ABSTRACT In this study, crude cellulase produced byTrichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze the pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, it is showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 l/min/l medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/l and 26.7 g/l of citric acid was yielded from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 h. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, CA production was increased to 42.4 g/l and the cultivation time was extended to 240 h. However, ICA yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/l) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/l), and only 1.6 g/l of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.
Structure-based rational design has been considered as a promising approach to design novel proteins. For this purpose, we designed artificial anticoagulant proteins that are able to target Factor Xa (FXa) using a functional motifgrafting approach. The motif corresponded to the residues Cys15 to Cys42 of Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), a potent FXa inhibitor. By screening of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) using Vector Alignment Search Tool (VAST, search for three-dimensional scaffolds in protein structures), we screened scaffolds as hosts to reproduce the functional topology of this motif. Three designed artificial chimeric proteins were expressed and purified to test their FXainhibiting ability. One of the recombinant proteins, pep3, was found to inhibit FXa with strong activity (IC50 of 152 nM) in vitro. Moreover, pep3 inhibited arterial thrombosis formation in rats with uniform potency compared with natural AcAP5. Therefore, our data demonstrate that motif-grafting is a useful tool to engineer novel artificial anticoagulant proteins.
With the recent explosion in high-throughput genotyping technology, the amount and quality of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data has increased exponentially. Therefore, the identification of SNP interactions that are associated with common diseases is playing an increasing and important role in interpreting the genetic basis of disease susceptibility and in devising new diagnostic tests and treatments. However, because these data sets are large, although they typically have small sample sizes and low signal-to-noise ratios, there has been no major breakthrough despite many efforts, making this a major focus in the field of bioinformatics. In this article, we review the two main aspects of SNP interaction studies in recent years-the simulation and identification of SNP interactions-and then discuss the principles, efficiency and differences between these methods.
Chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes play important roles in tumor development and progression. Four high-frequency prostate cancer-specific fusion genes were recently reported in Chinese cases. We attempted to confirm one of the fusion genes, USP9Y-TTTY15, by reverse transcription PCR, but detected the presence of the USP9Y-TTTY15 fusion transcript in cancer samples, nonmalignant prostate tissues, and normal tissues from other organs, demonstrating that it is a transcription-induced chimeric RNA, which is commonly produced in normal tissues. In 105 prostate cancer samples and case-matched adjacent nonmalignant tissues, we determined the expression level of USP9Y-TTTY15 and a previously reported transcription-induced chimeric RNA, SLC45A3-ELK4. The expression levels of both chimeric RNAs vary greatly in cancer and normal cells. USP9Y-TTTY15 expression is neither higher in cancer than adjacent normal tissues, nor correlated with features of advanced prostate cancer. Although the expression level of SLC45A3-ELK4 is higher in cancer than normal cells, and a dramatic increase in its expression from normal to cancer cells is correlated with advanced disease, its expression level in cancer samples alone is not correlated with any clinical parameters. These data show that both chimeric RNAs contribute less to prostate carcinogenesis than previously reported.
A case of hospital-patient conflict has occurred in China that has lifted billows in the public and highlighted the lethality of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). AFE is a rare but severe obstetric complication with high maternal mortality and morbidity. Globally, the incidence of AFE is estimated to be approximately 2 to 6 per 100,000 deliveries. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) attributable to AFE ranges between 0.5 to 1.7 deaths per 100,000 deliveries in the developed world and 1.9 to 5.9 deaths per 100,000 deliveries in the developing world. In developed countries, AFE often accounts for a leading cause of maternal mortality; whereas the proportion of maternal death caused by AFE tends to be not as dominant compared to common perinatal complications in developing countries. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE can neither be predicted nor prevented even in developed countries. Treatment requires a set of highly intensive advanced emergency obstetric care, challenging obstetric care in developing countries. Although this complication is currently far from preventable, China has potential to improve the prognosis of AFE by strengthening the emergency obstetric care system.
Objective: Currently, it is unclear whether a radical-by-radical (RBR) reading strategy exists in Chinese pure alexia, compared to the letter-by-letter (LBL) reading strategy in alphabetic languages. In this study, we focus on exploring the reading features of a Chinese pure alexic patient during the process of language recovery. Method: We investigated this issue using a series of neuropsychological tests at 4 days, 11 days, and 8 months after admission of a Chinese pure alexic patient. Results: The results showed that most words could not be read aloud initially by the patient. One week later, 2 clinical features were noted: RBR reading strategy and integration impairment. Finally, there were statistically significant differences in the reaction time between the single characters and compound characters, which indicated that a radical number effect may exist. Conclusion: Combined with the results of previous studies, the current case study indicates that there is evidence suggesting that the RBR reading strategy in Chinese pure alexia is of limited benefit, a result that appears fundamentally different from the LBL reading strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
The genus Dolichocephala is recorded from Shaanxi Province (China) for the first time. The following three new species are described: Dolichocephala brevis sp. nov., D. longa sp. nov., and D. qinlingensis sp. nov. Their relationships with related species are discussed. An updated key to the species of Dolichocephala from China is presented.
Protein complex formed by a group of physical interacting proteins plays a crucial role in cell activities. Great effort has been made to computationally identify protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. However, the accuracy of the prediction is still far from being satisfactory, because the topological structures of protein complexes in the PPI network are too complicated. This paper proposes a novel optimization framework to detect complexes from PPI network, named PLSMC. The method is on the basis of the fact that if two proteins are in a common complex, they are likely to be interacting. PLSMC employs this relation to determine complexes by a penalized least squares method. PLSMC is applied to several public yeast PPI networks, and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. The results indicate that PLSMC outperforms other methods. In particular, complexes predicted by PLSMC can match known complexes with a higher accuracy than other methods. Furthermore, the predicted complexes have high functional homogeneity.
Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation = L . We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ? and ? of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.
Electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been widely used for stroke-like disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies showed that single-time EA stimulation at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shuigou" (GV 26) after the onset of ischemia can protect the brain against ischemic injury in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we further investigated the differential effects between multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation on ischemic injury. In the present study, we found that both single-time EA and multiple EA stimulation significantly reduced MCAO-induced ischemic infarction, while only multiple EA attenuated sensorimotor dysfunctions. Also, with PCR array screening and ingenuity gene analysis, we revealed that multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation could differentially induce expression changes in neurotrophic signaling related genes. Meanwhile, with western blotting, we demonstrated that the level of glia maturation factor ? (GMF?) increased in the early stage (day 1) of reperfusion, and this upregulation was suppressed only by single-time EA stimulation. These findings suggest that the short-term effect of single-time EA stimulation differs from the cumulative effect of multiple EA, which possibly depends on their differential modulation on neurotrophic signaling molecules expression.
In the present study, a kind of single-hole glutathione (GSH)-responsive degradable hollow silica nanoparticles (G-DHSNs) was synthesized and used as carriers of doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-G-DHSNs). The G-DHSNs were accurately designed and fabricated with a simple and convenient method, and without any extra pernicious component. The composition, morphology and properties of the G-DHSNs had been characterized by (1)HNMR spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, thermo gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The degradation study of G-DHSNs showed that the G-DHSNs would be broken into pieces after interacting with GSH. Besides, the negligible hemolytic activity and low cytotoxicity of the G-DHSNs demonstrated its excellent biocompatibility. pH- and GSH-triggered release of DOX followed by the decomposition of G-DHSNs within TCA8113 cancer cells was further confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies. All of these results indicated that G-DHSNs can be used as safe and promising drug nanocarriers.
The goal of adjuvant (post-surgery) radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) is to eliminate residual cancer cells, leading to better local tumor control and thus improving patient survival. However, radioresistance increases the risk of tumor recurrence and negatively affects survival. Recent evidence shows that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are radiation-resistant and that relatively differentiated BC cells can be reprogrammed into induced BCSCs (iBCSCs) via radiation-induced re-expression of the stemness genes. Here we show that in irradiation (IR)-treated mice bearing syngeneic mammary tumors, IR-induced stemness correlated with increased spontaneous lung metastasis (51.7%). However, IR-induced stemness was blocked by targeting the NF-?B- stemness gene pathway with disulfiram (DSF)and Copper (Cu2+). DSF is an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and an FDA-approved drug for treating alcoholism. DSF binds to Cu2+ to form DSF-Cu complexes (DSF/Cu), which act as a potent apoptosis inducer and an effective proteasome inhibitor, which, in turn, inhibits NF-?B activation. Treatment of mice with RT and DSF significantly inhibited mammary primary tumor growth (79.4%) and spontaneous lung metastasis (89.6%) compared to vehicle treated mice. This anti-tumor efficacy was associated with decreased stem cell properties (or stemness) in tumors. We expect that these results will spark clinical investigation of RT and DSF as a novel combinatorial treatment for breast cancer.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is regarded as a major global health care issue, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered to be involved in pathogenesis of HCC. To increase knowledge of HCC pathogenesis, as well as discover potential novel molecules for anti-cancer therapy, mass spectrometry and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTARQ) were employed. The differences between nine HBV-related HCC and adjacent non-HCC tissue specimens were studied. In total, 222 proteins were analyzed for differential expression in the two types of samples. Among these proteins, several were further confirmed by immunohistochemical, immunoblotting, and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RNA interference induced downregulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and decreased HBV replication by fivefold by the IFN pathway. Decreased G6PD expression resulted in decreased hepatoma cell migration and invasion in cell culture. In summary, the investigation provides new information on pathogenesis of HBV infection and suggests G6PD as a novel anti-HCC target. G6PD suppression may contribute to treatment strategies for inhibiting tumor progression.
To evaluate whether atorvastatin inhibits oxidized low-density lipoproteins (Ox-LDL)-stimulated foam cell formation from THP-1 macrophages by regulating the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Methods THP-1 macrophages were pretreated with 10, 20, or 40 µmol/L atorvastatin for 2 h, and after washing with PBS twice, the cells were incubated with 60 µg/ml of Ox-LDL for 48 h. The quantity of intracellular lipid of the cells was detected with Oil red O staining and enzymatic fluorometric method. The expression of the scavenger receptors of CD36 and SRA were analyzed with Western blotting. We also examined the effect of atorvastatin on adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the activation of PPAR? and p-i?B, and further assessed the capacity of the macrophages to bind to Dil-oxLDL.
A review of the species of the genus Centorisoma Becker from China is provided. The following 5 species are described as new to science: C. convexum sp. nov., C. mediconvexum sp. nov., C. neimengguensis sp. nov., C. pentagonium sp. nov. and C. sexangulatum sp. nov. An updated key to the world species of genus Centorisoma is given.
Neuromorphic computing is an attractive computation paradigm that complements the von Neumann architecture. The salient features of neuromorphic computing are massive parallelism, adaptivity to the complex input information, and tolerance to errors. As one of the most crucial components in a neuromorphic system, the electronic synapse requires high device integration density and low-energy consumption. Oxide-based resistive switching devices have been shown to be a promising candidate to realize the functions of the synapse. However, the intrinsic variation increases significantly with the reduced spike energy due to the reduced number of oxygen vacancies in the conductive filament region. The large resistance variation may degrade the accuracy of neuromorphic computation. In this work, we develop an oxide-based electronic synapse to suppress the degradation caused by the intrinsic resistance variation. The synapse utilizes a three-dimensional vertical structure including several parallel oxide-based resistive switching devices on the same nanopillar. The fabricated three-dimensional electronic synapse exhibits the potential for low fabrication cost, high integration density, and excellent performances, such as low training energy per spike, gradual resistance transition under identical pulse training scheme, and good repeatability. A pattern recognition computation is simulated based on a well-known neuromorphic visual system to quantify the feasibility of the three-dimensional vertical structured synapse for the application of neuromorphic computation systems. The simulation results show significantly improved recognition accuracy from 65 to 90% after introducing the three-dimensional synapses.
Bacillus thuringiensis NBIN-866, a Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from soil in China. We announce here the draft genome sequence of strain B. thuringiensis NBIN-866, which possesses highly nematocidal factors, such as proteins and small molecular peptides.
