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The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Abstract Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955?bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr).
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Mutant SNAP25B causes myasthenia, cortical hyperexcitability, ataxia, and intellectual disability.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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To identify and characterize the molecular basis of a syndrome associated with myasthenia, cortical hyperexcitability, cerebellar ataxia, and intellectual disability.
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Silver(i)-catalyzed annulation for the regioselective synthesis of N-imino-?-carbolinium ylides from hydrazones of indole-3-carbonyl derivatives and propargylic alcohols.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A regioselective efficient synthetic approach to N-imino-?-carbolinium ylides via AgOTf-catalyzed iminoannulation has been developed. This transformation proceeds via a silver(i) triflate-catalyzed consecutive Friedel-Crafts reaction/N-C bond formation sequence between the readily available indole derivatives and propargylic alcohols.
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Comparative analysis of the pathogenic mechanisms of street rabies virus strains with different virulence levels.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To characterize two strains of street rabies virus (RABV) isolated from the brain tissue of cattle from Inner Mongolia. Differences in the histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the brain tissue of infected mice were determined to reveal variation in the pathogenesis of infection between street rabies virus strains.
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[Laser scanning confocal microscopic imaging for Ca2 + oscillations of pancreatic acinar cells in mice].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To establish a simple but effective method of laser scanning confocal microscopic imaging for Ca2+ oscillations of pancreatic acinar cells in adult mice.
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Molecular epidemiology of reemergent rabies in Yunnan Province, southwestern China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008-2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.
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Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1) Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2) Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length) × 10 cm (width) × 10 cm (depth), referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS) in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS) and placed them (10 each) in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.
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[Study on the B cell linear epitopes of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To study the B cell linear epitopes of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein, peptides were synthesized according to the amino acid sequences of B cell linear epitopes. Linear epitopes predicted by bioinformatics analysis were evaluated with immunological techniques. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that titers of antibodies to peptides (355-369 and 385-400 residues of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein) were above 1:12 800 in mouse sera. The antibodies recognized denatured rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein in Western blot analysis. Purified anti-peptide antibodies recognized natural rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein in BHK-21 cells in indirect fluorescent antibody test. The 355-369 and 385-400 residues of rabies virus CVS-11 nucleoprotein were validated as B cell linear epitopes.
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Association of the ENPP1 K121Q polymorphism with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in different populations: evidence based on 40 studies.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The K121Q gene polymorphism of ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1(ENPP1) has been widely investigated, however, results have been somewhat conflicting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to establish a precise estimation of the association between ENPP1 gene polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes (T2D). A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases was conducted on publications published prior to November 21(st), 2013. The combined odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association using a random-effects/fixed-effects model. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 11.0 software. For the overall population, there was a significant association between ENPP1 gene polymorphisms and T2D when comparing the Q allele versus K allele (OR=1.29, 95%CI 1.16-1.44, p=0.000). Considering diverse ethnic groups, effect sizes were consistent for patients of Caucasian and Asian descent (OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.08-1.33 and OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.15-1.89, respectively); however, effect size was not consistent for those of African descent. Under other models of inheritance, significant associations were also observed. Sensitivity analyses did not leading to differing he results. In summary, the Q allele of the ENPP1 K121Q gene may contribute to the susceptibility for T2D in Caucasians and Asians.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the fire coral-inhabiting barnacle Megabalanus ajax (Sessilia: Balanidae): gene rearrangements and atypical gene content.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Megabalanus ajax Darwin, 1854 (Sessilia: Balanidae) is reported. Compared to typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, duplication of one tRNA gene (trnL2) and absence of another tRNA gene (trnS1) are identified in M. ajax mitochondrial genome. There is a replacement of one tRNA (trnS1) by another tRNA (trnL2) in M. ajax mitochondrial genome compared to Megabalanus volcano mitochondrial genome. Inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) is found between M. ajax/M. volcano and Tetraclita japonica mitochondrial genomes. With reference to the pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, there is an inversion of a large gene block from the light strand to heavy strand in the two Megabalanus mitochondrial genomes, including three PCGs and two tRNAs (nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF). Furthermore, four tRNAs (trnA, trnE, trnQ and trnC) exhibit translocation, while translocation and inversion occur in three tRNAs (trnP, trnY and trnK).
