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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Up-Regulation of miR-21 and miR-23a Contributes to As2 O3 -induced hERG Channel Deficiency.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. However, the cardiotoxicity of long QT syndrome restricts its clinical application. Previous studies showed that As2 O3 can damage the hERG current via disturbing its trafficking to cellular membrane. Consistent with these findings, in this study we reported that As2 O3 inhibited hERG channel at both protein and mRNA levels, damage hERG current but did not affect channel kinetics. Further, we demonstrated that As2 O3 up-regulated miR-21 and miR-23a expression in hERG-HEK293 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes. In addition, knockdown of miR-21 by its specific antisense molecules AMO-21 was able to rescue Sp1 and hERG inhibition caused by As2 O3 . Consistently, phosphorylation of NF-?B, the upstream regulatory factor of miR-21, was significantly up-regulated by As2 O3 . This finding revealed that regulation of the NF-?B-miR-21-Sp1 signalling pathway is a novel mechanism for As2 O3 -induced hERG inhibition. Meanwhile, the expression of HSP90 and hERG was rescued by transfection with AMO-23a. And the hERG channel inhibition induced by As2 O3 was rescued after being transfected with AMO-23a, which may be a molecular mechanism for the role of As2 O3 in hERG trafficking deficiency. In brief, our study revealed that miR-21 and miR-23a are involved in As2 O3 -induced hERG deficiency at transcriptional and transportational levels. This discovery may provide a novel mechanism of As2 O3 -induced hERG channel deficiency and these miRNAs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the handling of As2 O3 cardiotoxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China: A multi-center case-controlled study of 1,153 subjects.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in Chinese patients predominantly caused by hepatitis B virus infection by a multi-center case-controlled study. Subjects were 1,153 individuals from three major hospitals in China, including 550 cases in HCC group, 164 in Malignant disease group, 182 in Benign disease group, 85 in Chronic liver disease group, and 173 in Normal group. Serum levels of AFP and DCP were measured and clinicopathological features were determined for all subjects. Results showed that the levels of DCP and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group (550 patients, 74.18% with HBV infection) than that in other four groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating curves (ROC) indicated the optimal cut-off value was 86 mAU/mL for DCP with a sensitivity of 71.50% and specificity of 86.30%, and 21 ng/mL for AFP with a sensitivity of 68.00% and specificity of 93.20%. The area under ROC curve was 0.846 for DCP, 0.832 for AFP, and 0.890 for the combination of DCP and AFP. The combination of DCP and AFP resulted in a higher Youden index and a sensitivity of approximately 90%, even for small tumors. The simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP could achieve a better sensitivity in diagnosing Chinese HCC patients, even for small tumors.
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One-Step Construction of Two Different Kinds of Pores in a 2D Covalent Organic Framework.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are crystalline porous materials bearing microporous or mesoporous pores. The type and size of pores play crucial roles in regulating the properties of COFs. In this work, a novel COF, which bears two different kinds of ordered pores with controllable sizes: one within microporous range (7.1 Å) and the other in mesoporous range (26.9 Å), has been constructed via one-step synthesis. The structure of the dual-pore COF was confirmed by PXRD investigation, nitrogen adsorption-desorption study, and theoretical calculations.
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Solvent effect-driven assembly of W/Cu/S cluster-based coordination polymers from the cluster precursor [Et4N][Tp*WS3(CuBr)3] and CuCN: isolation, structures and enhanced NLO responses.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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We herein describe a coordination polymer system built upon the reactions of a W/Cu/S cluster precursor [Et4N][Tp*WS3(CuBr)3] (, Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) with three equivalents of CuCN through solvent modulation. Four coordination polymers, namely, [Tp*WS3Cu3(?3-DMF)(CN)3Cu(Py)] (), [Tp*WS3Cu3(?3-DMF)(CN)3Cu] (), [Tp*WS3Cu3(?3-DMF)(CN)3Cu]·4aniline (·4aniline) and [Tp*WS3Cu3(?3-DMF)(CN)3Cu]·2(DMF)0.5 (·2(DMF)0.5), are isolated in different solvent systems and characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds feature ?3-DMF association with the nest-shaped [WS3Cu3] cluster cores, yielding cubane-type [WS3Cu3O] clusters which are further linked to single Cu(i) ions through CN bridges to provide 1D or 2D structures. Compounds have identical chemical compositions in their main fragments but with distinctively different structural features, and are therefore topological isomers. Compound has a ladder-type structure in which the side rails contain alternately linked cluster cores and Cu(i) ions. Compound has a 2D (6,3) network with alternately arranged cluster cores and Cu(i) ions. Both and have 2D structures with 4·8(2) topology. In , a pair of cluster cores and Cu(i) ions form a 4-membered ring which is further linked to four equivalent rings through four CN ligands via a cluster core-to-Cu arrangement; while in the structure of , the same 4-membered rings as those in are extended to equivalent rings via a cluster core-to-cluster and Cu-to-Cu arrangement. The hyperpolarizabilities (?) of the polymeric networks exhibit an enhancement of more than 10 times compared to their parent cluster, .
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Paenibacillus shenyangensis sp. nov., a bioflocculant-producing species isolated from soil under a peach tree.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming bacterium, strain, A9T, was isolated in 1996 from a soil sample collected under a peach tree of Qingnian Park in Shenyang, China, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, with a most closely sequence similarity of 96.7% and DNA-DNA relatedness of 51.6% to the type strain of Paenibacillus hunanensis. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant menaquinone is MK-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 51.9 mol%. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain A9T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus shenyangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with A9T (=JCM 19307T =CGMCC 2040T) as the type strain.
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Widely-pulsewidth-tunable ultrashort pulse generation from a birefringent carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We demonstrate the generation of soliton pulses covering a nearly one order-of-magnitude pulsewidth range from a simple carbon nanotube (CNT) mode-locked fiber laser with birefringence. A polarization-maintaining-fiber-pigtailed, inline polarization beam splitter and its associated birefringence is leveraged to either enable additional nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) mode-locking effect or result in a bandwidth-tunable Lyot filter, through adjusting the intracavity polarization settings. The large pulsewidth tuning range is achieved by exploiting both the nonlinear CNT-NPE hybrid mode-locking mechanism that narrows the pulses and the linear filtering effect that broadens them. Induced vector soliton pulses with pulsewidth from 360 fs to 3 ps can be generated, and their time-bandwidth products indicate they are close to transform-limited.
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New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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As a distinct class of ultra-hard materials, transition metal borides are found to have superior mechanical properties that challenge the traditional materials. In this work, we explored new stable structures for rhenium borides with different stoichiometries using genetic algorithm in combination with first-principles calculations. Based on theoretical calculations, ReB in a P-3m1 structure is found to be stable against decomposition reactions below 10 GPa and ReB3 in a P-6m2 structure is stable above 22 GPa. Two new phases of Re2B are predicted to be thermodynamically stable at pressures higher than 55 GPa and 80 GPa respectively. We also show that a C2/m structure discovered for ReB4 has energy lower than that of the R-3m structure reported earlier (Wang et al 2013 J. Alloys Compd. 573 20). Elastic and vibrational properties from first-principles calculations indicate that the low-energy structures obtained in our search are mechanically and dynamically stable and are promising targets as new ultra-hard materials.
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In vivo preventive effects of insect tea on buccal mucosa cancer in ICR mice.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Insect tea is a particular drink or health product in China and it is also used as Chinese medicine now. Its functional effects need to be proved.
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Constitutive expression of the poplar WRKY transcription factor PtoWRKY60 enhances resistance to Dothiorella gregaria Sacc. in transgenic plants.
