected by HIV/AIDS than comparison children. Double orphans living in kinship care performed better on verbal comprehension ability than children living in orphanage or group home, but not on perceptual reasoning ability. Older children (?15 years old) scored higher on verbal comprehension ability and younger children (?11 years old) scored higher on perceptual reasoning ability. Boys scored higher than girls on perceptual reasoning ability but not on verbal comprehension ability. Future studies should explore factors that may hinder the development of cognitive ability of children affected by HIV/AIDS and provide appropriate intervention in this regard.
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Alteration of the ERK5 pathway by hydroxysafflor yellow A blocks expression of MEF2C in activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro: Potential treatment for hepatic fibrogenesis.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Abstract Context: Hepatic fibrosis ultimately leads to cirrhosis if not treated effectively. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are a main mediator of hepatic fibrosis through the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Suppression activation of passaged HSC has been proposed as therapeutic strategies for the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active chemical compound derived from the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae), on HSC inhibition, and to begin elucidating underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: Primary HSCs were isolated from rats by in situ pronase/collagenase perfusion. Culture-activated HSCs were treated with or without HSYA at 30??M in the presence or absence of PD98059 for 48?h, and then cell proliferation was measured by MTS assays. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was quantified by polymerase chain reaction, and protein was quantified by Western blots or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: HSYA significantly inhibits culture-activated HSC proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 112.79??M. HSYA (30??M) induce the suppression of HSC activation, as indicated by decreases in contents of type I alpha collagen in HSC-cultured media and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin protein in culture-activated HSC by 55 and 71%, respectively. HSYA (30??M) also caused significant decreases in mRNA expression of type III alpha collagen in HSC by 28%. HSYA (30??M) suppresses myocyte enhancer factor 2?C (MEF2C) expression both at its mRNA and protein levels by 60 and 61%, respectively. Further study demonstrated that HSYA (30??M) caused significant decreases in p-ERK5 by 49%. Blocking extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) activity by XMD 8--92, an ERK5 inhibitor, markedly abrogated the inhibitive effects of HSYA on HSC activation, and blocked the HSYA-mediated MEF2C down-regulation. Conclusions: HSYA suppress HSC activation by ERK5-mediated MEF2C down-regulation and makes it a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrogenesis.
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Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSWs) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSWs, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSWs faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSWs to improve their psychological well-being.
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Ultrastructural pathology of rat lung injury induced by ischemic acute kidney injury.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication during inpatient hospitalization, and often induces acute lung injury (ALI). A lot of studies have concentrated on the relevance between AKI and ALI, but the underlying mechanisms of AKI- associated ALI have remained unclear until now. One reason is that evidence of the ultrastructural pathology of AKI-associated ALI has been scarce and needed to be accumulated. The aims of present study are to observe ultrastructural changes, and to reveal leukocyte trafficking of ALI induced by ischemic AKI in rats. For this purpose light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), as well as morphometric analysis, were employed in present study. LM observations revealed distinct regions of collapsed alveoli, hemorrhage in alveoli, and interstitial edema in AKI-induced ALI. EM examinations provided facts that alveolar epithelial cells, including type I and type II cells, were necrotic, and endothelia cells undergoing apoptosis as well as interstitial cells undergoing necroptosis were noted in AKI lungs. In addition, shrinkage and decreased or disappeared lamellar bodies were evident in alveolar type II cell of AKI rat lungs. Leukocyte numerical density on area (NA) in AKI lungs was significantly more than that in sham lungs. Based on the morphological criteria from EM examinations and morphometric analysis, a conclusion was that necrosis, including necroptosis, and apoptosis were involved in damaged lung induced by AKI. And inflammation also contributed to acute lung injury of rats with AKI.
