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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.
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[Establishment and application of quantitative detection for heteroplasmic mtDNA mutation 3243A?G].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To develop a rapid, simple, cost-effective, accurate and sensitive method for quantitative detection of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 3243A?G mutation in order to provide reference for selecting the best detection method under different conditions.
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Effect of the hope FT-B1 allele on wheat heading time and yield components.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Precise regulation of flowering time is critical for plant reproductive success and, in cereals, to maximize grain yields. Seasonal cues including temperature and day length are integrated to regulate the timing of flowering. In temperate cereals, extended periods of cold (vernalization) release the repression of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1), which is upregulated in the leaves in response to inductive long-day photoperiods. FT1 is a homolog of rice HD3a, which encodes a protein transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering. A rare FT-B1 allele from the wheat variety "Hope" has been previously shown to be associated with an early flowering phenotype under long-day photoperiods. Here, we demonstrate that the Hope FT-B1 allele accelerates flowering even under short days, and that it is epistatic to the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) gene. On average, the introgression of Hope FT-B1 into 6 genetic backgrounds resulted in 2.6 days acceleration of flowering (P<0.0001) and 4.1% increase in spike weight (P=0.0093), although in one variety, it was associated with a decrease in spike weight. These results suggest that the Hope FT-B1 allele could be useful in wheat breeding programs to subtly accelerate floral development and increase adaptation to changing environments.
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Measuring the damage of heavy metal cadmium in rice seedlings by SRAP analysis combined with physiological and biochemical parameters.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most poisonous pollutants, and Cd pollution has become the limiting factor of rice production and quality improvement. Therefore it is of significant importance to monitor Cd toxicity by the detection of Cd contamination in rice with biomarkers. In the present study, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and physiological and biochemical methods were applied to determine the toxicological effects of Cd stress on rice.
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Novel functional variants locus in PLCE1 and susceptibility to digestive tract cancer in the Chinese population: A meta-analysis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Three large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a shared susceptibility variation phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) rs2274223 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and/or gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA) in the Chinese population. However, the association between PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G and the risk of digestive tract cancer (DTC) has been inconsistent. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to derive a more precise estimation of the association between PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G and DTC risk. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies of PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and DTC risk. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of associations in fixed or random effect models. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. A total of 15 case-control studies were identified, including 29,805 cases and 32,225 controls. Overall, we found a statistically significant association between the PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism and DTC risk (G vs A: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.17-1.43; GA vs AA: OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18-1.51; GG vs AA: OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.26-2.32; GG/GA vs AA: OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.17-1.51), but the recessive model did not reach statistical significance (GG vs GA/AA: OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.63-1.42). In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, we observed a significant risk for DTC in the ESCC and GCA subgroups. When stratified for source of controls, the results of the population-based subgroup analysis showed that the variant G allele might generally induce a significantly increased risk of DTC, except in hospital-based subgroups. In conclusion, PLCE1 rs2274223 polymorphism may be used as a potential biomarker for DTC susceptibility particularly for ESCC and GCA in the Chinese population.
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A regularized approach for geodesic-based semisupervised multimanifold learning.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Geodesic distance, as an essential measurement for data dissimilarity, has been successfully used in manifold learning. However, most geodesic distance-based manifold learning algorithms have two limitations when applied to classification: 1) class information is rarely used in computing the geodesic distances between data points on manifolds and 2) little attention has been paid to building an explicit dimension reduction mapping for extracting the discriminative information hidden in the geodesic distances. In this paper, we regard geodesic distance as a kind of kernel, which maps data from linearly inseparable space to linear separable distance space. In doing this, a new semisupervised manifold learning algorithm, namely regularized geodesic feature learning algorithm, is proposed. The method consists of three techniques: a semisupervised graph construction method, replacement of original data points with feature vectors which are built by geodesic distances, and a new semisupervised dimension reduction method for feature vectors. Experiments on the MNIST, USPS handwritten digit data sets, MIT CBCL face versus nonface data set, and an intelligent traffic data set show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Rheum tanguticum (Dahuang) in China.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Wild Rheum tanguticum (Dahuang in Chinese) has becoming endangered in China. This study aims to examine the genetic structure and genetic diversity of R. tanguticum within species, and the genetic differentiation within and among populations in China.