Tree Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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WRKY proteins are involved in various physiological processes in plants, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, limited information is available on the roles of specific WRKY transcription factors in poplar defense. In this study, we reported the characterization of PtoWRKY60, a Group IIa WRKY member, from Populus tomentosa Carr. The gene expression profile of PtoWRKY60 in various tissues showed that it significantly accumulated in old leaves. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PtoWRKY60 had a close relationship with AtWRKY18, AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY60. PtoWRKY60 was induced mainly by salicylic acid (SA) and slightly by Dothiorella gregaria Sacc., jasmonic acid, wounding treatment, low temperature and salinity stresses. Overexpression of PtoWRKY60 in poplar resulted in increased resistance to D. gregaria. The defense-associated genes, such as PR5.1, PR5.2, PR5.4, PR5.5 and CPR5, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtoWRKY60. These results indicate that PtoWRKY60 might be partly involved in the signal transduction pathway initiated by SA in Populus.
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[Roles of reactive oxygen species in Streptomyces pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Our previous research indicated that the Streptomyces pactum Act12 (Act12) had a certain promotional effect on tanshinone accumulation and up-regulated the expression of genes 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. This study focuses on the roles of reactive oxygen species in S. pactum Act12-induced tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. The 4% Act12, 4% Act12 + CAT and 4% Act12 + SOD were added to S. miltiorrhiza hairy root and subcultured for 21 days, the dry weight, contents of reactive oxygen species, contents of tanshinones and expression of HMGR and DXR were determined at different harvest-time. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was triggered by 4% Act12 treatment. The relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment were 32.4 and 4.8-fold higher than those in the control. And the total tanshinone in the hairy roots was 10.2 times higher than that of the control. The CAT and SOD could significantly inhibit the ROS accumulation and relative expressions of genes HMGR and DXR in 4% Act12 treatment, which induced the total tanshinone content was decreased by 74.6% comparing with the 4% Act12 treatment. ROS mediated Act12-induced tanshinone production. The Act12 may be via the ROS signal channel to activate the tanshinone biosynthesis pathways. Thereby the tanshinon content in hairy roots was increased.
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[Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography combined with inflammatory factors for detecting atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (USPIO-MRA) combined with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 detection for detecting atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits.
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Effects of shRNA-silenced livin and survivin on lung cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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To evaluate the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of livin and survivin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells.
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Impact of an expanded hospital recognition program for heart failure quality of care.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In 2009, the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure program enhanced the standard recognition of hospitals by offering additional recognition if hospitals performed well on certain quality measures. We sought to determine whether initiation of this enhanced recognition opportunity led to acceleration in quality of care for all hospitals participating in the program.
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The optimal distance between two electrode tips during recording of compound nerve action potentials in the rat median nerve.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The distance between the two electrode tips can greatly influence the parameters used for recording compound nerve action potentials. To investigate the optimal parameters for these recordings in the rat median nerve, we dissociated the nerve using different methods and compound nerve action potentials were orthodromically or antidromically recorded with different electrode spacings. Compound nerve action potentials could be consistently recorded using a method in which the middle part of the median nerve was intact, with both ends dissociated from the surrounding fascia and a ground wire inserted into the muscle close to the intact part. When the distance between two stimulating electrode tips was increased, the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity of compound nerve action potentials were gradually decreased, but the amplitude was not changed significantly. When the distance between two recording electrode tips was increased, the amplitude was gradually increased, but the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity exhibited no significant change. Different distances between recording and stimulating sites did not produce significant effects on the aforementioned parameters. A distance of 5 mm between recording and stimulating electrodes and a distance of 10 mm between recording and stimulating sites were found to be optimal for compound nerve action potential recording in the rat median nerve. In addition, the orthodromic compound action potential, with a biphasic waveform that was more stable and displayed less interference (however also required a higher threshold and higher supramaximal stimulus), was found to be superior to the antidromic compound action potential.
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Wogonin Prevents Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Death via Inhibiting Tunicamycin-Induced ER Stress In Vitro.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Wogonin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been widely used in various research areas for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. It also presents a neuroprotective effect in the brain while encounters stress conditions, but the mechanisms controlling the neuroprotective effect of wogonin are not clear. In this study, we investigated the biomechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of wogonin on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Wogonin pre-treatment at 75 ?M significantly increased the cell viability of DRG neurons and decreased the number of the propidium iodide-positive DRG neurons before the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is being induced by tunicamycin (TUN) (0.75 ?g/mL). In addition, Wogonin also inhibited the release of LDH and up-regulated the level of GSH. Furthermore, wogonin decreased the activation of ER stress-related molecules, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), GRP94, C/EBP-homologous protein, active caspase12 and active caspase3, phosphorylation of pancreatic ER stress kinase, and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2?). In summary, our results indicated that wogonin could protect DRG neurons against TUN-induced ER stress.
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of Liaohe River: levels, spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and inventory.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Spatial and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of Liaohe River were investigated in this study. A total of 29 surface sediment samples were collected in May and September in 2013. Results showed that levels of the two classes of compounds were higher in September than in May. The total concentration of PBDEs (?8PBDEs) ranged from 0.30 to 5.09 ng g(-1) in May and from 0.17 to 13.73 ng g(-1) in September, respectively, and BDE 209 was the dominant compound. The total concentration of PCBs (?33PCBs) was in the range of 4.92-76.86 and 11.69-179.61 ng g(-1) in May and September, respectively, with tri- and tetra-CBs dominated in the total PCBs in the sediments. According to the congener profiles and the principal component analysis, the major sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of Liaohe River were from the usage of commercial products and industrial activities, and the degradation of high brominated BDEs also contributed to the current PBDEs in the sediments. The mass inventories of PBDEs and PCBs in the sediments of Liaohe River were 1.74 and 21.96 t, respectively, indicating that Liaohe River sediments may act as the potential sources of PBDEs and PCBs to the downstream coastal areas.
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Multifunctional interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on methacrylated alginate for the delivery of small molecule drugs and sustained release of protein.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Multifunctional injectable thermo-/pH-responsive hydrogels as release systems for the oral delivery of small molecule drugs and the local delivery of protein are presented. The injectable interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, N-isopropylacrylamide, and methacrylated alginate were prepared by using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a redox initiator system at body temperature, and the obtained hydrogels overcame the instability of calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogels under physiological conditions. The hydrogels showed good mechanical strength by rheometer and exhibited temperature and pH sensitivity by a swelling test. Diclofenac sodium (DCS) as a model for small molecule water-soluble anti-inflammatory drugs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model for protein drugs were encapsulated in situ in the hydrogel. The DCS and BSA release results indicated that these hydrogels, as carriers, have great potential for use in the oral delivery of small molecule drugs and for long-term localized protein release. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of these hydrogels was studied via live/dead viability and alamarBlue assays using adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
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Aberrant expression of B7-H3 in gastric adenocarcinoma promotes cancer cell metastasis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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B7-H3 belongs to the B7 superfamily, a group of molecules that costimulate or downmodulate T cell responses. Although it has been shown that B7-H3 can inhibit T cell responses, several studies, most of them performed in murine systems, found B7-H3 to act in a co-stimulatory manner. In addition, B7-H3 is also expressed in various human cancers and is correlated with the poor outcome of cancer patients. The functional role of B7-H3 in cancer is still controversially discussed. In the present study, we compared B7-H3 expression in normal gastric tissues and gastric cancer tissue specimens and determined the effects of low B7-H3 expression on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 by using RNAi. B7-H3 expression in gastric specimens was determined by tissue qPCR and immunohistochemisty. A SGC-7901 cell line with low B7-H3 expression was established by lentiviral-mediated RNA interference to investigate the effect of B7-H3 on cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. By establishing an orthotopic transplantation gastric cancer mouse model, the effect of B7-H3 on cell migration and invasion was studied in vivo. B7-H3 expression was significantly higher in the gastric cancer group than that in the normal gaster group. B7-H3 knockdown by RNA interference decreased cell migration and Transwell invasion up to 50% in vitro. In the orthotopic transplantation gastric cancer mouse model, the effect of inhibiting metastasis by knockdown of B7-H3 was assessed in terms of the average postmortem abdominal visceral metastatic tumor weight. The results revealed that inhibition of B7-H3 expression reduced gastric cancer metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, B7-H3 is aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer. In addition to modulating tumor immunity, B7-H3 may have a novel role in regulating SGC-7901 cell metastasis.
