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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The role of Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of SrTiO3: direct experimental evidence.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Single crystalline SrTiO3 doped with 0.1 wt% Nb was used as a model system to evaluate the role of the Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of perovskites. The Ti bottom electrode formed an ohmic contact in the Ni/Nb:SrTiO3/Ti stack, whereas the Ni top electrode created a strong Schottky barrier, which was reflected in a huge semi-circle in the impedance spectrum of the stack. Bipolar switching was achieved in the voltage range of -4 to 4 V for the stack, two clear resistance states were created by electric pulses, and the Schottky barrier heights corresponding to the high/low resistance states were experimentally determined. A direct relationship between the resistance state and the Schottky barrier height was thus established.
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Quantitative prediction of enantioseparation using ?-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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?-Cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors are becoming increasingly important for enantioseparations in capillary electrophoresis (CE). Nevertheless, there are some enormous challenges in choosing effective selectors from a variety of compounds, and up to now no systematic quantitative studies for predicting the possibility of enantiomeric separation before CE experiments have been reported. In this paper, in order to resolve previous confusions, we investigated the enantioseparations of ten chiral drugs using a method of combining experiments with theoretical calculations. MMFF, PM3, DFT and ONIOM2 methods were simultaneously utilized during the course of our computer simulations. The results indicated that a specific value of greater than or approximately equal to 6 kJ mol(-1) for the interaction energy difference (??E) between a pair of enantiomers with a selector is required in order to achieve enantiomeric separation. This discovery offers a meaningful reference to predict enantiomeric separations, so as to design and synthesize some more efficient chiral selectors.
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The synthesis of multi-structured SnS nanocrystals toward enhanced performance for photovoltaic devices.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The synthesis of multi-scale SnS nanostructures with favorable fluorescence is facilely accomplished via a well-excogitated gentle process, involving simple precursors, stabilized chemical medium and primitive ligand exchange. The fabricated SnS nanocrystals can be adopted as hole transporting materials in photovoltaic devices for enhancing its power conversion efficiency.
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Graphene coated ZnO nanowire optical waveguides.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report the fabrication and characterization of freestanding graphene coated ZnO nanowires (GZNs) for optical waveguiding. The GZNs are fabricated using a tape-assist transfer under micromanipulation. Owing to the deep-subwavelength diameter and high index contrast of the ZnO nanowire waveguide, light-graphene interaction is significantly enhanced by the strong surface optical fields, resulting in a linear absorption as high as 0.11 dB/µm in a 606-nm-diameter GZN at 1550-nm wavelength. Launched by 1550-nm-wavelength femto-second pulses, a 475-nm-diameter GZN with a graphene coating length of merely 24 µm exhibits evident nonlinear saturable absorption with a peak power threshold down to 1.3 W. In addition, we also demonstrate a transmission modulation for 1550-nm-wavelength signal with a 590-nm-diameter GZN, showing the possibility of using GZN waveguides as nanoscale bulding blocks for nanophotonic devices.
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[Clinical investigation on AC/A ratio in intermittent exotropia coexisting with ametropia].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To investigate AC/A ratio and coexisting ametropia in intermittent exotropia. To discuss the relation between AC/A ratio and the development of intermittent exotropia.
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A high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reactions based on electrochemical post-treatment of ultrathin carbon layer coated cobalt nanoparticles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Electrochemical post-treatment of ultrathin carbon layer coated cobalt nanoparticles generates a novel electrocatalyst, affording a small overpotential of 333 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a small Tafel slope of ?58 mV per decade.
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[Central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a case and literature review].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To summarize the clinical features, imaging characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of a case with central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis, as well as to review the related literature.
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Effects of electroacupuncture on bone mass and cathepsin K expression in ovariectomised rats.
Acupunct Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To characterise the effects of early and late electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on serum 17?-oestradiol (E2), C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), bone mineral density (BMD), biomechanical bone strength and mRNA expression of cathepsin K in ovariectomised (OVX) rats.
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Computer-based first-principles kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of polyethylene glycol degradation in aqueous phase UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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We have developed a computer-based first-principles kinetic Monte Carlo (CF-KMC) model to predict degradation mechanisms and fates of intermediates and byproducts produced from the degradation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2). The CF-KMC model is composed of a reaction pathway generator, a reaction rate constant estimator, and a KMC solver. The KMC solver is able to solve the predicted pathways successfully without solving ordinary differential equations. The predicted time-dependent profiles of averaged molecular weight, and polydispersitivity index (i.e., the ratio of the weight-averaged molecular weight to the number-averaged molecular weight) for the PEG degradation were validated with experimental observations. These predictions are consistent with the experimental data. The model provided detailed and quantitative insights into the time evolutions of molecular weight distribution and concentration profiles of low molecular weight products and functional groups. Our approach may be useful to predict the fates of degradation products for a wide range of complicated organic contaminants.
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Nonstructural proteins 2C and 3D are involved in autophagy as induced by the encephalomyocarditis virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) can infect a variety of animal species and humans. Although the EMCV infection is known to induce autophagy to promote its replication in host cells, the viral proteins that are responsible for inducing autophagy are unknown.
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Insulator-to-semiconductor transition of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 at temperatures ?200 °C.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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As a classic dielectric material, BaTiO3 is one of the most important materials used in electronic applications. In this work, highly dense BaTiO3 ceramics with an average grain size of 35 nm were prepared, and dielectric and electrical properties were investigated. Microcrystalline BaTiO3 is an insulator at low temperatures; however, nanocrystalline BaTiO3 shows considerable semiconductivity with an activation energy of only 0.27 eV at temperatures ?200 °C. At room temperature, the conductivity of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 is about fourteen orders of magnitude higher than that of the microcrystalline counterpart. Only by decreasing the grain size, one can transform BaTiO3 from an insulator to a semiconductor.
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[Expression and significance of cyclophilin A in synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To observe the expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA) and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on CyPA expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluate the potential significance of CyPA in the regulation of the onset and development of inflammation process in RA patients.
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The interaction of nonstructural protein 9 with retinoblastoma protein benefits the replication of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that plays a vital role in viral replication. This study first demonstrated that the Nsp9 of genotype 2 PRRSV interacted with cellular retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and Nsp9 co-localized with pRb in the cytoplasm of PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Next, the overexpression of truncated pRb was shown to inhibit the PRRSV replication and silencing the pRb gene could facilitate the PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells. Finally, the pRb level was confirmed to be down-regulated in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells, and Nsp9 was shown to promote the pRb degradation by proteasome pathway. These findings indicate that the interaction of Nsp 9 with pRb benefits the replication of genotype 2 PRRSV in vitro, helping to understand the roles of Nsp9 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV.