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Extracurricular interest as a resilience building block for children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Parental illness and death due to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) impose challenges to childrens psychological adjustment. Positive psychology emphasizes individuals resilience in the face of adversity, trauma, and tragedy. Limited data are available regarding the factors that can cultivate resilience of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This study aims to examine the role of extracurricular interest in strengthening resilience among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Participants included 755 children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-positive parent(s), and 404 comparison children from HIV-free families in the same community in rural China. The measures include extracurricular interest (i.e., reading, sports, music, painting, science, and playing chess) and indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., depression, loneliness, and self-esteem). Having extracurricular interest was positively associated with self-esteem and negatively associated with depression and loneliness. Having extracurricular interest attenuated the negative effect of parental HIV/AIDS on childrens self-esteem and loneliness, after controlling for childrens age, gender, and family socioeconomic status. The findings underscore the importance of nurturing extracurricular interest and make available of such activities to promote resilience for children affected by HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.
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Do children orphaned by AIDS experience distress over time? A latent growth curve analysis of depressive symptoms.
Psychol Health Med
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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This longitudinal study aimed to examine the enduring effects of parental HIV/AIDS on childrens psychological well-being in Asia. A sample of 1625 children aged from 6 to 18 years old were assessed annually for their depressive symptoms over three years. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to examine the trajectories of depressive symptoms among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in comparison with children from HIV-free families. AIDS orphans demonstrated the highest initial level of depressive symptoms among the three groups. On average, childrens depressive symptoms scores can be expected to realize an approximate 25% decrease for AIDS orphans, 19% decrease for vulnerable children, and 15% decrease for comparison children over a three-year period. Individual differences within the groups showed that children with higher initial level of depressive symptoms can be expected to decrease slower over time. Multiple group LGCM showed that the three groups of children demonstrated significantly different trajectories of depressive symptoms. Among the key demographic factors, only age exerted an effect on the trajectory of depressive symptoms of vulnerable children, indicating that the younger children showed higher level of initial depressive symptoms and lower rate of decrease than the older children. The current study enriched our knowledge on the longitudinal effect of parental HIV/AIDS on childrens emotional distress. Future psychological support might take the childrens developmental stages and cultural appropriateness into consideration and deliver service for the most vulnerable group of children affected by HIV/AIDS.
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[Novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: targeting intervention on liver cancer stem cells].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignant tumors worldwide; it is also hard to prevent its metastasis and recurrence by traditional treatments. Up to now, how to prevent and treat HCC is still a challenging problem in clinic. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells within malignant tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and differentiate to lead to the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor, and are the root to cause metastasis, recurrence and bad prognosis of the cancer. Targeting CSCs is a novel therapeutic strategy for management and treatment of the cancer. In recent years, targeting intervention on liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) gradually became a novel strategy for HCC treatment, and some exciting research results in the treatment of HCC were also achieved. In this review, we introduce the biological characteristics of LCSCs and highlight the therapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting intervention on LCSCs.
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The effect of autophagy inhibitors on drug delivery using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles in cancer treatment.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers (NPs) have been widely used for drug delivery. However, there has been little research on their fate after internalized into the cells. We show in this research by using docetaxel as a model anticancer drug, which is formulated in the cholic acid conjugated nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA NPs) that the NPs induce autophagy of the cancer cells and thus may hinder the advantages of the nanomedicine. Moreover, we show both in vitro and in vivo that co-administration of autophagy inhibitors such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and Chloroquine (CQ) could greatly enhance the therapeutic effects of the nanoparticle formulation. The IC50 values of the drug formulated in the PLGA NPs after 24 h treatment with no autophagy inhibitor or in combination with 10 mm 3-MA or 30 ?m CQ are 38.27 ± 1.23, 6.7 ± 1.05, 4.78 ± 1.75 ?g/mL, which implie 5.7 or 8,0 fold efficient by the autophagy inhibition respectively. Moreover, both the volume and the weight of the shrunk tumor of the mice after 20 day treatment with the PLGA NPs formulation combined with 3-MA or CQ are found to be only about a half in comparison with the treatment with the PLGA NPs formulation alone. In this research, we reported such a new mechanism of cancer cells to have PLGA NPs captured and degraded by auto-lysosomes. The findings provide advanced knowledge for development of nanomedicine for clinical application.