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Silver nanoparticles/ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) fibrous membrane: anti-infection and anti-adhesion effects.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Infection caused by bacteria is one of the crucial risk factors for tendon adhesion formation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)-loaded physical barriers were reported to be effective in anti-infection and anti-adhesion. However, high silver load may lead to kidney and liver damages. This study was designed for Ibuprofen (IBU)-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) electrospun fibrous membranes containing a low dosage of Ag to evaluate its potential in maintaining suitable anti-infection and good anti-adhesion effects. The in vitro drug release study showed a sustained release of Ag ions and IBU from the membrane. Inferior adherence and proliferation of fibroblasts were found on the Ag4%-IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes in comparison with pure PLLA and 4% Ag-loaded PLLA membranes. In the antibacterial test, all Ag-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membranes prevented the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ibuprofen is effective in enhancing the anti-adhesion and anti-proliferation effects of 4% Ag-loaded PLLA fibrous membrane. The medical potential of infection reduction and adhesion prevention of Ag4%-IBU4%-loaded PLLA electrospun fibrous membrane deserves to be further studied.
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Urinary interleukin-18 as an early indicator to predict contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is at present the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). Traditionally, it is diagnosed by measuring an increase of the serum creatinine (SCr) concentration. However, SCr is an insensitive marker for detecting CIN. This study was designed to investigate whether human urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18) is early predictive marker for CIN following coronary interventional procedures. The general clinical data of 180 patients who underwent coronary interventional procedures at the Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College from March 1, 2012 to September 31, 2012 were collected. A nonionic, low osmolality contrast agent was used in the laboratory at this time. SCr values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured prior to and within 24 and 48 h after the administration of contrast agents. Urine samples were collected prior to and 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the coronary interventional procedure, and urinary IL-18 levels were measured using an ELISA kit. CIN was defined as an increase of ?0.5 mg/dl or ?25% in SCr concentration over baseline 24-48 h after the procedure. CIN occurred in 16 of 180 (8.9%) patients. The levels of urinary IL-18 measured 2 h after the procedure were increased in the CIN group, but the increase was not significant (P>0.05). There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the urinary IL-18 levels 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after the procedure and those before the procedure. No significant difference was identified between the SCr levels measured prior to and 24 h after the procedure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of urinary IL-18 12 h after the procedure was 0.811 and the 95% confidence interval of the area under the curve was 0.735-0.888. If the critical point of the diagnosis of CIN was 815.61 pg/ml, the sensitivity was 87.5% and the specificity was 62.2%. Univariate analysis indicated that the urinary IL-18 level was positively correlated with the SCr concentration pre- and postprocedure. In conclusion, urinary IL-18 may be a promising indicator for the early prediction of CIN.
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The rescuable function and mechanism of resveratrol on As2O 3-induced hERG K (+) channel deficiency.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the cardiotoxicity of long QT syndrome restricts its clinical application. Previous studies showed that As2O3 can damage the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current via disturbing its trafficking to cellular membrane. This study aimed to investigate whether the As2O3-insulted hERG channel can be rescued by resveratrol, a recognized cardioprotective agent. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the hERG current and action potential duration. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot assay were applied to determine the function of hERG-Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone complexes and the expression alteration of protein-folding-related proteins, respectively. Compared with treatment of As2O3 alone, co-treatment with resveratrol successfully restored the current and surface expression of hERG and obviously shortened action potential duration in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Further experiments demonstrate that resveratrol relieved As2O3-caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by restoring the function of hERG-Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone complexes and downregulating the protein expression of ER chaperone proteins (calnexin and calreticulin) and activating transcription factor 6. In conclusion, resveratrol was able to rescue the trafficking deficiency and relieve the ER stress (ERS). Our findings suggest that resveratrol has a potential effect to alleviate the adverse effect of As2O3 on cardiotoxicity.
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Motor neuron disease. SMN2 splicing modifiers improve motor function and longevity in mice with spinal muscular atrophy.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease caused by mutation or deletion of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. A paralogous gene in humans, SMN2, produces low, insufficient levels of functional SMN protein due to alternative splicing that truncates the transcript. The decreased levels of SMN protein lead to progressive neuromuscular degeneration and high rates of mortality. Through chemical screening and optimization, we identified orally available small molecules that shift the balance of SMN2 splicing toward the production of full-length SMN2 messenger RNA with high selectivity. Administration of these compounds to ?7 mice, a model of severe SMA, led to an increase in SMN protein levels, improvement of motor function, and protection of the neuromuscular circuit. These compounds also extended the life span of the mice. Selective SMN2 splicing modifiers may have therapeutic potential for patients with SMA.
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The polymorphisms in the promoter of HSP90 gene and their association with heat tolerance of bay scallop.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly abundant and ubiquitous molecular chaperone which plays essential roles in many cellular processes. In the present study, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of HSP90 after acute heat stress were investigated in two bay scallop populations (Argopecten irradians irradians and Argopecten irradians concentricus). The heat-resistant scallop A. i. concentricus, which is distributed in Zhanjiang, China, exhibited significantly higher induction of HSP90 compared with that of the heat-sensitive scallop A. i. irradians, which is distributed in Qinhuangdao, China. The promoter sequence of HSP90 gene from bay scallop (AiHSP90) was cloned, and the polymorphisms within this region were investigated by sequencing to analyze their association with heat tolerance. A total of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including -1167 T-C, -1023 A-C, -799 C-T, -774 A-G, -686 C-T, and -682 A-C, were identified in the amplified promoter region, and most of them affected the putative transcription factor binding sites except for locus -1167. All the six SNP sites were found to be associated with heat tolerance after Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and association analysis. Moreover, haplotypes CACACC and TCTATC were also found to be associated with heat tolerance based on the result of linkage disequilibrium and association analysis. The results provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal adaptation of different congener endemic bay scallops, which suggested that the increased heat tolerance of A. i. concentricus (compared with A. i. irradians) was associated with the higher expression of AiHSP90. Meanwhile, the six genotypes (-1167 TT, -1023 CC, -799 TT, -774 GG, -686 CC, and -682 AA) and two haplotypes (CACACC and TCTATC) could be used as potential markers for scallop selection breeding with higher heat tolerance.
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Adherence to third European cooperative acute stroke study 3- to 4.5-hour exclusions and association with outcome: data from get with the guidelines-stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines recommend intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment 3 to 4.5 hours from symptom onset according to criteria used in the Third European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS III). However, ECASS III excluded certain patient groups in addition to the standard exclusions used for 0 to 3 hours in the United States: age >80 years, history of stroke and diabetes mellitus, oral anticoagulant treatment, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >25. We investigated adherence to these additional exclusion criteria for patients treated 3 to 4.5 hours from onset and their association with outcome.
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Palladium-catalyzed remote C(sp3)-H arylation of 3-pinanamine.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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3-Pinanamine is a prevalent motif in medicinal chemistry and asymmetric synthesis. In line with the pursuit of novel 3-pinanamine based anti-influenza virus A agent, the direct functionalization of 3-pinanamine was achieved by using Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H activation logic. Good substrate scope and functional group tolerance were observed. The reaction represents a rare example of a direct functionalization of an aliphatic amine at the remote ? position.
