Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA's toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.
The need for mechanistic understanding of nonmonotonic dose responses has been identified as one of the major data gaps in the study of bisphenol A (BPA). Previously we reported that acute exposure to BPA promotes arrhythmogenesis in female hearts through alteration of myocyte Ca(2+) handling, and that the dose response of BPA was inverted U-shaped.
Previously we showed that bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptor, rapidly altered Ca(2+) handling and promoted arrhythmias in female rat hearts. The underlying molecular mechanism was not known. Here we examined the cardiac-specific signaling mechanism mediating the rapid impact of low-dose BPA in female rat ventricular myocytes. We showed that protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling pathways are the two major pathways activated by BPA. Exposure to 1 nM BPA rapidly increased production of cAMP and rapidly but transiently increased the phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptors by PKA but not by CAMKII. BPA also rapidly increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), a key regulator protein of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake, by CAMKII but not PKA. The increase in CAMKII phosphorylation of PLN was mediated by phospholipase C and inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release, likely from the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) storage. These two pathways are likely localized, impacting only their respective target proteins. The rapid impacts of BPA on ryanodine receptors and PLN phosphorylation were mediated by estrogen receptor-? but not estrogen receptor-?. BPAs rapid signaling in cardiac myocytes did not involve activation of ERK1/2. Functional analysis showed that PKA but not CAMKII activation contributed to BPA-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak, and both PKA and CAMKII were necessary contributors to the stimulatory effect of BPA on arrhythmogenesis. These results provide mechanistic insight into BPAs rapid proarrhythmic actions in female cardiac myocytes and contribute to the assessment of the consequence and potential cardiac toxicity of BPA exposure.
A human genetic variant (Ser96Ala) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) histidine-rich Ca(2+)-binding (HRC) protein has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the precise mechanisms affecting SR function and leading to arrhythmias remain elusive.
Among its many biological roles, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) acutely protects the heart from dysfunction associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this is due to the activity of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoform of FGF2 and that FGF2-mediated cardioprotection relies on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); however, which PKC isoforms are responsible for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotection, and their downstream targets, remain to be elucidated. To identify the PKC pathway(s) that contributes to postischemic cardiac recovery by LMW FGF2, mouse hearts expressing only LMW FGF2 (HMWKO) were bred to mouse hearts not expressing PKC? (PKC?KO) or subjected to a selective PKC? inhibitor (?V(1-2)) before and during I/R. Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 showed significantly improved postischemic recovery of cardiac function following I/R (P < 0.05), which was significantly abrogated in the absence of PKC? (P < 0.05) or presence of PKC? inhibition (P < 0.05). Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 demonstrated differences in actomyosin ATPase activity as well as increases in the phosphorylation of troponin I and T during I/R compared with wild-type hearts; several of these effects were dependent on PKC? activity. This evidence indicates that both PKC? and PKC? play a role in LMW FGF2-mediated protection from cardiac dysfunction and that PKC? signaling to the contractile apparatus is a key step in the mechanism of LMW FGF2-mediated protection against myocardial dysfunction.
Probenecid is a highly lipid soluble benzoic acid derivative originally used to increase serum antibiotic concentrations. It was later discovered to have uricosuric effects and was FDA approved for gout therapy. It has recently been found to be a potent agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2). We have shown that this receptor is in the cardiomyocyte and report a positive inotropic effect of the drug. Using echocardiography, Langendorff and isolated myocytes, we measured the change in contractility and, using TRPV2(-/-) mice, proved that the effect was mediated by TRPV2 channels in the cardiomyocytes. Analysis of the expression of Ca(2+) handling and ?-adrenergic signaling pathway proteins showed that the contractility was not increased through activation of the ?-ADR. We propose that the response to probenecid is due to activation of TRPV2 channels secondary to SR release of Ca(2+).
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