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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging enabled by an array of Ge-filled waveguides in a microstructured optical fiber probe.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging using a unique optical fiber probe consisting of an array of Ge waveguide cores embedded in a silica fiber matrix. Biological tissue slices are characterized to illustrate its potential endoscopic uses. The fiber probe based transmission measurements show excellent agreement with the result obtained from standard Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy transmission measurements in the wavelength range of 3289.8 nm to 3383.3 nm, where fat and muscle tissues could be spectroscopically distinguished.
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Intracellular osteopontin inhibits Toll-like receptor signaling and impedes liver carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated widely in tumor growth and metastasis but the range of its contributions are not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of OPN in the mouse sensitizes them to diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Opn deficient mice (Opn-/- mice) exhibited enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines and compensatory proliferation. Administering OPN antibody or recombinant OPN protein to wild type (WT) or Opn-/- mice-derived macrophages, respectively, had little effect on cytokine production. In contrast, overexpression of intracellular Opn (iOpn) in Opn-deficient macrophages strongly suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we found iOPN was able to interact with the pivotal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling protein MyD88 in macrophages after stimulation with cellular debris, thereby disrupting TLR signaling in macrophages. Our results indicated that iOPN was capable of functioning as an endogenous negative regulator of TLR-mediated immune responses, acting to ameliorate production of proinflammatory cytokines and curtail DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Together, our results expand the important role of OPN in inflammation-associated cancers and deepen its relevance for novel treatment strategies in liver cancer.
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Towards the clinical implementation of iterative low-dose cone-beam CT reconstruction in image-guided radiation therapy: Cone/ring artifact correction and multiple GPU implementation.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Compressed sensing (CS)-based iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques are able to reconstruct cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from undersampled noisy data, allowing for imaging dose reduction. However, there are a few practical concerns preventing the clinical implementation of these techniques. On the image quality side, data truncation along the superior-inferior direction under the cone-beam geometry produces severe cone artifacts in the reconstructed images. Ring artifacts are also seen in the half-fan scan mode. On the reconstruction efficiency side, the long computation time hinders clinical use in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT).
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Identification of Four NRPS gene Clusters in Bacillus subtilis 916 for Four Families of Lipopeptides Biosynthesis and Evaluation of Their Intricate Functions to the Typical Phenotypic Features.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides (LPs) have been well-studied for their phytopathogen antagonistic activities. Recently, researches showed that these LPs also contributed to the phenotypic features of Bacillus strains such as hemolytic activity, swarming motility, biofilm formation and colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) 916 not only coproduce the three families of well-known LPs, surfactin, bacillomycin L (iturin family) and fengycin, but also produce a new family of LP called locillomycin. The genome of B. subtilis 916 contained four nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen and loc, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of surfactins, bacillomycin Ls, fengycins and locillomycins respectively. By studying B. subtilis 916 mutants without the productions of one, two or three LPs, we attempted to unveil the connections between the LPs and the phenotypic features. We demonstrated that bacillomycin Ls and fengycins contributed mainly to the antifungal activity. Although surfactins has weak antifungal activity in vitro, the strain mutated in srfA-A had significantly decreased antifungal activity. This may be due to the impaired productions of fengycins and bacillomycin Ls. We also found that the disruption of any other LP gene cluster than fen resulted in the change of colony morphology. While surfactins and bacillomycin Ls play very important roles in hemolytic activity, swarming motility and biofilm formation, the fengycins and locillomycins had little influence on these phenotypic features. In conclusion, B. subtilis 916 coproduces four families of LPs which contributed to the phenotypic features of B. subtilis 916 in an intricate way.
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Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles with Enhanced Fluorescence by Self-Aggregation and their Application to Cellular Imaging.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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We report a simple strategy to prepare organic biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles with enhanced fluorescence. A significant fluorescence enhancement was realized by designing a fluorescent small molecule, 4,4'-(2,7-bis[4-{1,2,2-triphenylvinyl}phenyl]-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(N,N,N-trimethylbutan-1-aminum)bromide (TPEFN), with aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) effect. Nanoparticles of TPEFN can be formed through molecular self-aggregation by gradually increasing the water fraction in TPEFN mixed solution (methanol/water). Fluorescence enhancement by about 120-fold was observed after nanoparticle formation. By addition of the biomolecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), larger nanoparticles of TPEFN are formed and further fluorescence enhancement can be achieved, yielding a total fluorescence enhancement of 420-fold compared with the TPEFN molecular solution. Both of these nanoparticles show very good biocompatibility. Ultrabright spots present in the confocal laser scanning microscopy image again proved the formation of nanoparticles. Positively charged side chains of TPEFN endow these nanoparticles cationic surfaces. The size of the prepared TPEFN nanoparticles and their cationic surface allow them to be rapidly internalized into cells. Cell viability assays prove that the TPEFN nanoparticles have high biocompatibility. These organic fluorescent nanoparticles show great promise for applications in cellular imaging or biotechnology.
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Comparison of human and Drosophila atlastin GTPases.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network requires homotypic membrane fusion, which involves a class of atlastin (ATL) GTPases. Purified Drosophila ATL is capable of mediating vesicle fusion in vitro, but such activity has not been reported for any other ATLs. Here, we determined the preliminary crystal structure of the cytosolic segment of Drosophila ATL in a GDP-bound state. The structure reveals a GTPase domain dimer with the subsequent three-helix bundles associating with their own GTPase domains and pointing in opposite directions. This conformation is similar to that of human ATL1, to which GDP and high concentrations of inorganic phosphate, but not GDP only, were included. Drosophila ATL restored ER morphology defects in mammalian cells lacking ATLs, and measurements of nucleotide-dependent dimerization and GTPase activity were comparable for Drosophila ATL and human ATL1. However, purified and reconstituted human ATL1 exhibited no in vitro fusion activity. When the cytosolic segment of human ATL1 was connected to the transmembrane (TM) region and C-terminal tail (CT) of Drosophila ATL, the chimera still exhibited no fusion activity, though its GTPase activity was normal. These results suggest that GDP-bound ATLs may adopt multiple conformations and the in vitro fusion activity of ATL cannot be achieved by a simple collection of functional domains.