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Bioactive metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. YM355364.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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A new compound, 16-acetoxycytosporone B (1), along with four known ones, dankasterone A (2), dankasterone B (3), 3beta,5alpha,9alpha-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4), and cyclonerodiol oxide (5), were isolated from Phomopsis sp. YM355364, an endophytic fungus of Aconitum carmichaeli. Their structures were characterized by spectral analysis. Compound 2 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against influenza A/Thailand/Kan353/2004(H5N1) pseudovirus with all IC50 value of 3.56 microM. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed either moderate or weak antifungal activities against four pathogenic fungi.
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Use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to detect substances of nanomolar concentration in the coronary effluent of isolated perfused hearts.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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When the heart is stretched there is an abrupt increase in force that coincides with the stretch that is then followed by a second phase that develops slowly over a period of minutes, known as the "slow force response", or "SFR". The SFR is accompanied by a slow increase in the Ca(2+) transients, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are still debated. We therefore devised a simple bioassay system to investigate whether stretch released autocrine/paracrine factors that could explain the stretch-dependent Ca(2+) influx during the SFR. Our analysis was based around a metabolomics approach using tandem mass spectrometry whereby secreted compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) at high resolution and accurate mass. Our bioassay consisted of two isolated cardiac preparations in series. A sustained stretch was applied to an "upstream" Langendorff-perfused heart, whilst monitoring the performance of an un-stretched, "downstream" trabecula perfused with coronary effluent collected from the "upstream" heart. Switching from "un-stretched" to "stretched" coronary effluent increased the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transients (340/380) fura-2 ratio) in the "downstream" trabeculae from 0.87 ± 0.04 to 0.94 ± 0.05 (p < 0.05, n = 4), and active stress (mN mm(-2)) from 15.4 ± 1.5 to 19.2 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01, n = 13), confirming the stretch-dependent release of one or more positively inotropic factor(s). To identify the factor, coronary effluent samples were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) treatment, lyophilised, then analysed using a Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT-ICR hybrid mass spectrometer. Differential profile data was obtained initially followed by targeting specific compounds at elevated levels in the stretched coronary effluent samples. Quantitative and statistical analyses of the differential LC-MS/MS results were then carried out using SIEVE 2.1, statistical software capable of performing differential analysis of peptides and small molecules. A number of substances were identified that were different between stretched and unstretched effluents (p < 0.01).
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Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.
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[Heteroresistance in Mycobacteria tuberculosis is an important factor for the inconsistency between the results of phenotype and genotype drug susceptibility tests].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To investigate the impact of heteroresistance on the results of genotype drug susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).
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Attenuation of early liver fibrosis by herbal compound "Diwu Yanggan" through modulating the balance between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Diwu Yanggan (DWYG) is a Chinese compound herbal preparation which consists of five Chinese herbs. This study investigates the preventative effects of DWYG on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and explores its possible mechanisms of action.
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Association between gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of cancer: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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This study aimed at summarizing epidemiological evidence of the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cancer.
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Congenital myasthenic syndrome in Japan: Ethnically unique mutations in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by mutations in genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Most CMS patients have been reported in Western and Middle Eastern countries, and only four patients with COLQ mutations have been reported in Japan. We here report six mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes in five Japanese patients. Five mutations are novel, and one mutation is shared with a European American patient but with a different haplotype. Among the observed mutations, p.Thr284Pro (p.Thr264Pro according to the legacy annotation) in the epsilon subunit causes a slow-channel CMS. Five other mutations in the delta and epsilon subunits are splice site, frameshift, null, or missense mutations causing endplate AChR deficiency. We also found a heteroallelic p.Met465Thr in the beta subunit in another patient. p.Met465Thr, however, was likely to be polymorphism, because single channel recordings showed mild shortening of channel openings without affecting cell surface expression of AChR, and the minor allelic frequency of p.Met465Thr was 5.1% in the Japanese population. Lack of shared mutant alleles between the Japanese and the other patients suggests that most mutations described here are ethnically unique or de novo in each family.
