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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early Intervention for Preterm Infants and Their Mothers: A Systematic Review.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of various early interventions on maternal emotional outcomes, mother-infant interaction, and subsequent infant outcomes during neonatal intensive care unit admission and postdischarge. Key interventions associated with outcomes in both the neonatal intensive care unit and postdischarge (ie, home) settings are summarized. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials involving early interventions for infants and their mother published between 1993 and 2013 in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane was undertaken. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale to evaluate internal and external validity of the study. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in the review, and all used some form of parenting education. The interventions had limited effects on maternal stress and mother-infant interaction and positive effects on maternal anxiety, depressive symptoms, and maternal coping. There were positive effects on infants' short-term outcomes for length of stay and breast-feeding rate. Positive and clinically meaningful effects of early interventions were seen in some physiological/psychological outcomes of mothers and preterm infants. It is important for nurses to foster close mother-infant contact and increase maternal competence during and after the infant's hospitalization period.
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Optics ellipticity performance of an unobscured off-axis space telescope.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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With the development of astronomy, more and more attention is paid to the survey of dark matter. Dark matter cannot be seen directly but can be detected by weak gravitational lensing measurement. Ellipticity is an important parameter used to define the shape of a galaxy. Galaxy ellipticity changes with weak gravitational lensing and nonideal optics. With our design of an unobscured off-axis telescope, we implement the simulation and calculation of optics ellipticity. With an accurate model of optics PSF, the characteristic of ellipticity is modeled and analyzed. It is shown that with good optical design, the full field ellipticity can be quite small. The spatial ellipticity change can be modeled by cubic interpolation with very high accuracy. We also modeled the ellipticity variance with time and analyzed the tolerance. It is shown that the unobscured off-axis telescope has good ellipticity performance and fulfills the requirement of dark matter survey.
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[Study on the reference range of reticulocyte multi-parameter in newborn from Beijing].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To explore the RET reference values of newborns in Beijing Area and the relationship between the RET and the day ages of newborns.
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[Therapeutic efficacy and safety of chemotherapy subsequent EGFR-TKI in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with EGFR-TKI acquired resistance].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To explore the therapeutic efficacy and safety of chemotherapy subsequent epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR-TKI acquired resistance.
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Outcomes of Recurrent Facial Palsy in Melkersson Rosenthal Syndrome.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The objective of the study was to investigate outcomes of recurrent facial palsy in Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome (MRS).
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Plasma membrane receptor-like kinase leaf panicle 2 acts downstream of the DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE transcription factor to regulate drought sensitivity in rice.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Drought is a recurring climatic hazard that reduces the crop yields. To avoid the negative effects of drought on crop production, extensive efforts have been devoted to investigating the complex mechanisms of gene expression and signal transduction during drought stress. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play important roles in perceiving extracellular stimuli and activating downstream signalling responses. The rice genome contains >1100 RLK genes, of which only two are reported to function in drought stress. A leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK gene named Leaf Panicle 2 (LP2) was previously found to be strongly expressed in leaves and other photosynthetic tissues, but its function remains unclear. In the present study, it was shown that the expression of LP2 was down-regulated by drought and abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic plants overexpressing LP2 accumulated less H2O2, had more open stomata in leaves, and showed hypersensitivity to drought stress. Further investigation revealed that transcription of LP2 was directly regulated by the zinc finger transcription factor DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE (DST). In addition, LP2 was identified as a functional kinase localized to the plasma membrane and interacted with the drought-responsive aquaporin proteins OsPIP1; 1, OsPIP1; 3, and OsPIP2; 3. Thus, the findings provided evidence that the LRR-RLK LP2, transcriptionally regulated by the drought-related transcription factor DST, served as a negative regulator in drought response.
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Stability analysis and design of time-domain acoustic impedance boundary conditions for lined duct with mean flow.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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This work develops the so-called compensated impedance boundary conditions that enable stable time domain simulations of sound propagation in a lined duct with uniform mean flow, which has important practical interest for noise emission by aero-engines. The proposed method is developed analytically from an unusual perspective of control that shows impedance boundary conditions act as closed-loop feedbacks to an overall duct acoustic system. It turns out that those numerical instabilities of time domain simulations are caused by deficient phase margins of the corresponding control-oriented model. A particular instability of very low frequencies in the presence of steady uniform background mean flow, in addition to the well known high frequency numerical instabilities at the grid size, can be identified using this analysis approach. Stable time domain impedance boundary conditions can be formulated by including appropriate phaselead compensators to achieve desired phase margins. The compensated impedance boundary conditions can be simply designed with no empirical parameter, straightforwardly integrated with ordinary linear acoustic models, and efficiently calculated with no need of resolving sheared boundary layers. The proposed boundary conditions are validated by comparing against asymptotic solutions of spinning modal sound propagation in a duct with a hard-soft interface and reasonable agreement is achieved.
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[Photo-stimulated and long persistent luminescence properties of Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+, RE3+ (RE = Nd3+, Ho3+, La3+)].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A series of electron capture materials Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+, RE3+ (RE = Nd3+, Ho3+, La3+) were prepared by high temperature solid state method. The photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and long afterglow performance were evaluated. After excited by UV light, it showed a strong up-conversion photo-stimulated read-out response when stimulated by 980 nm laser, which is attributed to the existence of deep traps (438 K). This property was especially shown in Sr3 SiO5 : Eu2+, La3+ and Sr3SiO5 : EU2+, Ho3+. Subsequently, the trapping depth and carrier concentration were studied. In this way, we verified the cause of PSL. The calculation of parameters of trapping electron in the thermoluminescence spectrum is through the method of Chen's half width, getting the value of trapping depth under the temperature of 438 K, which contrasts to the energy of 980 nm laser radiation. At the same time, the afterglow performance after co-doping with rare earth ion was greatly improved. The afterglow time of Sr3 SiO5 : Eu2+ , La3+ is up to 12 hours. Research results show that the change in mixed trap structure is the primary cause of photo-stimulated and long persistent luminescence properties.
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In vitro evidence for bakuchiol's influence towards drug metabolism through inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reason for clinical drug-drug interaction.
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Non-ionic surfactants as novel intranasal absorption enhancers: in vitro and in vivo characterization.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract Objective: To explore the potential of non-ionic surfactants as novel intranasal absorption enhancers. Methods: Taking sumatriptan succinate (SMS) as a model drug, influence of different non-ionic surfactants, including laurate sucrose ester (SE), cremophor EL and poloxamer 188, on the intranasal absorption of SMS was investigated using an in situ nasal perfusion technique in rats. Ciliotoxicity of the non-ionic surfactants was evaluated using an in situ toad palate model. In vivo behavior of the selected formulations was studied in rats. Results: All the non-ionic surfactants investigated increased the intranasal absorption of SMS remarkably but with varied extent and trend. Moreover, it was revealed that at the same concentration, laurate SE had better permeation-enhancing effect than that of cremophor EL and poloxamer 188. The ciliotoxicity results showed that all the non-ionic surfactants were regarded as safe at selected concentrations. Based on the in situ absorption data and ciliotoxicity results, the following three samples, 0.5% laurate SE, 0.1% cremophor EL and 0.5% poloxamer 188 were selected for in vivo absorption studies in rats. Among them, 0.5% laurate SE group presented the highest enhancing effect, followed by 0.1% cremophor EL and 0.5% poloxamer 188 group, with absolute bioavailability 29.99%, 22.64% and 20.90%, respectively. Conclusions: Laurate SE is a promising intranasal absorption enhancer.