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EAAT2 (GLT-1; slc1a2) glutamate transporters reconstituted in liposomes argues against heteroexchange being substantially faster than net uptake.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The EAAT2 glutamate transporter, accounts for >90% of hippocampal glutamate uptake. Although EAAT2 is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, ?10% of EAAT2 molecules are found in axon terminals. Despite the lower level of EAAT2 expression in glutamatergic terminals, when hippocampal slices are incubated with low concentration of d-aspartate (an EAAT2 substrate), axon terminals accumulate d-aspartate as quickly as astroglia. This implies an unexplained mismatch between the distribution of EAAT2 protein and of EAAT2-mediated transport activity. One hypothesis is that (1) heteroexchange of internal substrate with external substrate is considerably faster than net uptake and (2) terminals favor heteroexchange because of high levels of internal glutamate. However, it is currently unknown whether heteroexchange and uptake have similar or different rates. To address this issue, we used a reconstituted system to compare the relative rates of the two processes in rat and mice. Net uptake was sensitive to changes in the membrane potential and was stimulated by external permeable anions in agreement with the existence of an uncoupled anion conductance. By using the latter, we also demonstrate that the rate of heteroexchange also depends on the membrane potential. Additionally, our data further suggest the presence of a sodium leak in EAAT2. By incorporating the new findings in our previous model of glutamate uptake by EAAT2, we predict that the voltage sensitivity of exchange is caused by the voltage-dependent third Na(+) binding. Further, both our experiments and simulations suggest that the relative rates of net uptake and heteroexchange are comparable in EAAT2.
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Novel influenza A(H7N2) virus in chickens, Jilin province, China, 2014.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In February 2014, while investigating the source of a human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in northern China, we isolated subtypes H7N2 and H9N2 viruses from chickens on the patient's farm. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. Continued surveillance is needed.
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RBP-J imposes a requirement for ITAM-mediated costimulation of osteoclastogenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Osteoclastogenesis requires activation of RANK signaling as well as costimulatory signals from immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing (ITAM-containing) receptors/adaptors, predominantly tyrosine kinase-binding proteins DAP12 and FcR?, in osteoclast precursors. It is not well understood how costimulatory signals are regulated and integrated with RANK signaling. Here, we found that osteopetrotic bone phenotypes in mice lacking DAP12 or DAP12 and FcR? are mediated by the transcription factor RBP-J, as deletion of Rbpj in these mice substantially rescued the defects of bone remodeling. Using a TNF-?-induced model of inflammatory bone resorption, we determined that RBP-J deficiency enables TNF-? to induce osteoclast formation and bone resorption in DAP12-deficient animals. Thus, RBP-J imposes a requirement for ITAM-mediated costimulation of RANKL or TNF-?-induced osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, RBP-J suppressed induction of key osteoclastogenic factors NFATc1, BLIMP1, and c-FOS by inhibiting ITAM-mediated expression and function of PLC?2 and activation of downstream calcium-CaMKK/PYK2 signaling. Moreover, RBP-J suppressed Plcg2 expression and downstream calcium oscillations indirectly by a TGF-?/PLC?2/calcium axis. Together, our findings indicate that RBP-J suppresses ITAM-mediated costimulation, thereby limiting crosstalk between ITAM and RANK/TNFR signaling and allowing fine tuning of osteoclastogenesis during bone homeostasis and under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, these data suggest that environmental cues that regulate RBP-J expression/function potentially modulate the requirement for costimulatory signaling for osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling.
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Near-term anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody administration protects murine liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury due to reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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CD4(+) T cell is acknowledged as a key factor in the initiation phase of liver ischemia reperfusion injury. The purpose of current study is to demonstrate the effect of antecedent near-term anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody treatment on IR-induced liver injury by modulation of CD4(+) T cells.
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Nonlinear effects in paul traps operated in the second stability region: analytical analysis and numerical verification.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Paul trap working in the second stability region has long been recognized as a possible approach for achieving high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), which however is still far away from the experimental implementations because of the narrow working area and inefficient ion trapping. Full understanding of the ion motional behavior is helpful for solving the problem. In this article, the ion motion in a superimposed octopole field, which was characterized by the nonlinear Mathieu equation, was solved analytically using Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. This method equivalently described the nonlinear disturbance by an effective quadrupole field with perturbed Mathieu parameters, a u (') and q u (') , which would bring huge convenience in the studies of nonlinear ion dynamics and was, therefore, used for rapid evaluation of the nonlinear effects of ion motion. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (4th R-K) indicated the error of PLK for characterizing the frequency shift of ion motion was within 15%.
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Invasive Candidiasis in preterm neonates in China: a retrospective study from 11 NICUS during 2009-2011.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Candida species is an important cause of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, most reports in China have been limited to single institutions. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis in multiple NICUs across China.
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Spontaneous and Partial Repair of Ribbon Synapse in Cochlear Inner Hair Cells After Ototoxic Withdrawal.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Ototoxicity is one of the major causes of sensorineural deafness. However, it remains unclear whether sensorineural deafness is reversible after ototoxic withdrawal. Here, we report that the ribbon synapses between the inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion nerve (SGN) fibers can be restored after ototoxic trauma. This corresponds with hearing restoration after ototoxic withdrawal. In this study, adult mice were injected daily with a low dose of gentamicin for 14 consecutive days. Immunostaining for RIBEYE/CtBP2 was used to estimate the number and size of synaptic ribbons in the cochlea. Hearing thresholds were assessed using auditory brainstem responses. Auditory temporal processing between IHCs and SGNs was evaluated by compound action potentials. We found automatic hearing restoration after ototoxicity withdrawal, which corresponded to the number and size recovery of synaptic ribbons, although both hearing and synaptic recovery were not complete. Thus, our study indicates that sensorineural deafness in mice can be reversible after ototoxic withdrawal due to an intrinsic repair of ribbon synapse in the cochlea.
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Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.
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Flowing gas in mass spectrometer: method for characterization and impact on ion processing.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Mass spectrometers are complex instrumentation systems where ions are transferred though different pressure regions and mass-analyzed under high vacuum. In this work, we have investigated the impact of the gas flows that exit almost universally in all pressure regions. We developed a method that incorporates the dynamic gas field with the electric field in the simulation of ion trajectories. The scope of the electro-hydrodynamic simulation (EHS) method was demonstrated for characterizing the ion optical systems at atmospheric pressure interfaces. With experimental validation, the trapping of the externally injected ions in a linear ion trap at low pressure was also studied. Further development of the EHS method and the knowledge acquired in this research are expected to be useful in the design of hybrid instruments and the study of ion energetics.
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[Mesenchymal stem cells promote mouse breast tumor progression by inducing the suppressive function of myeloid-derived CD11b? Gr1? cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To investigate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tumor progression by inducing immuno-suppressive function of myeloid-derived CD11b? Gr1? cells (BM-CD11b? Gr1? cells).
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A novel method to identify the DNA motifs recognized by a defined transcription factor.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The interaction between a protein and DNA is involved in almost all cellular functions, and is vitally important in cellular processes. Two complementary approaches are used to detect the interactions between a transcription factor (TF) and DNA, i.e. the TF-centered or protein-DNA approach, and the gene-centered or DNA-protein approach. The yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) is a powerful and widely used system to identify DNA-protein interactions. However, a powerful method to study protein-DNA interactions like Y1H is lacking. Here, we developed a protein-DNA method based on the Y1H system to identify the motifs recognized by a defined TF, termed TF-centered Y1H. In this system, a random short DNA sequence insertion library was generated as the prey DNA sequences to interact with a defined TF as the bait. Using this system, novel interactions were detected between DNA motifs and the AtbZIP53 protein from Arabidopsis. We identified six motifs that were specifically bound by AtbZIP53, including five known motifs (DOF, G-box, I-box, BS1 and MY3) and a novel motif BRS1 [basic leucine zipper (bZIP) Recognized Site 1]. The different subfamily bZIP members also recognize these six motifs, further confirming the reliability of the TF-centered Y1H results. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TF-centered Y1H could identify quickly the motifs bound by a defined TF, representing a reliable and efficient approach with the advantages of Y1H. Therefore, this TF-centered Y1H may have a wide application in protein-DNA interaction studies.