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Competition between ?-hole interaction and hydrogen bond in the complexes of F2XO (X = C and Si) and HCN.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Complexes F2XO???HCN (X = C and Si) have been studied by quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level to investigate the competition between ?-hole interaction and hydrogen bond. F2XO has a dual role of a Lewis acid and base with the ?-hole on the X atom and the O atom to participate in the ?-hole interaction and hydrogen bond with HCN, respectively. Both types of interactions become stronger for X = Si, and the ?-hole interaction is much stronger than the hydrogen bond, particularly, the ?-hole interaction in F2SiO???NCH complex shows a binding energy of -119.8 kJ mol(-1). The C-H???O hydrogen bond is dominated by the electrostatic interaction, and this conclusion holds for the ?-hole interaction in F2CO???NCH complex, but the electrostatic and polarization contributions are similar in F2SiO???NCH complex.
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Crossover from 3D to 2D quantum transport in Bi2Se3/In2Se3 superlattices.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The topological insulator/normal insulator (TI/NI) superlattices (SLs) with multiple Dirac channels are predicted to offer great opportunity to design novel materials and investigate new quantum phenomena. Here, we report first transport studies on the SLs composed of TI Bi2Se3 layers sandwiched by NI In2Se3 layers artificially grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transport properties of two kinds of SL samples show convincing evidence that the transport dimensionality changes from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) when decreasing the thickness of building block Bi2Se3 layers, corresponding to the crossover from coherent TI transport to separated TI channels. Our findings provide the possibility to realizing "3D surface states" in TI/NI SLs.
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Potential effect of matrix stiffness on the enrichment of tumor initiating cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor initiating cell (TIC) plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. Biophysical forces in tumor microenvironment have an important effect on tumor formation and development. In this study, the potential effect of matrix stiffness on the biological characteristics of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TICs, especially the enrichment of HNSCC TICs, was investigated under three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions by means of alginate gel (ALG) beads with different matrix stiffnesses. ALG beads with soft (21kPa), moderate (70kPa) and hard (105kPa) stiffness were generated by changing alginate concentration. It was found that significant HNSCC TIC enrichment was achieved in the ALG beads with moderate matrix stiffness (70kPa). The gene expression of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog, TIC markers CD44 and ABCG2 was enhanced in cells under this moderate (70kPa) stiffness. HNSCC TIC proportion was also highly enriched under moderate matrix stiffness, accompanying with higher tumorigenicity, metastatic ability and drug resistance. And it was also found that the possible molecular mechanism underlying the regulated TIC properties by matrix stiffness under 3D culture conditions was significantly different from 2D culture condition. Therefore, the results achieved in this study indicated that 3D biophysical microenvironment had an important effect on TIC characteristics and alginate-based biomimetic scaffolds could be utilized as a proper platform to investigate the interaction between tumor cells and 3D microenvironment.
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Influenza A virus acquires enhanced pathogenicity and transmissibility after serial passages in swine.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus was derived from well-established swine influenza lineages; however, there is no convincing evidence that the pandemic virus was generated from a direct precursor in pigs. Furthermore, the evolutionary dynamics of influenza virus in pigs have not been well documented. Here, we subjected a recombinant virus (rH1N1) with the same constellation makeup as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus to nine serial passages in pigs. The severity of infection sequentially increased with each passage. Deep sequencing of viral quasispecies from the ninth passage found five consensus amino acid mutations: PB1 A469T, PA 1129T, NA N329D, NS1 N205K, and NEP T48N. Mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, however, differed greatly between the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Three representative viral clones with the five consensus mutations were selected for functional evaluation. Relative to the parental virus, the three viral clones showed enhanced replication and polymerase activity in vitro and enhanced replication, pathogenicity, and transmissibility in pigs, guinea pigs, and ferrets in vivo. Specifically, two mutants of rH1N1 (PB1 A469T and a combination of NS1 N205K and NEP T48N) were identified as determinants of transmissibility in guinea pigs. Crucially, one mutant viral clone with the five consensus mutations, which also carried D187E, K211E, and S289N mutations in its HA, additionally was able to infect ferrets by airborne transmission as effectively as the pandemic virus. Our findings demonstrate that influenza virus can acquire viral characteristics that are similar to those of the pandemic virus after limited serial passages in pigs. Importance: We demonstrate here that an engineered reassortant swine influenza virus, with the same gene constellation pattern as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus and subjected to only nine serial passages in pigs, acquired greatly enhanced virulence and transmissibility. In particular, one representative pathogenic passaged virus clone, which carried three mutations in the HA gene and five consensus mutations in PB1, PA, NA, NS1, and NEP genes, additionally was able to confer respiratory droplet transmission as effectively as the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. Our findings suggest that pigs can readily induce adaptive mutational changes to a precursor pandemic-like virus to transform it into a highly virulent and infectious form akin to that of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus, which underlines the potential direct role of pigs in promoting influenza A virus pathogenicity and transmissibility.
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus counteracts the porcine intrinsic virus restriction factors-IFITM1 and Tetherin in MARC-145 cells.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized to modulate the innate immune response of host. However, little is known about the effects of PRRSV infection on porcine intrinsic virus-restriction factors. This study presents the first demonstration that the nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) or envelope (E) protein of PRRSV interacted with porcine intrinsic virus-restriction factor IFITM1 or Tetherin. Next, in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells and the transfected cells with the IFITM1- or Tetherin-expressing plasmid, IFITM1 was shown to be mainly distributed perinuclear, and Tetherin was proposed to be partially removed away from cell surface. Moreover, the overexpression of IFITM1 and Tetherin were shown to have no obvious effects on the replication of PRRSV in MARC-145 cells. The Nsp3 of PRRSV was demonstrated to induce the proteasome-dependent degradation of IFITM1 upon PRRSV infection. These findings suggest that PRRSV might counteract the antiviral functions of IFITM1 and Tetherin by the interaction of the Nsp3 with IFITM1 and the E protein with Tetherin, providing a novel clue for exploring possible mechanisms associated with the evasion of PRRSV from immune recognition of host.
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Insight into the nanomechanical properties under indentation of ?-Si3N4 nano-thin layers in the basal plane using molecular dynamics simulation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to clarify the nanomechanical responses of ?-Si3N4 nano-thin layers in the basal plane for indenters of various radii, different indentation velocities and at different temperatures. It was found that the maximum loading stress and indenter displacement both increase with increasing radius of the indenter. A large number of N(6h)-Si bond-breaking defects and one N(2c)-Si bond-breaking defects are responsible for the initiation of fracturing. With increasing loading velocity, the maximum loading stresses show almost no change; however, a high loading velocity can shorten the displacement of the indenter and contributes to the formation of new N(2c)-Si bond-breaking defects. Thermal fluctuations can decrease the mechanical properties of the thin layer. The maximum loading stresses and indenter displacements are sensitive to both the radius of the indenter and the loading temperature.