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The Cytotoxic and Mechanistic Effects of Aaptamine on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common form of cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. We isolated aaptamine from the marine sponge Aaptos, and synthesized derivatives of this compound. Aaptamine and synthetic derivatives displayed various biological activities. This represents the first account of studies on the effects of aaptamine and its derivatives in hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, Cell Counting Kit (CCK8) was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of aaptamine on HCC in vitro. Additionally, a subcutaneous xenograft model was used to determine if aaptamine could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. We also used RT-PCR and Western blot to analyze the mechanisms behind these effects. Our results showed that aaptamine has anti-proliferation effects on the cell lines LM3 and HepG2. Aaptamine also suppressed the colony-formation ability of HCC cells. We found that aaptamine treatment led to cell cycle arrest in HCC cells, reduced the expression of SOX9 and CDK2. Significant anti-tumor effects were observed in aaptamine-administered tumor-bearing mice as compared to controls. (and inhibited subcutaneous HCC xenograft development in vivo.) However, structural changes made to aaptamine yielded two derivatives for which all the effects listed above were considerably reduced as compared to the original compound aaptamine. In conclusion, aaptamine is demonstrated for the first time to inhibit liver cancer progression. The aaptamine-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with the increased binding of p21 to Cdk2-cyclin D/E complexes, inhibition of Cdk2 kinase activity in HCC cells.). Furthermore, aaptamine appears to be a promising and efficient treatment of liver cancer HCC-LM3 in vivo. We have also uncovered structural changes that might affect the biological activity. The work provides a promising drug candidate for HCC treatment.
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Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Infection in Guangdong Province, China.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 has continued in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong province during the first wave but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong province. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all the four pediatric patients. All cases reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission.
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Arterial stiffness is a potential mechanism and promising indicator of orthostatic hypotension in the general population.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a disease prevalent among middle-aged men and the elderly. The association between arterial stiffness and OH is unclear. This study evaluates whether arterial stiffness is correlated with OH and tests the usefulness of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an arterial stiffness marker, with regard to identifying OH.
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Minocycline can delay the development of morphine tolerance but cannot reverse existing tolerance in the maintenance period of neuropathic pain in rats.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Neuropathic pain is a challenge for physicians and basic science researchers because it often does not respond to routine treatment. The administration of morphine has been considered one of the effective recommended treatments, but its wide application is limited because of the development of antinociceptive tolerance. In general, basic science studies focus on neuropathic pain and morphine tolerance separately. However, we tried to investigate the effect of microglial activation on morphine tolerance in spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rats during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain. This study produced the following results. First, the repeated administration of morphine induces the development of antinociceptive tolerance during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain. Second, during the development of morphine tolerance, microglial activation, which is related to the analgesic effect of morphine, decreases in the first few days, but this pattern is reversed in the following days with the development of morphine tolerance. Third, the repeated administration of minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, does not influence the antinociceptive effect of a single dose of morphine. Fourth, the pre-administration of minocycline can delay the development of morphine tolerance, but repeated minocycline administration cannot reverse existing morphine tolerance. We concluded that microglial activation contributes to the morphine tolerance of SNL rats in the maintenance period of neuropathic pain and that minocycline delays the development of morphine tolerance but does not reverse existing morphine tolerance during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain in rats. These findings might be useful for clinical pain management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Oct-4 and nanog promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer stem cells and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Oct-4 and Nanog in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer has not been clarified. We found that both Oct-4 and Nanog expression were significantly associated with tumor pathology and poor prognosis in 126 breast cancer patients. Characterization of CD44+CD24-Cancer stem cell(CSC) derived from breast cancer cells indicated that CSC rapidly formed mammospheres and had potent tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, TGF-? up-regulated the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, and Snail, but down-regulated E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18 expression, demonstrating that CSC underwent EMT. Knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog expression inhibited spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes, while induction of both Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes in CSC. However, perturbing alternation of Oct-4 and Nanog expression also modulated TGF-?-induced EMT-related gene expression in CSC. Induction of Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced the invasiveness of CSC, but knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog inhibited the migration of CSC in vitro. Our data suggest that both Oct-4 and Nanog may serve as biomarkers for evaluating breast cancer prognosis. Our findings indicate that Oct-4 and Nanog positively regulate the EMT process, contributing to breast cancer metastasis.
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Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-Methyl) gallate (EGCG3?Me) from Chinese Oolong Tea.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3?Me) has exhibited various biological activities in oolong tea. However, little information about its hepatoprotective activity is available. The objectives of the present study, therefore, were to determine the hepatoprotective activity of EGCG3?Me. First, high-purity EGCG3?Me was prepared from Chinese oolong tea by column chromatography. In antioxidant assay in vitro, EGCG3?Me exhibited potential antioxidant activity. For hepatoprotective activity in vitro, it was observed that EGCG3?Me effectively alleviated the changes induced by alcohol in a concentration-dependent manner. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, the administration of EGCG3?Me at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW per day significantly decreased the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 64.6 ± 3.17 and 97.6 ± 3.78 to 39.6 ± 2.72 and 59.6 ± 3.02 U/L, decreased the liver level of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 1.14 ± 0.08 to 0.77 ± 0.03 nmol/mg protein, and remarkably restored the liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) from 247 ± 20.1 U/mg and 6.12 ± 0.17 nmol/mg protein to 261 ± 9.98 U/mg and 8.10 ± 0.03 nmol/mg protein, respectively, in alcohol-induced liver injury mice. This suggested that the protective effect of EGCG3?Me against alcohol-induced liver injury is possibly via its antioxidant activity to protect biological systems against oxidative stress.