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High efficiency tandem mass spectrometry analysis using dual linear ion traps.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) plays an essential role in modern chemical analysis. It is used for differentiating isomers and isobars and suppressing chemical noise, which allows high precision quantitation. The MS/MS analysis has been typically applied by isolating the target precursor ions, while disregarding other ions, followed by a fragmentation process that produces the product ions. In this study, configurations of dual linear ion traps were explored to develop high efficiency MS/MS analysis. The ions trapped in the first linear ion trap were axially, mass-selectively transferred to the second linear ion trap for MS/MS analysis. Ions from multiple compounds simultaneously introduced into the mass spectrometer could be sequentially analyzed. This development enables highly efficient use of the sample. For miniature ion trap mass spectrometers with discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces, the analysis speed and the quantitation precision can be significantly improved.
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Blocking and reversing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated by traditional Chinese medicine (tablets of biejia ruangan or RGT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and ultimately liver-related death. Although oral antiviral therapy for patients with CHB reduces the risk of such complications, once cirrhosis is established, the benefits of antiviral therapy are not robustly demonstrated. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), some Chinese herbal medicines promote blood circulation and soften hard masses, and therefore they may block and reverse hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of TCM tablets of the compound biejia ruangan (RGT) administered for fibrosis, and entecavir (ETV), on the development of HCC in patients with CHB or hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis.
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Development of miniature mass spectrometry systems for bioanalysis outside the conventional laboratories.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Mass spectrometry (MS) is known for highly specific and sensitive analysis. The general applicability of this technique makes it a good candidate for biological applications over a much broader range than is now the case. The limiting factors preventing MS from being applied at the biologist's bench or in a physician's office are identified as the large size of the systems, as well as the complicated analytical procedures required. An approach for developing miniature MS analysis systems with simplified operational procedures is described and the associated technical developments are discussed.
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Activity of a novel strobilurin fungicide benzothiostrobin against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Benzothiostrobin is a novel strobilurin fungicide. In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to benzothiostrobin was determined using 100 strains collected during 2012 and 2013 from different geographical regions in Jiangsu Province of China, and the average EC50 value was 0.0218 (±0.0111)?g/mL for mycelial growth. After benzothiostrobin treatment, hyphae were contorted with offshoot of top increasing and cell membrane permeability increased markedly, while sclerotial production and oxalic acid content significantly decreased. Benzothiostrobin strongly inhibited mycelial respiration within 12h and the oxygen consumption of the mycelia could not be inhibited after 24h. On detached rapeseed leaves, the protective and curative activity test of benzothiostrobin suggested that benzothiostrobin had good control efficiency against S. sclerotiorum, and protective activity was better than curative activity. These results will contribute to us evaluating the potential of the new strobilurin fungicide benzothiostrobin for management of diseases caused by S. sclerotiorum and understanding the mode of action of benzothiostrobin against S. sclerotiorum.
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Preclinical humanized mouse model with ectopic ovarian tissues.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The aim of the present study was to establish human ovarian stroma within the mouse subcutaneously, in order for the resulting stroma to serve as a useful preclinical tool to study the progression of human ovarian cancer in a humanized ovarian microenvironment. Normal human ovarian tissues were subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and then the implants were identified by immunohistochemistry. The implants became vascularized and retained their original morphology for about 4 weeks following implantation. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-7 confirmed the ovarian origin of the epithelial cells. CD34 staining demonstrated human-derived vessels. Positive estrogen receptor and partially-positive progesterone receptor staining indicated the estrogen and progesterone dependence of the implants. Only vascular pericytes expressed ?-smooth muscle actin, indicating the normal ovarian origin of the xenografts. Human ovarian tissue successfully survived in SCID mice and retained its original properties. This humanized mouse model may be used as preclinical tool to investigate ovarian cancer.
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Decreased LINE-1 methylation levels in aldosterone-producing adenoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Abnormal global DNA methylation levels are associated with many diseases. In this study, we examined long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) methylation as a biomarker for abnormal global DNA methylation and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
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Virus Capture and Destruction by Label-Free Graphene Oxide for Detection and Disinfection Applications.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO) can efficiently capture viruses, destroy their surface proteins, and extract viral RNA in an aqueous environment by using the superficial bioreduction of GO. It follows from these phenomena that GO is an excellent nanomaterial for the high-throughput detection and disinfection of viruses, demonstrating its great potential for the prevention of environmental infections.
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Synthesis of benzoxazoles from 2-aminophenols and ?-diketones using a combined catalyst of Brønsted acid and copper iodide.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Cyclization reactions of 2-aminophenols with ?-diketones catalyzed by a combination of Brønsted acid and CuI are presented. Various 2-substituted benzoxazoles were obtained through these reactions. Different substituents such as methyl, chloro, bromo, nitro, and methoxy on 2-aminophenol are tolerated under the optimized reaction conditions.
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Lactoferrin stimulates osteoblast differentiation through PKA and p38 pathways independent of lactoferrin's receptor LRP1.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Lactoferrin (LF) has been established as a potent anabolic factor for bone health both in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LF's action are still largely unknown. Here, we explore the signaling pathways that mediate LF's beneficial effect on osteoblast differentiation. In primary osteoblast and preosteoblast MC3T3?E1, LF promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP)activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, and mineralization. Along with this enhanced osteogenic differentiation, activation of p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) was detected in LF?treated MC3T3?E1 cells. Downregulating p38 with selective inhibitor SB203580 or p38a small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated the effect of LF on osteogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of p38? significantly decreased LF?induced Runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) phosphorylation. According to previous studies and our results, we speculated that LF?induced osteoblast proliferation and differentiation were two relatively separate processes controlled by extracellular signal?regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 pathways, respectively. Besides p38 MAPK activation, protein kinase A(PKA) was also activated in MC3T3?E1 cells. PKA inhibitor H89 significantly inhibited LF?induced p38 activation, ALP activity, and OCN secretion, indicating that PKA possibly acted as an upstream kinase of p38. In order to further identify the role of LF's receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor?related protein 1 (LRP1), we constructed LRP1 stable?knockdown MC3T3?E1 cells. Neither LRP1 antagonist receptor associated protein (RAP), nor LRP1 knockdown approach could attenuate the LF?induced osteogenesis, implying that LF stimulated osteoblast differentiation via an LRP1?independent pathway. Taken together, the present work indicated that LF stimulated MC3T3?E1 preosteoblast differentiation mainly through LRP1?independent PKA and p38 signaling pathways. These results provided the first evidence of the signaling mechanisms of LF's effect on osteoblast differentiation.