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The relationship between the inflammatory response and cell adhesion on alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) microcapsules after transplantation.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Cell microencapsulation technology is a potential alternative therapy, but cell overgrowth and adhesion on the microcapsules after transplantation shortens their time of therapeutic efficacy. Inflammatory cells were the main cells that adhered to the microcapsules, so understanding the body's inflammatory processes would help to better identify the mechanisms of cell adhesion to the outer surface of the microcapsules. Our study measured the inflammatory cells and the cytokines and characterized the associated changes in the alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) microcapsules 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after implantation in the peritoneal cavity. Then the relationship between the inflammatory response and cell adhesion on the microcapsules was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the microcapsules did not evoke a systemic inflammatory response, but initiated a local inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, the correlation analysis showed that the level of cell adhesion on the microcapsules was related to the number of lymphocytes and macrophages, and the amount of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in the peritoneal cavity. Our results may provide a foundation for reducing the immune response to these microcapsules, prolonging graft survival and improving the efficacy of these treatments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Synthesis of methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18?-olean-1,9(11)-dien-30-oate analogues to determine the active groups for inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Fourteen of the methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18?-olean-1,9(11)-dien-30-oate (CDODO-Me-12, 10d) analogues with different structures of ring C were synthesized to determine the active groups for inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. An unsaturated group in ring C was required to maintain the ability to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Compound 10e with 9(11),12-dien in ring C displayed comparable apoptosis induction ability to 10d associated with decreased levels of c-FLIP, but not Mcl-1 and XIAP. Compound 10e had decreased ability to deplete GSH compared to compound 10d. Compound 10e represents a new active compound acting through a different mechanism from that of compound 10d.
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Improved islet purity by the hypertonic-hypotonic method.
Int J Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Islet purification is usually performed using the density gradient separation method, but the purity of islets is low because exocrine cells and the embedded islets are hard to remove by using only the density gradient method. The aim of this study was to establish a new islet purification process comprising a hypertonic-hypotonic treatment step followed by a density gradient centrifugation step to improve the purity of islets.
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Nsp9 and Nsp10 contribute to the fatal virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerging in China.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5'UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus.
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Role of three-dimensional matrix stiffness in regulating the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the most common primary liver cancer, resistance to anti-tumor drugs often caused the death of HCC cancer patients. Matrix stiffness was reported to be closely related to tumor chemoresistance, however, the relationship between HCC drug resistance and 3D matrix stiffness was still unclear at present. In this study, alginate gel (ALG) beads with controllable matrix stiffness were used to mimic tumor tissue rigidity, and the role of 3D matrix stiffness in regulating the chemoresistance of HCC cells was investigated by using these ALG beads. It was found that HCC cells in ALG beads with 105 kPa stiffness had highest resistance to paclitaxel, 5-FU, and cisplatin. Although the mechanism was still uncovered, ABC transporters and ER stress-related molecules were highly expressed in ALG bead-encapsulated HCC cells compared with two dimensional (2D)-cultured cells, which suggested a very complex mechanism underlying HCC drug resistance in 3D culture conditions. In addition, in order to mimic the specific stiffness of HCC tumor tissue, or other tumor tissues in vivo, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build up a prediction mathematical model so that ALG beads with desired matrix stiffness could be prepared by simply changing three factors: molecular weight, G content and alginate concentration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Pulsed electromagnetic fields inhibit bone loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Evidences have shown that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can partially prevent bone loss in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for these favorable effects are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PEMFs on bone mass and receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in STZ rats. Thirty 3-month-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following three groups (n = 10): control group (injection of saline vehicle), DM group (injection of STZ), and PEMFs group (injection of STZ + PEMFs exposure). One week following injection of STZ, rats in the PEMFs group were subject to PEMFs stimulus for 40 min/day, 5 days/week, and lasted for 12 weeks. After 12 week intervention, the results showed that PEMFs increased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase level and bone mineral density, and inhibited deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in STZ rats. Furthermore, PEMFs up-regulated the mRNA expressions of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, ?-catenin and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2), and down-regulated dickkopf1 in STZ rats. However, mRNA expressions of RANKL and OPG were not affected by PEMFs. PEMFs can prevent the diabetes-induced bone loss and reverse the deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength by restoring Runx2 expression through regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, regardless of its no glucose lowering effect.
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The preservation of islet with alginate encapsulation in the process of transportation.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Restoration of insulin secretion by transplantation of isolated islets is a treatment for type ? diabetes mellitus. One of the major issues with clinical treatment of islet transplantation is how to maintain islet viability during transportation from the donor to the patient.
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A ?-hole interaction with radical species as electron donors: does single-electron tetrel bonding exist?
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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A single-electron tetrel bond was predicted and characterized in FXH3···CH3 (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn) complexes by performing quantum chemical calculations, where the methyl radical acts as the Lewis base and the ?-hole on the X atom in FXH3 as the Lewis acid. The interaction between the methyl radical and FXH3 is characterized by a red shift of F-X stretching frequency. The strength of the tetrel bond becomes stronger by not only increasing the atomic number of the central atom X (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn) but also by enhancing the electron-withdrawing ability of substituents in the Lewis acid. The energy decomposition analysis highlights the importance of the electrostatic interaction in the formation of the tetrel bond, although the dispersion part is also non-negligible for the weak tetrel bond. There is a competition between the formation of single-electron tetrel bonds and hydrogen bonds for the complexes composed of the methyl radical and CNCH3 or NCCH3. Furthermore, the single-electron tetrel bond exhibits the cooperative effect not only with the hydrogen bond in the complex of NCH···NCCH3···CH3, but also with the conventional tetrel bond in NCCH3···NCCH3···CH3.
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Genomic organization and molecular characterization of porcine cytomegalovirus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A strain of the porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV), which causes inclusion body rhinitis in newborn piglets, has been characterized with respect to its complete genome sequence. The virus genome is 128,367bp, containing 79 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Of these ORFs, 69 have counterparts in human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), 6B (HHV-6B) and 7 (HHV-7), and two ORFs are homologous to other members in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Eight ORFs have no homologs in herpesvirus. Homologs had higher identity and possessed similar orientation and location as roseoloviruses. The PCMV genome is a DR-U-DR type, similar to HHV-6A, HHV-6B and HHV-7, but the PCMV DR is shorter and lacks predicted genes and telomere-like sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of several core genes indicate that PCMV could be clustered in a branch with roseoloviruses. We suggest that PCMV could be classified as a member of the genus Roseolovirus of the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
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Full-range Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on sinusoidal phase modulation.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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A novel full-range Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (full-range FD-DOCT) using sinusoidal phase modulation for B-M scan is proposed. In this sinusoidal B-M scan, zero optical path difference (OPD) position does not move corresponding to lateral scanning points in contrast to linear B-M scan. Since high phase sensitivity arises around the zero OPD position, the proposed full-range FD-DOCT can achieve easily high velocity sensitivity without mirror image around the zero OPD position. Velocity sensitivity dependent on the OPD and the interval of scanning points is examined, and flow velocity detection capability is verified through Doppler imaging of a flow phantom and an in vivo biological sample.