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Speciation and phytoavailability of cadmium in soil treated with cadmium-contaminated rice straw.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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When grown on Cd-contaminated soil, rice typically accumulates considerable Cd in straw, and which may return to the soil after harvest. This work was undertaken to assess the pollution risk of Cd associated to the Cd-contaminated rice straw after incorporating into an uncontaminated soil. With the Cd-contaminated rice straw added at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % (w/w), an incubation experiment (28 days) with non-planting and a followed pot experiment sequent with two planting (rice and Chinese cabbage, transplanted after 28-day incubation) were carried out to investigate the changes of soil Cd speciation and phytoavailability. The results indicated that the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition significantly increased soil pH and dissolved organic carbon during the 28-day incubation. For the high availability of Cd in contaminated rice straw, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Cd significantly increased, and the percentages of acetic acid extractable and reducible Cd in soil significantly enhanced after the addition of Cd-contaminated rice straw. However, the Cd-contaminated rice straw addition inhibited the rice growth and induced the decrease of Cd in rice grain and straw by 12.8 to 70.2 % and 39.3 to 57.3 %, respectively, whereas the Cd contents increased by 13.9 to 84.1 % in Chinese cabbage that planted after rice harvest. In conclusion, Cd associated with Cd-contaminated rice straw was highly available after incorporating into the soil, and thus the Cd pollution risk via the Cd-contaminated rice straw incorporation should be evaluated in the Cd-contaminated paddy region.
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Congo red modulates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in single pancreatic acinar cells of mice.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Aim:Congo red, a secondary diazo dye, is usually used as an indicator for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Recent studies show that congo red exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its pharmacological profile remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of congo red on ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells in vitro.Methods:Acutely dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of mice were prepared. A U-tube drug application system was used to deliver drugs into the bath. Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations were monitored by whole-cell recording of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents and by using confocal Ca(2+) imaging. For intracellular drug application, the drug was added in pipette solution and diffused into cell after the whole-cell configuration was established.Results:Bath application of ACh (10 nmol/L) induced typical Ca(2+) oscillations in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells. Addition of congo red (1, 10, 100 ?mol/L) dose-dependently enhanced Ach-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, but congo red alone did not induce any detectable response. Furthermore, this enhancement depended on the concentrations of ACh: congo red markedly enhanced the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by ACh (10-30 nmol/L), but did not alter the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by ACh (100-10000 nmol/L). Congo red also enhanced the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by bath application of IP3 (30 ?mol/L). Intracellular application of congo red failed to alter ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations.Conclusion:Congo red significantly modulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in pancreatic acinar cells, and this pharmacological effect should be fully considered when developing congo red as a novel therapeutic drug.
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Factors influencing the number of rabies cases in children in china.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To understand the epidemic situation and factors influencing rabies cases in children in China, we obtained an overview of the current epidemic based on individual data of rabies cases in children and a descriptive analysis was carried on the prevalence and related factors. The results showed that the rabies cases in children accounted for 21.3% of the total number of rabies cases in China, 97.0% of these cases occurred in rural areas, they were mainly caused by dogs (81.5%), and were primarily level III exposure (47.7%). More than half of the cases were not treated with wound care, vaccination rate was extremely low (15.7%), and only 5.9% of cases were injected with antibodies. Furthermore, 25.4% of cases adopted incorrect treatments such as extruding bleed and wound closure, cases vaccinated with 5 injections acco- unted for only 22.5%. In conclusion, the prevalence of rabies cases in children in China remains a serious concern, the number and immune status of dogs in rural areas, and knowledge of rabies by risk populations should be considered in future rabies prevention and control programs.
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DPAGT1 myasthenia and myopathy: genetic, phenotypic, and expression studies.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To investigate patients with DPAGT1 (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1)-associated myasthenic syndrome.
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Effects of drought after pollination on grain yield and quality of fresh waxy maize.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Waxy maize is consumed as a vegetable when harvested at fresh stage (23-26 days after pollination) in China. Fresh waxy maize is normally grown under rain-fed conditions and suffers drought frequently during plant growth. The effect of drought on grain development of fresh waxy maize is not known.
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Human rabies surveillance and control in China, 2005-2012.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Rabies reemerged in China during the 1990s with a gradual increase in the number and geographical dispersion of cases. As a consequence, a national surveillance program was introduced in 2005 to investigate the outbreak in terms of vaccination coverage, PEP treatment, and geographical and social composition.
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The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Abstract This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032?bp in length, containing a total of 469?bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376?bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.
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PREPL deficiency with or without cystinuria causes a novel myasthenic syndrome.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To investigate the genetic and physiologic basis of the neuromuscular symptoms of hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS) and isolated PREPL deficiency, and their response to therapy.
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Identification of animal rabies in Inner Mongolia and analysis of the etiologic characteristics.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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To perform pathological observation and etiological identification of specimens collected from dairy cows, beef cattle and dogs which were suspected of rabies in Inner Mongolia in 2011, and analyze their etiological characteristics.