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Correction Capability in the 3 Anatomical Planes of Different Pedicle Screw Designs in Scoliosis Instrumentation.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Computer simulations to compare the correction capabilities of different pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) instrumentations.
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Modification of carboxymethyl cellulose grafted with collagen peptide and its antioxidant activity.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Carboxymethyl cellulose used in wounds has little antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to improve the scavenging ability of carboxymethyl cellulose by modified with collagen peptide. The reaction conditions have been optimized by varying mass ratio of collagen peptide to carboxymethyl cellulose, temperature and reaction time. Antioxidant activities of carboxymethyl cellulose derivatives (CMCC) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, superoxide radicals and the reducing power. The effects of concentration, degree of substitution (DS) and molecular weight on three different radicals scavenging activity and reducing power were examined. Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the fibroblasts cells cytotoxicity of CMCC. Results showed that the scavenging effects of CMCC increased with the increasing of DS and concentration. This product of CMCC possesses a distinct antioxidant capacity on radicals.
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The moderating effect of stimulus attractiveness on the effect of alcohol consumption on attractiveness ratings.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To explore the enhancing effect of alcohol consumption on attractiveness ratings, in that few studies on the Beer Goggles effect control the stimuli attractiveness level and researchers have seldom considered extending the effect to stimuli other than faces.
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Optimization of the elution buffer and concentration method for detecting hepatitis E virus in swine liver using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop an optimal technique for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine livers. Here, three elution buffers and two concentration methods were compared with respect to enhancing recovery of HEV from swine liver samples. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed to detect HEV RNA. When phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) was used to concentrate HEV in swine liver samples using ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 6 of the 26 samples. When threonine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and ultrafiltration, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 of the 26 samples, respectively. When glycine buffer was used to concentrate HEV using ultrafiltration and PEG precipitation, real-time RT-PCR detected HEV in 1 and 3 samples of the 26 samples, respectively. When nested RT-PCR was used to detect HEV, all samples tested negative regardless of the type of elution buffer or concentration method used. Therefore, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and ultrafiltration with PBS buffer was the most sensitive and reliable method for detecting HEV in swine livers.
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Application of proteomics to determine the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine remedies.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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The rationale for using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on the experience that has been gained from its wide use over thousands of years. However, the mechanisms of action of many TCM are still unclear. Proteomics, which mainly characterizes protein functions, protein-protein interactions, and protein modification in tissues or animals, can be used to investigate signaling pathway perturbations in cells or the whole body. Proteomics has improved the discovery process of effective TCM compounds, and has helped to elucidate their possible mechanisms of action. Therefore, a systematic review of the application of proteomics on TCM research is of great importance and necessity. This review strives to describe the literature on the application of proteomics to elucidate the mechanism of action of TCM on various diseases, and provide the essential discussion on the further utilization of proteomics data to accelerate TCM research.
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Preparation and biological activity of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan conjugated with collagen peptide.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Tissue repair is a spontaneous process which initiated on wounding. If this complex mechanism is disturbed or impaired, the use of biomaterials might increase the chance of successful healing. In this view, a water-soluble chitosan derivative, quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) was prepared and collagen peptides (COPs) were grafted to the backbone by carbodiimide method. The reaction conditions affecting the degree of substitution (DS) were studied including the mass ratio of collagen peptide to QCMC, reaction temperature and reaction time. The hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity could be different by changing the DS, concentration and molecular weight. MTT assay was used to investigate the cell viability of the derivative. The results indicated that the introduction of collagen peptide into the QCMC improved its hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity and cell viability with the DS and concentration increased. Therefore, QCMC conjugated with collagen peptides may prove beneficial to the process of the wound-healing.
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Immunotherapy of HPV infection-caused genital warts using low dose cyclophosphamide.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Condylomata acuminata (CA), caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a common sexually transmitted disease with half a million new cases diagnosed in the United States per year and an annual increase in incidence in China. Conventional treatments, including topical cytotoxic agents, surgical excision and physical therapies, are traumatic, cause local side-effects and are invalid for subclinical or latent infection. Exploring immune approaches to eradicate HPV in CA therapeutics are highly desirable. Recent evidence shows that FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are accumulated in genital warts where they mediate immunosuppression. Intriguingly, a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), a conventional chemotherapy drug, can selectively target Treg cells, thereby enhancing the function of HPV-specific T cells and NK cells leading to efficient clearance of HPV infection. These findings have important clinical significance, and could potentially lead to a therapeutic breakthrough for the treatment of CA.
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Uterine artery embolization followed by dilation and curettage within 24hours compared with systemic methotrexate for cesarean scar pregnancy.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To assess the efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with dilation and curettage (D&C) within 24hours for the treatment of a cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), compared with methotrexate and D&C.
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Quantum dots and p-phenylenediamine based method for the sensitive determination of glucose.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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By introducing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the hybrid system of Mn-doped CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and glucose oxidase (GOD), a sensitive label-free method was proposed for direct detection of glucose. With glucose and PPD as substrates, 2,5-diamino-N,N'-di-(4-aminophenyl)-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diimine (DDACD) that intensively quenches the fluorescence of QDs can be produced by the catalysis of GOD. A detection limit as low as 3.2 ?M was obtained with the high-efficient fluorescence quencher. Two linear ranges, from 5.0 ?M to 1000 ?M and from 1.0 mM to 10.0 mM, were identified between time-gated fluorescence intensity and the concentration of glucose. It is shown that the newly proposed methods have high selectivity for glucose over other saccharides and coexisting biological species in serum. The method can be used directly to determine glucose in normal adult human serum without any complicated sample pretreatments. The recovery rate and repeatability of the method were also shown to be satisfactory.
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Ion sponge: a 3-dimentional array of quadrupole ion traps for trapping and mass-selectively processing ions in gas phase.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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In this study, the concept of ion sponge has been explored for developing 3D arrays of large numbers of ion traps but with simple configurations. An ion sponge device with 484 trapping units in a volume of 10 × 10 × 3.2 cm has been constructed by simply stacking 9 meshes together. A single rf was used for trapping ions and mass-selective ion processing. The ion sponge provides a large trapping capacity and is highly transparent for transfer of ions, neutrals, and photons for gas phase ion processing. Multiple layers of quadrupole ion traps, with 121 trapping units in each layer, can operate as a single device for MS or MS/MS analysis, or as a series of mass-selective trapping devices with interlayer ion transfers facilitated by AC and DC voltages. Automatic sorting of ions to different trapping layers based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios was achieved with traps of different sizes. Tandem-in-space MS/MS has also been demonstrated with precursor ions and fragment ions trapped in separate locations.