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Phosphorylation of Cdc42 effector protein-4 (CEP4) by protein kinase C promotes motility of human breast cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Cdc42 effector protein-4 (CEP4) was recently identified by our laboratory to be a substrate of multiple PKC isoforms in non-transformed MCF-10A human breast cells. The significance of phosphorylated CEP4 to PKC-stimulated motility of MCF-10A cells was evaluated. Single site mutants at Ser residues embedded in potential PKC consensus sites (Ser(18), Ser(77), Ser(80), and Ser(86)) were individually replaced with Asp residues to simulate phosphorylation. Following expression in weakly motile MCF-10A cells, the S18D and S80D mutants each promoted increased motility, and the double mutant (S18D/S80D) produced a stronger effect. MS/MS analysis verified that Ser(18) and Ser(80) were directly phosphorylated by PKC? in vitro. Phosphorylation of CEP4 severely diminished its affinity for Cdc42 while promoting Rac activation and formation of filopodia (microspikes). In contrast, the phosphorylation-resistant double mutant S18A/S80A-CEP4 blocked CEP4 phosphorylation and inhibited motility of MCF-10A cells that had been stimulated with PKC activator diacylglycerol lactone. In view of the dissociation of phospho-CEP4 from Cdc42, intracellular binding partners were explored by expressing each CEP4 double mutant from a tandem affinity purification vector followed by affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and identification of protein bands evident only with S18D/S80D-CEP4. One binding partner was identified as tumor endothelial marker-4 (TEM4; ARHGEF17), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in migration. In motile cells expressing S18D/S80D-CEP4, knockdown of TEM4 inhibited both Rac activation and motility. These findings support a model in which PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CEP4 at Ser(18) and Ser(80) causes its dissociation from Cdc42, thereby increasing its affinity for TEM4 and producing Rac activation, filopodium formation, and cell motility.
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[Chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis: eight cases report and literature review].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To identify the characteristics of chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis (CNKL).
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Preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in mice.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in ICR mice. A high (800 mg/kg) dose of insect tea reduced the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? compared with those in mice treated with a low (400 mg/kg) dose and the control mice. The serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in the control mice; however, the serum levels of motilin (MOT) and substance P (SP) were lower in mice treated with insect tea than in the control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory rate of the insect tea treatment group of mice were much lower compared to the control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in control mice, and similar to those in normal mice and ranitidine-treated mice. The nitric oxide (NO) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) levels of mice treated with a high concentration of insect tea compared with the normal group were close. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, the present study revealed that insect tea significantly induced inflammation in the tissues of mice by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and upregulating the expression of nuclear factor of ? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor ? (I?B-?). These results suggest that insect tea is as effective at preventing gastric ulcers as the gastric ulcer drug, ranitidine and it can be used as medicine.
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Perspectives on a combined test of multi serum biomarkers in China: Towards screening for and diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma at an earlier stage.
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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China has 50% of the worldwide hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, and the HBV-related cases accounts for approximately 85%. Over the past few decades, although a series of standardized management methods for HCC has been implemented in China, most HCC patient in China still suffered from advanced-stage disease, in consequence, reducing the opportunity of curable treatment that can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for HCC patient. Accordingly, strategies including screening and diagnose HCC at an earlier stage are urgently needed in China. In this study, the current status, challenges, and prospects of early detection of HCC in China have been analyzed. The result indicated the need for using multi serum biomarkers for early HCC detection. During the past ten years, the research on the clinical usefulness of novel serum biomarkers of des-?-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Midkine (MDK) in early HCC detection for Chinese patients found that the novel serum biomarker can complete the measurement of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis process of HCC, particularly for the patient with negative AFP with/or at an early stage. More large-scale, multi-center studies are expected to be performed in China to provide further evidence, and using novel and reliable serum biomarkers to complement AFP as a new trend is expected to be extensively used in clinical practice to facilitate early detection for those patients with HCC in China.
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MCP-1 and CCR2 gene polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease in a Han Chinese cohort.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CC chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) play important roles in neuroinflammation and they have been shown to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. In addition, several studies have suggested a role for the MCP-1 and CCR2 genotypes in cognitive impairment and depression, which are common non-motor symptoms in PD patients. In this study, a cohort of 521 PD patients and 556 cases of healthy controls were recruited to investigate the association between the MCP-1 2518A/G (rs1064211) and CCR2 V64I (rs1799864) gene polymorphisms and PD risk in the Chinese population. We also analyze the influence of these genotypes on the cognitive function and depression in PD patients by comparing Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Chinese Revision (WAIS-RC), Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision (WMS-RC) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) ratings in 217 PD patients. Our results showed no significant differences in the genotype frequency between the PD group and the control group (P > 0.05). In addition, we also failed to find an influence of the MCP-1 and CCR2 genotypes on MMSE scores, MoCA scores, WAIS-RC scores, WMS-RC scores and HAMD scores in PD patients (P > 0.05). The MCP-1 and CCR2 gene polymorphisms may not be genetic risk factors for PD in the Han Chinese population, and they do not appear to influence cognitive function and depression in PD patients.
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Down-regulating ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation by physical barrier of celecoxib-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes prevents tendon adhesions.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Peritendinous adhesions, as a major problem in hand surgery, may be due to the proliferation of fibroblasts and excessive collagen synthesis, in which ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 plays crucial roles. In this study, we hypothesized that the complication progression could be inhibited by down-regulating ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation of exogenous fibroblasts with celecoxib. Celecoxib was incorporated in poly(l-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PELA) diblock copolymer fibrous membranes via electrospinning. Results of an in vitro drug release study showed celecoxib-loaded membrane had excellent continuous drug release capability. It was found that celecoxib-loaded PELA membranes were not favorable for the rabbit fibroblast and tenocyte adhesion and proliferation. In a rabbit tendon repair model, we first identified ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation as a critical driver of early adhesion formation progression. Celecoxib released from PELA membrane was found to down-regulate ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, leading to reduced collagen I and collagen ? expression, inflammation reaction, and fibroblast proliferation. Importantly, the celecoxib-loaded PELA membranes successfully prevented tissue adhesion compared with control treatment and unloaded membranes treatment. This approach offers a novel barrier strategy to block tendon adhesion through targeted down-regulating of ERK1/2 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation directly within peritendinous adhesion tissue.
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[Molecular epidemiology related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in men having sex with men in Xi'an].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To investigate the subtype distribution of HIV-1 infection among men having sex with men(MSM)in Xi'an city.
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[The study on the fluorescence spectrometry for a novel photosensitizer of chlorine e6-C15-monomethyl ester and its application in biosamples analysis].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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This paper studied the fluorescence spectral characteristic of chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester in different solvents to develop a fluorescence spectrometry for determining the concentration of chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester in plasma. By comparing the fluorescence spectral characteristics of chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester in six different solvents including methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, phosphate buffered saline and water, the influence of different solvents on the fluorescence spectral characteristic of chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester has been examined. The results indicated that methanol and acetonitrile are the ideal solvent system, and the effect of phosphate buffered saline is better than water. The effect of organic solvent content and solution pH value on emission wavelength and fluorescence intensity was further evaluated. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester was strong and stable in pH 7.2 phosphate buffered saline -acetonitrile (3 : 7) solution and can be detected at the excitation wavelength of 498.00 nm and the emission wavelength of 664.05 nm. Based on this, we developed the fluorescence spectrometry for determining chlorin e6-C15-monomethyl ester. It is specific and sensitive with good linearity over the range of 0.5-50 microg x mL(-1). The intra-batch and inter-batch precisions (RSD) were less than 10%, the extraction recoveries were all over 90%. The established method in this paper was simple, fast, effective and could be successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of chlorine e6-C15-monomethyl ester in SD rats.
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Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles and Their Relationships with mRNA and the microRNA Transcriptome in Bovine Muscle Tissue (Bos taurine).