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Hyperglycemia, a neglected factor during cancer progression.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Recent evidence from large cohort studies suggests that there exists a higher cancer incidence in people with type 2 diabetes (DM2). However, to date, the potential reasons for this association remain unclear. Hyperglycemia, the most important feature of diabetes, may be responsible for the excess glucose supply for these glucose-hungry cells, and it contributes to apoptosis resistance, oncogenesis, and tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy. Considering associations between diabetes and malignancies, the effect of hyperglycemia on cancer progression in cancer patients with abnormal blood glucose should not be neglected. In this paper, we describe the role that hyperglycemia plays in cancer progression and treatment and illustrate that hyperglycemia may contribute to a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells and lead to drug resistance. Therefore, controlling hyperglycemia may have important therapeutic implications in cancer patients.
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Genomic sequence and experimental tractability of a new decapod shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10??). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of common fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Sessilia: Balanidae) reveals gene rearrangements compared to pancrustacean ground pattern.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Sessilia: Balanidae). Refer to pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, seven conserved genes blocks are found in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnA, trnE/trnS2, trnP/trnT, trnK, trnQ and trnC) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnY). Comparison among the acorn barnacle mitogenomes reveals inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) between A. amphitrite and Megabalanus. Volcano (Balanidae), suggesting non-conserved gene order even at intrafamilial level. The three species share three conserved genes blocks, of which the two are derived from the pancrustacean ground pattern and represent synapomorphies of acorn barnacles. In sum, large-scale gene rearrangements are observed in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern and other barnacle species.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Abstract The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063?bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro).
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Electrophysiological phenotypes of MeCP2 A140V mutant mouse model.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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MeCP2 gene mutations are associated with Rett syndrome and X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), diseases characterized by abnormal brain development and function. Recently, we created a novel MeCP2 A140V mutation mouse model that exhibited abnormalities of cell packing density and dendritic branching consistent with that seen in Rett syndrome patients as well as other MeCP2 mutant mouse models. Therefore, we hypothesized that some deficits of neuronal and synaptic functions might also be present in the A140V mutant model.
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Increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated in shanghai, china: results from a population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In China, the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in isolates from mycobacterial culture-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is largely unknown.
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Significance of interleukin-33 and its related cytokines in patients with breast cancers.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a recently identified cytokine, an important member of the interleukin-1 family. IL-33 binds to its receptor ST2 to induce type 2 cytokines and exert both pro-inflammatory and protective functions in host defense and disease. Murine breast carcinoma models suggest disruption of ST2 signaling may enhance the anti-tumor immune response, suggesting IL-33 impedes anti-tumor immunity. However, the role of IL-33 in patients with breast cancers (BC) is not elucidated. We detected the expression of IL-33 in tumor tissue, and IL-33 and its related cytokines in serum from BC patients. Using Luminex and immunohistochemistry methods, we found that serum levels of IL-33 were nearly twofold higher in patients with BC, compared to patients with benign breast diseases. In cancer tissues, expression of IL-33 was higher than matched normal breast tissues from the same patients, and was also associated with a well-differentiated phenotype, HER2 overexpression, more lymph nodes involvement, and a family history of malignant carcinoma. These results suggest that IL-33 may play an important role in the progress of BC and may be a useful biomarker for predicting the progress and metastasis of BC.
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Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk.
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Populus euphratica XTH overexpression enhances salinity tolerance by the development of leaf succulence in transgenic tobacco plants.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Populus euphratica is a salt-tolerant tree species that develops leaf succulence after a prolonged period of salinity stress. In the present study, a putative xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene (PeXTH) from P. euphratica was isolated and transferred to tobacco plants. PeXTH localized exclusively to the endoplasmic reticulum and cell wall. Plants overexpressing PeXTH were more salt tolerant than wild-type tobacco with respect to root and leaf growth, and survival. The increased capacity for salt tolerance was due mainly to the anatomical and physiological alterations caused by PeXTH overexpression. Compared with the wild type, PeXTH-transgenic plants contained 36% higher water content per unit area and 39% higher ratio of fresh weight to dry weight, a hallmark of leaf succulence. However, the increased water storage in the leaves in PeXTH-transgenic plants was not accompanied by greater leaf thickness but was due to highly packed palisade parenchyma cells and fewer intercellular air spaces between mesophyll cells. In addition to the salt dilution effect in response to NaCl, these anatomical changes increased leaf water-retaining capacity, which lowered the increase of salt concentration in the succulent tissues and mesophyll cells. Moreover, the increased number of mesophyll cells reduced the intercellular air space, which improved carbon economy and resulted in a 47-78% greater net photosynthesis under control and salt treatments (100-150 mM NaCl). Taken together, the results indicate that PeXTH overexpression enhanced salt tolerance by the development of succulent leaves in tobacco plants without swelling.