This study is to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus-1 (TG-1) on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells in vitro. The proliferation of OS-RC-2 cells was evaluated under various concentrations of TG-1 using MTT assay. The apoptosis of OS-RC-2 cells was analyzed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. And the cell cycle distribution of OS-RC-2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression level of Ki67 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR and level of casepase-3 was examined by Western blot analysis. TG-1 incubation significantly inhibited the proliferation of renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and arrested cells at G0/G1 phase (P <0.05). And TG-1 also significantly inhibited the expression of Ki67 mRNA (P<0.05). Additionally, TG-1 significantly promoted apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 in cells (P<0.05). Moreover, the optimal effects of TG-1 was achieved at the concentration of 100 mg/L The results indicate that TG-1 has antitumor effects on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and that the underlying mechanisms may be acted through inhibiting proliferation and Ki67 mRNA expression, and promoting apoptosis and caspase-3 expression.
Perihematomal edema (PHE) can worsen patient outcomes after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in combination with thrombolytic removal of hematoma has been proven to be a promising treatment strategy. However, preclinical studies have suggested that intraclot thrombolysis may exacerbate PHE after ICH. Herein, we investigated the effects of MIS and urokinase on PHE.
eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development.
This meta-analysis aims to examine whether the XRCC3 polymorphisms are associated with ovarian cancer risk. Eligible case-control studies were identified through search in PubMed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were appropriately derived from fixed effects models. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of 5,302 ovarian cancer cases and 8,075 controls from 4 published articles and 8 case-control studies for 3 SNPs of XRCC3. No statistically significant associations between XRCC3 rs861539 polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk were observed in any genetic models. For XRCC3 rs1799794 polymorphisms, we observed a statistically significant correlation with ovarian cancer risk using the homozygote comparison (T2T2 versus T1T1: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.90, P = 0.005), heterozygote comparison (T1T2 versus T1T1: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00-1.21, P = 0.04), and the recessive genetic model (T2T2 versus T1T1+T1T2: OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.52-0.87, P = 0.002). For XRCC3 rs1799796 polymorphisms, we also observed a statistically significant correlation with ovarian cancer risk using the heterozygote comparison (T1T2 versus T1T1: OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99, P = 0.04). In conclusion, this meta-analysis shows that the XRCC3 were associated with ovarian cancer risk overall for Caucasians. Asian and African populations should be further studied.
O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is widely distributed on nucleocytoplasmic proteins and participates in various physiological processes. But O-GlcNAc status on numerous proteins remains unknown. To better understand this modification, computational analysis combined with experimental study was performed in this work. Structural analysis of many O-GlcNAcylation sites indicated that the modification occurred predominantly in a random coil region. Frequency analysis on many O-GlcNAcylated peptides revealed a signature sequence, PPVS/TSATT, around the modification site (underlined, position 0). Based on the sequence, a peptide panel was designed to investigate key positions affecting O-GlcNAcylation of peptides and their amino acid preference. It was indicated that 3 positions (-2, -1, and +2) had an important role for this modification, where the presence of uncharged amino acids with small side chains could confer high reactivity. The amino acid preference at key positions was further investigated on bovine crystalline ? via site-directed mutagenesis. The preferred amino acids were Pro > Ala > Gly at position -2, Ala > Thr > Val > Lys > Pro at position -1, and Ala > Gly > Arg > Glu at position +2. Altogether, these findings suggested that a substrate (peptide or protein) with Pro, Ala at position -2, and/or Val, Ala, Thr, Ser at position -1, and/or Ala, Ser, Pro, Thr, Gly at position +2 would have more chances for O-GlcNAcylation. To test the rule, 2 O-GlcNAcylation sites on sOGT (S52 and T449) were predicted and confirmed by Western blot. The present work systematically investigated the sequence signature for O-GlcNAcylation. The result will contribute to predicting the O-GlcNAc status of a protein and further functional studies.
Thuringiensin (Thu), also known as ?-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.
To simplify the architecture of a neuromorphic system, it is extremely desirable to develop synaptic cells with the capacity of low operation power, high density integration, and well controlled synaptic behaviors. In this study, we develop a resistive switching device (ReRAM)-based synaptic cell, fabricated by the CMOS compatible nano-fabrication technology. The developed synaptic cell consists of one vertical gate-all-around Si nano-pillar transistor (1T) and one transition metal-oxide based resistive switching device (1R) stacked on top of the vertical transistor directly. Thanks to the vertical architecture and excellent controllability on the ON/OFF performance of the nano-pillar transistor, the 1T1R synaptic cell shows excellent characteristics such as extremely high-density integration ability with 4F(2) footprint, ultra-low operation current (<2?nA), fast switching speed (<10?ns), multilevel data storage and controllable synaptic switching, which are extremely desirable for simplifying the architecture of neuromorphic system.
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation of the of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels with the development and progression of lung cancer. The serum HbA1c, C-peptide and IGF-1 levels were measured and compared between 80 lung cancer patients and 80 healthy controls; furthermore, their correlation with histopathological type and tumor stage was analyzed in the 80 lung cancer patients. Our results suggested that the levels of HbA1c, C-peptide and IGF-1 were significantly increased in patients with lung cancer compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the levels of C-peptide and IGF-1 were significantly higher in the small-cell lung cancer group (n=18), the stage III-IV (n=55) group and the lung cancer with diabetes mellitus group (n=43) compared to those in the non-small-cell lung cancer group (n=62), the stage I-II lung cancer group (n=25) and the lung cancer without diabetes group (n=37), respectively (P<0.05). Thus, the present study suggests that the increased serum HbA1c, C-peptide and IGF-1 levels are significantly correlated with the development and progression of lung cancer.
Previous studies have shown that melatonin is involved in the processes that contribute to learning and memory. At present study, we tested the effects of exogenous melatonin (2.5 mg/kg) on the acquisition, expression and extinction of cued fear in rats.
Human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) are very difficult to culture and require human or animal source extracellular matrix molecules, such as laminin or collagen type IV, to support attachment and to regulate their survival and proliferation. These extracellular matrix molecules are difficult to purify from human or animal tissues, have high batch-to-batch variability, and may cause an immune response if used in clinical applications. Although several laminin- and collagen IV-derived peptides are commercially available, they do not support long-term hNSC attachment and growth. To solve this problem, we developed a novel peptide sequence with only 12 amino acids based on the Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val, or IKVAV, sequence: Ac-Cys-Cys-Arg-Arg-Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val-Trp-Leu-Cys. This short peptide sequence, similar to tissue-derived full laminin molecules, supported hNSCs to attach and proliferate to confluence for continuous passage and subculture. This short peptide also directed hNSCs to differentiate into neurons. When conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels, this short peptide benefited hNSC attachment and proliferation on the surface of hydrogels and promoted cell migration inside the hydrogels with maximum enhancement at a peptide density of 10 ?M. This novel short peptide shows great promise in artificial niche development for supporting hNSC culture in vitro and in vivo and for promoting hNSC transplantation in future clinical therapy.