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and plays important roles in muscle development. We sampled longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) from a well-known elite native breed of Chinese Qinchuan cattle living within the same environment but displaying distinct skeletal muscle at the fetal and adult stages. We generated and provided a genome-wide landscape of DNA methylomes and their relationship with mRNA and miRNA for fetal and adult muscle studies. Integration analysis revealed a total of 77 and 1,054 negatively correlated genes with methylation in the promoter and gene body regions, respectively, in both the fetal and adult bovine libraries. Furthermore, we identified expression patterns of high-read genes that exhibit a negative correlation between methylation and expression from nine different tissues at multiple developmental stages of bovine muscle-related tissue or organs. In addition, we validated the MeDIP-Seq results by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) in some of the differentially methylated promoters. Together, these results provide valuable data for future biomedical research and genomic and epigenomic studies of bovine skeletal muscle that may help uncover the molecular basis underlying economically valuable traits in cattle. This comprehensive map also provides a solid basis for exploring the epigenetic mechanisms of muscle growth and development.
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Development of upconversion luminescent probe for ratiometric sensing and bioimaging of hydrogen sulfide.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Merocyanines adsorbed into the mesopores of mSiO2 shell of NaYF4: 20% Yb, 2% Er, 0.2% Tm nanocrystals are demonstrated as ratiometric upconversion luminescence (UCL) probe for highly selective detection of HS(-) in living cells through inhibition of energy transfer from the UCL of the nanocrystals to the absorbance of the merocyanines. The UCL probe has been used for ratiometric sensing of H2S with high sensitivity and selectivity.
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Diversity change of microbial communities responding to zinc and arsenic pollution in a river of northeastern China.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Pollution discharge disturbs the natural functions of water systems. The environmental microbial community composition and diversity are sensitive key indicators to the impact of water pollutant on the microbial ecology system over time. It is meaningful to develop a way to identify the microbial diversity related to heavy metal effects in evaluating river pollution. Water and sediment samples were collected from eight sections along the Tiaozi River where wastewater and sewage were discharged from Siping City in northeastern China. The main pollutants contents and microbial communities were analyzed. As the primary metal pollutants, zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) were recorded at the maximum concentrations of 420 and 5.72 ?g/L in the water, and 1704 and 1.92 mg/kg in the sediment, respectively. These pollutants posed a threat to the microbial community diversity as only a few species of bacteria and eukaryotes with strong resistance were detected through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Acinetobacter johnsonii, Clostridium cellulovorans, and Trichococcus pasteurii were the dominant bacteria in the severely polluted areas. The massive reproduction of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri almost depleted the dissolved oxygen (DO) and resulted in the decline of the aerobic bacteria. It was noted that the pollution reduced the microbial diversity but the L. hoffmeisteri mass increased as the dominant community, which led to the overconsuming of DO and anaerobic stinking water bodies. Water quality, concentrations of heavy metals, and the spatial distribution of microbial populations have obvious consistencies, which mean that the heavy metals in the river pose a serious stress on the microorganisms.
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Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in imprinting control region mice.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of the traditional Chinese medicine, Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. (D. candidum), on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice. The CCl4-induced hepatic damage mice were treated with D. candidum, and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. In addition, serum cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interferon (IFN)-? were analyzed with kits, while liver tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the contents of D. candidum were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). D. candidum was demonstrated to successfully prevent hepatic damage in mice. The serum levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly decreased when the mice were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum, as compared with the control mice (P<0.05). The lowest enzymatic activities were exhibited in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, which produced similar results to the positive control drug, silymarin. In addition, in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, the highest levels of TG and TC were observed among the treated groups. D. candidum-treated groups also demonstrated reduced levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-?. The sections of liver tissue examined during histopathology in the high concentration 400 mg/kg D. candidum group recovered well from CCl4 damage; however, the sections in the 200 mg/kg D. candidum group revealed necrosis to a more serious degree. RT-PCR analysis was conducted on inflammation-associated genes, including nuclear factor (NF)-?B, I?B-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in the livers of the mice. The 400 mg/kg D. candidum group demonstrated significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of NF-?B, iNOS and COX-2, but an increased expression level of I?B-? when compared with the CCl4-treated control group. Furthermore, using NMR, 11 compounds were identified in the D. candidum leaf, whose functional contents may aid the preventive effect observed in the current study. Therefore, D. candidum may potentially contribute to the prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo.
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[Role of IFN-? in the regulation of murine hemopoiesis].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was aimed to explore the role and mechanism of IFN-? in the regulation of hemopoiesis in mice. Murine IFN-? fragment was amplified from murine splenic cells with RT-PCR and plasmid pCDH1-mIFN-?-EF1-copGFP (pCDH-mIFN-?-GFP) was constructed. Plasmids pCDH-mIFN-?-GFP and pCDH1-EF1-copGFP (pCDH-GFP) together with packaging plasmids pPACK-A, pPACK-B and pPACK-C were respectively transfected into 293T cells by using a method of calcium phosphate precipitation to produce lentivirus. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) from male C57BL/6J mice were transfected with the lentiviral vector pCDH expressing mIFN-? and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The cells were cultured in M3434 semi-solid medium for colony formation assay and transplanted into lethally-irradiated mice through caudal vein injection, and the peripheral blood cell counts and GFP were monitored regularly after transplantation. The results showed that lentiviral vector pCDH-mIFN-?-GFP was constructed successfully and 293T cells transfected with mIFN-? secreted mIFN-?. Transfection of mIFN-? into BMMNC decreased colony formation, colony number of the mIFN-? group was significantly less than that of the control group. The recovering of circulating blood cell parameters in mIFN-? transplantation group was significantly later than control group. GFP positive cells could be detected in the peripheral blood at 8 weeks after transplantation. It is concluded that mIFN-? may inhibit the colony-forming capacity of transduced BMMNC and delay the hematopoietic reconstitution.
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Polyol syntheses of palladium decahedra and icosahedra as pure samples by maneuvering the reaction kinetics with additives.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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This article reports a robust method based upon polyol reduction for the deterministic synthesis of Pd decahedra or icosahedra with tunable sizes and a purity approaching 100%. The success of such a selective synthesis relies on an ability to fine-tune the reaction kinetics through the addition of Na2SO4 and HCl for decahedra and icosahedra, respectively. In the absence of any additive, the product of a similar synthesis in diethylene glycol contained 10% decahedra and 90% icosahedra. By optimizing the amount of Na2SO4 (or HCl) added into the reaction solution, the percent of decahedra (or icosahedra) in the product could be increased up to 100%. The roles of Na2SO4 and HCl were also investigated in great detail, and two plausible mechanisms were proposed and validated through a set of experiments. In general, a faster reduction rate is needed for the synthesis of Pd decahedra when compared with what is needed for Pd icosahedra. This work not only offers a simple approach to the deterministic syntheses of Pd decahedra and icosahedra but also provides an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in shape-controlled syntheses of noble-metal nanocrystals from the perspective of reaction kinetics. On the basis of the mechanistic understanding, we have also achieved successful synthesis of Pd decahedra as pure samples by adding a proper amount of NaOH into the system to speed up the reduction kinetics.
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[Identification and characterization of clinical features and gene mutation in a patient with iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA)].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To report the clinical data of a case of iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA), so as to improve the understanding of IRIDA.
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D. candidum has in vitro anticancer effects in HCT-116 cancer cells and exerts in vivo anti-metastatic effects in mice.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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D. candidum is a traditional Chinese food or medicine widely used in Asia. There has been little research into the anticancer effects of D. candidum, particularly the effects in colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of D. candidum in vitro and in vivo.