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Computer-based first-principles kinetic modeling of degradation pathways and byproduct fates in aqueous-phase advanced oxidation processes.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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In this study, a computer-based first-principles kinetic model is developed to predict the degradation mechanisms and fates of intermediates and byproducts produced during aqueous-phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for various organic compounds. The model contains a rule-based pathway generator to generate the reaction pathways, a reaction rate constant estimator to estimate the reaction rate constant for each reaction generated, a mechanistic reduction module to reduce the generated mechanisms, an ordinary differential equations generator and solver to solve the generated mechanisms and calculate the concentration profiles for all species, and a toxicity estimator to estimate the toxicity of major species and calculate time-dependent profiles of relative toxicity (i.e., concentration of species divided by toxicity value). We predict concentration profiles of acetone and trichloroethylene and their intermediates and byproducts in photolysis with hydrogen peroxide (i.e., UV/H2O2) and validate with experimental observations. The predicted concentration profiles for both parent compounds are consistent with experimental data. The calculated profiles of 96-h green algae chronic toxicity show that the overall toxicity decreases during the degradation process. These generated mechanisms also provide detailed and quantitative insights into the pathways for the formation and consumption of important intermediates and byproducts produced during AOPs. Our approach is sufficiently general to be applied to a wide range of contaminants.
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Myeloid cell-specific disruption of Period1 and Period2 exacerbates diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The circadian clockworks gate macrophage inflammatory responses. Given the association between clock dysregulation and metabolic disorders, we conducted experiments to determine the extent to which over-nutrition modulates macrophage clock function and whether macrophage circadian dysregulation is a key factor linking over-nutrition to macrophage proinflammatory activation, adipose tissue inflammation, and systemic insulin resistance. Our results demonstrate that 1) macrophages from high fat diet-fed mice are marked by dysregulation of the molecular clockworks in conjunction with increased proinflammatory activation, 2) global disruption of the clock genes Period1 (Per1) and Per2 recapitulates this amplified macrophage proinflammatory activation, 3) adoptive transfer of Per1/2-disrupted bone marrow cells into wild-type mice potentiates high fat diet-induced adipose and liver tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, and 4) Per1/2-disrupted macrophages similarly exacerbate inflammatory responses and decrease insulin sensitivity in co-cultured adipocytes in vitro. Furthermore, PPAR? levels are decreased in Per1/2-disrupted macrophages and PPAR?2 overexpression ameliorates Per1/2 disruption-associated macrophage proinflammatory activation, suggesting that this transcription factor may link the molecular clockworks to signaling pathways regulating macrophage polarization. Thus, macrophage circadian clock dysregulation is a key process in the physiological cascade by which diet-induced obesity triggers macrophage proinflammatory activation, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance.
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[Effect of high humidity environment on immune function in rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To investigate effects of the variation of immune function in high humidity environment in different time, and lay a foundation for further study of the related mechanism.
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The combination of a nuclear HMGB1-positive and HMGB2-negative expression is potentially associated with a shortened survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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High-mobility group box (HMGB) proteins are ubiquitous, abundant nuclear non-histone chromosomal proteins that play a critical role in binding to distorted DNA structures and subsequently regulating DNA transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. Both HMGB1 and HMGB2 exhibit a high expression in several human cancers and are closely associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis. However, the expression patterns of these molecules in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain to be elucidated. As most cases of postoperative relapse of PDAC occur within the first 2 years, the clinical significance of accurate biomarkers is needed. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between the immunohistochemical HMGB1 and HMGB2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis using 62 paraffin-embedded tumor samples obtained from patients with surgically resected PDAC. The HMGB1/2 expression was considered to be positive when 10 % or more of the cancer cells showed positive nuclear, not merely cytoplasmic, staining. Consequently, the expression of HMGB1/2 was observed in 54 (87.1 %) and 31 (50.0 %) patients, respectively. Unexpectedly, a positive HMGB1 expression was found to have a significantly close relationship with a negative HMGB2 expression. The univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the patients with a HMGB1+ and HMGB2- status had markedly lower disease-specific survival rates, especially within the first 2 years postoperatively, whereas those with a HMGB1+ status alone did not. Therefore, the combination of a HMGB1+ and HMGB2- expression potentially predicts a poor prognosis in patients with PDAC, and these new biomarkers may be useful parameters for clinical management in the early postoperative phase.
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Geranylgeranylacetone blocks doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity and reduces cancer cell growth and invasion through RHO pathway inhibition.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapy for solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, but its use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an antiulcer agent used in Japan for 30 years, has no significant adverse effects, and unexpectedly reduces ovarian cancer progression in mice. Because GGA reduces oxidative stress in brain and heart, we hypothesized that GGA would prevent oxidative stress of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity and improve doxorubicin's chemotherapeutic effects. Nude mice implanted with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were studied after chronic treatment with doxorubicin, doxorubicin/GGA, GGA, or saline. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to monitor systolic heart function and xenografts evaluated. Mice were euthanized and cardiac tissue evaluated for reactive oxygen species generation, TUNEL assay, and RHO/ROCK pathway analysis. Tumor metastases were evaluated in lung sections. In vitro studies using Boyden chambers were performed to evaluate GGA effects on RHO pathway activator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced motility and invasion. We found that GGA reduced doxorubicin cardiac toxicity, preserved cardiac function, prevented TUNEL-positive cardiac cell death, and reduced doxorubicin-induced oxidant production in a nitric oxide synthase-dependent and independent manner. GGA also reduced heart doxorubicin-induced ROCK1 cleavage. Remarkably, in xenograft-implanted mice, combined GGA/doxorubicin treatment decreased tumor growth more effectively than doxorubicin treatment alone. As evidence of antitumor effect, GGA inhibited LPA-induced motility and invasion by MDA-MB-231 cells. These anti-invasive effects of GGA were suppressed by geranylgeraniol suggesting GGA inhibits RHO pathway through blocking geranylation. Thus, GGA protects the heart from doxorubicin chemotherapy-induced injury and improves anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer.
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Regio- and diastereoselective construction of ?-hydroxy-?-amino ester derivatives via 1,4-conjugate addition of ?,?-unsaturated N-sulfonylimines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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A first example of 1,4-conjugate addition of ?,?-unsaturated N-sulfonylimines via the oxonium ylides trapping process was developed. This method afforded a novel and efficient access for the high regio- and diastereoselective construction of ?-hydroxyl-?-amino esters derivatives, which exhibit inhibitory activity on PTP1B and SIRT1 enzymes in vitro. The synthetic potentials and the biological activity of the resulting products were well demonstrated to be promising for drug discovery.