Recently, 3 rare coding variants significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk have been identified in western populations using whole exome sequencing method, including p.R47H in TREM2, p.V232M in PLD3, and p.T835M in UNC5C. To examine whether these variants are genetic risk factors in patients with AD from mainland China, we sequenced exon 2 of TREM2, exon 9 of PLD3, and exon 15 of UNC5C in Chinese Han population including 360 patients with AD and 400 control individuals. As a result, none of these 3 variants were identified in all subjects, however, 1 novel variant (p.A130V) in TREM2 and 4 novel variants (p.Q860H, p.T837K, p.S843G, and p.V836V) in UNC5C were detected in unrelated patients with late-onset AD. These findings suggest the 3 rare coding variants might not play an important role in AD risk in mainland China.
Recent studies have reported the association between the expression of oncoprotein 18 (op18) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, any underlying mechanistic connection between op18 expression and hepatocarcinogenesis is poorly understood. In the present study, Flag-pcDNA3.1 vector and Flag-pcDNA3.1-op18 plasmid were stably transfected in SMMC7721 cells, respectively. Stable SMMC7721 control and op18 overexpression SMMC7721 cell lines were constructed and identified by western blot analysis. Using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), it was shown that cell proliferation was significantly increased in the op18 overexpression SMMC7721 cell group (0.60±0.05), compared with the control group (0.29±0.03) at an absorbance of 450 nm (P<0.01). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell apoptosis by FITC-Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assay kit. The results demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells was inhibited to 5.80±0.33% in the op18 overexpression group, compared with 11.79±1.09% in the control group. Using FACS, single cell analysis data showed that op18 overexpression induced cell cycle arrest by inhibiting progression from G2 to M phase. The results suggest that op18 expression is closely associated with SMMC7721 cell proliferation and apoptosis, which appears to be a potential predictor of prognosis in HCC.
The endophytic bacterium isolated from Scirpus triqueter was proved to be an oil-degraded bacterium. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the removal ratio of diesel under the combined effect of oil-degraded microorganism (Pseudomonas sp. J4AJ) and S. triqueter. The effect of diesel on plant growth parameters, soil enzymes and microbial community was assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the soils which were planted with S. triqueter and inoculated with J4AJ displayed the highest removal ratio (54.51 ± 0.15%) after 60-day experiment. However, the removal ratio of J4AJ-treated soils was 38.97 ± 0.55%. Diesel was toxic to S. triqueter, as evidenced by growth inhibition during the experimental period. However, the plant height and stem biomass in the soils inoculated with J4AJ significantly increased. The combined effect of S. triqueter and J4AJ improved the enzyme activities of the catalase and dehydrogenase in the contaminated soil. The diversity index in soils under the effect of S. triqueter combined with J4AJ was lower than that of the other soil samples. The principal analysis of phospholipid fatty acid signatures revealed that the combined effect of S. triqueter and J4AJ increased the differences of soil microbial community structure with the other treatments.
In this paper, we propose a novel method, SeekFun, to predict protein function based on weighted mapping of domains and GO terms. Firstly, a weighted mapping of domains and GO terms is constructed according to GO annotations and domain composition of the proteins. The association strength between domain and GO term is weighted by symmetrical conditional probability. Secondly, the mapping is extended along the true paths of the terms based on GO hierarchy. Finally, the terms associated with resident domains are transferred to host protein and real annotations of the host protein are determined by association strengths. Our careful comparisons demonstrate that SeekFun outperforms the concerned methods on most occasions. SeekFun provides a flexible and effective way for protein function prediction. It benefits from the well-constructed mapping of domains and GO terms, as well as the reasonable strategy for inferring annotations of protein from those of its domains.
The immobilized cellulase-producing mycelium of Trichoderma reesei was found to produce 2.9 U/ml of cellulase activity within 144 h while 2.1 U/ml of cellulase activity was produced within 120 h by the free mycelium of the same strain. When the immobilized mycelium of T. reesei was co-cultivated with the free cells of Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b in flask, Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b could yield 10.7 g/l of citric acid and 3.9 g/l of isocitric acid from 40.0 g/l pretreated straw within 240 h. Under the similar conditions, Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b could yield 32.8 g/l of citric acid and 4.7 g/l of isocitric acid from 40.0 g/l pretreated straw supplemented with 20.0 g/l glucose within 288 h. When the co-cultures were grown in 10-l fermentor, Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b could yield 83.4 g/l of citric acid and 8.7 g/l of isocitric acid from 100.0 g/l of pretreated straw supplemented with 50.0 g/l glucose within 312 h.
Though phytoremediation has been widely used to restore various contaminated sites, it is still unclear how soil microbial communities respond microecologically to plants and pollutants during the process. In this paper, batch microcosms imitating in situ phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated wetland by Scirpus triqueter were set up to monitor the influence of plant rhizosphere effect on soil microbes. Palmitic acid, one of the main root exudates of S. triqueter, was added to strengthen rhizosphere effect. Abundances of certain microbial subgroups were quantified by phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Results showed that diesel removal extents were significantly higher in the rhizosphere (57.6 +/-4.2-65.5 +/- 6.9%) than those in bulk soil (27.8 +/-6.5-36.3 +/- 3.2%). In addition, abundances of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in planted soil than those in the bulk soil. When it was less than 15,000 mg diesel kg soil-1, increasing diesel concentration led to higher abundances of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of palmitic acid amplified the rhizosphere effect on soil microbial populations and diesel removal. Principal component analysis revealed that plant rhizosphere effect was the dominant factor affecting microbial structure. These results provided new insights into plant-microbe-pollutant coactions responsible for diesel degradation, and they were valuable to facilitate phytoremediation of diesel contamination in wetland habitats.