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The significance of Exo1 K589E polymorphism on cancer susceptibility: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The exonuclease1 (Exo1) gene is a key component of mismatch repair (MMR) by resecting the damaged strand, which is the only exonuclease involved in the human MMR system. The gene product is a member of the RAD2 nuclease family and functions in DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, whether Exo1 is required to activate MMR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) remains unknown, the conclusions of the Exo1 polymorphisms on cancer susceptibility studies were not consistent. We carried out a meta-analysis of 7 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Exo1 K589E polymorphism and cancer risk. Overall,a significant association of the Exo1 K589E polymorphism with cancer risk in all genetic models (Lys vs Glu: OR?=?1.51, 95%CI:1.39-1.99, P<0.01; Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P<0.01; Lys/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?2.45, 95%CI:1.90-3.17, P<0.01; Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?1.53, 95%CI:1.38-1.71, P<0.01; Glu/Glu vs Glu/Lys+Lys/Lys: OR?=? 2.27, 95%CI:1.79-2.89, P<0.01). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was observed in Asian population (Lys vs Glu: OR?=?1.53, 95%CI:1.39-1.69, P<0.01; Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?1.50, 95%CI:1.34-1.69, P<0.01; Lys/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?2.48, 95%CI:1.84-3.34, P<0.01; Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?1.58, 95%CI:1.41-1.78, P<0.01; Glu/Glu vs Glu/Lys+Lys/Lys: OR?=?2.18, 95%CI:1.62-2.93, P<0.01). Subgroup analysis based on smoking suggested Exo1 K589E polymorphism conferred significant risk among smokers (Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?2.16, 95%CI:1.77-2.63, P<0.01), but not in non-smokers (Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR?=?0.89, 95%CI:0.64-1.24, P?=?0.50). In conclusion, Exo1 K589E Lys allele may be used as a novel biomarker for cancer susceptibility, particularly in smokers.
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The effect of MUC1 rs4072037 functional polymorphism on cancer susceptibility: evidence from published studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified a susceptibility variation MUC1 rs4072037 for gastric cancer in Chinese population. Subsequent case-control studies have reported this association in other populations. However, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. The aim of this study is to provide a precise quantification for the association between MUC1 rs4072037 variation and the risk of cancer. We performed pooled analysis of 10 case-control designed studies including 4,220 cases and 6,384 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to assess strength of association in overall studies and in subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity and cancer types. All statistical analyses were performed by Manager 5.0 and Stata 12.0 software. Overall, the MUC1 rs4072037 polymorphism was associated with risk of cancer in all genetic models (G vs A: OR?=?0.71, 95%CI: 0.63-0.80, p<0.01; GA vs AA: OR?=?0.61, 95%CI:0.55-0.67, p<0.01; GG vs AA: OR?=?0.58, 95%CI: 0.47-0.71, p<0.01; AG+AA vs GG: OR?=?0.60, 95%CI: 0.55-0.60, p<0.01; GG vs AG+AA: OR?=?0.70, 95%CI: 0.58-0.85, p<0.01). Further, subgroup analysis based on ethnicity suggested MUC1 rs4072037 polymorphism had a subtly reduced cancer risk among Asian population, and stratified analysis by cancer types showed significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer in all genetic models. In conclusion, MUC1 rs4072037 polymorphism may be used as potential biomarker for cancer susceptibility particularly for gastric cancer and for Asian population.
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ERK MAP kinase activation in spinal cord regulates phosphorylation of Cdk5 at serine 159 and contributes to peripheral inflammation induced pain/hypersensitivity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase and its activity participates in the regulation of nociceptive signaling. Like binding with the activators (P35 or P25), the phosphorylation of Cdk5 plays a critical role in Cdk5 activation. However, it is still unclear whether Cdk5 phosphorylation (p-Cdk5) contributes to pain hyperalgesia. The aim of our current study was to identify the roles of p-Cdk5 and its upstream regulator in response to peripheral inflammation. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection induced acute peripheral inflammation and heat hyperalgesia, which was accompanied by sustained increases in phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phospho-Cdk5(S159) (p-Cdk5(S159)) in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). CFA-induced p-ERK primarily colocalized with p-Cdk5(S159) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Levels in p-ERK and p-Cdk5 were also increased in the 2(nd) phase of hyperalgesia induced by formalin injection, which can produce acute and tonic inflammatory pain. MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126 intrathecal delivery significantly suppressed the elevation of p-Cdk5(S159), Cdk5 activity and pain response behavior (Heat hyperalgesia, Spontaneous flinches) induced by CFA or formalin injection. Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine intrathecal administration also suppressed CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia and Cdk5 phosphorylation, but did not attenuate ERK activation. All these findings suggested that p-Cdk5(S159) regulated by ERK pathway activity may be a critical mechanism involved in the activation of Cdk5 in nociceptive spinal neurons contributes to peripheral inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.