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Endothelial PFKFB3 plays a critical role in angiogenesis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Vascular cells, particularly endothelial cells, adopt aerobic glycolysis to generate energy to support cellular functions. The effect of endothelial glycolysis on angiogenesis remains unclear. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3) is a critical enzyme for endothelial glycolysis. By blocking or deleting PFKFB3 in endothelial cells, we investigated the influence of endothelial glycolysis on angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, inhibits pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in association with its effects suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress in db/db mice.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Vildagliptin promotes beta cell survival by inhibiting cell apoptosis. It has been suggested that chronic ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress triggers beta cell apoptosis. The objective of the study is to explore whether the pro-survival effect of vildagliptin is associated with attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in islets of db/db mice.
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Characterisation of novel linear antigen epitopes on North American-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus M protein.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The M protein, encoded by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF6 gene, is considered to be one of the most conserved PRRSV proteins. In recent decades, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been exploited to provide reliable diagnoses for many diseases. In this study, two different Mab clones targeting the linear epitopes on the PRRSV M protein were generated and characterized. Both Mabs showed binding activity against the native PRRSV virion and recombinant M protein when analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot. The targeted epitope of each Mab was mapped by serial truncation of the M protein to generate overlapping fragments. Fine epitope mapping was then performed using a panel of expressed polypeptides. The polypeptide sequences of the two epitopes recognized by Mabs 1C8 and 3F7 were (3)SSLD(6) and (155)VLGGRKAVK(163), respectively, with the former being a newly identified epitope on the M protein. In both cases, these two epitopes were finely mapped for the first time. Alignments of Mab epitope sequences revealed that the two epitopes on the M protein were highly conserved between the North American-type strains. These Mabs, along with their mapped epitopes, are useful for the development of diagnostic and research tools, including immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot.
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Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step.
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Association between eNOS 4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Many studies have assessed the association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the results are inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis was conducted. Fifteen studies with 3, 183 cases and 3, 410 controls were enrolled by searching the databases of Pubmed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Wanfang Database. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The main analysis indicated no significant association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of DR in overall population [allelic model: OR = 0.94 (0.79-1.11); additive model: OR = 0.91 (0.73-1.14); recessive model: OR = 1.01 (0.81-1.25); dominant model: OR = 0.91 (0.75-1.09)]. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity also indicated no significant association. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis did not observe any association between the polymorphism of eNOS 4b/a and the risk of DR among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, larger well-designed studies are required to confirm this finding.
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The amino acid at residue 155 in nonstructural protein 4 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus contributes to its inhibitory effect for interferon-? transcription in vitro.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Type I interferons (IFNs), predominantly IFN-? and ?, play important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized to be able to down-regulate the IFN response during in vivo and in vitro infection. In this study, we first analyzed inhibitory effect of each NSP of low pathogenic PRRSV HB-1/3.9 on IFN-? transcription in MARC-145 cells, and the results showed that the IFN-? promoter activation could be suppressed by NSP1?, NSP2, NSP1?, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP11. We next confirmed that the inhibitory effect of NSP4 was mainly mediated through suppressing NF-?B activation, whereas not hindering NF-?B phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and nuclear-localized NSP4 was responsible for inhibiting IFN-? activation. We further found that the NSP4 of different pathogenic PRRSV strains exhibited differential inhibitory effect on IFN-?, NF-?B, and IRF3 transcription, and the NSP4 of highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV could display more strong inhibitory effect. Finally, we determined that the amino acid at residue 155 in NSP4 contributed to its inhibitory effect for IFN-? transcription in vitro by altering its subcellular distribution. Our findings suggest that the nucleus-localized NSP4 of PRRSV participates in the modulation of the host type I IFNs system, and also provide novel insight for understanding the pathogenesis of the Chinese HP-PRRSV.
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Induction of dedifferentiated male mouse adipose stromal vascular fraction cells to primordial germ cell-like cells.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains abundant mesenchymal stem cell populations that have a limited ability to self-renew and differentiate. Male mouse adipose SVF cells were dedifferentiated by reprogramming factors (c-Myc, Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) to form embryonic stem cell-like cells (ESCLCs), which upgraded their limited differentiation potential. The ESCLCs were induced to differentiate toward epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) by culturing in media supplied with activin A and BMP-4, respectively. The derived ESCLCs possess embryonic stem cell features and can automatically form embryonic bodies. After culture in EpiLC induction medium for 2-3 days, ESCLCs formed flattened epithelial structures that were different from their original water drop-like colonies, and the expression of pluripotency-related genes decreased. When the cells that had been cultured in EpiLC induction medium for 2 days were isolated and cultured in PGCLC induction medium for 4-6 days, they formed typical water drop-like colonies again. Moreover, expression of the pluripotency-related genes and the primordial germ cell (PGC) specification-related genes increased. During progression from ESCLCs toward EpiLCs and PGCLCs, the levels of histone methylases H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 kept changing, which resembled those seen in PGC specification. The derived PGCLCs expressed SSEA-1, Blimp-1, and Stella. Furthermore, methylation of Igf2r and Snrpn was retained, but H19 and Kcnq1ot1 methylation levels were slightly reduced compared to non-PGCLCs, suggesting that the derived PGCLCs may have initiated the process of imprint erasure.
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MBD5 regulates iron metabolism via methylation-independent genomic targeting of Fth1 through KAT2A in mice.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Ferritin plays important roles in iron metabolism and controls iron absorption in the intestine. The ferritin subunits ferritin heavy chain (Fth1) and ferritin light chain (Ftl1) are tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, mechanisms of maintaining stable, basal expression of Fth1 are poorly understood. Here, we show that global deletion of Mbd5 in mice induces an iron overload phenotype. Liver and serum iron levels in Mbd5(-/-) mice were 3·2-fold and 1·5-fold higher respectively, than wild-type littermates; moreover, serum ferritin was increased >5-fold in the Mbd5(-/-) mice. Mbd5 encodes a member of the methyl-CpG binding domain family; however, the precise function of this gene is poorly understood. Here, we found that intestinal Fth1 mRNA levels were decreased in Mbd5(-/-) mice. Loss of Fth1 expression in the intestine could lead to iron over-absorption. Furthermore, deleting Mbd5 specifically in the intestine resulted in a phenotype similar to that of conditional deletion of Fth1 mice. An Fth1 promoter-report luciferase assay indicated that overexpression of Mbd5 enhanced Fth1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Histone H4 acetylation of the Fth1 promoter was reduced in the intestine of Mbd5(-/-) mice and further analysis showed that histone acetyltransferase KAT2A was essential for MBD5-induced Fth1 transcription.
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Determination of five quinolone antibiotic residues in foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with quantum dot indirect laser-induced fluorescence.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A new assay was developed for the determination of five quinolone antibiotic residues in foods, loxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and norfloxacin, by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect laser-induced fluorescence, in which cadmium telluride quantum dots were used as a fluorescent background substance. Some factors that affected the peak height and the resolution were examined. The optimized running buffer was composed of 20 mM SDS, 7.2 mg/L quantum dots, and 10 mM borate at pH 8.8. The separation voltage was 20 kV. Under these conditions, five quinolone antibiotic residues were separated successfully within 8 min. The detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.008 mg/kg; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01???10 mg/kg; and the average recoveries of the spiked samples were 81.4???94.6 %. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits to these five quinolone antibiotics in the regulations of the European Union and Japan and has been applied for determining their residues in animal-derived food.