The outer mitochondria membrane 40 homolog (TOMM40) is thought to be involved in the mitochondrial function and to influence the susceptibility for the development of AD. To determine whether TOMM40 rs157581 polymorphism is a plausible modulator of spontaneous brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients, 46 aMCI subjects and 21 healthy controls were recruited and explored. Each individual was firstly genotyped for TOMM40 rs157581 and was further assessed by resting-state functional MRI to evaluate regional brain activity using amplitude low-frequency fluctuation analysis (ALFF). aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, and increased ALFF in right posterior cingulate, lingual gyrus and calcarine sulcus. A significant difference in the interaction of "groups × genotypes" was observed in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral lingual gyrus, right calcarine sulcus and left cerebellum. These results demonstrated a pattern of change in ALFF values, in which increased and subsequently decreased ALFF values in parallel with the progression of aMCI symptoms. The present study shows for the first time that TOMM40 rs157581 polymorphism may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity and related to the progression of aMCI.
Substrate mechanical properties, in addition to biochemical signals, have been shown to modulate cell phenotype. In this study, we inspected the effects of substrate stiffness on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adult human bone marrow differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. A chemically modified extracellular matrix derived and highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and thiol functionalized recombinant human gelatin (Gtn-SH), which can be crosslinked by poly (ethylene glycol) tetra-acrylate (PEGTA), was used as a model system. The stiffness of the hydrogel was controlled by adjusting the crosslinking density. Human bone marrow MSCs were cultured on the hydrogels with different stiffness under adipogenic and osteogenic conditions. Oil Red O staining and F-actin staining were applied to assess the change of cell morphologies under adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, respectively. Gene expression of cells was determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as a function of hydrogel stiffness. Results support the hypothesis that adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs are inclined to occur on substrate with stiffness similar to their in vivo microenvironments.
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug. Abuse of METH produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral, sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. It induces neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via enhancing dopamine (DA) level abnormally, which may cause a secondary release of glutamate (GLU). However, repeated administration of METH still increases release of GLU even when dopamine content in tissue is significantly depleted. It implies that some other mechanisms are likely to involve in METH-induced GLU release. The goal of this study was to observe METH affected glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons and to explore the mechanism of METH modulated GLU release. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that METH (0.1-50.0?M) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). However, METH decreased the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs at high concentration of 100?M. The postsynaptic NMDA receptor currents and P/Q-type calcium channel were not affected by the use of METH (10,100?M). METH did not present visible effect on N-type Ca(2+) channel current at the concentration lower than 50.0?M, but it was inhibited by use of METH at a 100?M. The effect of METH on glutamatergic synaptic transmission was not revered by pretreated with DA receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that METH directly modulated presynaptic GLU release at a different concentration, while dopaminergic system was not involved in METH modulated release of GLU in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons.
Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (CHF-REF) remains a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality, but the data on current treatment status and long-term prognosis in China were still missing.
Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in Oriental countries for centuries for its antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and biological activity on hyperglycemia. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide was extracted using hot water from P. linteus mycelia grown under submerged culture. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the extraction conditions of P. linteus mycelia polysaccharides (PLP). The crude polysaccharide was purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the purified P. linteus polysaccharide (PLP-I), revealing that it was mainly a branched-type glycan with both ?- and ?-linkages and a pyranoid sugar ring conformation. PLP orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight/d could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 35.60% in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that PLP had an effect on glucose disposal after 28 d of treatment. The result revealed that PLP from a submerged culture of P. linteus mycelia possessed potent hypoglycemic properties. The polysaccharide may be useful as a functional food additive and a hypoglycemic agent.
Mutations of 3 causative genes, namely presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), and amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been identified as the major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). Recently, a GGGGCC repeat expansion in the noncoding region of C9orf72 was also detected in some patients with clinically diagnosed familial Alzheimer's disease. The prevalence of causative gene mutations in patients with EOFAD has been reported in previous studies but their prevalence remains unclear in Mainland China. The aim of this study was to characterize the common causative gene mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients with EOFAD. Genetic screening for mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP was conducted in a total of 32 families with clinical diagnoses of EOFAD from Mainland China. Subsequently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 was detected in all patients. Four novel mutations in PSEN1 (p.A434T, p.I167del, p.F105C, and p.L248P) were identified in 4 respective families, and 1 previously recognized pathogenic mutation in APP (p.V717I) was detected in another 2 unrelated families. The PSEN2 mutation and pathogenic repeat expansions of C9orf72 were not detected in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cohort report of a causative gene screen in patients with EOFAD in Mainland China. The analysis of the genetic-clinical correlations in this cohort supports the idea that the clinical phenotype might be influenced by specific genetic defects.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether CC-AAbs levels could predict prognosis in CHF patients. A total of 2096 patients with CHF (841 DCM patients and 1255 ICM patients) and 834 control subjects were recruited. CC-AAbs were detected and the relationship between CC-AAbs and patient prognosis was analyzed. During a median follow-up time of 52 months, there were 578 deaths. Of these, sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 102 cases of DCM and 121 cases of ICM. The presence of CC-AAbs in patients was significantly higher than that of controls (both P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that positive CC-AAbs could predict SCD (HR 3.191, 95% CI 1.598-6.369 for DCM; HR 2.805, 95% CI 1.488-5.288 for ICM) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.733, 95% CI 1.042-2.883 for DCM; HR 2.219, 95% CI 1.461-3.371 for ICM) in CHF patients. A significant association between CC-AAbs and non-SCD (NSCD) was found in ICM patients (HR = 1.887, 95% CI 1.081-3.293). Our results demonstrated that the presence of CC-AAbs was higher in CHF patients versus controls and corresponds to a higher incidence of all-cause death and SCD. Positive CC-AAbs may serve as an independent predictor for SCD and all-cause death in these patients.