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Circulating microRNA expression profile: a novel potential predictor for chronic nervous lesions.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The mechanisms of chronic neuropathic pain are not clear. Serum microRNAs (miRNAs) might show a special feature for chronic nervous lesions. However, little is known about the changes in circulating miRNAs for the neuropathic pain. Therefore, changes in the circulating miRNAs expression profile for the neuropathic pain were investigated. Serum was collected from rats before and after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) surgery, and a microarray analysis was performed to determine the changes in miRNA expression profile. The expression of inflammatory cytokines in serum from the same individuals, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), was also measured. The results showed that the expression levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in SNL rats which were significantly correlated with pain levels. Nine miRNAs with significantly different expression levels before and after SNL surgery were identified by microarray analysis, which were further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Compared with naive rats without SNL surgery, the expression of five miRNAs (hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-34c, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-30a-5p, and hsa-miR-206) in the serum of rats after SNL surgery was decreased and four miRNAs (hsa-miR-31-5p, hsa-miR-133b, hsa-miR-22, and hsa-miRPlus-A1087) were increased, suggesting that miRNA changes may involve in the regulation of neuropathic pain. TargetScan was used to predict mRNA targets for these miRNAs, and the results showed that the transcripts with multiple predicted target sites belonged to neurologically important pathways. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that several target genes are related to the activation of cell signaling associated with nervous lesions. In this study, the changes to miRNA profiles in serum under neuropathic pain conditions were shown for the first time, suggesting that circulating miRNAs profile in serum is a potential predictor for neuropathic pain.
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Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts Prognosis of Patients after Curative Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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We developed a novel systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts and explored its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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[Bibliometric analysis of bacterial quantitative proteomics in English literatures].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To analyze the worldwide advances on bacterial quantitative proteomics over the past fifteen years with bibliometric approach.
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Polyethylenimine Facilitated Ethyl Cellulose for Hexavalent Chromium Removal with a Wide pH Range.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Ethyl cellulose (EC) composites modified with 20.0 wt % polyethylenimine (PEI) (PEI/ECs) demonstrated effective hexavalent chromium, [Cr(VI)], removal from solutions with a wide pH range. For example, 4.0 mg/L Cr(VI) solution with a pH below 3.0 was completely purified by 3.0 g/L PEI/ECs within 5 min, much faster than the as-received EC (2 h) and activated carbon (several hours). These PEI/ECs adsorbents has overcome the low pH limitation of Cr(VI) removal; for example, 4.0 mg/L Cr(VI) solution with a pH of 11.0 was completely purified within 15 min. These adsorbents followed chemical adsorption as revealed from the pseudo-second-order kinetic study. These PEI/ECs following the isotherm Langmuir model have a maximum adsorption capacity of 36.8 mg/g, much higher than pure EC (12 mg/g), tetrabutylammonium-modified celluloses (16.67 mg/g), and magnetic carbon (16 mg/g). The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by the oxidation of amine groups and hydroxyl groups of PEI/ECs was verified as the main mechanism for the Cr(VI) removal.
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Catalytic Asymmetric ?-Iminol Rearrangement: New Chiral Platforms.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A series of 19 different asymmetric catalysts were screened in an effort to identify the first chiral catalyst for the rearrangement of ?-hydroxy imines to ?-amino ketones involving a 1,2-carbon shift. Although aluminate complexes of VAPOL, VANOL, and 7,7'-(t)Bu2VANOL were quite effective catalysts giving up to 88% ee, the ne plus ultra catalyst for this reaction was found to be a zirconium complex of VANOL which gives 97 to >99% ee for the majority of the substrates examined. An X-ray diffraction study of the catalyst reveals that the zirconium exists as a homoleptic complex with three VANOL ligands and two protonated N-methyl imidazoles.
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Effects of Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me on pancreatic ?-amylase activity in vitro.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In order to investigate the inhibitory effects and possible mechanisms of Oolong tea polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3?Me) on pancreatic ?-amylase, the inhibition, enzyme kinetics, ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of ?-amylase were investigated. The results showed that Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all exhibited inhibitory effects against ?-amylase, and their half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 0.375, 0.350, and 0.572 mg/mL, respectively. The results of Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot indicated that the inhibitory types of Oolong tea polyphenols and EGCG were competitive, whereas EGCG3?Me was in a noncompetitive pattern. Oolong tea polyphenols, EGCG, and EGCG3?Me all induced red-shift of UV absorbance and quenching of fluorescence of ?-amylase, suggesting possible changes in the conformation of ?-amylase. The differences of inhibitory effects and inhibition types for EGCG and EGCG3?Me might be due to their structural difference (the hydroxyl group at C-3 in D ring of EGCG substituted by methoxy group, forming EGCG3?Me).
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Superior Dehydrogenation/Hydrogenation Kinetics and Long-Term Cycling Performance of K and Rb Cocatalyzed Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The coaddition of KH and RbH significantly improves the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system. An Mg(NH2)2-2LiH-0.04KH-0.04RbH composite was able to reversibly store 5.2 wt % H2 when the dehydrogenation operates at 130 °C and the hydrogenation operates at 120 °C. The isothermal dehydrogenation rate at 130 °C was approximately 43 times that of a pristine sample. During ball-milling, KH reacts with RbH to form a K(Rb)H solid solution. Upon heating, RbH first separates from the K(Rb)H solid solution and participates in the first step of dehydrogenation reaction, and then the remaining KH participates in the second dehydrogenation reaction. The presence of RbH and KH provide synergetic effects, which improve the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen storage in the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH system. In particular, more than 93% of the hydrogen storage capacity (4.4 wt %) remains after cycling a sample with 0.04 mol of KH and RbH for 50 cycles, indicating notably better cycling stability compared with any presently known Li-Mg-N-H systems.
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De novo-designed enzymes as small-molecule-regulated fluorescence imaging tags and fluorescent reporters.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Enzyme-based tags attached to a protein-of-interest (POI) that react with a small molecule, rendering the conjugate fluorescent, are very useful for studying the POI in living cells. These tags are typically based on endogenous enzymes, so protein engineering is required to ensure that the small-molecule probe does not react with the endogenous enzyme in the cell of interest. Here we demonstrate that de novo-designed enzymes can be used as tags to attach to POIs. The inherent bioorthogonality of the de novo-designed enzyme-small-molecule probe reaction circumvents the need for protein engineering, since these enzyme activities are not present in living organisms. Herein, we transform a family of de novo-designed retroaldolases into variable-molecular-weight tags exhibiting fluorescence imaging, reporter, and electrophoresis applications that are regulated by tailored, reactive small-molecule fluorophores.
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Enhancing the Li storage capacity and initial coulombic efficiency for porous carbons by sulfur doping.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Here, we report a new approach to synthesizing S-doped porous carbons and achieving both a high capacity and a high Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle for carbon nanostructures as anodes for Li ion batteries. S-doped porous carbons (S-PCs) were synthesized by carbonization of pitch using magnesium sulfate whiskers as both templates and S source, and a S doping up to 10.1 atom % (corresponding to 22.5 wt %) was obtained via a S doping reaction. Removal of functional groups or highly active C atoms during the S doping has led to formation of much thinner solid-electrolyte interface layer and hence significantly enhanced the Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle from 39.6% (for the undoped porous carbon) to 81.0%. The Li storage capacity of the S-PCs is up to 1781 mA h g(-1) at the current density of 50 mA g(-1), more than doubling that of the undoped porous carbon. Due to the enhanced conductivity, the hierarchically porous structure and the excellent stability, the S-PC anodes exhibit excellent rate capability and reliable cycling stability. Our results indicate that S doping can efficiently promote the Li storage capacity and reduce the irreversible Li combination for carbon nanostructures.