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Surgical incision-induced nociception causes cognitive impairment and reduction in synaptic NMDA receptor 2B in mice.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.
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Selection and dynamic metabolic response of rat biomarkers by metabonomics and multivariate statistical analysis combined with GC-MS.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Depression is a common complex psychiatric disorder but its pathophysiological mechanism is not yet fully understood. Metabonomics by GC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis were used to select potential biomarkers associated with CUMS (chronic unpredictable mild stress) depression. The dynamic metabolic changes in rat serum were investigated to find potential disease biomarkers and to investigate the pathology of depression induced by the CUMS depression model. The changes in behavior and serum metabolic profiles were investigated during a three-week CUMS exposure. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21, and the serum metabolic profiling was carried out using GC-MS, followed by multivariate analysis. The potential biomarkers were screened from metabolites by principal component analysis and correlation analysis. The peak area of potential biomarkers was used to identify changes in depression in rats and describe their dynamics. Exposure to CUMS for three weeks caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in weight gain, sucrose consumption, ambulation number and rearing numbers. Six potential biomarkers in serum, including glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), fructose, citric acid, glucose and hexadecanoic acid, were subjected to screening by metabonomics and multivariate statistical analysis. It was found that fructose, glucose and Gly were increased in the model group, while hexadecanoic acid, Glu and citric acid were reduced in the model group. According to the results of principal component analysis and correlation analysis, the correlation coefficient between the behavior scores and potential biomarkers in serum were all more than 0.9. This result suggests that the progression of depression may be associated with perturbation of glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. Gly, Glu, fructose, citric acid, glucose and hexadecanoic acid appear to be suitable quantitative diagnostic biomarkers for depression. The representative and unique nature of these biomarkers needs to be verified by pharmacological experiments, including molecular pharmacology investigations of enzymes or genes.
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Loss of caveolin-1 promotes endothelial-mesenchymal transition during sepsis: a membrane proteomic study.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that reflects an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response to microbial infections. Endothelial cells, which are highly responsive to their extracellular environment, are the primary targets of sepsis-induced damage. Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), characterized by loss of endothelial cell markers and gain of mesenchymal cell markers, contributes to embryonic cardiac formation as well as development of various diseases. We showed that incubation with septic serum induced a rapid loss of endothelial barrier integrity in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer. Notably, exposure to septic serum triggered EndMT in HUVECs, companied by increased cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, membrane proteomic analysis was applied to analyze the key mediators in septic serum-induced EndMT. A total of 29 proteins with altered expression level were positively identified. Expression of four proteins with the most significant alteration, including caveolin-1, S100A4, ?-enolase and galectin-1, were validated by western blotting. Finally, we showed that restoration of caveolin-1 expression markedly attenuated septic serum-induced EndMT in HUVEC cells. This is the first report showing that endothelial cells undergo EndMT during sepsis. The present study may lead to a better understanding of the biological role of endothelial cells and caveolin-1 during sepsis.
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Structure of the JmjC-domain-containing protein JMJD5.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The post-translational modification of histone tails is the principal process controlling epigenetic regulation in eukaryotes. The lysine methylation of histones is dynamically regulated by two distinct classes of enzymes: methyltransferases and demethylases. JMJD5, which plays an important role in cell-cycle progression, circadian rhythms and embryonic cell proliferation, has been shown to be a JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase with enzymatic activity towards H3K36me2. Here, the crystal structure of human JMJD5 lacking the N-terminal 175 amino-acid residues is reported. The structure showed that the Gln275, Trp310 and Trp414 side chains might block the insertion of methylated lysine into the active centre of JMJD5, suppressing the histone demethylase activity of the truncated JMJD5 construct. A comparison of the structure of JMJD5 with that of FIH, a well characterized protein hydroxylase, revealed that human JMJD5 might function as a protein hydroxylase. The interaction between JMJD5 and the core histone octamer proteins indicated that the histone proteins could be potential substrates for JMJD5.
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A Prospective Randomized Trial of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis With Additional Balloon Dilatation for Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Single-Center Experience.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is effective for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT), but CDT remains partially effective for subacute DVT. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective randomized controlled single-centre clinical trial to compare CDT alone with CDT with additional balloon dilatation for the treatment of iliofemoral DVT.