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Enhanced Phenotypic Alterations of Alveolar Type II Cells in Response to Aflatoxin G1 -Induced Lung Inflammation.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Recently, we discovered that Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1 ) induces chronic lung inflammatory responses, which may contribute to lung tumorigenesis in Balb/C mice. The cancer cells originate from alveolar type II cells (AT-II cells). The activated AT-II cells express high levels of MHC-II and COX-2, may exhibit altered phenotypes, and likely inhibit antitumor immunity by triggering regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the mechanism underlying phenotypic alterations of AT-II cells caused by AFG1 -induced inflammation remains unknown. In this study, increased MHC-II expression in alveolar epithelium was observed and associated with enhanced Treg infiltration in mouse lung tissues with AFG1 -induced inflammation. This provides a link between phenotypically altered AT-II cells and Treg activity in the AFG1 -induced inflammatory microenvironment. AFG1 -activated AT-II cells underwent phenotypic maturation since AFG1 upregulated MHC-II expression on A549 cells and primary human AT-II cells in vitro. However, mature AT-II cells may exhibit insufficient antigen presentation, which is necessary to activate effector T cells, due to the absence of CD80 and CD86. Furthermore, we treated A549 cells with AFG1 and TNF-? together to mimic an AFG1 -induced inflammatory response in vitro, and we found that TNF-? and AFG1 coordinately enhanced MHC-II, CD54, COX-2, IL-10, and TGF-? expression levels in A549 cells compared to AFG1 alone. The phenotypic alterations of A549 cells in response to the combination of TNF-? and AFG1 were mainly regulated by TNF-?-mediated induction of the NF-?B pathway. Thus, enhanced phenotypic alterations of AT-II cells were induced in response to AFG1 -induced inflammation. Thus, AT-II cells are likely to suppress anti-tumor immunity by triggering Treg activity. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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GATA-4 protects against hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury: effects on mitochondrial membrane potential.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Our previous studies have suggested that GATA-4 increases the differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiac phenotypes. This study further investigated whether GATA-4 enhances MSC-mediated cardioprotection following hypoxia. MSCs were harvested from rat bone marrow and transduced with GATA-4 (MSC(GATA-4)). To mimic ischemic injury, cultured cardiomyocytes (CMs) isolated from neonatal rat ventricles were exposed to hypoxia or were pretreated with concentrated conditioned medium (CdM) from MSC(GATA-4) or transduced control MSC (MSC(Null)) for 16 h before exposure to hypoxic culture conditions (low glucose and low oxygen). Myocyte damage was estimated by annexin-V-PE and TUNEL technique and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Cell survival was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) uptake. Mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using confocal microscopy. ELISA studies indicated that insulin-like growth factor?1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly increased in MSC(GATA-4) compared with MSC(Null). Hypoxia-induced apoptosis/cell death was significantly reduced when CMs were co-cultured with MSC(GATA-4) in a dual-chamber system. Cell protection mediated by MSC(GATA-4) was mimicked by treating CMs with CdM from MSC(GATA-4) and abrogated with IGF-1- and VEGF-neutralizing antibodies. MSC(GATA-4) protects CMs under hypoxic conditions. The release of IGF-1 and VEGF from MSC(GATA-4) is likely to be responsible for protection of CMs.
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Transcriptomic analysis of a psammophyte food crop, sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) and identification of candidate genes essential for sand dune adaptation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) is an annual desert plant adapted to mobile sand dunes in arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia. The sand rice seeds have excellent nutrition value and have been historically consumed by local populations in the desert regions of northwest China. Sand rice is a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change; however, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, this species has undergone only little agronomic modifications through classical breeding during recent years.
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Apoptosis inducing effects of Kuding tea polyphenols in human buccal squamous cell carcinoma cell line BcaCD885.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Tea polyphenols are functional substances present in tea. Kuding tea as a traditional drink also contains these compounds. After 25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenol treatment for 48 h, cell proliferation of human buccal squamous cell carcinoma cell line BcaCD885 was inhibited, and the 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenol showed the highest inhibitory rate at 72.3%. Compared to the lower concentration, the 100 ?g/mL of Kuding tea polyphenols significantly (p < 0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry analysis, the content of sub-G1 cancer cells was 32.7%. By RT-PCR and western blot assays, Kuding tea polyphenol significantly induced apoptosis in BcaCD885 cancer cells (p < 0.05) by upregulating caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Fas/FasL, Bax, p53, p21, E2F1, p73 and downregulating Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, HIAP-1, and HIAP-2 mRNA and protein expressions. Kuding tea polyphenols thus present apoptosis inducing effects in vitro.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 for sepsis in the ED: an observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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IntroductionThe aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), compared with procalcitonin (PCT) and the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in septic patients in the emergency department (ED).MethodsIn total, 480 consecutive adult patients were enrolled in this study. They fulfilled the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and were admitted to the ED of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 40 healthy controls comprised the control group. The patients were classified into four groups: SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Serum NGAL, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and PCT were measured, and MEDS score was calculated at enrollment. The prognostic values of NGAL, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were compared with PCT and MEDS score. A 28-day follow-up was performed for all patients.ResultsThe median levels of serum NGAL and TIMP-1 increased with sepsis severity. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curves of NGAL or TIMP-1 were greater than those of PCT and MEDS score in diagnosing and predicting 28-day mortality, and the AUC of a combination of NGAL and MEDS score or TIMP-1 and MEDS score was more significant. Serum NGAL, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors at 28 days¿ follow-up. In addition, the level of NGAL was much higher in septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) than those without AKI. NGAL, TIMP-1, MMP-9 and MEDS score were found to be independent predictors of 28-day mortality in septic patients. The levels of serum NGAL and TIMP-1 were positively correlated with PCT and MEDS score in every septic group.ConclusionsNGAL and TIMP-1 are valuable for the risk stratification, early diagnosis and prognostication of sepsis in the ED. NGAL is also a valuable biomarker for prognosis of septic patients with AKI in the ED.
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Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of PVA composites formed with filamentous nanocellulose fibrils.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Long filamentous nanocellulose fibrils (NCFs) were prepared from chemical-thermomechanical pulps (CTMP) using ultrasonication. Their contribution to enhancements in thermal stability and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) films were investigated. The unique chemical pretreatment and mechanical effects of CTMP loosen and unfold fibers during the pulping process, which enables further chemical purification and subsequent ultrasound treatment for formation of NCFs. The NCFs exhibited higher crystallinity (72.9%) compared with that of CTMP (61.5%), and had diameters ranging from 50 to 120 nm. A NCF content of 6 wt% was found to yield the best thermal stability, light transmittance, and mechanical properties in the PVA/NCF composites. The composites also exhibited a visible light transmittance of 73.7%, and the tensile strength and Young's modulus were significantly improved, with values 2.8 and 2.4 times larger, respectively, than that of neat PVA.
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The in vivo absorbed constituents and metabolites of Danshen decoction in rats identified by HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Danshen, the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This research focuses on the in vivo metabolism of Danshen decoction (DSD) in rats. After oral administration of DSD, the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in urine and plasma were analyzed by HPLC coupled with a photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Samples were separated on a C18 column by gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. As a result, 93 compounds from urine and 38 compounds from plasma were identified. Among them, lipo-soluble diterpenoids (24 in urine and 15 in plasma) were reported for the first time as in vivo metabolites of DSD. According to the quantities and contents of the identified compounds, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone I were deduced to be the major absorptive diterpenoids of DSD. Moreover, nine water-soluble phenolics (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, danshensu, etc.) were proved to be the major absorptive constituents as reported. Most of the absorbed constituents underwent sulfation, glucuronidation, hydrogenation and hydroxylation in vivo. This investigation provided scientific evidence to obtain a more comprehensive metabolic profile of DSD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Inhibition of KL-6/MUC1 glycosylation limits aggressive progression of pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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To evaluate the significance of KL-6/MUC1 (a type of MUC1) glycosylation in pancreatic cancer progression.