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Prognostic value of LGR5 in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) has recently been reported to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and the prognostic value of LGR5 in CRC has been evaluated in several studies. However, the conclusions remain controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between the expression of LGR5 and the outcome of CRC patients by performing a meta-analysis.
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Overexpression of miR-223 correlates with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The purpose of the study was to investigate microRNA-223 (miR-223) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its relationship with tumorigenesis and disease prognosis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure levels of miR-223 in tumor samples and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 62 patients undergoing radical resection for the treatment of CRC. The associations between miR-223 expression and patient age, sex, as well as clinicopathologic parameters, such as tumor size, differentiation, location, invasion depth, metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and overall patient survival, were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to estimate the prognostic factors for patient survival prediction. The expression of miR-223 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.05). This overexpression was associated with TNM stage and lymph node and distant metastases, (P < 0.05). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high miR-223 expression had a poorer overall survival (OS) than those with low miR-223 expression (P = 0.002). Univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between OS and miR-223 level, histology grade, metastasis and TNM stage (P < 0.001). Furthermore, miR-223 levels and histology grade were independently associated with OS (HR 0.204, 95 % CI 0.101-0.415, P < 0.05 and HR 2.252, 95 % CI 1.429-3.546, P < 0.05, respectively). The overexpression of miR-223 may play an important role in the progression of CRC and can be used as an independent factor to determine CRC prognosis.
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Dual sensitive and temporally controlled camptothecin prodrug liposomes codelivery of siRNA for high efficiency tumor therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The combination of chemotherapeutic drug camptothecin (CPT) and siPlk1 could prohibit cancer development with combined effects. To ensure the two drugs could be simultaneously delivered to tumor region with high loading content, and the modulator siPlk1 could be released in advance to down-regulate the Plk1 expression to improve the sensitivity of CPT to cancer cells, dual sensitive and temporally controlled CPT prodrug based cationic liposomes with siPlk1 codelivery system was constructed. The pH-sensitive zwitterionic polymer poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB) was conjugated with CPT through pH and esterase-sensitive ester bond to enhance the stability and loading content of CPT. CPT-based cationic liposomes consisted of CPT-PCB prodrug and cationic lipid DDAB were then constructed for siRNA codelivery for combination therapy. The dual sensitive CPT-PCB/siPlk1 lipoplexes simultaneously delivered the two drugs to tumor cells and enabled a temporally controlled release of two drugs, that the siRNA was quickly released after 4 h incubation due to the protonation of PCB in endosomes/lysosomes, and CPT was released in a sustained manner in response to pH and esterase and highly accumulated in nucleus after 12 h incubation. The CPT-PCB/siPlk1 lipoplexes induced significant cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity in vitro with a synergistic effect. Furthermore, the dual sensitive CPT-PCB lipoplexes enhanced the tumor accumulation of the two payloads and exhibited a synergistic tumor suppression effect in tumor-bearing mice in vivo, which proved to be a promising delivery system for codelivery of CPT and siPlk1 for cancer therapy.
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Effect of internal iliac artery chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor for muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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To evaluate the clinical effect of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) combined with internal iliac artery chemotherapy and intravesical instillation therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
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Urinary cell-free microRNA-106b as a novel biomarker for detection of bladder cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) stably and abundantly exist in body fluids and emerging evidence suggests cell-free miRNAs as a novel class of noninvasive disease biomarkers. In this study, we hypothesized that the quantitative detection of the oncogenic miR-106b-25 cluster in urine could be a useful clinical biomarker for bladder cancer (BCa). Three members of the miR-106b-25 cluster (miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in urine supernatant of 112 BCa patients and 78 age-matched controls. In our study, the urinary levels of miR-106b were significantly higher in BCa patients than controls (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the urinary levels of miR-93 and miR-25 between two groups. Furthermore, the levels of urinary miR-106b were significantly reduced in postoperative samples compared with the levels in the preoperative samples (P=0.007). With respect of clinicopathological characteristics, the level of urinary miR-106b was associated with advanced tumor stage. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that urinary miR-106b had considerable diagnostic accuracy, yielding an AUC (the areas under the ROC curve) of 0.802 with 76.8% sensitivity and 72.4% specificity in differentiating BCa from controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that urinary cell-free miR-106b might provide new complementary tumor biomarkers for BCa.
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A functional biphasic biomaterial homing mesenchymal stem cells for in vivo cartilage regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Cartilage regeneration after trauma is still a great challenge for clinicians and researchers due to many reasons, such as joint load-bearing, synovial movement and the paucity of endogenous repair cells. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a functional biomaterial using a biphasic scaffold platform and a bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-specific affinity peptide. The biphasic scaffold platform retains more cells homogeneously within the sol-gel transition of chitosan and provides sufficient solid matrix strength. This biphasic scaffold platform is functionalized with an affinity peptide targeting a cell source of interest, BMSCs. The presence of conjugated peptide gives this system a biological functionality towards BMSC-specific homing both in vitro and in vivo. The functional biomaterial can stimulate stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation during in vitro culture. Six months after in vivo implantation, compared with routine surgery or control scaffolds, the functional biomaterials induced superior cartilage repair without complications, as indicated by histological observations, magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical properties. Beyond cartilage repair, this functional biphasic scaffold may provide a biomaterial framework for one-step tissue engineering strategy by homing endogenous cells to stimulate tissue regeneration.
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Diethylpyrocarbonate modification reveals HisB5 as an important modulator of insulin amyloid formation.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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More than 30 amyloid proteins are reported to be associated with amyloidosis diseases. Studies have implicated histidine may be critically involved in amyloid formation. Here, we used diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) modification to obtain a His(B5) mono-ethyloxyformylated insulin (DMI-B(5)). The secondary structure, amyloidogenicity, metal ion interaction, and cytotoxicity of DMI-B(5) and insulin were compared. DMI-B(5) was less prone to aggregation in acidic condition but easier to aggregate at neutral pH. DEPC modification resulted in attenuated inhibitory effect of Zn(2+) on aggregation, whereas DMI-B(5) fibrils induced more severe erythrocytes haemolysis compared to insulin fibrils. This study not only provides a fast new approach for studying the impact of imidazole ring in amyloid formation, but also reveals the critical modulating role of histidine imidazole ring on the amyloidogenicity of insulin.