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PI3K/Akt/uncoupling protein 2 signaling pathway may be involved in cell senescence and apoptosis induced by angiotensin II in human vascular endothelial cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Oxidative DNA damage contributes to replicative senescence. We explored the mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) induces senescence in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Following weeklong incubation with Ang II, cell senescence, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by ?-galactosidase, annexin V/propidium iodide, DCFH-DA and rhodamine 123 staining, respectively. The protein levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), UCP2, Akt, phosphor (p)-Akt, c-myc, and p53 were assessed by immunoblot. LY294002 was applied to inhibit PI3K/Akt signaling. Ang II induced HUVEC senescence and apoptosis, and increased ROS content and depolarization of MMP in a dose-dependent manner. Ang II further elevated protein levels of TERT from 0.006 ± 0.041 at baseline, to 0.480 ± 00.031 in the presence of 10 µM Ang II, UCP2 from 0.297 ± 0.051 to 2.512 ± 0.024, p-Akt from 0.012 ± 0.024 to 0.874 ± 0.015, c-myc from 0.521 ± 0.015 to 1.064 ± 0.025, and p53 from 0.035 ± 0.047 to 1.195 ± 0.029 (all P < 0.01, vs. baseline). LY294002 pre-treatment significantly alleviated Ang II-induced HUVEC senescence, and partly reversed the elevation of TERT, UCP2, p-Akt, c-myc and p53 protein levels. PI3K/Akt/UCP2 signaling may be involved in cell senescence and apoptosis induced by Ang II in HUVECs.
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Chilling acclimation provides immunity to stress by altering regulatory networks and inducing genes with protective functions in cassava.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environment. Even though generally considered to be sensitive to low temperature, Cassava, a major tropical crop, can be tolerant to much lower temperature after chilling acclimation. Improvement to chilling resistance could be beneficial to breeding. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of chilling acclimation on chilling tolerance remain largely unexplored.
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BDNF attenuates IL-1?-induced F-actin remodeling by inhibiting NF-?B signaling in hippocampal neurons.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To examine the effect of BDNF on F-actin during the stimulation of IL-1? in hippocampal neurons.
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Pharmacodynamic analysis of intravenous recombinant urate oxidase using an indirect pharmacological response model in healthy subjects.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Pharmacodynamic analysis of intravenous recombinant urate oxidase produced by Escherichia coli was performed in healthy subjects using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model.
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MHC binding prediction with KernelRLSpan and its variations.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Antigenic peptides presented to T cells by MHC molecules are essential for T or B cells to proliferate and eventually differentiate into effector cells or memory cells. MHC binding prediction is an active research area. Reliable predictors are demanded to identify potential vaccine candidates. The recent kernel-based algorithm KernelRLSpan (Shen et al., 2013) shows promising power on MHC II binding prediction. Here, KernelRLSpan is modified and applied to MHC I binding prediction, which we refer to as KernelRLSpanI. Besides this, we develop a novel consensus method to predict naturally processed peptides through integrating KernelRLSpanI with two state-of-the-art predictors NetMHCpan and NetMHC. The consensus method achieved top performance in the Machine Learning in Immunology (MLI) 2012 Competition,(3) group 2. We also introduce our progress of improving our MHC II binding prediction method KernelRLSpan by diffusion map.
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Enrichment of cancer stem cell-like cells by culture in alginate gel beads.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are most likely the reason of cancer reoccurrence and metastasis. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the characteristics of CSCs, it is necessary to develop efficient culture systems to culture and expand CSCs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) culture system based on alginate gel (ALG) beads was reported to enrich CSCs. Two cell lines derived from different histologic origins were encapsulated in ALG beads respectively and the expansion of CSCs was investigated. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) culture, the proportion of cells with CSC-like phenotypes was significantly increased in ALG beads. Expression levels of CSC-related genes were greater in ALG beads than in 2D culture. The increase of CSC proportion after being cultured within ALG beads was further confirmed by enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, increased metastasis ability and higher anti-cancer drug resistance were also observed in 3D-cultured cells. Furthermore, we found that it was hypoxia, through the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that occurred in ALG beads to induce the increasing of CSC proportion. Therefore, ALG bead was an efficient culture system for CSC enrichment, which might provide a useful platform for CSC research and promote the development of new anti-cancer therapies targeting CSCs.
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Genetic diversity analysis of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses emerging in recent years in China.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is characterized by its extensive genetic diversity. Here we analyzed 101 sequences of NSP2 hypervariable region, 123 ORF3 sequences, and 118 ORF5 sequences from 128 PRRSV-positive clinical samples collected in different areas of China during 2008-early 2012. The results indicated that the amino acid identities of the three genes among these sequences were 87.6%-100%, 92.5%-100%, and 77%-100%, respectively. Meanwhile, 4 novel patterns of deletion and insertion in NSP2 region or GP5 were first found. The phylogenetic analysis on these 3 genes revealed that the Chinese PRRSV strains could be divided into three subgroups; majority of genes analyzed here were clustered in subgroup 3 with multiple branches; the strains with 30-aa deletion in NSP2-coding region were still the dominant virus in the field. Further phylogenetic analysis on four obtained complete genomic sequences showed that they were clustered into different branches with the Chinese corresponding representative strains. Our analyses suggest that the genetic diversity of genotype 2 PRRSV in the field displays a tendency of increasing in recent years in China, and the 30-aa deletion in NSP2-coding region should be no longer defined as the molecular marker of the Chinese HP-PRRSV.
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Unique Epitopes Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies against HP-PRRSV: Deep Understanding of Antigenic Structure and Virus-Antibody Interaction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a member of the genus Arterivirus within the family Arteriviridae. N and GP3 proteins are the immunodominance regions of the PRRSV viral proteins. To identify the B-cell linear antigenic epitopes within HP-PRRSV N and GP3 proteins, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against N and GP3 proteins were generated and characterized, designated as 3D7 and 1F10 respectively. The mAb 3D7 recognized only HuN4-F112 not the corresponding virulent strain (HuN4-F5). It also recognized two other commercial vaccines (JXA1-R and TJM-F92), but not two other HP-PRRSV strains (HNZJJ-F1 and HLJMZ-F2). The B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb 3D7 was localized to N protein amino acids 7-33. Western blot showed that the only difference amino acid between HuN4-F112-N and HuN4-F5-N did not change the mAb 3D7 recognization to N protein. The epitope targeted by the mAb 1F10 was mapped by truncated proteins. We found a new epitope (68-76aa) can be recognized by the mAb. However, the epitope could not be recognized by the positive sera, suggesting the epitope could not induce antibody in pigs. These results should extend our understanding of the antigenic structure of the N protein and antigen-antibody reactions of the GP3 protein in different species.