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Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of Citrus reticulate 'Chachi' decoction by HPLC-PDA-IT-MS(n) and HPLC-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS method.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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A method incorporating HPLC-PDA-IT-MS(n) with HPLC-Quadrupole-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the investigation of chemical fingerprint of Citrus reticulate 'Chachi' decoction (CRCD) and metabolic profile of SD rat plasma sample after oral administration of CRCD (1.5 g herb/kg). A total of 27 chemical constituents of CRCD were identified from their MW, UV spectra, MS(n) data and retention behavior by comparing the results with those of the reference standards or literature. And 43 compounds were detected in dosed SD rat plasma samples, including 9 prototypes which were identified as hesperetin, isosinensetin, sinensetin, tetramethyl-O-isoscutellarein, nobiletin, tetramethyl-O-scutellarein, HMF (3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone), tangeretin and 5-demethylnobiletin and 34 metabolites underwent metabolic process of demethylation, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation or mixed modes. This is the first research for the metabolic profile of CRCD in SD rats, which could lay a foundation for the further studies of CRC or its formulation.
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Prognostic significance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones in early sepsis: a study performed in the emergency department.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to the sustained stress of sepsis has been the focus of study in recent years because the early phase of sepsis is known to be dominated by major alterations in the HPA axis. This prospective observational study aimed at assessing the predictive values of copeptin and HPA hormones in determining sepsis progression and mortality in the emergency department (ED).
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In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of Kuding tea (Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng) against oral cancer.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Kuding tea (Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng) is drunk widely in China. The in vitro anticancer effects of Kuding tea were evaluated in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At a concentration of 200 ?g/ml, Kuding tea exhibited an inhibitory effect of 75% in TCA8113 cells, which was higher than that observed at concentrations of 100 and 50 ?g/ml (41 and 10% inhibition, respectively). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses of the apoptosis, inflammation and metastasis genes and proteins in Kuding tea-treated cancer cells were performed. Kuding tea significantly induced apoptosis in TCA8113 cancer cells (P<0.05) by upregulating Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression, and downregulating Bcl-2 expression. Expression of the NF-?B, iNOS and COX-2 genes that are associated with inflammation was significantly downregulated by Kuding tea, which demonstrated its anti-inflammatory properties. Kuding tea also exerted an anti-metastatic effect on cancer cells. This was demonstrated by the decreased expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and the increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and confirmed by the inhibition of the metastasis of U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The ICR mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting the mice with U14 cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was topically treated with Kuding tea. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with Kuding tea were smaller than those from the control mice. Analysis of the sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue demonstrated that the buccal mucosa cancer degrees of the Kuding tea-treated mice were weaker than that in the control mice. Similar results were observed in the lesion sections of the cervical lymph nodes. Based on these results, Kuding tea exhibited successful in vitro anticancer effects in TCA8113 cells and in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity.
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Preventive effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. on the formation of lung metastases in BALB/c mice injected with 26-M3.1 colon carcinoma cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. (D. candidum) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used in Asia. The present study has showed that D. candidum exerted an anti-metastatic effect in mice injected with 26-M3.1 colon carcinoma cells. D. candidum showed the most marked tumor inhibitory rate of 64.5% at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The mRNA and protein expression of Bax in lung tissue of D. candidum-treated mice was shown to be higher as compared with control mice, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 showed the opposite trend. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of MMP and increased expression of TIMPs was demonstrated in lung tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. D. candidum reduced the serum cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-? to a greater extent as compared with the control mice, and administration of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in a lower serum cytokine levels as compared with mice treated with 200 mg/kg b.w. Eleven compounds were in the D. candidum leaf, of which the functional contents may help to generate novel treatments for the prevention of lung metastases. The results of the present study have demonstrated that D. candidum had a potent in vivo antitumor and anti-metastatic effect in BALB/c mice injected with 26-M3.1 cells.
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A fingerprint analysis method for characterization of dissolved organic matter in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plant.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater and reclaimed water is related to water quality, safety, and treatability. In this study, DOM was characterized through a fingerprint analysis method for DOM characterization using resin fractionation followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Resin fractionation was used in the first step to divide the DOM in water samples into six resin fractions, namely, hydrophobic acids (HOA), hydrophobic bases (HOB), hydrophobic neutrals (HON), hydrophilic acids (HIA), hydrophilic bases (HIB), and hydrophilic neutrals (HIN). SEC analysis was then performed to separate each resin fraction into several (n) subfractions with different molecular weights (MW). Thus, the total DOM in the water sample was fractionated into 6n subfractions. After quantification of each subfraction by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a fingerprint graph was constructed to express the distribution of DOM in the subfractions. The fingerprint analysis method was applied to a secondary effluent sample during ozonation. Ozonation (dose of 10 mg L(-1)) removed the DOC only by 8 % and reduced UV254 of the sample by 36 %. Fingerprint graphs also revealed that the resin fractions changed quite limitedly but transformation of subfractions occurred notably.
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Inhibitory effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. on azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. was purchased for the evaluation of azoxymethane (AOM)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. The body weights of the AOM- and DSS-induced colon cancer control groups were lighter than those of the untreated mice. D. candidum increased the body weights of the mice compared with the control group, and reduced the levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-?, compared with the colon cancer control group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the apoptotic-related genes, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9, were performed in the colon tissues. The high-concentration D. candidum group showed a significant increase in the mRNA and protein expression levels of bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and decreased expression levels of bcl-2 compared with the control group. These results indicate that D. candidum Wall ex Lindl. exhibits preventive effects against colon carcinogenesis in mice.
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The use of gene activated matrix to mediate effective SMAD2 gene silencing against hypertrophic scar.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Hypertrophic scar (HS) originates from the over-expression of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and downstream SMAD2. With attempts to rectify HS by RNA interference (RNAi) against SMAD2, we report the design of plasmid DNA encoding SMAD2 siRNA (pSUPER-SMAD2), and identify the optimal siRNA sequence toward maximal RNAi efficiency. To realize effective and sustained RNAi, we developed gene activated matrix (GAM) based on porous atelocollagen scaffold and embedded trimethyl chitosan-cysteine (TMCC)/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes for promoting cell growth and gene transfection. The GAM exhibited porosity higher than 80%, pore size of 200-250 ?m, desired mechanical strength, and sustained pSUPER-SMAD2 release profiles. Normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs) and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were allowed to infiltrate and proliferate in GAM; at the meantime they were transfected with TMCC/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes to display remarkably reduced SMAD2 levels that lasted for up to 10 days, consequently inhibiting the over-production of type I and type III collagen. We further unraveled the notably higher transfection levels of GAM in three-dimensional (3D) than in 2D environment, which was attributed to the improved cell-matrix interactions that promote cell proliferation and polyplex internalization. This highly safe and effective GAM may serve as a promising candidate towards HS treatment.
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Promotion of initial anti-tumor effect via polydopamine modified doxorubicin-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Drug-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes are not conducive to adhesion between materials and tissues due to the strong hydrophobicity of PLLA, which possibly attenuate the drugs' effect loaded on the materials. In the present work, we developed a facile method to improve the hydrophilicity of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded electrospun PLLA fibrous membranes, which could enhance the anti-tumor effect at the early stage after implantation. A mussel protein, polydopamine (PDA), could be easily grafted on the surface of hydrophobic DOX-loaded electrospun PLLA membranes (PLLA-DOX/pDA) in water solution. The morphology analysis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers displayed that though the fiber diameter was slightly swollen, they still maintained a 3D fibrous structure, and the XPS analysis certified that pDA had successfully been grafted onto the surface of the fibers. The results of surface wettability analysis showed that the contact angle decreased from 136.7° to 0° after grafting. In vitro MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers was the strongest, and the stereologic cell counting assay demonstrated that the adhesiveness of PLLA/pDA fiber was significantly better than PLLA fiber. In vivo tumor-bearing mice displayed that, after one week of implantation, the tumor apoptosis and necrosis of PLLA-DOX/pDA fibers were the most obvious from histopathology and TUNEL assay. The caspase-3 activity of PLLA-DOX/pDA group was the highest using biochemical techniques, and the Bax: Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in PLLA-DOX/pDA group through qRT-PCR analysis. All the results demonstrated that pDA can improve the affinity of the electrospun PLLA membranes and enhance the drug effect on tumors.