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Xylem sap in cotton contains proteins that contribute to environmental stress response and cell wall development.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The xylem sap of a plant is primarily responsible for transporting molecules from the underground root system to the aboveground parts of the plant body. In order to understand the role that roots play in cotton growth and development, the components present in xylem sap must be elucidated. In this study, we used a shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS proteomics approach to identify 455 peptides from the xylem sap of field-grown cotton plants at peak blooming stage. Of these peptides, 384 (84.4 %) were found to be secreted proteins and 320 (70.3 %) had special molecular functions. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, 348 peptides were annotated in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization, with 46.9 and 45.1 % being related to catalytic activity and binding activity, respectively. Many xylem sap-containing proteins were predicted to be involved in different phases of xylem differentiation including cell wall metabolism, secondary cell wall development and patterning, and programmed cell death. The identification of starch and sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes implicated the interaction between roots and aboveground parts on the aspect of carbohydrate metabolism. Many of the proteins identified in this study are involved in defense mechanisms including pathogen-related proteins, such as peroxidases, chitinases, and germin-like proteins, proteases involved in disease resistance, and phytoalexin phenylpropanoid synthesis-related proteins. The majority of identified signaling proteins were fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and kinases. The results of this study provide useful insight into the communication mechanisms between cotton roots and the rest of the cotton plant.
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Factors Influencing Implementation of Developmental Care Among NICU Nurses in China.
Clin Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The main aim of this article is to describe current developmental care nursing practices among registered nurses (RNs) working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China and to explore selected personal and unit characteristics related to developmental care implementation. A convenience sample of 207 RNs participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional exploratory study. A tool of Practice Standards for Individualized, Family-Centered Developmental Care was used to collect the data. The findings indicate that Chinese NICU nurses are not implementing developmental care consistently. Higher patient caseloads, fewer work hours per day, higher level of education, and fewer years worked in NICUs are the significant predictors for lower implementation of developmental care. NICU nurses in China currently carry out developmental care based mainly on their accumulated clinical experience rather than their educational experience. More systematic developmental care training for NICU nurses and more support at both unit and hospital levels are necessary in China.
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Identification and expression analysis of immune-related genes linked to Rel/NF-?B signaling pathway under stresses and bacterial challenge from the small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and Akirin2 are all important members of Rel/NF-?B signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in regulating the innate immune response of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the I?B (SaI?B) and Akirin2 (SaAkirin2) cDNAs of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of SaI?B and SaAkirin2 were 1748 bp and 1452 bp respectively, encoding a protein of 401 aa and 187 aa respectively. A conserved degradation motif (DS56GIYS60) and six ankyrin repeats were identified in the SaI?B by SMART analysis. Meanwhile, a typical nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found at the N-terminal region of the SaAkirin2 protein. Also, the mRNA expression level of SaI?B, SaAkirin2, and AbNF-?B were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results revealed that all these three genes were ubiquitously expressed in 7 selected tissues. The expression level of SaI?B in gills was higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.05) while the expression level of AbNF-?B was significantly higher in hepatopancreas and haemocytes. The highest expression level of SaAkirin2 was detected in hepatopancreas, followed by mantle. The mRNA expression levels in either gills or haemocytes of SaI?B, SaAkirin2, and AbNF-?B were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) post thermal stress, hypoxia exposure, thermal plus hypoxia stress and the injection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. These results indicated that these three NF-?B signaling pathway-related genes are involved in response to bacterial infection and play essential roles in response to thermal and hypoxia stress.
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Ephrin type?A receptor 2 regulates sensitivity to paclitaxel in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the phosphoinositide 3?kinase/Akt signalling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Ephrin type?A receptor 2 (EphA2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is associated with cancer cell metastasis. There has been little investigation into its impact on the regulation of sensitivity to paclitaxel in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, upregulation of EphA2 expression enhanced the survival of NPC 5?8F cells, compared with control cells exposed to the same concentrations of paclitaxel. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis demonstrated that over?expression of EphA2 decreased NPC cancer cell sensitivity to paclitaxel by regulating paclitaxel?mediated cell cycle progression but not apoptosis in vitro. This was accompanied by alterations in the expression of cyclin?dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27, and of inactive phosphorylated?retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, paclitaxel stimulation and EphA2 over?expression resulted in activation of the phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway in NPC cells. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway restored sensitivity to paclitaxel in 5?8F cells over?expressing EphA2, which indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in EphA2?mediated paclitaxel sensitivity. The current study demonstrated that EphA2 mediates sensitivity to paclitaxel via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in NPC.
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Optimal interval for hot water immersion tail-flick test in rats.
Acta Neuropsychiatr
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The hot water tail-flick test is widely used to measure the degree of nociception experienced by laboratory animals. This study was carried out to optimise interval times for the hot water immersion tail-flick tests in rats.
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[Effect of Chinese drugs for Pi strengthening Shen benefiting on the immunity function of HIV patients' specific T cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To explore the effect of Chinese drugs for Pi strengthening Shen benefiting (CDPSSB) on the immunity function of HIV/AIDS patients' specific T cells.
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Molecular and physiological evidences for the role in appetite regulation of apelin and its receptor APJ in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti).
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues with diverse physiological actions mediated by its receptor APJ. In order to better understand the role of apelin in the regulation of appetite in fish, we cloned the cDNAs encoding apelin and APJ, and investigated their mRNA distributions in Ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti) tissues. We also assessed the effects of different nutritional status on apelin and APJ mRNAs abundance. Apelin and APJ mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested, relatively high expression levels were detected in the heart, spleen, hypothalamus and kidney. Short-term fasting significant increased APJ mRNA expression, but no significant difference between fasted fish and fed control on 5- and 7-day. Meanwhile, apelin mRNA expression consistently increased during the 7-day food deprivation. In order to further characterize apelin in fish, we performed intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of apelin-13 and examined food intake of the injected fish. Apelin injected at a dose of 100?ng/g body weight induced a significant increase in food intake compared to saline injected fish. Our results suggest that apelin acts as an orexigenic factor in Ya-fish. Their widespread distributions also suggest that apelin and APJ might play multiple physiological regulating roles in fish.
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FOXA2 suppresses the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma partially through matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The forkhead box transcription factor A2 (FOXA2) is a member of the hepatocyte nuclear factor family and plays an important role in liver development and metabolic homeostasis, but its role in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been evaluated. In this study, we found that the expression of FOXA2 was decreased in 68.1% (49/72) of human HCC tissues compared with their paired non-cancerous adjacent tissues. Clinicopathological analysis revealed that reduced FOXA2 expression was correlated with aggressive characteristics (venous invasion, poor differentiation, high tumor node metastasis grade). FOXA2 level was even lower in portal vein tumor thrombus compared with primary tumor tissues and correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HCC cells. Overexpression of FOXA2 inhibited migration and invasion of Focus cells, whereas knockdown of FOXA2 in HepG2 showed the opposite effect. Moreover, upregulation of FOXA2 suppressed HCC metastasis to bone, brain and lung in two distinct mouse models. Finally, we proved that FOXA2 repressed the transcription of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and exerted its antimetastasis effect partially through downregulation of MMP-9. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FOXA2 plays a critical role in HCC metastasis and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
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Reduction of ?-dystroglycan expression is correlated with poor prognosis in glioma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Dystroglycan (DG), a multifunctional protein dimer of non-covalently linked ? and ? subunits, is best known as an adhesion and transduction molecule linking the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling pathways to extracellular matrix proteins. Loss of DG binding, possibly by degradation or disturbed glycosylation, has been reported in a variety of cancers. DG is abundant at astroglial endfeet forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glia limitans; so, we examined if loss of expression is associated with glioma. Expression levels of ?-DG and ?-DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 78 glioma specimens to determine the relationship with tumor grade and possible prognostic significance. ?-DG immunostaining was undetectable in 44 of 49 high-grade specimens (89.8 %) compared to 15 of 29 low-grade specimens (51.72 %) (P?
