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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus may evolve under the pressure of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and member of the Picornaviridae family. An effective live-attenuated poliovirus vaccine strain (Sabin 1) has been developed and has protected humans from polio. However, a few cases of vaccine virulence reversion have been documented in several countries. For instance, circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus is a highly pathogenic poliovirus that evolved from an avirulent strain, but the mechanism by which vaccine strains undergo reversion remains unclear. In this study, vaccine strains exhibited A to G/U to C and G to A/C to U hypermutations in the reversed evolution of Sabin 1. Furthermore, the mutation ratios of U to C and C to U were higher than those of other mutation types. Dinucleotide editing context was then analyzed. Results showed that A to G and U to C mutations exhibited preferences similar to adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR). Hence, ADARs may participate in poliovirus vaccine evolution.
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Bioinformatics analysis and genetic diversity of the Poliovirus.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Poliomyelitis, a disease which the major manifestation is muscle paralysis, is caused by poliovirus. Poliovirus is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae and usually transmits by the faecal-oral route. The virus of OPV (oral poliovirus attenuated-live vaccine) strains can mutate in the human intestine during replication. Some mutations may lead to the recovery of serious neurovirulence. Informatics research regarding the poliovirus genome can further explain the characteristics of this virus. In this study, 100 poliomyelitis sequences were downloaded from Genbank. To determine the evolutionary relationship between strains, we compared and analyzed the complete genome and VP1 sequences. Results indicated that the genetic relationship of the whole genome and VP1 sequences related to distribution was very similar. The phylogenetic tree of the complete sequence and VP1 was further divided into two branches. This branching indicated that the virulence and pathogenicity of poliomyelitis may be associated with VP1. The VP1 region was then subjected to sequence alignment, revealing numerous mutation sites, where a mutation rate of >30% was detected. A group of strains was recorded in the USA; in these strains, mutation sites and types were the same and may be associated with distribution in the evolutionary tree and relationships to some degree. In conclusion, the results showed that the genetic evolutionary relationship of poliovirus was determined by the VP1 protein to a great extent and the strains, which were located on the same branch, contained the same mutation spots and types. Hence, the genetic characteristics of the VP1 region in a poliovirus genome should be analyzed to identify the transmission route of poliovirus and provide the basis of viral immunity development.
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Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) deficiency exacerbates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction by inhibiting Beclin-1 dependent autophagy pathway.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) was demonstrated to play cardioprotective roles in cardiovascular diseases. Nonetheless, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of ALDH2 in pressure overload-induced cardiac damages. In this study, we revealed that ALDH2 deficiency overtly exacerbated transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiomyocyte enlargement was observed in both WT and ALDH2-/- mice in HE-stained myocardial tissue samples at 8weeks post TAC surgery. Mitochondrial morphology and structure were also significantly damaged post TAC surgery and the changes were aggravated in ALDH2-/- TAC hearts. ALDH2 deficiency also depressed myocardial autophagy in hearts at 8weeks post TAC surgery with a potential mechanism of repressing the expression of Beclin-1 and promoting the interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1. These data indicate that ALDH2 deficiency exacerbates the pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction partly by inhibiting Beclin-1 dependent autophagy pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases.
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Liposomes containing recombinant gp85 protein vaccine against ALV-J in chickens.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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To study the potential of liposome vaccines in the clinical prevention of ALV-J, the effect of recombinant gp85 protein of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) entrapped by liposomes in chickens against ALV-J infection was investigated in this paper. A recombinant plasmid (PET28a-gp85) containing the PET28a vector and gp85 gene was constructed and then expressed in Rosetta (DE3) cells with 0.5mM IPTG to produce recombinant gp85 proteins that could be entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. The chickens were inoculated intramuscularly either once or twice with the liposomes or with Freund's adjuvant emulsion containing recombinant gp85 protein. Sixty chickens were raised to one week old for the first inoculation and to three weeks old for the second inoculation. Chickens raised to five weeks old were challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of ALV-J. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at weekly intervals for serum antibody and viremia analyses. Changes in serum antibodies showed that positive serum antibodies (S/P value >0.6) could be induced in all groups regardless of the frequency of inoculation but improved significantly in the twice-inoculated groups. As well, high levels of antibodies emerged earlier in the Freund's adjuvant groups but persisted longer in the liposome groups. Detection of viremia indicated that the liposomes provide better protection against ALV-J than Freund's adjuvant emulsion and that this protection is directly influenced by serum antibody levels. Overall, this study reveals the potential of liposome vaccines containing recombinant gp85 protein in the clinical prevention of ALV-J.