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Interactome profile of the host cellular proteins and the nonstructural protein 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.
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Metformin ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation without altering adipose phenotype in diet-induced obesity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. To better understand the pathophysiology of obesity-associated NAFLD, the present study examined the involvement of liver and adipose tissues in metformin actions on reducing hepatic steatosis and inflammation during obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity-associated NAFLD and treated with metformin (150 mg/kg/d) orally for the last four weeks of HFD feeding. Compared with HFD-fed control mice, metformin-treated mice showed improvement in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Also, metformin treatment caused a significant decrease in liver weight, but not adiposity. As indicated by histological changes, metformin treatment decreased hepatic steatosis, but not the size of adipocytes. In addition, metformin treatment caused an increase in the phosphorylation of liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase and decreases in the phosphorylation of liver c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and in the mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines. However, metformin treatment did not significantly alter adipose tissue AMPK phosphorylation and inflammatory responses. In cultured hepatocytes, metformin treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation and decreased fat deposition and inflammatory responses. Additionally, in bone marrow-derived macrophages, metformin treatment partially blunted the effects of lipopolysaccharide on inducing the phosphorylation of JNK1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65 and on increasing the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that metformin protects against obesity-associated NAFLD largely through direct effects on decreasing hepatocyte fat deposition and on inhibiting inflammatory responses in both hepatocytes and macrophages.
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Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.
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Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with comparatively large aspect ratios, which can be useful in manipulating electrons, photons, plasmons, phonons, and atoms for numerous technologies. Among various nanostructures for low-dimensional photonics, the 1D nanowire is of great importance owing to its ability to route tightly confined light fields in single-mode with lowest space and material requirements, minimized optical path, and high mechanical flexibilities. In recent years, nanowire photonics have increasingly been attracting scientists' interests for both fundamental studies and technological applications because 1D nanowires have more favorable properties than many other structures, such as 0D quantum dots (QDs) and 2D films. As subwavelength waveguides, free-standing nanowires fabricated by either chemical growth or physical drawing techniques surpass nanowaveguides fabricated by almost all other means in terms of sidewall smoothness and diameter uniformity. This conveys their low waveguiding losses. With high index contrast (typically higher than 0.5) between the core and the surrounding or with surface plasmon resonance, a nanowire can guide light with tight optical confinement. For example, the effective mode area is less than ?(2)/10 for a dielectric nanowire or less than ?(2)/100 for a metal nanowire, where ? is the vacuum wavelength of the light. As we increase the wavelength-to-diameter ratio (WDR) of a nanowire, we can enlarge the fractional power of the evanescent fields in the guiding modes to over 80% while maintaining a small effective mode area, which may enable highly localized near-field interaction between the guided fields and the surrounding media. These favorable properties have opened great opportunities for optical sensing on the single-nanowire scale. However, several questions arise with ongoing research. With a deep-subwavelength cross-section, how can we efficiently couple light into a single nanowire? How can we fabricate a nanowire with low optical loss? How can we activate a passive nanowire for optical sensing? And lastly, how can we adapt mature optical measurement technology onto a nanowire? In this Account, we highlight our initial attempts to address the above-mentioned challenges. First, we introduce the fabrication and functionalization of low-loss photonic nanowires. We show that nanowires fabricated by either top-down physical drawing (e.g., for amorphous nanowires) or bottom-up chemical growth (e.g., for crystalline nanowires) can yield excellent geometric and structural uniformities with surface roughness down to atomic level and minimize the scattering loss for subwavelength optical or plasmonic waveguiding. Then, relying on a near-field fiber-probe micromanipulation, we demonstrate optical launching of single nanowires by evanescent coupling, with coupling efficiency up to 90% for dielectric nanowires and 80% for plasmonic nanowires. Third, we discuss the waveguiding properties of nanowires and emphasize their outstanding capability of waveguiding tightly confined optical fields with high fractional evanescent fields. In addition, we briefly show a balance between the loss, confinement, and bandwidth in a waveguiding nanowire. Fourthly, we present promising approaches to single-nanowire optical sensors. By measuring optical absorption or spectral transmission of a nanowire and activating nanowires with sensitive dopants, we demonstrate a single-nanowire optical sensor with high sensitivity, fast response, and low optical power. This may lead to a novel platform for optical sensing at nanoscale. Finally, we conclude with an outlook for future challenges in the light manipulation and sensing applications of photonic nanowires.
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[Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies complicated with pneumonias: clinical characteristics and pathogen analysis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To investigate the clinical characteristics, pathogen constitution and their tolerance to antibiotics in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) patients complicated with pneumonia and the associated risk factors.
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[Surgical management of anti-elevation syndrome following anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To evaluate the effect of surgery to treat anti-elevation syndrome following anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle (ATIO).
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Long-term histopathologic study of the frontalis muscle flap after frontalis suspension for severe ptosis repair.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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To investigate the long-term histopathologic changes of the frontalis muscle flap after frontalis muscle flap suspension for severe ptosis repair.
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Novel ortho ester-based, pH-sensitive cationic lipid for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo.
J Liposome Res
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Abstract Context: Cationic lipoplexes are less toxic than viral gene vectors and more convenient to prepare but their efficiencies of gene delivery are generally lower. Objective: To develop ortho ester-based, pH-sensitive lipoplexes for efficient gene delivery both in cultured cells and in vivo. Materials and methods: A novel cationic and acid-labile lipid (DOC) containing a cationic headgroup and a cholesterol-derived lipid tail joined together by an acid-labile ortho ester linker was designed and synthesized. DOC was formulated into liposomes with the conical helper lipid DOPE, and then into lipoplexes with plasmid DNA encoding a luciferase reporter gene. The physicochemical properties of the lipoplexes (size, surface charge and pH-sensitivity) were characterized. Gene delivery by DOC/DOPE/DNA lipoplexes was also evaluated in CV-1 cells and in CD-1 mice following intratracheal injection. Lipoplexes consisting of the acid-stable cationic lipid DC-Chol were characterized as a control. Results: DOC formed cationic lipoplexes with DOPE and DNA. After incubation at acidic pH 4.6, DOC/DOPE/DNA lipoplexes lost their positive charges and aggregated with one another as a result of DOC hydrolysis. Both in CV-1 cell culture and in CD-1 mice, DOC/DOPE/DNA lipoplexes increased the luciferase gene expression by 5- to 10-fold compared with the analogous but acid-stable DC-Chol/DOPE/DNA lipoplexes. Discussion and conclusion: Incorporation of an acid-labile ortho ester linker into a cationic lipid is a viable approach to enhance gene delivery by the corresponding lipoplexes both in cultured cells and in vivo.