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Similarity of relationship standards, couple communication patterns, and marital satisfaction among Chinese couples.
J Fam Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Prior research has indicated that partners standards for their couple relationships are associated with their levels of marital satisfaction, both in terms of similarity between standards and the degree to which partners are able to resolve differences in their standards constructively. However, little is known about processes through which couples effectively cope with conflicting relationship standards. Furthermore, most research on relationship standards has been conducted in Western countries, and there is a need for more information about the role of this form of cognition in Asian and other cultures. In the present study, relationship standards and communication patterns were examined in relation to marital satisfaction among 297 community couples in a northern city in mainland China. Results indicated that the similarity of relationship standards of members of real couples was significantly higher than randomly matched male-female pairs. A hypothesized conceptual model predicting marital satisfaction from partners similarity of relationship standards and communication patterns was tested using structural equation modeling. Similarity of relationship standards can affect couples marital satisfaction indirectly, through perceived communication patterns. The interdependence between husbands and wives aspects of relationship functioning also are examined and discussed.
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Production and immunogenicity of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the spike (S1) glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses a severe threat to poultry industry and causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective ways of preventing the infection and controlling the spread of IBV, but the currently available inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines have some disadvantages. We have developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine for IBV protection. The chimeric VLP was composed of M1 protein from avian influenza H5N1 virus and a fusion protein NA/S1 that was generated by fusing IBV S1 protein to the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of NA protein of avian influenza H5N1 virus. The chimeric VLPs elicited significant higher S1-specific antibody responses in intramuscularly immunized mice and chickens than inactivated IBV viruses. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs induced significantly higher neutralization antibody levels than inactivated H120 virus in SPF chickens. In addition, the chimeric VLPs induced significantly higher IL-4 production in mice. These results demonstrated that the chimeric VLPs have the potential for further development of vaccines against IBV infection.
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Evidences for the existence of intermolecular disulfide-bonded oligomers in the H3 hemagglutinins expressed in insect cells.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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The hemagglutinin (HA) protein as the predominant antigen, executes receptor binding and membrane fusion, which critically influence the virological characteristics of influenza viruses. The literature contained scattered data showing reduction-sensitive HA oligomers when HA proteins were analyzed under non-reducing conditions. However, whether the reduction-sensitive HA oligomers are inter-monomer disulfide-bonded has not been studied. Here, we showed: (1) the detection of ?-mercaptoethanol-sensitive H3 HA oligomers was not affected by the treatment of cells with iodoacetamide prior to cell solubilization; (2) H3 HA oligomers were present on cell surfaces; (3) H3 HA oligomers had higher density than monomers; and (4) mutation of all the five C-terminal cysteines completely abolished the formation of H3 HA oligomers. Furthermore, mutant HAs with mutations of TM cysteines, CT cysteines or all five cysteines had decreased thermal stability but increased fusion activity in comparison with wildtype HA. In conclusion, this study has presented enough evidence for the existence of inter-monomer S-S H3 HA oligomers formed by five C-terminal cysteines, and suggested that all five C-terminal cysteines exerted opposite effects on HA thermal stability and fusion activity.
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Varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses in 50-59-year-old recipients of zoster vaccine.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Prevaccination and 6-week postvaccination samples from the immunogenicity substudy (n = 2269) of the zoster vaccine (ZV) efficacy trial (N = 22 439) in 50-59-year-old subjects were examined for varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses to vaccination. The varicella-zoster virus geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise were higher in ZV recipients than in placebo recipients (GMT, 660.0 vs 293.1 glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL [P < .001], respectively; geometric mean fold rise, 2.31 vs 1.00 [P < .025]). In each group there was a strong inverse correlation between postvaccination GMT and risk of subsequent herpes zoster. Although these data provide strong evidence that relates ZV-induced antibody and the risk of herpes zoster, a protective threshold was not determined. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248.
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