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Programming of the development of tumor-promoting neutrophils by mesenchymal stromal cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Neutrophils obtain immunosuppressive function during tumor development, yet the mechanisms are largely unknown. This study explored whether and how mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), the key component of tumor microenvironment, regulate the suppressive function of neutrophils.
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Bacillomycin L and surfactin contribute synergistically to the phenotypic features of Bacillus subtilis 916 and the biocontrol of rice sheath blight induced by Rhizoctonia solani.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The antagonistic activity of lipopeptides in Bacillus subtilis 916 has been well documented, yet relatively little is known about their mechanism in biofilm formation and environmental colonization. This study sought to examine the interaction of B. subtilis 916 on Rhizoctonia solani-infected rice sheath to elucidate the mechanism of colonization on plant leaves. Results showed that the mutants ?bac, ?srf, and ?srf?+?bac of B. subtilis 916, deficient in bacillomycin L and surfactin production, respectively, not only altered colony morphology but also changed swarming motility, reduced antagonistic activity, and decreased biofilm formation. In particular, biofilm formation in mutant ?bac, not ?srf or ?srf?+?bac, were restored with addition of surfactin and bacillomycin L at 10 and 50 ?g/mL, respectively. Moreover, surfactin and bacillomycin L were able to restore or enhance swarming motility in the corresponding mutants at 10 ?g/mL, respectively. With the aid of green fluorescent protein tagging, it was demonstrated that B. subtilis 916 formed a robust biofilm on the rice sheath blight lesion and colonized well on R. solani-infected rice sheath, while its corresponding mutants performed poorly. These observations also correlated with the rice cultivar pot experiments, in which B. subtilis 916 exhibited greater biocontrol than its mutants. Our results suggest that surfactin and bacillomycin L contribute differently but synergistically to the biocontrol of rice sheath blight in B. subtilis 916 through its antifungal activity, biofilm formation, and colonization.
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Elucidation of the specific formation of homo- and heterodimeric forms of ThbZIP1 and its role in stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Protein-protein interactions are important for the molecular understanding of the biological processes of proteins. The dimerization of bZIPs (basic leucine zipper proteins) is involved in modifying binding site specificities, altering dimer stability, and permitting a new set of specific protein-to-protein interactions to occur at the promoter. In the present study, we studied the whether ThbZIP1 form homo- and heterodimers using the yeast two-hybrid method. Five bZIP genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida to investigate their interaction with ThbZIP1. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 can form homodimers with itself, and three out of five bZIPs could interact with the ThbZIP1 protein to form heterodimers. Real-time RT-PCR results suggested that these ThbZIPs can all respond to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid (ABA), and shared very similar expression patterns in response to NaCl, ABA or PEG6000. Subcellular localization studies showed that all ThbZIPs are targeted to the nucleus. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 are dimeric proteins, which can form homo- or heterodimers.
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Metabolomic does not predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown)
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Metabolomic, a systematic study of metabolites, may be a useful tool in understanding the pathological processes that underlie the occurrence and progression of a disease. We hypothesized that metabolomic would be helpful in assessing a specific pattern in heart failure patients, also according to the underlining causes and in defining, prior to device implantation, the responder and nonresponder patient to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).
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Obstructive jaundice due to von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated pancreatic lesions: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited neoplastic syndrome that may lead to pancreatic masses and obstructive jaundice. The present study describes the case of a 20-year-old male who suffered from obstructive jaundice due to VHL disease-associated pancreatic lesions whose primary symptom was dizziness, followed by the appearance of jaundice. Since the excision of the renal cell carcinomas was not possible, the patient also refused surgery to resect the pancreatic head mass. A metallic stent was placed at the stenosis site of the common bile duct. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCD) surgery was later performed following complete blockage of the stent, however, to date, the patient continues to rely on PTCD. VHL disease-associated pancreatic lesions are rarely the direct cause of mortality, however, obstructive jaundice due to these lesions may be lethal. Therefore, the treatment of patients with incurable renal or central nervous system tumors and obstructive jaundice presents a problem.
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Biomechanical analysis of iliac screw fixation in spinal deformity instrumentation.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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High rates of iliac screw fixation failures have been reported in spinopelvic instrumentations. The objective was to assess the iliac screw loads as functions of instrumentation variables.
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Quantitative assessment of protein adsorption on microparticles with particle mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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In this paper, particle mass spectrometry (PMS), which consists of an aerodynamic desorption/ionization (AD) source, a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass analyzer, and a charge detector, was exploited to characterize the protein adsorption on microparticles based on the mass variations of microparticles before and after protein adsorption. This method is simple and has low sample cost. Importantly, its mass resolution is good enough to distinguish the microparticles with and without protein. For the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on 3 ?m porous poly styrene-divinylbenzene (poly S-DVB), the minimum mass increase that can be resolved by PMS corresponds to 128 fg (1.8 ng/cm(2)) or 1.17 × 10(6) BSA molecules on each poly S-DVB particle. With PMS, the adsorption process of BSA on poly S-DVB spheres was successfully characterized, and the obtained maximum adsorption capacity qm and dissociation constant Kd were consistent with that determined by the conventional depletion method. In addition, the influence of surface modification of silica particles on the enzyme immobilization was evaluated. Compared with C4 (propyldimethylsilane), C8 (octyldimethylsilane), and Ph (phenyldimethylchlorosilane), the CN (cyanoethyldimethylchlorosilane) functionalized silica particles were screened to be most beneficial for the immobilization of both lysozyme and trypsin.
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Production of LYZL6, a novel human c-type lysozyme, in recombinant Pichia pastoris employing high cell density fed-batch fermentation.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Lysozyme acts as an important defensive factor in innate immunity due to its well-recognized bacteriolytic activity. Here we describe the production and performance of human lysozyme-like 6 (LYZL6), a novel human c-type lysozyme homolog. A synthetic codon-optimized cDNA encoding the intact amino acid sequence of LYZL6 was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168. Bioactive LYZL6 was successfully produced as a single major secreted protein with a molecular weight of 15 kDa, and exhibited bacteriolytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The expression conditions were optimized, and the highest expression level of LYZL6 occurred when the recombinant strain was induced with 1.5% methanol under pH 4.5 at 24°C for 96 h. When high cell density fermentation of the recombinant P. pastoris was performed using a fed-batch strategy for totally 125 h in a 30 L fermenter, the dry cell weight and the extracellular lysozyme activity were increased to 116.3 g/L and 2340 U/mL, respectively. The LYZL6 protein concentration was 331 mg/L of fermentation supernatant, and the specific activity of LYZL6 towards M. lysodeikticus was 7069 U/mg. Therefore, we proved that LYZL6 is an antibacterial protein, suggesting a potential application of LYZL6 as an antimicrobial agent, and Pichia expression system for LYZL6 was successful and industrially promising.