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[Impacts of nighttime warming on rice growth stage and grain yield of leading varieties released in different periods in Jiangsu Province, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A field experiment was conducted to investigate the actual impacts of nighttime warming on rice growth stage and grain yield in Danyang, Jiangsu Province, with 8 leading varieties approved and released during 1970s-2000s. The field was warmed at nighttime for an entire growth stage (i. e. sown date to harvest) with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility. The results showed that there were significant differences in the extents of warming impact on rice growth stage and grain yield among the leading varieties, though the impact trends were similar. An increase of 0.9 degrees C in nighttime mean temperature in rice canopy could shorten the length of rice entire growth stage by 1.3 d. Nighttime warming tended to decrease post-anthesis green leaves area and the flag leaf area, and to decline rice aboveground biomass production and grain yield by 3.5% and 5.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, nighttime warming decreased the plant nitrogen concentration at maturity. Nighttime warming reduced the grain yield mainly through decreasing the effective panicles and grain numbers per panicle. There was no stable changing trend in the differences in warming impacts on the varieties released in the different periods.
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Positive feedback loop of autocrine BDNF from microglia causes prolonged microglia activation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Microglia, which represent the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have long been a subject of study in CNS disease research. Substantial evidence indicates that microglial activation functions as a strong neuro-inflammatory response in neuropathic pain, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. In addition, activated microglia release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which acts as a powerful cytokine. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to examine whether a positive autocrine feedback loop existed between microglia-derived BDNF and subsequent microglial activation as well as the mechanisms underlying this positive feedback loop.
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The Transcription Factor FOXA2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis In Vitro and In Vivo.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The transcription factor forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) plays a central role in the development of endoderm-derived organs. It has been reported that FOXA2 acts as a suppressor in many kinds of tumor. However, little is known about the role of FOXA2 in gastric cancer.
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Ginsenoside compound K promotes ?-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on ?-amyloid (A?) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. A? degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular A? clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for A? detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of A? and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes A? clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes.
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Experimental coronary artery stenosis accelerates kidney damage in renovascular hypertensive swine.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The impact of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) on renal injury is unknown. Here we tested whether the existence of CAS, regardless of concurrent atherosclerosis, would induce kidney injury and magnify its susceptibility to damage from coexisting hypertension (HT). Pigs (seven each) were assigned to sham, left-circumflex CAS, renovascular HT, and CAS plus HT groups. Cardiac and nonstenotic kidney functions, circulating and renal inflammatory and oxidative markers, and renal and microvascular remodeling were assessed 10 weeks later. Myocardial perfusion declined distal to CAS. Systemic levels of PGF2-? isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, increased in CAS and CAS plus HT, whereas single-kidney blood flow responses to acetylcholine were significantly blunted only in CAS plus HT compared with sham, HT, and CAS, indicating renovascular endothelial dysfunction. Tissue expression of inflammatory and oxidative markers were elevated in the CAS pig kidney, and further magnified in CAS plus HT, whereas angiogenic factor expression was decreased. Bendavia, a mitochondria-targeted peptide, decreased oxidative stress and improved renal function and structure in CAS. Furthermore, CAS and HT synergistically amplified glomerulosclerosis and renal fibrosis. Thus, mild myocardial ischemia, independent of systemic atherosclerosis, induced renal injury, possibly mediated by increased oxidative stress. Superimposed HT aggravates renal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction caused by CAS, and synergistically promotes kidney fibrosis, providing impetus to preserve cardiac integrity in order to protect the kidney.Kidney International advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.343.
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Aberrant activation of p53 due to loss of MDM2 or MDMX causes early lens dysmorphogenesis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Although forming a heterodimer or heterooligomer is essential for MDM2 and MDMX to fully control p53 during early embryogenesis, deletion of either MDM2 or MDMX in specific tissues using the loxp-Cre system reveals phenotypic diversity during organ morphogenesis, which can be completely rescued by loss of p53, suggesting the spatiotemporal independence and specificity of the regulation of p53 by MDM2 and MDMX. In this study, we investigated the role of the MDM2-MDMX-p53 pathway in the developing lens that is a relatively independent region integrating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Using the mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the lens epithelial cells (LECs) beginning at E9.5, we demonstrated that deletion of either MDM2 or MDMX induces apoptosis of LEC and reduces cell proliferation, resulting in lens developmental defect that finally progresses into aphakia. Specifically, the lens defect caused by MDM2 deletion was evident at E10, occurring earlier than that caused by MDMX deletion. These lens defects were completely rescued by loss of two alleles of p53, but not one allele of p53. These results demonstrate that both MDM2 and MDMX are required for monitoring p53 activity during lens development, and they may function independently or synergistically to control p53 and maintain normal lens morphogenesis.
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Serologic screenings for H7N9 from three sources among high-risk groups in the early stage of H7N9 circulation in Guangdong Province, China.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) in three high risk groups. The groups were divided into those exposed through infected individuals, those exposed through poultry and those individuals exposed through the external environment, in the early stage of the epidemic in Guangdong Province, which is located in the southern region of China.
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Insights into the mechanisms of chitosan-anionic polymers-based matrix tablets for extended drug release.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate drug release mechanisms from physical mixtures of chitosan-anionic polymers-based matrix tablets and to obtain a comprehensive understanding about release characteristics. Six types of anionic polymers (i.e., Eudragit(®) L100, sodium alginate, carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carbomer and xanthan gum) and two model drugs (i.e., theophylline and metoprolol succinate) with varied solubility were chosen. Texture analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to better understand drug release mechanisms. In vitro release experiments were conducted in a pH-changing medium to simulate the physiological condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, a common phenomenon was observed in all the CS-anionic polymers-based matrix tablets investigated here, that is, the inner layer of the swollen tablets was coated by CS-anionic polymer polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC)-based film formed by self-assembly. Formation of the in situ self-assembled film was further confirmed by texture analysis, DSC, and FTIR. It was further identified that properties of the film were influenced by the characteristics of anionic polymers and the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, this novel structure could alter swelling and erosion-based release mechanisms of the tablets. In addition, drug release characteristics from CS-anionic polymer systems depended on the properties of anionic polymers and the drug solubility. In conclusion, our studies may broaden current views on cationic polymer-anionic polymer-based oral matrix tablets for extended release.