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The comparison of immune-enhancing activity of sulfated polysaccharidses from Tremella and Condonpsis pilosula.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Based on our previous research, four sulfated polysaccharide (sPSs) from Tremella and Condonpsis pilosula, sTPStp, sTPS70c, sCPPStp and sCPPS50c, were prepared and their effects on splenic lymphocytes proliferation in vitro and the immune response of ND vaccine in chicken were compared taking the unmodified polysaccharide (uPS) TPStp as control. The results showed that four sPSs could significantly or numerically stimulate splenic lymphocyte proliferation singly or synergistically with LPS in vitro, sTPS70c and sCPPStp demonstrated better effect; promote peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and enhance serum HI antibody titer in chickens vaccinated with ND vaccine, the actions of sPSs were stronger than that of uPS, and sTPS70c at medium dosage presented the best efficacy. These indicated that sulfation modification could improve the immune-enhancing activity of TPS and CPPS, sTPS70c possessed the strongest activity and would be expected as a component of new-type immunopotentiator.
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Optimization on preparation condition of epimedium polysaccharide liposome and evaluation of its adjuvant activity.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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The aim of this strategy was to investigate whether the adjuvant activity of epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) could be further enhanced after encapsulated with liposome. In preparation of EPS liposome (EPSL) test, an orthogonal L(9) (3(4)) test design was used to optimize the preparation condition of EPSL. In adjuvant activity test, 350 14-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to 7 groups and vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. Simultaneously, the chickens in experimental groups were injected with EPSL at three doses, EPS and blank liposome, respectively. The activity of lymphocytes proliferation, titer of serum antibody and concentrations of cytokines were determined. Results showed that the optimal preparation condition of EPSL was that ratio of drug to lipid, ratio of soybean phospholipid to cholesterol, ultrasonic time, and water bath temperature were 1:30, 4:1, 10 min and 40°C, respectively. EPSL could significantly enhance the immune response of ND vaccine and promote cytokines secretion, and its high dose possessed the best efficacy. These findings indicated that liposome encapsulation could significantly improve the adjuvant activity of EPS.
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Highly diastereoselective vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction of ?-keto phosphonates with 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan catalyzed by Cu(OTf)2.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The diastereospecific formation of ?-hydroxyalkylbutenolide phosphonate has been achieved via a vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction. The reaction was performed using ?-ketophosphonate 1 and 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan 2 mediated by Cu(OTf)(2) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol as additive in CH(2)Cl(2). The reaction proceeds rapidly and affords the corresponding 5-(hydroxy(aryl)methyl) furan-2(5H)-one phosphonates 3 in high yields with good to excellent diastereoselectivities (d.r. up to >99?:?1). 5-(Hydroxy(alkyl)methyl)furan-2(5H)-one phosphonates could also be obtained with good diastereoselectivities.
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Optimization of sulfated modification conditions of tremella polysaccharide and effects of modifiers on cellular infectivity of NDV.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Based on our previous research, sulfated modification conditions of Tremella polysaccharide (TPS), the chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine (CSA-Pry) ratio, reaction temperature and time, were optimized by L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design taking the yield and degree of sulfation (DS) of modifiers as indexes. Two TPSs, TPS(tp) and TPS(70c), were modified under optimized conditions. The effects of two modifiers, sTPS(tp) and sTPS(70c), on cellular infectivity of NDV were determined by MTT method taking the non-modified TPS(tp), TPS(tc) and TPS(70c) as controls. The results showed that the optimized modification conditions were reaction temperature of 80°C, CSA-Pry ratio of 1:6 and reaction time of 1.5h. Five polysaccharides at proper concentrations could significantly inhibit the infectivity of NDV to CEF. The virus inhibitory rates of sTPS(tp) at 1.563 ?g mL(-1) group were the highest and significantly higher than those of other three non-modified polysaccharide groups in three sample-adding modes. This indicated that sulfated modification could significantly improve the antiviral activity of TPS. sTPS(tp) possessed the best efficacy and would be as a component of antiviral polysaccharide drug.