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Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates and its application as anticoagulant and wound dressing.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Tissue engineering is aiming to build an artificial environment or biological scaffold material that imitates the living environment of cells in the body. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates were prepared by reacting carboxymethyl cellulose with N(SO3Na)3 which was synthesized by sodium bisulfite and sodium nitrite in aqueous solution. The reaction conditions affected the degree of substitution (DS) were measured by the barium sulfate nephelometry method. And the anticoagulant activity of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates with different DS, concentration and molecular weights were investigated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). In addition, the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates on wound healing had been evaluated by the rate of wound healing and the histological examinations. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates improved its anticoagulant activity, and the wound dressings treated with carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates obviously promoted wound healing.
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Hazardous substances in indoor dust emitted from waste TV recycling facility.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Various hazardous substances contained in waste TV sets might be released into environment via dust during recycling activities. Two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and five kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) were detected in indoor dust collected from two workshops (TV dismantling workshop and subsequent recycling workshop). PBDEs concentrations in dust from waste wires recycling line (722,000 ng/g) were the highest among the studied sites, followed by those in manual dismantling-sorting line (117,000 ng/g), whereas TBBPA concentrations were the highest in manual dismantling-sorting line (557 ng/g) and printed circuit board (PCB) recycling line (428 ng/g). For heavy metals, Cu and Pb were the most enriched metals in all dust samples. The highest concentration of Pb (22,900 mg/kg) was found in TV dismantling workshop-floor dust. Meanwhile, Cu was the predominant metal in dust from the PCB recycling line, especially in dust collected from electrostatic separation area (42,700 mg/kg). Occupational exposure assessment results showed that workers were the most exposed to BDE-209 among the four PBDE congeners (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153, and BDE-209) in both workshops. The hazard quotient (HQ) indicated that noncancerous effects were unlikely for both BFRs and heavy metals (HQ?
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Clinical significance of migration and invasion inhibitor protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Migration and invasion inhibitor protein (MIIP) was initially identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Recently, MIIP has emerged as a key protein in regulating cell migration and invasion. However, the MIIP expression profile in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been analyzed. In the present study, MIIP mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in 37 NSCLC specimens and matched normal tissue samples. MIIP protein expression in a further 94 NSCLC specimens was examined with immunohistochemistry. Patient survival data were collected retrospectively, and the association between MIIP protein expression and the five-year overall survival rate was evaluated. The results revealed that MIIP mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in cancer tissues, as compared with the matched normal tissues. MIIP expression levels were significantly associated with pathology and tumor stage, with reduced MIIP mRNA expression levels detected in advanced tumor stage samples. Furthermore, patients with MIIP-positive protein expression had an improved prognosis as compared with those patients with MIIP-negative protein expression, with five-year survival rates of 41.7 and 22.4%, respectively (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, P=0.028). A significant association between MIIP protein expression and improved prognosis was also demonstrated using univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.033 and P=0.040, respectively). These results suggest that MIIP may have a potential role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC and also confirm that MIIP is a putative tumor-suppressor gene. Therefore, MIIP may be identified as a functional genetic marker of NSCLC development and prognosis, and may be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer.
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Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2)?=?0.906; P?
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Tetrabromobisphenol A contamination and emission in printed circuit board production and implications for human exposure.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The emission of and exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) during the production of printed circuit boards (PCBs) were evaluated in this study. TBBPA was determined in production wastes (fine solid waste, rinsing water, effluent and sludge) and environmental samples (dust and PM10) from a typical PCB plant. The TBBPA concentrations of the solid and liquid wastes were on the order of 10(2)-10(4)ng/g and 10(1)-10(2)ng/L, respectively. The highest emission to the environment was exhibited by the fine solid waste (187-1220?g/kg-PCB), suggesting the need for strict control of its production and disposal. Regarding the environmental samples, the TBBPA contents of dust (125-9090ng/g) and PM10 (12.3-1640pg/m(3)) were higher than other values reported worldwide, indicating that PCB production was a non-negligible source of TBBPA for the occupational environment. TBBPA contamination mainly occurred in the form of sedimentary dust rather than suspended particulate matter. According to our estimation, worker exposures to TBBPA via dust ingestion, dust dermal absorption and PM10 inhalation varied widely by process, with the greatest exposures being 1930, 431 and 96.5pg/kg-bw/day, respectively. The exposure via dust represented most of the overall exposure via the above three pathways in PCB workshops.
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PM2.5, PM10 and health risk assessment of heavy metals in a typical printed circuit noards manufacturing workshop.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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A typical Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturer was chosen as the object of this study. During PCB processing, fine particulate matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Ni) will be released into the air and dust, which then impact workers' health and the environment. The concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP), PM10 and PM2.5 in the off-site were 106.3, 90.0 and 50.2?g/m(3), respectively, while the concentrations of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 in the workshops ranged from 36.1 to 365.3, from 27.1 to 289.8 and from 22.1 to 212.3?g/m(3), respectively. Almost all six of the heavy metals were detected in all of the particle samples except Cd. For each workshop, it was obvious that Zn was the most enriched metal in TSP, followed by Cu>Pb (Cr)>Ni>Cd, and the same trend was found for PM10 and PM2.5. In the dust samples, Cu (which ranged from 4.02 to 56.31mg/g) was the most enriched metal, followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd, and the corresponding concentrations ranged from 0.77 to 4.47, 0.37 to 1.59, 0.26 to 0.84, 0.13 to 0.44 and nd to 0.078mg/g, respectively. The health risk assessment showed that noncancerous effects are unlikely for Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd and Ni. The carcinogenic risks for Cd and Ni were all lower than 10(-6), except for Cr. This result indicates that carcinogenic risks for workers are relatively possible in the workshops. These findings suggest that this technology is advanced from the perspective of environmental protection in the waste PCB's recycling industry.
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Comparison of conventional PCR, multiplex PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid detection of Arcobacter species.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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This study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of Arcobacter species. Specific primers targeting the 23S ribosomal RNA gene were used to detect Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. The specificity of the LAMP primer set was assessed using DNA samples from a panel of Arcobacter and Campylobacter species, and the sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of Arcobacter species cultures. LAMP showed a 10- to 1,000-fold-higher sensitivity than multiplex PCR, with a detection limit of 2 to 20 CFU per reaction in vitro. Whereas multiplex PCR showed cross-reactivity with Campylobacter species, the LAMP method developed in this study was more sensitive and reliable than conventional PCR or multiplex PCR for the detection of Arcobacter species.
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A two-enzyme immobilization approach using carbon nanotubes/silica as support.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Multiple enzyme mixtures are attractive for the production of many compounds at an industrial level. We report a practical and novel approach for coimmobilization of two enzymes. The system consists of a silica microsphere core coated with two layers of individually immobilized enzymes. The model enzymes ?-amylase (AA) and glucoamylase (GluA) were individually immobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A CNT-GluA layer was formed by adsorbing CNT-GluA onto silica microsphere. A sol-gel layer with entrapped CNT-AA was then formed outside the CNT-GluA/silica microsphere conjugate. The coimmobilized ?-amylase and glucoamylase exhibited 95.1% of the activity of the mixture of free ?-amylase and glucoamylase. The consecutive use exhibited a good stability of the coimmobilized enzymes. The developed approach demonstrates advantages, including controlling the ratio of coimmobilized enzymes in an easy way, facilitating diffusion of small molecules in and out of the matrix, and preventing the leaching of enzymes. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014.