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Synthesis, Molecular Modeling, and Biological Evaluation of Novel 1, 3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one Based Pyrazolines as Anti-inflammatory Agents.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A novel series of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one (chalcone) derivatives was synthesized by a simple, eco-friendly, and efficient Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and used as precursors for the synthesis of new pyrazoline derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory related activities such as inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ), cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), IL-6, and TNF-?. The results of the above studies show that the compounds synthesized are effective inhibitors of above pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines. Overall, the results of the studies reveal that the pyrazolines with chlorophenyl substitution (1b-6b) seem to be important for inhibition of enzymes and cytokines. Molecular docking experiments were performed to clarify the molecular aspects of the observed COX-inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds.
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Whole-cell biotransformation systems for reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohol in Escherichia coli.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase (Lb-ADH) catalyzes reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohol and meanwhile consumes its cofactor NADH into NAD(+), while the cofactor regeneration can be catalyzed by Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase (Cb-FDH). This work presents three different Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst systems expressing recombinant ADH/FDH, FDH-LIN1-ADH and FDH-LIN2-ADH, respectively, all of which display very high efficacies of prochiral carbonyl conversion with respect to conversion rates and enantiomeric excess values. ADH/FDH represents co-expression of Lb-ADH and Cb-FDH under different promoters in a single vector. Fusion of Lb-ADH and Cb-FDH by a linker peptide LIN1 (GGGGS)2 or LIN2 (EAAAK)2 generates the two bifunctional enzymes FDH-LIN1-ADH and FDH-LIN2-ADH, which enable efficient asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones in whole-cell biotransformation.
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Safety and feasibility of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for stage IIIA lung cancer.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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The current study was prospectively designed to explore the application of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) radical treatment for patients with stage IIIA lung cancer, with the primary endpoints being the safety and feasibility of this operation and the second endpoints being the survival and complications after the surgery.
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Removal of cobalt(II) ion from aqueous solution by chitosan-montmorillonite.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Montmorillonite (MMT) modified with chitosan (CTS, molecular weight=5×10(4)) was applied to remove heavy metal cations by using Co(2+) as a model ion. An increase in MMT interlayer distance observed from X-ray diffraction indicates the intercalation of CTS into MMT. Together with the results of scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was concluded that the composite material of CTS and MMT (CTS-MMT) was prepared successfully. The mass ratio of CTS to MMT had a strong influence on the adsorption performance of CTS-MMT. The highest adsorption value of 150mg/g was obtained over the composite material with CTS to MMT mass ratio of 0.25, which is much higher than those reported in other studies. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic results indicated that Co(2+) was adsorbed over CTS-MMT in a multilayer model, and the chemical sorption of Co(2+) was determined to be the rate-limiting step.
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Synthesis of pt-ni alloy nanocrystals with high-index facets and enhanced electrocatalytic properties.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The shape-controlled synthesis of multicomponent metal nanocrystals (NCs) bounded by high-index facets (HIFs) is of significant importance in the design and synthesis of high-activity catalysts. We report herein the preparation of Pt-Ni alloy NCs by tuning their shape from concave-nanocubic (CNC) to nanocubic and hexoctahedral (HOH). Owing to the synergy of the HIFs and the electronic effect of the Pt-Ni alloy, the as-prepared CNC and HOH Pt-Ni alloy NCs exhibited excellent catalytic properties for the electrooxidation of methanol and formic acid, as well as for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).
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Maternal repeated oral exposure to microcystin-LR affects neurobehaviors in developing rats.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Microcystins are toxic peptides secreted by certain water blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The most widely studied microcystin is microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which exhibits hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. However, limited information is available regarding the effects on offspring following maternal exposure. The present study was conducted to observe the effects of progestational exposure to MC-LR on postnatal development in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (28 d old) were randomly divided into a control group and 3 treatment groups (1.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, 5.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, and 20.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt), with 7 rats per group. The MC-LR was administered through gavage once every 48?h for 8 wk. Pure water was used as control. Each female rat was mated with an unexposed adult male rat. Motor development, behavioral development, and learning ability of pups were detected using surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance tests on postnatal day 7. Open-field and Morris water maze tests were performed on postnatal day 28 and day 60. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant indices in the rat hippocampus were also detected. Pups from the MC-LR-treated groups had significantly lower scores than controls in the cliff avoidance test (p?
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Nanostructured lipid carriers versus microemulsions for delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug luteolin.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions effectively deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. However, few studies have investigated their ability and difference in improving drug bioavailability, especially the factors contributed to the difference. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating their efficiency in bioavailability enhancement based on studying two key processes that occur in NLC and ME during traverse along the intestinal tract: the solubilization process and the intestinal permeability process.
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Long-term survival outcomes of video-assisted thoracic surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been shown to be a safe alternative to conventional thoracotomy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, popularization of this relatively novel technique has been slow, partly due to concerns about its long-term outcomes. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term survival outcomes of patients with NSCLC after VATS, and to determine the significant prognostic factors on overall survival.
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TRAF6 upregulation in spinal astrocytes maintains neuropathic pain by integrating TNF-? and IL-1? signaling.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The proinflammatory cytokines TNF- and IL-1 have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but the intracellular signaling of these cytokines in glial cells are not fully understood. Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a key role in signal transduction in the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. In this study, we investigated the role of TRAF6 in neuropathic pain in mice following spinal nerve ligation (SNL). SNL induced persistent TRAF6 upregulation in the spinal cord. Interestingly, TRAF6 was mainly colocalized with the astrocytic marker GFAP on SNL day 10 and partially expressed in microglia on SNL day 3. In cultured astrocytes, TRAF6 was up-regulated after exposure to TNF-? or IL-1?. TNF-? or IL-1? also increased CCL2 expression, which was suppressed by both siRNA and shRNA targeting TRAF6. TRAF6 siRNA treatment also inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in astrocytes induced by TNF-? or IL-1?. JNK inhibitor D-NKI-1 dose-dependently decreased IL-1-induced CCL2 expression. Moreover, spinal injection of TRAF6 siRNA decreased intrathecal TNF-- or IL-1-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Spinal TRAF6 inhibition via TRAF6 siRNA, shRNA lentivirus, or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides partially reversed SNL-induced neuropathic pain and spinal CCL2 expression. Finally, intrathecal injection of TNF-?-activated astrocytes induced mechanical allodynia, which was attenuated by pretreatment of astrocytes with TRAF6 siRNA. Taken together, the results suggest that TRAF6, upregulated in spinal cord astrocytes in the late phase after nerve injury, maintains neuropathic pain by integrating TNF- and IL-1 signaling and activating the JNK/CCL2 pathway in astrocytes.
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Prevention of anastomotic fistula formation after low-position Dixon Operation.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the main points of preventing anastomotic fistula formation after low-position Dixon operation.