Physical injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) are prevalent and very severe because the CNS has limited capacity to replace neuronal loss from the injury. A growing body of evidence has suggested that exogenous cell transplantation is one promising strategy to promote CNS regeneration. Direct injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) to the lesion site, however, may not be an optimal therapeutic strategy because of poor viability and functionality of transplanted cells resulting from the local hostile tissue environment. The overall objective of this study is to engineer an injectable and biocompatible hydrogel system as a supportive niche to provide a regeneration permissive microenvironment for transplanted NSCs to survive, functionally differentiate, and integrate with host tissues for CNS regeneration. A highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol functionalized hyaluronic acid and thiol functionalized gelatin (Gtn-SH), which can be cross-linked by poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), was used. By controlling the cross-linking density via varying the amount of cross-linker (PEGDA) and the concentration of the adhesive component gelatin, an optimal microenvironment for the survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of NSCs was created in vitro. The soft hydrogel of less than 10 Pa with Gtn-SH content (50%) is one of the optimal conditions to support NSCs growth and neuronal differentiation in vitro. The optimized hydrogel holds great potential as a carrier of stem cells to treat CNS injuries and diseases in which cell therapies may be essential.
This study was designed to investigate the effect of w007B, a newly synthesized derivative of honokiol, on MCAO reperfusion, and its therapeutic time window and related mechanisms in rats. Neurological deficit scores, infarct size and brain water content were measured after 24 h reperfusion following 2 h ischemia. The results showed that w007B (10 and 50 ?g/kg, IV immediately after reperfusion) markedly decreased neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct size and alleviated brain water content, and then 50 ?g/kg w007B given within 3 h after reperfusion (5 h after ischemia) significantly attenuated ischemia-induced brain injury. Additionally, no sign of toxicity was observed when a single dose of 50mg/kg w007B (1000 times of the highest effective dose, IP) was administered. To explore the underlying mechanisms, the expression level of apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy-related markers in brain tissue were detected with kits or by western blot. It was observed that w007B rapidly and significantly reduced caspase-3 activity and NO production in the injured semi-brain, and also lowered the level of the p65 subunit of NF-?B in the nucleus. Besides, it also reduced the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B-II, and increased the level of p62, the autophagy-related proteins in I/R-injured hemisphere. In conclusion, w007B exerts neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury with wider therapeutic time window and better safety; its mechanisms may be associated with its anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-autophagy action. These results suggest that w007B shows strong potential as a clinical neuroprotective candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common degenerative disease presenting intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in older people. Uric acid (UA) is a natural antioxidant, and may have a beneficial role in neurodegenerative diseases. Nevertheless, the role of UA in CAA remains unknown. In the present study, we compared serum UA levels in CAA-associated ICH patients (n = 82) and age/sex-matched controls (n = 82). Serum UA levels in possible CAA were significantly decreased when compared with healthy controls (232.68 ± 77.70 vs. 309.42 ± 59.83 ?mol/L; p < 0.001). Furthermore, UA levels in patients clinically diagnosed as probable CAA were significantly lower than those in patients diagnosed as possible CAA (193.06 ± 56.98 vs. 232.68 ± 77.70 ?mol/L; p = 0.014). These differences were still significant after adjusting for renal function and dyslipidemia (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, there were no associations between serum UA levels and the distribution of hemorrhagic lesion, as well as neurological impairment. Our observations indicate that serum UA levels were decreased in CAA patients. UA might play a neuroprotective role in CAA and serve as a potential biomarker for reflecting the severity of A? deposition.
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells represent a heterogeneous cell population, including a large majority of CD3+CD56+ cells, a relatively minor fractions of typical T cells (CD3+CD56-), and natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-CD56+). In order to elucidate the tumor killing mechanism of these three subpopulations of CIK cells, this review summarized the concordances and differences among CD3+CD56+ CIK cells, CD3-CD56+ NK cells and CD3+CD56- T cells to the following aspects: the effects of cell surface molecules, mechanisms of tumor killing, and clinical applications of these cells in immunotherapy. NK cells can be classified into CD56brightCD16- NK cells, which produce cytokines in response to monokine co-stimulation, and the CD56dimCD16+ NK cells, which contribute to lysing susceptible target. Also, the immunity of NK cells is mainly regulated by several immune-receptors, such as ACR, ICR, NCR and KIRs. T cells require TCR and co-stimulatory molecules for initiation of T cell activation. The CD3+CD56+ CIK cells co-express with T-cell marker CD3 and NK cell marker CD56 to appear the most potent cytotoxicity and high impact on adoptive cellular immunotherapy. These CIK subpopulations share some similar tumor killing mechanisms. LFA-1 not only mediates the binding of NK cells to target cells through its ligand ICAM-1 to localize actin accumulation but also acts as a co-stimulatory receptor on NK cells. LFA-1 also functions as co-stimulatory receptor for T cells to transmit intracellular signals from the TCR to LFA-1. Furthermore, cytotoxic effect of CD3+CD56+ CIK cells is blocked by antibodies directly against LFA-1 and its counter receptor, ICAM-1. Clinically, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is shown in both NK cells and T cells for tumor killing while dendritic cells are another main regulator for the activation of three subpopulations. In summary, CD3+CD56+ CIK cells have dual-functional capability as T-cell subsets which acquire NK cells function and reserve TCR-mediated specific cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, CIK cells play important roles in tumor immunology. It paves the way to more effective immunotherapies for various tumors.
Variants in NOS1AP associated with cardiac repolarization and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in coronary artery disease have been reported. Whether they are related to mortality and QTc interval in chronic heart failure (CHF) has not been investigated.
A key feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the remodeling of small pulmonary arteries due to abnormal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying how PASMCs in the pathological condition of pulmonary hypertension become resistant to apoptosis remain unknown. It was recently reported that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is up-regulated in a wide array of malignant conditions, which facilitates tumorigenesis partly by inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we observed that the expression levels of Lcn2 were significantly elevated in a rat PH model induced with monocrotaline and in patients with congenital heart disease-associated PH (CHD-PH) when compared with respective control. Therefore, we hypothesize that Lcn2 could regulate human PASMC (HPASMC) apoptosis through a mechanism. By the detection of DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL assay, the detection of Annexin V/PI-positive cells using flow cytometry, and the detection of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 activity, we observed that Lcn2 significantly inhibited HPASMC apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal and H2O2 treatment. We also observed that Lcn2 down-regulated the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreased the levels of cellular ROS, and up-regulated the expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2). In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly inhibits HPASMC apoptosis induced by oxidative stress via decreased intracellular ROS and elevated SODs. Up-regulation of Lcn2 in a rat PH model and CHD-PH patients may be involved in the pathological process of PH.