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An EEG-based mental workload estimator trained on working memory task can work well under simulated multi-attribute task.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mental workload (MW)-based adaptive system has been found to be an effective approach to enhance the performance of human-machine interaction and to avoid human error caused by overload. However, MW estimated from the spontaneously generated electroencephalogram (EEG) was found to be task-specific. In existing studies, EEG-based MW classifier can work well under the task used to train the classifier (within-task) but crash completely when used to classify MW of a task that is similar to but not included in the training data (cross-task). The possible causes have been considered to be the task-specific EEG patterns, the mismatched workload across tasks and the temporal effects. In this study, cross-task performance-based feature selection (FS) and regression model were tried to cope with these challenges, in order to make EEG-based MW estimator trained on working memory tasks work well under a complex simulated multi-attribute task (MAT). The results show that the performance of regression model trained on working memory task and tested on multi-attribute task with the feature subset picked-out were significantly improved (correlation coefficient (COR): 0.740 ± 0.147 and 0.598 ± 0.161 for FS data and validation data respectively) when compared to the performance in the same condition with all features (chance level). It can be inferred that there do exist some MW-related EEG features can be picked out and there are something in common between MW of a relatively simple task and a complex task. This study provides a promising approach to measure MW across tasks.
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Definition of the to be named ligament and vertebrodural ligament and their possible effects on the circulation of CSF.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few studies have been conducted specifically on the dense connective tissue located in the posterior medial part of the cervical epidural space. This study was undertaken to examine the presence of this connection between the cervical dura mater and the posterior wall of spinal canal at the level of C1-C2. 30 head-neck specimens of Chinese adults were used. Gross dissection was performed on the suboccipital regions of the 20 specimens. Having been treated with the P45 plastination method, 10 specimens were sliced (9 sagittal and 1 horizontal sections). As a result, a dense fibrous band was identified in the nuchal ligament of 29 specimens (except for one horizontal section case). This fascial structure arose from the tissue of the posterior border of the nuchal ligament and then projected anteriorly and superiorly to enter the atlantoaxial interspace. It was termed as to be named ligament (TBNL). In all 30 specimens the existence of a fibrous connection was found between the posterior aspect of the cervical dura mater and the posterior wall of the spinal canal at the level of the atlas to the axis. This fibrous connection was identified as vertebrodural ligament (VDL). The VDL was mainly subdivided into three parts, and five variations of VDL were identified. These two structures, TBNL and VDL, firmly link the posterior aspect of cervical dura mater to the rear of the atlas-axis and the nuchal region. According to these findings, the authors speculated that the movements of the head and neck are likely to affect the shape of the cervical dural sleeve via the TBNL and VDL. It is hypothesized that the muscles directly associated with the cervical dural sleeve, in the suboccipital region, may work as a pump providing an important force required to move the CSF in the spinal canal.
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Expression profiles and initial confirmation of long noncoding RNAs in Chinese patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent noncancerous tissue from Chinese patients using lncRNA expression microarray and preliminary analysis.
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Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side branching.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha contributes to pulmonary vascular dysfunction in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The revascularization therapy of pulmonary embolism is associated with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effect of IR injury on pulmonary arterial endothelial function has not been elucidated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control, an IR and an IR plus hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) stabilizer DMOG group. We found that the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in pulmonary arteries from IR-injured rats compared with controls (P < 0.01). Interestingly, pre-treatment with the DMOG significantly improved ACh-stimulated pulmonary arterial dilatation (P < 0.01). The protein expression of HIF-1? in pulmonary artery was significantly down-regulated by IR injury (P < 0.01). Moreover, DMOG remarkably reversed IR-induced down-regulation of HIF-1? (P < 0.01). There was no difference in ACh-stimulated relaxation of endothelium-denuded or L-NMMA-treated pulmonary arteries among the three groups. The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in pulmonary artery were significantly decreased by IR injury (both P < 0.01), which were reversed by DMOG (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the levels of superoxide in pulmonary artery were not affected by the IR injury as well as IR injury plus administration with DMOG. The present study demonstrated that HIF-1? contributes to pulmonary vascular dysfunction in lung IR injury.
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Gene microarray analysis of the lncRNA expression profile in human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To analyze the expression profile variation of lncRNAs in normal urinary bladder tissue and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder through microarray technology. The differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified and classified, and their biological information was analyzed. The data obtained in the study will prove helpful for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
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Evaluation of vesicular stomatitis virus mutant as an oncolytic agent against prostate cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date, limited options are available to treat malignant prostate cancer, and novel strategies need to be developed. Oncolytic viruses (OV) that have preferential replication capabilities in cancer cells rather than normal cells represent one promising alternative for treating malignant tumors. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus with the inherent capability to selectively kill tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VSV-?M51-GFP as an effective therapeutic agent for treating prostate tumors.
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Characterization of transcriptional complexity during adipose tissue development in bovines of different ages and sexes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adipose tissue has long been recognized to play an extremely important role in development. In bovines, it not only serves a fundamental function but also plays a key role in the quality of beef and, consequently, has drawn much public attention. Age and sex are two key factors that affect the development of adipose tissue, and there has not yet been a global study detailing the effects of these two factors on expressional differences of adipose tissues.
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Enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells from primary prostate cancer cultures of biopsy samples.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was to enrich prostate cancer stem cells (PrCSC) from primary prostate cancer cultures (PPrCC). Primary prostate cancer cells were amplified in keratinocyte serum-free medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), stem cell factor (SCF) and cholera toxin. After amplification, cells were transferred into ultra-low attachment dishes with serum-free DMEM/F12 medium, supplemented with EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bovine serum albumin (BSA), insulin, and N2 nutrition. Expression of cell-type-specific markers was determined by RT-qPCR and immunostaining. Tumorigenicity of enriched PrCSC was determined by soft agar assay and xenograft assay in NOD/SCID mice. Biopsy samples from 19 confirmed prostate cancer patients were used for establishing PPrCC, and 18 cases (95%) succeeded. Both basal marker (CK5) and luminal markers (androgen receptor and CK8) strongly co-expressed in most of PPrCC, indicating their basal epithelial origin. After amplification under adherent culture condition in vitro, transient amplifying cells were the dominant cells. Sphere formation efficiency (SFE) of passaged PPrCC was about 0.5%, which was 27 times lower than SFE of LNCaP (13.67%) in the same condition. Compared with adherent cells from PPrCC, prostasphere from PPrCC showed up regulated stem cell markers and increased tumorigenic potential in soft-agar assay. However, spheroid cells from PPrCC prostasphere failed to initiate tumor in xenograft assay in 6 months. Thus, PPrCC can be established and amplified from prostate cancer biopsy samples. Our modified sphere culture system can enrich PrCSC from PPrCC.
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[Effect of toluene diisocyanate on lung function of workers].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) on the lung function of TDI-exposed workers.
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[Diagnosis and treatment of yolk sac tumor of the testis with hydrocele in children: report of 7 cases].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To study the clinical characteristics of yolk sac tumor of the testis with concomitant testicular hydrocele in children and the association between the two conditions in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
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Postpartum cerebral angiopathy presenting with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and interval development of neurological deficits: a case report and review of literature.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebrovascular disease that occurs during the postpartum period. It is characterized by reversible multifocal vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. We report a patient with PCA proven by cerebral angiography that revealed multifocal, segmental narrowing of the cerebral arteries and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient suddenly deteriorated with focal neurological deficits on the 5 th day of hospitalization. She was treated with calcium-channel blockers and monitored with daily transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Her symptoms gradually improved and she was discharged on the 11 th day of hospitalization. At 1-month follow-up, patient was completely symptom-free with no neurological deficits.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.