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Acceleration of diabetic-wound healing with PEGylated rhaFGF in healing-impaired streptozocin diabetic rats.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Molecular modification with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) is an effective approach to improve protein biostability, in vivo lifetime and therapeutic potency. In the present study, the recombinant human acid fibroblast growth factor (rhaFGF) was site-selectively PEGylated with 20?kDa mPEG-butyraldehyde. Mono-PEGylated rhaFGF was purified to near homogeneity by Sephadex G 25-gel filtration followed by a Heparin Sepharose TM CL-6B affinity chromatography. PEGylated rhaFGF has less effect than the native rhaFGF on the stimulation of 3T3 cell proliferation in vitro; however, its relative thermal stability at normal physiological temperature and structural stability were significantly enhanced, and its half-life time in vivo was significantly extended. Then, the physiological function of PEGylated rhaFGF on diabetic-wound healing was evaluated in type 1 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that, compared with the group of animal treated with native rhaFGF, the group treated with PEGylated rhaFGF exhibited better therapeutic efficacy with shorter healing time, quicker tissue collagen generation, earlier and higher transforming growth factor (TGF)-? expression, and dermal cell proliferation. In addition, in vivo analysis showed that both native and PEGylated rhaFGF were more effective in the wound healing in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic one. Taken together, these results suggest that PEGylation of rhaFGF could be a more effective approach to the pharmacological and therapeutic application of native rhaFGF.
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[Preparation of nasal thermosensible gels of Chinese medicine Xingbi and release behavior in vitro].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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To prepare the nasal thermosensible gels of Chinese medicine Xingbi and study the release mechanism.
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[Determination of tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde in shenkangling granula by HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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To develop an HPLC method for gradient elution determination of danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde in Shengkangling granula.
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Early changes of beta-Catenins and Menins in spinal cord dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Injury to the peripheral nervous system can lead to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Previous studies have shown sprouting of Abeta-fibres into lamina II of the spinal cord dorsal horn after nerve injury and the formation of new synapses by these sprouts. beta-Catenin and menin as synaptogenic factors are critically involved in synapse formation. However, the roles of beta-catenin and menin in neuropathic pain are still unclear. Using Western blot analysis we investigated the changes of beta-catenin and menin in the spinal dorsal horn after unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI). We demonstrated an increase in both beta-catenin and menin protein levels in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn at days 1 and 3 following spared nerve injury (P < 0.05). These increases were associated with changes in paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and weight bearing deficit suggestive of pain behavior and spontaneous ongoing pain respectively. However, the injury-associated increases in beta-catenins and menins levels returned to control levels at day 14. In conclusion, these results indicate that peripheral nerve injury induces upregulation of beta-catenins and menins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which may contribute to the development of chronic neuropathic pain. Antagonists of these molecules may serve as new therapeutic agents.
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Active contour-based visual tracking by integrating colors, shapes, and motions.
IEEE Trans Image Process
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In this paper, we present a framework for active contour-based visual tracking using level sets. The main components of our framework include contour-based tracking initialization, color-based contour evolution, adaptive shape-based contour evolution for non-periodic motions, dynamic shape-based contour evolution for periodic motions, and the handling of abrupt motions. For the initialization of contour-based tracking, we develop an optical flow-based algorithm for automatically initializing contours at the first frame. For the color-based contour evolution, Markov random field theory is used to measure correlations between values of neighboring pixels for posterior probability estimation. For adaptive shape-based contour evolution, the global shape information and the local color information are combined to hierarchically evolve the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is constructed. For the dynamic shape-based contour evolution, a shape mode transition matrix is learnt to characterize the temporal correlations of object shapes. For the handling of abrupt motions, particle swarm optimization is adopted to capture the global motion which is applied to the contour in the current frame to produce an initial contour in the next frame.
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Structural basis for role of ring finger protein RNF168 RING domain.
Cell Cycle
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Ubiquitin adducts surrounding DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) have emerged as molecular platforms important for the assembly of DNA damage mediator and repair proteins. Central to these chromatin modifications lies the E2 UBC13, which has been implicated in a bipartite role in priming and amplifying lys63-linked ubiquitin chains on histone molecules through coupling with the E3 RNF8 and RNF168. However, unlike the RNF8-UBC13 holoenyzme, exactly how RNF168 work in concert with UBC13 remains obscure. To provide a structural perspective for the RNF168-UBC13 complex, we solved the crystal structure of the RNF168 RING domain. Interestingly, while the RNF168 RING adopts a typical RING finger fold with two zinc ions coordinated by several conserved cystine and histine residues arranged in a C3HC4 "cross-brace" manner, structural superimposition of RNF168 RING with other UBC13-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases revealed substantial differences at its corresponding UBC13-binding interface. Consistently, and in stark contrast to that between RNF8 and UBC13, RNF168 did not stably associate with UBC13 in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, domain-swapping experiments indicated that the RNF8 and RNF168 RING domains are not functionally interchangeable. We propose that RNF8 and RNF168 operate in different modes with their cognate E2 UBC13 at DSBs.