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The first mitochondrial genome from Mysida (Crustacea: Malacostraca) reveals an unusual gene arrangement.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Abstract This is the first report to present the Neomysis orientalis mitochondrial genome as a representative from the order Mysida. While mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCGs) commonly use several alternatives to ATN as start codons, all 13 PCGs in N. orientalis mitochondrial genome initiate with ATG or ATA. Five PCGs (atp6. atp8. cob. nad4 and nad4L) start with ATG, while the other genes (cox1-3. nad1-3. nad5 and nad6) start with ATA. Only two PCGs (cox2 and nad2) in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome end with incomplete stop codons (T- or TA-), and all the remaining ones have TAA or TAG stop codon. Only one PCG (nad4L) is encoded on the light strand and all other 12 PCGs are located at the heavy strand. Both rRNAs (srRNA and lrRNA) are encoded on the light strand. In common with 15 of the other 18 mitochondrial genomes from Peracarida, the major gene arrangement in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome is different from the pancrustacean ground pattern. The largest conserved gene block in N. orientalis only contains two genes but those in the other 18 peracarid mitochondrial genomes contain more than five genes. Thus, the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome, as the first mitochondrial genome from the order Mysida, reveals an unusual gene arrangement that is unique compared with the other malacostracan mitochondrial genomes.
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Nucleolin targeting AS1411 modified protein nanoparticle for antitumor drugs delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Over recent years, cell surface nucleolin as an anticancer target has attracted many researchers attentions. To improve the antitumor efficacy, we developed a nucleolin targeted protein nanoparticle (NTPN) delivery system in which human serum albumin (HSA) was used as drug carrier and a DNA aptamer named AS1411, which had high affinity to nucleolin, was used as a bullet. The HSA nanoparticles (NPs-PTX) were fabricated by a novel self-assembly method and then modified with AS1411 (Apt-NPs-PTX). The resulted Apt-NPs-PTX were spherical. Compared with NPs-PTX, the uptake of Apt-NPs-PTX displayed a significant increase in MCF-7 cells while there was a decrease in nontumor cell lines such as MCF-10A and 3T3 cells. In a cytotoxic study, Apt-NPs-PTX displayed an enhanced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 tumor cells while there was almost no cytotoxicity in MCF-10A cells. Endostatin, a nucleolin inhibitor, could significantly decrease the internalization of Apt-NPs-PTX, suggesting nucleolin mediates the transmembrane process of Apt-NPs-PTX. Therefore, the AS1411 modified NTPN delivery system might be a promising targeted drug delivery system.
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An analysis of the door-to-balloon time in STEMI patients in an underdeveloped area of China: a single-centre analyses.
Emerg Med J
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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This study was conducted to break the door-to-balloon time (DTBT) into constituent elements, and compared which components prolonged markedly. We identified the factors that significantly prolonged the DTBT in an underdeveloped area of China.
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Innate immune cell-derived microparticles facilitate hepatocarcinoma metastasis by transferring integrin ?(M)?? to tumor cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Mechanisms by which tumor cells metastasize to distant organs still remain enigmatic. Immune cells have been assumed to be the root of metastasis by their fusing with tumor cells. This fusion theory, although interpreting tumor metastasis analogically and intriguingly, is arguable to date. We show in this study an alternative explanation by immune cell-derived microparticles (MPs). Upon stimulation by PMA or tumor cell-derived supernatants, immune cells released membrane-based MPs, which were taken up by H22 tumor cells, leading to tumor cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. The underlying molecular basis was involved in integrin ?(M)?? (CD11b/CD18), which could be effectively relayed from stimulated innate immune cells to MPs, then to tumor cells. Blocking either CD11b or CD18 led to significant decreases in MP-mediated tumor cell metastasis. This MP-mediated transfer of immune phenotype to tumor cells might also occur in vivo. These findings suggest that tumor cells may usurp innate immune cell phenotypes via MP pathway for their metastasis, providing new insight into tumor metastatic mechanism.