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Masticatory Muscles Dysfunction after CT-guided Percutaneous Trigeminal Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Detailed Analysis.
Pain Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the severity and the natural course of masticatory muscles weakness that developed after CT-guided percutaneous trigeminal radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PT-RFT) for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN).
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Transglutaminase-catalyzed grafting collagen on chitosan and its characterization.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Collagen grafted chitosan was prepared with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as biocatalyst which showed high efficiency, selectivity, mild reaction condition and environmental friendliness. The reaction conditions that influenced the degree of substitution (DS) were optimized, which included the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the mass ratio of collagen to chitosan and the mass ratio of MTGase to chitosan. In this study, the water-solubility collagen-chitosan could serve not only to reduce the loss of moisture but also to absorb the moisture. And the moisture absorption and moisture retention abilities were closely related to the DS values. In addition, in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of DS values and concentration. Furthermore, L929 mouse fibroblasts were cultured with collagen-chitosan, and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay exhibited that collagen-chitosan with DS of 0.660 displayed pronounced cell viability at 2.5mg/ml. Therefore, the water-soluble collagen-chitosan showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.
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Convenient synthesis of benzothiazoles and benzimidazoles through Brønsted acid catalyzed cyclization of 2-amino thiophenols/anilines with ?-diketones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Brønsted acid catalyzed cyclization reactions of 2-amino thiophenols/anilines with ?-diketones under oxidant-, metal-, and radiation-free conditions are described. Various 2-substituted benzothiazoles/benzimidazoles are obtained in satisfactory to excellent yields. Different groups such as methyl, chloro, nitro, and methoxy linked on benzene rings were tolerated under the optimized reaction conditions.
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Ultrafast coating procedure for graphene on solid-phase microextraction fibers.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Graphene's unsurpassed specific surface area (up to 2630 m(2)/g) makes it be an ideal absorbent. To promote its use as a sorption coating in solid phase microextraction, an ultrafast method was established, able to coat a stable layer of graphene on a metal fiber in only 23s, with adjustable coating thickness between 10 and 40 µm by using sleeve barrels. The core idea includes: (1) use of semi-polymerized dimethylsiloxane as a sticky pre-liner to glue graphene and (2) rapid conversion from pre-liner to elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fix the glued graphene. Ultrafast conversion of the pre-liner to PDMS was achieved by direct heating of the metallic fibers. The method produced very stable and durable fibers, capable of being used for at least 120 extractions-desorption cycles and stored at room temperature for at least 20 months. Interestingly, the new method could always coat a layer of mossy graphene on the fibers to largely increase their extraction capacity. Their limit of detection reached 2 pg/L PAHs, being about 3 orders of magnitude better than that of the reported graphene-based fibers. They were applicable to the direct extraction of trace PAHs in beverages, with a linear regression range from 10 to 1000 pg/L, and recoveries of 88.9-105.3%. The relative standard deviations of peak area were 2.9-8.9% for the same fiber and 3.0-10.0% for different fibers. The method is also suitable for re-coating a used fiber and extendable to fast coating other solid sorbents on heat-resistant supports.
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Occurrences and inventories of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in wastes from printed circuit board production.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Pollutants including heavy metals and brominated flame retardant were detected in 10 types of production wastes from a typical printed circuit board manufacturing plant, and their inventories were estimated. Rinsing water from etching process had the highest concentrations of copper (665.51 mg/L), lead (1.02 mg/L), nickel (3.60 mg/L), chromium (0.97 mg/L), and tin (1.79 mg/L). Powdered solid waste (SW) from the cut lamination process contained the highest tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) levels (49.86 mg/kg). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were absent in this plant, in agreement with the international regulations of PBDE phase out. The pollutant inventories in the wastes exhibited in the order of copper >?> zinc > tin ? nickel > lead > chromium >?>?TBBPA. The potential environmental impact of pollutants in SW during production and disposal were further investigated. A high partitioning of pollutant concentration between the total suspended particle and SW (-0.10 < log K TS < 2.12) was observed for most pollutants, indicating the emission pathway from SW to the airborne atmosphere in the workshop. Although SW met the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, drilling powder with the smallest particle diameter still showed high leachabilities of lead and tin which may lead to a negative environmental impact during disposal.
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Light Spatial Distribution in the Canopy and Crop Development in Cotton.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The partitioning of light is very difficult to assess, especially in discontinuous or irregular canopies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the spatial distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in a heterogeneous cotton canopy based on a geo-statistical sampling method. Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Anyang, Henan, China. Field plots were arranged in a randomized block design with the main plot factor representing the plant density. There were 3 replications and 6 densities used in every replicate. The six plant density treatments were 15,000, 33,000, 51,000, 69,000, 87,000 and 105,000 plants ha-1. The following results were observed: 1) transmission within the canopy decreased with increasing density and significantly decreased from the top to the bottom of the canopy, but the greatest decreases were observed in the middle layers of the canopy on the vertical axis and closing to the rows along the horizontal axis; 2) the transmitted PAR (TPAR) of 6 different cotton populations decreased slowly and then increased slightly as the leaves matured, the TPAR values were approximately 52.6-84.9% (2011) and 42.7-78.8% (2012) during the early cotton developmental stage, and were 33.9-60.0% (2011) and 34.5-61.8% (2012) during the flowering stage; 3) the Leaf area index (LAI) was highly significant exponentially correlated (R2?=?0.90 in 2011, R2?=?0.91 in 2012) with the intercepted PAR (IPAR) within the canopy; 4) and a highly significant linear correlation (R2?=?0.92 in 2011, R2?=?0.96 in 2012) was observed between the accumulated IPAR and the biomass. Our findings will aid researchers to improve radiation-use efficiency by optimizing the ideotype for cotton canopy architecture based on light spatial distribution characteristics.
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Humeral brown tumor as first presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas: report of two cases and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two cases of brown tumor of the humerus caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas were presented, which to our knowledge has not been previously documented in the international literature. There are two highlights in these two cases. First, brown tumors of the long bones may commonly involve femur and tibia, rarely involve humerus in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. Second, ectopic parathyroid adenomas of our patient had an unusual location of this disorder. We explored the role of ultrasound, MIBI scintigraphy as well as FNAB (fine needle aspiration biopsy) in diagnosis of brown tumor especially simultaneously occurrence of ectopic parathyroid adenomas and the importance of a thorough diagnostic work-up. The contemporary diagnosis and treatment options will be emphasized.
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Application of a Novel Alkali-Tolerant Thermostable DyP-Type Peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in Biobleaching of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0) and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C), and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0). SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO) in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.