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Antisickling fetal hemoglobin reduces hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression in normoxic sickle mice: microvascular implications.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
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Chronic inflammation is a salient feature of sickle cell disease (SCD) and transgenic-knockout sickle (BERK) mice. Inflammation is implicated in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) under normoxic conditions. We hypothesize that, in SCD, inflammation coupled with nitric oxide (NO) depletion will induce expression of HIF-1?, a transcription factor with wide-ranging effects including activation of genes for vasoactive molecules. To this end, we have examined the expression of HIF-1? in normoxic BERK mice expressing exclusively human ?- and ?(S)- globins, and evaluated the effect of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in BERK mice (i.e., <1.0%, 20%, and 40% HbF). HbF exerts antisickling and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we show that HIF-1? is expressed in BERK mice under normoxic conditions, accompanied by increased expression of its vasoactive biomarkers such as VEGF, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and serum ET-1 levels. In BERK mice expressing HbF, HIF-1? expression decreases concomitantly with increasing HbF, commensurately with increased NO bioavailability, and shows a strong inverse correlation with plasma NO metabolites (NOx) levels. Reduced HIF-1? expression is associated with decreased HO-1, VEGF, and ET-1. Notably, arteriolar dilation, enhanced volumetric blood flow, and low blood pressure in normoxic BERK mice all show a trend toward normalization with the introduction of HbF. Also, arginine treatment reduced HIF-1?, as well as VEGF expression in normoxic BERK mice, supporting a role of NO bioavailability in HIF-1? activation. Thus HIF-1? expression in normoxic sickle mice is likely a consequence of chronic inflammation, and HbF exerts an ameliorating effect by decreasing sickling, increasing NO bioavailability, and reducing inflammation.
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Noradrenergic activity regulated dexamethasone-induced increase of 5-HT? receptor-mediated glutamate release in the rats prelimbic cortex.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Stress hormone, glutamatergic system, serotonergic system and the noradrenergic system are involved in depressive disorders. However, the relationship among these is still unclear. The present study examined the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the presynaptic glutamate release of synaptosomes from the rats prelimbic cortex by using biochemical methods combined with pharmacological approaches. The results showed that dexamethasone increased the glutamate release of synaptosomes in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration-response relationship of this effect of DEX was inverse U-shaped with a maximum at 3 ?m. Further study showed that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist and GR siRNA had no effect on the DEX-induced glutamate release but 5-HT? receptor antagonist could block the DEX-induced glutamate release which suggested that DEX produced the increased effect on the glutamate release not by GR, but through the activation of the 5-HT? receptors which led to the influx of extrasynaptosomal Ca²?. Moreover, ?? adrenergic receptor agonist could block the DEX-induced glutamate release. This result suggested that the effect of DEX on the glutamate release could be regulated by noradrenergic system. The mechanism study showed that ?(3) adrenergic receptors regulated the DEX-induced glutamate release via Gs protein-adenylate cyclase (AC)-protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway.
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Long non-coding RNA expression profiles predict clinical phenotypes in glioma.
Neurobiol. Dis.
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Glioma is the commonest form of primary brain tumor in adults with varying malignancy grades and histological subtypes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of non-protein-coding transcripts that have been shown to play important roles in cancer development. To discover novel tumor-related lncRNAs and determine their associations with glioma subtypes, we first applied a lncRNA classification pipeline to identify 1970 lncRNAs that were represented on Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array. We then analyzed the lncRNA expression patterns in a set of previously published glioma gene expression profiles of 268 clinical specimens, and identified sets of lncRNAs that were unique to different histological subtypes (astrocytic versus oligodendroglial tumors) and malignancy grades. These lncRNAs signatures were then subject to validation in another non-overlapping, independent data set that contained 157 glioma samples. This is the first reported study that correlates lncRNA expression profiles with malignancy grade and histological differentiation in human gliomas. Our findings indicate the potential roles of lncRNAs in the biogenesis, development and differentiation of gliomas, and provide an important platform for future studies.
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Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
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Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.