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Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV and improve the curative effect of ND in chicken.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF-PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF-PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP-PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP-PE), were prepared and their antiviral effects were compared. In test in vitro, the four prescriptions within safety concentration scope and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultured chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) in three modes, pre-, post-adding drug and simultaneous-adding drug and virus after being mixed, the cellular A(570) values were determined by MTT method and the highest virus inhibitory rates were calculated to compare the antiviral activity of four prescriptions. In test in vivo, three hundred 21-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups and challenged with NDV except for blank control group. After 24h the chickens in four prescription groups were injected with corresponding drugs respectively, in virus control and blank control groups, with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 3, 7 and 14 after challenge, the serum antibody titer was determined. On day 15 after challenge, the mortality, morbidity and cure rate in every group were counted. The results showed that the most of A(570) values in EP-PF group were numberly or significantly larger than those of the corresponding virus control group and the highest virus inhibitory rates of EP-PF at optimal concentration group were the highest among four prescription groups in three drug-adding modes, which confirmed that EP-PF could significantly inhibit the infectivity of NDV to CEF, its action was stronger than those of other three prescriptions; in EP-PF group, the antibody titers and cure rate were the highest and the mortality and morbidity were lowest presenting numberly or significantly differences in comparison with other three prescription groups. These results indicated that epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone possessed synergistical action, EP-PF prescription could significantly inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV, improve the curative effect of ND in chicken and would be expected to exploit into a new-type antiviral drug.
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Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically stimulate lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and enhance the immune responses to ND vaccine in chickens.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF-PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF-PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP-PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP-PE), were prepared and their immune-enhancing effects were compared. In test in vitro, the effects of them on chicken peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were determined by MTT method. The results showed that EP-PF group presented the highest stimulating index at most concentrations. In immune test, 300 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into six groups and vaccinated with ND vaccine except for blank control (BC) group, re-challenged at 28 days of age. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in four experimental groups were injected, respectively, with four prescriptions. The changes of the lymphocyte proliferation and antibody titer were determined. On day 28 after the first vaccination, the chickens except for BC group were challenged with NDV, the immune protective effect was observed. The results displayed that in EP-PF group, the antibody titers, lymphocyte proliferation and protective rate were the highest, the morbidity and mortality were the lowest. In dose test, 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The treatment and determinations were the same as the immune test except that the chickens in experimental groups were injected, respectively, with high, medium and low doses of EP-PF. The results revealed that in medium dose group, the antibody titers, lymphocyte proliferation and protective rate were the highest, the morbidity and mortality were the lowest. These results indicated that EP and PF possessed synergistically immune enhancement, EP-PF had the best efficacy, especially at medium dose, and would be expected to exploit into a new-type immunopotentiator.
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Astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine can synergistically improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Three hundred and sixty 14-day-old chickens were divided into seven groups. The chickens, except for blank control group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three astragalus polysaccharide-oxymatrine (AP-OM) groups were orally administrated respectively with the mixture of AP-OM at high, medium and low concentrations, in astragalus polysaccharide (AP) group and oxymatrine (OM) group, with corresponding medicine, in non-medicine (NM) control group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for 3 successive days. On 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after the first vaccination, the changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers of the chickens were determined by MTT method and hemagglutination inhibition test. On 14, 28 and 42 days after the first vaccination, the serum IL-2 concentration was determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results showed that at most time points, the lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers and IL-2 concentrations of 5 medicine-administrating groups were significantly higher than that of corresponding NM group. At some time points, the lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers and IL-2 concentrations in high and medium doses of AP-OM groups were significantly or numberly higher than those in AP group and OM group. It indicated that AP-OM could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine possessed synergistical immunoenhancement.
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. After purification, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs), sLBPS(0.7), sLBPS(1.1), sLBPS(1.5) and sLBPS(1.9), were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method respectively at four designed modification conditions. Four sLBPSs at 5 concentrations, within the safety concentration scope, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivating system of chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) respectively in three modes, pre- and post-adding polysaccharide and simultaneous adding polysaccharide and virus after being mixed. The effects of sLBPSs on cellular infectivity of NDV were assayed by MTT method taking the non-modified LBPS as control. The results showed that sLBPS(1.5), sLBPS(1.9) and sLBPS(1.1) in three sample-adding modes, sLBPS(0.7) in simultaneous adding after being mixed could significantly inhibit the infectivity of NDV to CEF. The viral inhibitory rate of sLBPS(1.5) in pre- and simultaneous adding and sLBPS(1.9) in post-adding was the highest. Non-modified LBPS did not present significant effect in any sample-adding mode. These results indicated that sulfated modification could significantly enhance the antiviral activity of LBPS, which was correlated with the degree of sulfation (DS) of sLBPS. sLBPS(1.5) and sLBPS(1.9) possessed better activity and would be as the compositions of antiviral prescription.