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Development of astrocytes in the vertebrate eye.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Astrocytes represent the earliest glial population in the embryonic optic nerve, contributing critically to retinal angiogenesis and formation of brain-retinal-barrier. Despite of many developmental and clinical implications of astrocytes, answers to some of the most fundamental questions of this unique type of glial cells remain elusive. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about the origination, proliferation, and differentiation of astrocytes, their journey from the optic nerve toward the neuroretina, and their involvement in physiological and pathological development of the visual system. Developmental Dynamics 243:1501-1510, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A detailed analysis of the leaf rolling mutant sll2 reveals complex nature in regulation of bulliform cell development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Plant Biol (Stuttg)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Bulliform cells are large, thin-walled and highly vacuolated cells, and play an important role in controlling leaf rolling in response to drought and high temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating bulliform cell development have not been well documented. Here, we report isolation and characterisation of a rice leaf-rolling mutant, named shallot-like 2 (sll2). The sll2 plants exhibit adaxially rolled leaves, starting from the sixth leaf stage, accompanied by increased photosynthesis and reduced plant height and tiller number. Histological analyses showed shrinkage of bulliform cells, resulting in inward-curved leaves. The mutant is recessive and revertible at a rate of 9%. The leaf rolling is caused by a T-DNA insertion. Cloning of the insertion using TAIL-PCR revealed that the T-DNA was inserted in the promoter region of LOC_Os07g38664. Unexpectedly, the enhanced expression of LOC_Os07g38664 by the 35S enhancer in the T-DNA is not responsible for the leaf rolling phenotype. Further, the enhancer also exerted a long-distance effect, including up-regulation of several bulliform cell-related genes. sll2 suppressed the outward leaf rolling of oul1 in the sll2oul1 double mutant. We conclude that leaf rolling in sll2 could be a result of the combined effect of multi-genes, implying a complex network in regulation of bulliform cell development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Colistin and anti-Gram-positive bacterial agents against Acinetobacter baumannii.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Acinetobacter baumannii has attained an alarming level of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Clinicians are now considering the use of older agents or unorthodox combinations of licensed drugs against multidrug-resistant strains to bridge the current treatment gap. We investigated the in vitro activities of combination treatments that included colistin with vancomycin, norvancomycin or linezolid against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
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A new continuous cell line from Blaps rhynchoptera Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The first continuous cell line from the neonate larval tissues of Blaps rhynchoptera, which has been used as a folk medicine in Yunnan Province, China, was established and designated RIRI-BR1. This cell line was serially subcultured in Schneider's medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells grew adherent to culture flasks and exhibited spindle-like and polygonal shapes. The growth rate was determined at the 50th passage, and the population doubling time was calculated to be 79.5 h. The post-thaw viability of the cell line at different passages showed that the cells from higher passages could be recovered easier after cryopreservation than the cells from lower passages. The average chromosome numbers from cells of the RIRI-BR1 cell line at passages 5 to 50 ranged from 12 to 130. The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis indicated that the RIRI-BR1 cell line was derived from B. rhynchoptera.
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Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of the peptidoglycan recognition protein gene HcPGRP1 and its isoform HcPGRP1a from the freshwater mussel Hyriopsis cumingi.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are innate immune molecules that have been structurally conserved throughout evolution in invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, peptidoglycan recognition protein HcPGRP1 and its isoform HcPGRP1a were identified in the freshwater mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The full-length cDNAs of HcPGRP1 (973 bp) and HcPGRP1a (537 bp) encoded polypeptides with 218 and 151 amino acids, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that HcPGRP1 had one C-terminal PGRP domain that was conserved throughout evolution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HcPGRP1 clustered closely with EsPGRP4 of Euprymna scolopes. Real-time PCR showed that the mRNA transcripts of HcPGRP1 and HcPGRP1a were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with the highest level in hepatopancreas. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN) significantly up-regulated HcPGRP1 mRNA expression in hepatopancreas and foot, but not in gill, whereas HcPGRP1a expression was significantly up-regulated in all three tissues. Our results indicate that HcPGRP1 is both a constitutive and inducible protein that may be involved in immune responses (recognition and defense) against invaders.
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Rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 in soil by real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
J. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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In this study, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) was developed and evaluated for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (R4) in soil.
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Acute effects of moderate-intensity continuous and accumulated exercise on arterial stiffness in healthy young men.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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To examine and compare the effects of acute moderate-intensity continuous and accumulated exercise with different intervals on arterial stiffness in humans.
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A review of EEG and MEG for brainnetome research.
Cogn Neurodyn
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The majority of brain activities are performed by functionally integrating separate regions of the brain. Therefore, the synchronous operation of the brain's multiple regions or neuronal assemblies can be represented as a network with nodes that are interconnected by links. Because of the complexity of brain interactions and their varying effects at different levels of complexity, one of the corresponding authors of this paper recently proposed the brainnetome as a new -ome to explore and integrate the brain network at different scales. Because electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive and have outstanding temporal resolution and because they are the primary clinical techniques used to capture the dynamics of neuronal connections, they lend themselves to the analysis of the neural networks comprising the brainnetome. Because of EEG/MEG's applicability to brainnetome analyses, the aim of this review is to identify the procedures that can be used to form a network using EEG/MEG data in sensor or source space and to promote EEG/MEG network analysis for either neuroscience or clinical applications. To accomplish this aim, we show the relationship of the brainnetome to brain networks at the macroscale and provide a systematic review of network construction using EEG and MEG. Some potential applications of the EEG/MEG brainnetome are to use newly developed methods to associate the properties of a brainnetome with indices of cognition or disease conditions. Associations based on EEG/MEG brainnetome analysis may improve the comprehension of the functioning of the brain in neuroscience research or the recognition of abnormal patterns in neurological disease.
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Decreased expression of miR-133a correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To investigate microRNA-133a (miR-133a) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its relationship with tumorigenesis and disease prognosis.
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NF-?B-induced KIAA1199 promotes survival through EGFR signalling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Constitutive activation of EGFR- and NF-?B-dependent pathways is a hallmark of cancer, yet signalling proteins that connect both oncogenic cascades are poorly characterized. Here we define KIAA1199 as a BCL-3- and p65-dependent gene in transformed keratinocytes. KIAA1199 expression is enhanced on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is aberrantly expressed in clinical cases of cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, KIAA1199 binds Plexin A2 and protects from Semaphorin 3A-mediated cell death by promoting EGFR stability and signalling. Moreover, KIAA1199 is an EGFR-binding protein and KIAA1199 deficiency impairs EGF-dependent Src, MEK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations. Therefore, EGFR stability and signalling to downstream kinases requires KIAA1199. As such, KIAA1199 promotes EGF-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Taken together, our data define KIAA1199 as an oncogenic protein induced by HPV infection and constitutive NF-?B activity that transmits pro-survival and invasive signals through EGFR signalling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.