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High-frequency aberrantly methylated targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified via global DNA methylation analysis using methylCap-seq.
Clin Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extensive reprogramming and dysregulation of DNA methylation is an important characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our study aimed to characterize the genomic methylation patterns in various genomic contexts of PC. The methyl capture sequencing (methylCap-seq) method was used to map differently methylated regions (DMRs) in pooled samples from ten PC tissues and ten adjacent non-tumor (PN) tissues. A selection of DMRs was validated in an independent set of PC and PN samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), and methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-based qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The mRNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression of the corresponding genes was investigated using RT-qPCR.
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Control of trichome formation in Arabidopsis by poplar single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1), the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3), and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2). R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), TCL2, TRYPTICHON (TRY), CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GL1 for binding GL3 or EGL3, thus blocking the formation of TTG1-GL3/EGL3-GL1, an activator complex required for the activation of the trichome positive regulator gene GL2. However, it is largely unknown if R3 MYBs in other plant species especially woody plants have similar functions. By BLASTing the Populus trichocarpa protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of TCL1, an Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor, we identified a total of eight R3 MYB transcription factor genes in poplar, namely P. trichocarpa TRICHOMELESS1 through 8 (PtrTCL1-PtrTCL8). The amino acid signature required for interacting with bHLH transcription factors and the amino acids required for cell-to-cell movement of R3 MYBs are not fully conserved in all PtrTCLs. When tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts, however, all PtrTCLs interacted with GL3. Expressing each of the eight PtrTCL genes in Arabidopsis resulted in either glabrous phenotypes or plants with reduced trichome numbers, and expression levels of GL2 in all transgenic plants tested were greatly reduced. Expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TCL1 native promoter almost completely complemented the mutant phenotype of tcl. In contrast, expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TRY native promoter in the try mutant, or under the control of CPC native promoter in the cpc mutant resulted in glabrous phenotypes, suggesting that PtrTCL1 functions similarly to TCL1, but not TRY and CPC.
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Early diagnosis and treatment of growing skull fracture.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication of pediatric skull fractures and causes delayed-onset neurological deficits and cranial asymmetry. Early treatment is pivotal to prevent those complications. The aim of this study is to highlight the early diagnosis and treatment of GSFs.
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Orally Administered Nanocurcumin to Attenuate Morphine Tolerance: Comparison between Negatively Charged PLGA and Partially and Fully PEGylated Nanoparticles.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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We have formulated hydrophobic curcurmin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] into stable nanoparticle suspensions (nanocurcumin) to overcome its relatively low bioavailability, high rate of metabolism, and rapid elimination and clearance from the body. Employing the curcumin nanoformulations as the platform, we discovered that curcumin has the potential to alleviate morphine tolerance. The two types of stable polymeric nanoparticles, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), and the hybrid of the two were generated using flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray drying. The optimized formulations have high drug loading (>45%), small particles size with narrow distribution, and controlled surface properties. Mice behavioral studies (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) were conducted to verify the effects of nanocurcumin on attenuating morphine tolerance. Significant analgesia was observed in mice during both tail-flick and hot-plate tests using orally administered nanocurcumin following subcutaneous injections of morphine. However, unformulated curcumin at the same dose showed no effect. Compared with PEGylated nanocurcumin, negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles showed better functionality.
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Effects of intra- and post-operative ischemia on the metabolic profile of clinical liver tissue specimens monitored by NMR.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Metabolomic profiles of tissues could greatly contribute to advancements in personalized medicine but are influenced by differences in adopted preanalytical procedures; nonhomogeneous pre- and post-excision ischemia times are potential sources of variability. In this study, we monitored the impact of ischemia on the metabolic profiles, acquired with high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (1)H NMR, of 162 human liver samples collected during and up to 6 h after routine surgery. The profiles changed significantly as a function of intraoperative warm ischemia (WI) and postresection cold ischemia (CI) time, with significant variations in the concentration of the same 16 metabolites. Therefore, a tight control of the preanalytical phase is essential for reliable metabolomic analyses of liver diseases. The NMR profiles provide a reliable "fingerprint" of ischemia and have predictive value: the best-performing predictive models are found to discriminate extreme time points of CI (0 vs 360 ) in the training set with cross-validation accuracy of ?90%; samples in the validation cohort can discriminate short (?60) from long (?180) CI with an accuracy of ?80%. For WI, the corresponding figures are 95.6 and 92%, respectively. Therefore, ischemia NMR profiles might become a tool for tissue quality control in biobanks.
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How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?
Cell Adh Migr
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become "directed walkers" is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.
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HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.
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Steroid receptor co-activator-3 promotes osteosarcoma progression through up-regulation of FoxM1.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that the three homologous members of steroid receptor co-activator (SRC) family (SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3) play key roles in enhancing cell proliferation in various human cancers, such as breast, prostate, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the function of SRC-3 in osteosarcoma remains largely unexplored. In the current study, we found that SRC-3, but not SRC-1 and SRC-2, was dramatically up-regulated in human osteosarcoma tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues. To explore the functions of SRC-3 in osteosarcoma, in vitro studies were performed in MG63 and U2OS cells. SRC-3 overexpression promoted osteosarcoma cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of SRC-3 inhibits its proliferation. In support of these findings, we further demonstrated that SRC-3 up-regulated FoxM1 expression through co-activation of C/EBP?. Together our results show that SRC-3 drives osteosarcoma progression and imply it as a therapeutic target to abrogate osteosarcoma.
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The dehydrin wzy2 promoter from wheat defines its contribution to stress tolerance.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Dehydrins (DHNs), which are stress-related proteins, are important for plant survival under various abiotic and biotic stresses. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of wheat-derived DHNs under these stresses, we characterized the DHN wzy2 promoter of the wheat cultivar Zhengyin 1 and studied its contribution to stress tolerance. Sequence analysis indicated that the wzy2 gene contains one 109-bp intron inserted in the nucleotide sequence encoding the S-motif and characterized by a GT-AG border. The wzy2 promoter was revealed to contain several potential stress-related cis-acting regulatory elements, including elements responsive to abscisic acid (ABA; ABREs), anoxia (GC motifs), low temperature (LTREs), auxin (TGA elements), methyl jasmonate (MeJA; TGACG motifs), and gibberellin (TATC boxes). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that transcript accumulation occurred in response to low temperature, anoxia, indoleacetic acid, MeJA, ABA, and gibberellin (GA) treatments. Histochemical analysis of GUS expression demonstrated that wzy2 promoter activity could be upregulated by low temperature, anoxia, ABA, and GA treatments. Interestingly, wzy2 promoter element-driven ?-glucuronidase expression was first observed in meristemoids rather than calli of wheat seeds subjected to anoxia. Taken together, these results indicate that YSK2-type wzy2 can be induced directly by ABA, low temperature, anoxia, and GA treatments and indirectly by drought, implying that different cis-acting elements interact in stress response cross talk.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.