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Controlled synthesis of polylactides using biogenic creatinine carboxylate initiators.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Two biogenetic guanidine carboxylates, i.e., creatinine acetate (CRA) and creatinine glycolate (CRG) based on creatinine (CR) were synthesized and structurally characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the single crystals. The characterization demonstrated that CRA and CRG are CR-guanidinium carboxylates in nature, and the carboxylates are associated with the guanidinium via hydrogen bonds. CRA and CRG were successfully used as single-component initiators for ring-opening polymerizations (ROPs) of l-lactide (LLA), dl-lactide (DLLA) producing polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities (PDI = 1.16-1.26). The investigation on the kinetics of the ROPs indicated the typical characteristics of living polymerization as evidenced by the linear relationship of ln [M](0)/[M](t) versus time and M(n) (number-average molecular weight of formed polymer) versus monomer conversion. A study of the terminator-adding effect on the growing polymers revealed that the polymerization follows the coordination propagation mode. The structures of the living oligomers and product polymers were characterized with (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The mechanism of the polymerization was proposed on the basis of the experimental investigation.
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Sulfated modification can enhance the adjuvanticity of lentinan and improve the immune effect of ND vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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The purpose of this research is to study the effect of sulfated lentinan (sLNT) on immune effect of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. In immune response test, 14-day-old chickens were vaccinated with ND vaccine then grouped respectively to inject three sLNTs at two doses, once a day for three successive days, taking non-sulfated lentinan (LNT) as the control. The changes of serum antibody titer and peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were determined before and after vaccination. In immune protection test, 35-day-old chickens were challenged with ND virus (NDV) after treated similar to above mentioned. The morbidity and mortality of chickens were observed, and the changes of serum antibody titer and peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were measured before and after challenge. The results showed that three modified sLNTs could significantly enhance serum antibody titer and promote lymphocyte proliferation in two experimental chickens, and reduce morbidity and mortality of chickens challenged with NDV, which were better than that of non-modified LNT. Their high doses in enhancing antibody titer and low doses in promoting lymphocyte proliferation were more preferable. These results indicated that sulfated modification could enhance the adjuvanticity of LNT and improve the immune effect of ND vaccine. sLNT(2) possessed the best efficacy and would be expected as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant.
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Adjuvanticity of compound polysaccharides on chickens against Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccine.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of compound polysaccharides (cPS) on the immune responses via chicken models. First, in screening experiment, a comprehensive analysis for immunomodulatory activity of four cPSs, including Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS), sulfated APS (sAPS) and sulfated EPS (sEPS), was performed in vitro and in vivo. APS-sEPS was picked out having the best effect on lymphocyte proliferation and raising the antibody titers. Therefore, the adjuvanticities of APS-sEPS on Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccine were further validated. Chickens were administrated with ND or AI vaccines containing APS-sEPS of 150, 100 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, taking oil adjuvant vaccine as control. It was observed ND or AI antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 100 mg/kg of APS-sEPS. In conclusion, appropriate dose of APS-sEPS may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate suitable for vaccines.
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Scutellaria polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
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To select the anti-viral active site of Scutellaria polysaccharide (SPS), safe concentrations of crude total Scutellaria polysaccharide (SPSt ), and fractional polysaccharide SPS50 , SPS60 , SPS70 , and SPS80 on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) were first compared using the MTT method. Then, SPSt , SPS50 , SPS60 , SPS70 , and SPS80 at five concentrations within the safe concentration, together with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), were added into the cultivating system of CEF in three models: pre-adding polysaccharide, post-adding polysaccharide, and simultaneous adding polysaccharides and NDV after mixing. The effects of SPS on the cellular infectivity of NDV (the A570 value and the highest viral inhibitory rate) were compared using the MTT method.
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