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A systematic review of the efficacy and pharmacological profile of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and pharmacological profiles of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy. Four databases were extensively retrieved that include two Chinese electronic databases (VIP Information and CNKI) and two English electronic databases (CA and MEDLINE). Herba Epimedii has been an important traditional herbal medicine for centuries in China and other Asian countries. Recently, quite a few pharmacological effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components have been identified that include improving bone health and cardiovascular function, regulating hormone level, modulating immunological function, and inhibiting tumor growth. The anti-osteoporosis activity of Herba Epimedii and its extracts have attracted world-wide attention. The literature search has revealed that a lot of studies have recently been carried out related to the bone-strengthening activity of Herba Epimedii and some of its active compounds, such as total flavonoids and icariin. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of Herba Epimedii and its most abundant active component icariin, while only a few authors have reviewed the anti-osteoporosis properties of the plants. So we summarize the work of various investigators on the effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components against osteoporosis. The underlying mechanism of osteoprotective action, derivatives of icariin, animal models and cell lines used in the research were also reviewed in this paper.
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Hybrid photon-plasmon nanowire lasers.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Metallic and plasmonic nanolasers have attracted growing interest recently. Plasmonic lasers demonstrated so far operate in hybrid photon-plasmon modes in transverse dimensions, rendering it impossible to separate photonic from plasmonic components. Thus only the far-field photonic component can be measured and utilized directly. But spatially separated plasmon modes are highly desired for applications including high-efficiency coupling of single-photon emitters and ultrasensitivity optical sensing. Here, we report a nanowire (NW) laser that offers subdiffraction-limited beam size and spatially separated plasmon cavity modes. By near-field coupling a high-gain CdSe NW and a 100 nm diameter Ag NW, we demonstrate a hybrid photon-plasmon laser operating at 723 nm wavelength at room temperature, with a plasmon mode area of 0.008?(2). This device simultaneously provides spatially separated photonic far-field output and highly localized coherent plasmon modes, which may open up new avenues in the fields of integrated nanophotonic circuits, biosensing, and quantum information processing.
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Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Antioxidant Mannoglucan from a Marine Bubble Snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi).
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata.
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Complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus obtained by in vitro serial passage.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Here, we present the complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV) obtained by serial chicken embryo passage. Compared with a virulent DEV, there is a serial deletion in unique long open reading frame 11 (LORF11) and unique long region 2 (UL2). This study will aid in further exploration of the molecular pathogenesis of DEV.
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A Facile Access to Polyfunctional Oxygen-containing Heterocycles via Intramolecularly Formed Protic Oxonium Ylide Trapping Processes.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Based on the assumption that intramolecularly formed protic oxonium ylides could be trapped by electrophiles, transition-metal-catalyzed reactions of diazoesters bearing a primary hydroxy group with electron-deficient aldehydes and isatins were examined. Good to high chemo- and diastereoselectivities were achieved with reactions catalyzed by Cu(hfacac)2 . The reactions were assumed to occur via tandem intramolecular protic oxonium ylide formation and subsequent aldol-type addition. They not only provided an efficient entry to 3-substituted 1,4-dioxan-2-one heterocycles with at least one quaternary carbon center but also provided experimental evidence for a stepwise pathway for the transition-metal-catalyzed intramolecular O?H insertion of diazo compounds.
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Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-1 correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of COX-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its prognostic value. mRNA of COX-1 was detected in 42 paired RCC and adjacent normal tissues with quantitative real- time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression of COX-1 was also evaluated in 196 RCC sections and 91 adjacent normal tissues with immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed to assess COX-1 expression in RCC and its prognostic significance. The results of qRT-PCR showed mRNA levels of COX-1 in RCC tissues to be significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical assays also revealed COX-1 to be overexpressed in RCC tissues (p < 0.001). Statistical analysis demonstrated high expression of COX-1 was correlated with tumour size (p = 0.002), pathological stage (p = 0.003), TNM stage (p = 0.003, 0.007, 0.027, respectively), and tumour recurrence (p < 0.001). Survival analysis indicated patients with high expression of COX-1 had shorter survival time (p < 0.001), and COX-1 was an independent predictor. This is the first study to reveal overexpression of COX-1 in RRC and point to use as a prognostic marker in affected patients.
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All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.
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Novel multicomponent reactions via trapping of protic onium ylides with electrophiles.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one-pot processes in which three or more starting materials form a product that incorporates the structural features of each reagent. These reactions date back to the mid-19th century, when Strecker first prepared ?-aminonitriles through the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In addition to affording products with structural complexity and diversity, MCRs offer the advantages of simplicity, synthetic efficiency, synthetic convergence, and atom economy. Therefore, they have played an important role in modern synthetic organic chemistry and drug-discovery research. The irreversible trapping of an active intermediate generated from two components by a third one offers an effective way to discover novel MCRs. In cases where the intermediate from the first two components is reactive enough to generate a two-component byproduct, it becomes challenging to control of the chemoselectivity of these MCRs over the side reaction. For example, researchers had expected that ammonium/oxonium ylides, high energy intermediates that have acidic protons and basic carbanions attached to adjacent carbons, would be too reactive to be intercepted by external electrophiles. Instead, a very fast 1,2-proton transfer would neutralize the charge separation, resulting in a stable N-H/O-H insertion product. In this Account, we present our efforts toward the development of novel MCRs via trapping of the active ammonium/oxonium ylide intermediates with a number of electrophiles. In these reactions, a "delayed proton transfer" that occurs after the trapping process produces novel multicomponent coupling products. Thus, transition-metal-catalyzed MCRs of diazocarbonyl compounds, anilines/alcohols, and electrophiles efficiently afford polyfunctional molecules such as ?-amino-?-hydroxy acids, ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids, ?,?-diamino acids, and ?,?-dihydroxy acid derivatives. We have also applied a cooperative catalysis strategy to some of these MCRs leading to reactions with high chemo-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. These MCRs also provide solid experimental evidence for the existence of the active protic onium ylides.
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Associations between serum hepcidin, ferritin and Hb concentrations and type 2 diabetes risks in a Han Chinese population.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Systemic Fe overload can contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, few studies have systematically evaluated the associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks for the development of T2D. In this regard, whether hepcidin concentrations are associated with T2D remains controversial. We measured serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in a case-control study of 1259 Han Chinese participants to evaluate the possible associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks of T2D. Individuals with diabetes (n 555) and control participants (n 704) were recruited and serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations were quantified. Additionally, selected biochemical and anthropometric variables were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations with T2D. A linear regression analysis was used to test for associations between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations and a number of clinical, demographic and diabetes-associated variables. We found that serum hepcidin concentrations correlated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations. No differences in hepcidin concentrations were found between the group with diabetes and the control group. Hepcidin concentrations were not significantly correlated with T2D risk factors. We also found that serum ferritin concentrations were elevated in individuals with diabetes and were positively correlated with both Hb concentrations and T2D risk factors. The present findings suggest that serum ferritin concentrations correlate with T2D risk factors, while serum hepcidin concentrations are positively associated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations, but do not correlate with T2D.
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