Bevacizumab is believed to be as effective and safe as ranibizumab for ophthalmic diseases; however, its magnitude of effectiveness and safety profile remain controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis and systematic review appears necessary.
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare and severe neurological disorder. ATP1A3 was recently identified as the causative gene. Here we report the first genetic study in Chinese AHC cohort. We performed whole-exome sequencing on three trios and three unrelated patients, and screened additional 41 typical cases and 100 controls by PCR-Sanger sequencing. ATP1A3 mutations were detected in 95.7% of typical AHC patients. At least 93.3% were de novo. Four late onset, atypical AHC patients were also mutation positive, suggesting the need for testing ATP1A3 mutations in atypical cases. Totally, 13 novel missense mutations (T370N, G706R, L770R, T771N, T771I, S772R, L802P, D805H, M806K, P808L, I810N, L839P and G893R) were identified in our study. By homology modeling of the mutant protein structures and calculation of an extensive list of molecular features, we identified two statistically significant molecular features, solvent accessibility and distance to metal ion, that distinguished disease-associated mutations from neutral variants. A logistic regression classifier achieved 92.9% accuracy by the average of 100 times of five-fold cross validations. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that patients with epilepsy were more likely to carry E815K mutation. In summary, ATP1A3 is the major pathogenic gene of AHC in Chinese patients; mutations have distinctive molecular features that discriminate them from neutral variants and are correlated with phenotypes.
In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.
Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide, and the thrombolytic therapy currently available was unsatisfactory. 14-3-3? is a well characterized member of 14-3-3 family, and has been reported to protect neurons against apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. However, it cannot transverse blood brain barrier (BBB) due to its large size. A protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV TAT protein, is capable of delivering a large variety of proteins into the brain. In this study, we generated a fusion protein TAT-14-3-3?, and evaluated its potential neuroprotective effect in rat focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Western blot analysis validated the efficient transduction of TAT-14-3-3? fusion protein into brain via a route of intravenous injection. TAT-14-3-3? pre-treatment 2 h before ischemia significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume and improved neurologic score, while post-treatment 2 h after ischemia was less effective. Importantly, pre- or post-ischemic treatment with TAT-14-3-3? significantly increased the number of surviving neurons as determined by Nissl staining, and attenuated I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis as showed by the decrease in apoptotic cell numbers and the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the introduction of 14-3-3? into brain by TAT-mediated delivering reduced the formation of autophagosome, attenuated LC3B-II upregulation and reversed p62 downregulation induced by ischemic injury. Such inhibition of autophagy was reversed by treatment with an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP), which also attenuated the neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3?. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) inhibited I/R-induced the increase in autophagic activity, and attenuated I/R-induced brain infarct. These results suggest that TAT-14-3-3? can be efficiently transduced into brain and exert significantly protective effect against brain ischemic injury through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and autophagic activation.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary small vascular disease and its mainly clinical manifestations are ischemic events. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) involvement in patients with CADASIL is extremely uncommon.
The rapid accumulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and experimental evidence for miRNA interactions has ushered in a new area of miRNA research that focuses on network more than individual miRNA interaction, which provides a systematic view of the whole microRNome. So it is a challenge to infer miRNA functional interactions on a system-wide level and further draw a miRNA functional network (miRFN). A few studies have focused on the well-studied human species; however, these methods can neither be extended to other non-model organisms nor take fully into account the information embedded in miRNA-target and target-target interactions. Thus, it is important to develop appropriate methods for inferring the miRNA network of non-model species, such as soybean (Glycine max), without such extensive miRNA-phenotype associated data as miRNA-disease associations in human.
High specific activity and cost effectiveness of single-atom catalysts hold practical value for water gas shift (WGS) reaction toward hydrogen energy. We reported the preparation and characterization of Ir single atoms supported on FeO(x) (Ir1/FeO(x)) catalysts, the activity of which is 1 order of magnitude higher than its cluster or nanoparticle counterparts and is even higher than those of the most active Au- or Pt-based catalysts. Extensive studies reveal that the single atoms accounted for ?70% of the total activity of catalysts containing single atoms, subnano clusters, and nanoparticles, thus serving as the most important active sites. The Ir single atoms seem to greatly enhance the reducibility of the FeO(x) support and generation of oxygen vacancies, leading to the excellent performance of the Ir1/FeO(x) single-atom catalyst. The results have broad implications on designing supported metal catalysts with better performance and lower cost.
Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the world and more than 85% of cervical cancer cases occur in women living in developing countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer. Since 2006, two prophylactic vaccines against the high-risk strains of HPV have been developed and approved in more than 100 countries around the world. However, in China, HPV vaccines are still under clinical trials for government approval. In this paper feasibility and justification of HPV vaccine introduction into China is examined by reviewing experiences in both developed and developing countries where the vaccination program has been implemented. The vaccination program has showed significant cost-effectiveness and great health and economic impacts on cervical cancer prevention and control in both high-income and middle- and low-income countries. On the other hand, based on the lessons from both developed and developing countries, secondary prevention alone cannot fully play a role to reduce the incidence and the disease burden, and neither does the vaccination program. The epidemiological characteristics in China suggest an urgent need to introduce the vaccines and the geographically diversified prevalence of oncogenic HPV types as well as socioeconomic status also highlight the importance of region-driven approaches for cervical cancer prevention and control by integration of a screening and vaccination program.
Aminoglycosides promote the readthrough of premature stop codons introduced by nonsense mutations to produce full-length proteins in genetic disease models. The read-through effects of different aminoglycosides and PTC124 on HERG gene have yet to be adequately elucidated. The wild?type (WT) or mutant genes were transiently transfected in HEK293 cells. The read-through effect was examined by adding drugs into culture medium for 24 h. Western blot analysis and patch clamping were performed to evaluate the expression and function of the genes. The mRNA levels were determined using qPCR. The results showed that G418 and PTC124 significantly increased the protein expression of R1014X mutant in a dose-dependent manner and produced a full-length protein. The maximal protein levels after G418, gentamicin or PTC124 treatment were 39.1±2.4, 18.6±0.3 or 10.3±1.0%, respectively, of the WT level. Tobramycin did not exhibit a read-through effect. The mRNA levels, however, did not differ between WT and mutant gene. The tail current densities of R1014X channels at 40 mV were 22.57±2.26 pA/pF for G418, 16.21±1.49 pA/pF for gentamicin and 9.62±0.73 pA/pF for PTC124. The leftward shift of the activation curve was corrected only by G418 and gentamicin. The read-through effects of W927X, R863X and E698X revealed that as the mutation site approached the N-terminal, the rescue efficiency was decreased. The above results suggest that aminoglycosides and PTC124 induced different effects on rescue nonsense mutations of the HERG gene. The mutation site was a significant factor in determining the pharmacological rescue efficiency.
Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been identified as the major cause of benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (ICCA). Here, we analyzed the phenotypes and PRRT2 mutations in Chinese families with BFIE and ICCA.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. The developmental competence of oocytes and embryos in PCOS patients is reduced to a certain extent (comparing to non-PCOS patients, the high quality embryo rate was decreased by 16% from the data of our centre) during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Cross-talk between the oocyte and cumulus cells is critical for oocyte maturation and embryo competence. In this study, we have evaluated the transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested from pre-ovulatory follicles of PCOS patients before IVF, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Seven genes (RUNX2, PSAT1, ADAMTS9, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and ITGB5) were targeted from our previous cDNA microarray data which isolated genes related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Two additional genes which had been found to be associated with oocyte maturation or embryo quality in non-PCOS patients (GPX3 and PTX3) were also studied.
The stability of Newton black films (NBFs) under lateral mechanical stretch was investigated by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations using force field parameters validated by accurate prediction of surface tensions. The applied strains accelerated film ruptures, enabling efficient measurements of the critical thicknesses of the films. Two representative surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for ionic surfactant and pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO5H) for nonionic surfactant, were investigated and compared. The predicted critical thickness of C12EO5H-coated film is smaller than that of the SDS-coated film, which is consistent with previously reported experimental observations. Our simulation results show that while the two surfactant-coated films exhibit similar dynamic properties attributed to the Marangoni-Gibbs effect, their surface structural characteristics are quite different. Consequently the two films demonstrate distinct rupture mechanisms in which rupture starts at uncovered water domains in the SDS-coated film, but at lateral surfactant/water interfaces in the C12EO5H-coated film. Our findings provide new insights into the stabilization mechanisms of NBFs and will facilitate the design and development of new films with improved properties.
Many studies have provided convincing evidence for hERG as an important diagnostic and prognostic factor in human cancers, as well as a useful target for antineoplastic therapy. Our previous study also revealed that knockdown of herg gene expression by shRNA interference inhibited the growth of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In the experiment, a novel 4-amino piperidine analog, ZC88, was examined for its effect on hERG potassium channels and its antitumor potency was observed in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ZC88 could block hERG1 and hERG1b channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. ZC88 displayed significant antiproliferative activity in several tumor cell lines and the tumor cells with higher expression of hERG presented higher sensitivity to ZC88. The mitotic progression of tumor cells was markedly suppressed in the presence of ZC88 through arresting cells in G?/G? phase. ZC88 significantly inhibited the tumor growth in nude mice at a dosage with slight influence on the cardiac QT interval. The antitumor effect of ZC88 was correlated at least partly with its blockage of hERG channels, which implicated a positive role of hERG potassium channel in tumor cell proliferation.
The preparation, by a freeze-thaw method, of new graphite/isobutylene-isoprene rubber (IIR) sorbents for oil and organic liquid is described. Graphite was expected to improve the adsorption properties. The cryogels were prepared by solution crosslinking IIR rubber in the presence of graphite in benzene at various temperatures, using sulfur monochloride as the crosslinker, and characterized by SEM and contact angle measurements. The dried cryogels, with interconnected macropores were sponge-like soft materials, with excellent buoyancy and hydrophobicity. They also showed excellent sorption characteristics, with the best sample exhibiting maximum sorption capacities of 17.8 g g(-1) for crude oil, 21.6 g g(-1) for diesel oil, and 23.4 g g(-1) for lubricating oil, respectively. The samples also showed excellent sorption capability for organic liquids, absorbing up to around twenty times their own mass. After rapid and effective desorption, taking just 3-5 h, the cryogels were recovered. They could also be reused more than 30 times by simply centrifuging to remove the sorbed liquid. These characteristics mean that the cryogels prepared in this study are promising materials for removal of large-scale oil or toxic organic spills.
We present here a novel camptothecin (CPT) prodrug based on polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-block-poly(2-methacryl ester hydroxyethyl disulfide-graft-CPT) (MPEG-SS-PCPT). It formed biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of approximately 122?nm with a CPT loading content as high as approximately 25?wt?% in aqueous solution. In in vitro release studies, these MPEG-SS-PCPT NPs could undergo triggered disassembly and much faster release of CPT under glutathione (GSH) stimulus than in the absence of GSH. The CPT prodrug had high antitumor activity, and another anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX?HCl), could also be introduced into the prodrug with a high loading amount. The DOX?HCl-loaded CPT prodrug could deliver two anticancer drugs at the same time to produce a collaborative cytotoxicity toward cancer cells, which suggested that this GSH-responsive NP system might become a promising carrier to improve drug-delivery efficacy.
Intricate cross-talks exist among multiple post-translational modifications that play critical roles in various cellular events, such as the control of gene expression and regulation of protein function. Here, the cross-talk between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination was investigated in HEK293T cells. By PCR array, 84 ubiquitination-related genes were explored in transcription level in response to the elevation of total protein O-GlcNAcylation due to over-expression of OGT, inhibition of OGA or GlcN treatment. Varied genes were transcriptionally regulated by using different method. But FBXW10, an F-box protein targeting specific proteins for ubiquitination, could be negatively regulated in all ways, suggesting its regulation by protein O-GlcNAcylation. By RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, it was found that FBXW10 could be sharply down-regulated in mRNA and protein level in GlcN-treated cells in a time-dependent way, in line with the enhancement of protein O-GlcNAcylation. It was also found that endogenous FBXW10 was modified by O-GlcNAc in HEK293T cells, implying O-GlcNAcylation might regulate FBXW10 in multiple levels. These findings indicate that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in the regulation of ubiquitination-related genes, and help us understand the cross-talk between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.