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Antithrombotic effect of Z4A5 on coronary thrombosis in a canine model of acute unstable angina.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, regardless of the agonist, and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target for blocking coronary thrombosis. In this study, the anti-platelet and antithrombotic actions of Z4A5, a new glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, were evaluated in a canine model of acute unstable angina.
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GFPT1-myasthenia: clinical, structural, and electrophysiologic heterogeneity.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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To identify patients with GFPT1-related limb-girdle myasthenia and analyze phenotypic consequences of the mutations.
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Efficacy, safety, and immunology of an inactivated alum-adjuvant enterovirus 71 vaccine in children in China: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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A vaccine for enterovirus 71 (EV71) is needed to address the high burden of disease associated with infection. We assessed the efficacy, safety, immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and immunological correlates of an inactivated alum-adjuvant EV71 vaccine.
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[Algorithm of locally adaptive region growing based on multi-template matching applied to automated detection of hemorrhages].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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In order to automatically detect hemorrhages in fundus images, and develop an automated diabetic retinopathy screening system, a novel algorithm named locally adaptive region growing based on multi-template matching was established and studied. Firstly, spectral signature of major anatomical structures in fundus was studied, so that the right channel among RGB channels could be selected for different segmentation objects. Secondly, the fundus image was preprocessed by means of HSV brightness correction and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). Then, seeds of region growing were founded out by removing optic disc and vessel from the resulting image of normalized cross-correlation (NCC) template matching on the previous preprocessed image with several templates. Finally, locally adaptive region growing segmentation was used to find out the exact contours of hemorrhages, and the automated detection of the lesions was accomplished. The approach was tested on 90 different resolution fundus images with variable color, brightness and quality. Results suggest that the approach could fast and effectively detect hemorrhages in fundus images, and it is stable and robust. As a result, the approach can meet the clinical demands.
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Cortical control of VTA function and influence on nicotine reward.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Tobacco use is a major public health problem. Nicotine acts on widely distributed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain and excites dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The elicited increase of DA neuronal activity is thought to be an important mechanism for nicotine reward and subsequently the transition to addiction. However, the current understanding of nicotine reward is based predominantly on the data accumulated from in vitro studies, often from VTA slices. Isolated VTA slices artificially terminate communications between neurons in the VTA and other brain regions that may significantly alter nicotinic effects. Consequently, the mechanisms of nicotinic excitation of VTA DA neurons under in vivo conditions have received only limited attention. Building upon the existing knowledge acquired in vitro, it is now time to elucidate the integrated mechanisms of nicotinic reward on intact systems that are more relevant to understanding the action of nicotine or other addictive drugs. In this review, we summarize recent studies that demonstrate the impact of prefrontal cortex (PFC) on the modulation of VTA DA neuronal function and nicotine reward. Based on existing evidence, we propose a new hypothesis that PFC-VTA functional coupling serves as an integration mechanism for nicotine reward. Moreover, addiction may develop due to nicotine perturbing the PFC-VTA coupling and thereby eliminating the PFC-dependent cognitive control over behavior.
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Recruitment of Nox4 to a plasma membrane scaffold is required for localized reactive oxygen species generation and sustained Src activation in response to insulin-like growth factor-I.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Nox4-derived ROS is increased in response to hyperglycemia and is required for IGF-I-stimulated Src activation. This study was undertaken to determine the mechanism by which Nox4 mediates sustained Src activation. IGF-I stimulated sustained Src activation, which occurred primarily on the SHPS-1 scaffold protein. In vitro oxidation experiments indicated that Nox4-derived ROS was able to oxidize Src when they are in close proximity, and Src oxidation leads to its activation. Therefore we hypothesized that Nox4 recruitment to the plasma membrane scaffold SHPS-1 allowed localized ROS generation to mediate sustained Src oxidation and activation. To determine the mechanism of Nox4 recruitment, we analyzed the role of Grb2, a component of the SHPS-1 signaling complex. We determined that Nox4 Tyr-491 was phosphorylated after IGF-I stimulation and was responsible for Nox4 binding to the SH2 domain of Grb2. Overexpression of a Nox4 mutant, Y491F, prevented Nox4/Grb2 association. Importantly, it also prevented Nox4 recruitment to SHPS-1. The role of Grb2 was confirmed using a Pyk2 Y881F mutant, which blocked Grb2 recruitment to SHPS-1. Cells expressing this mutant had impaired Nox4 recruitment to SHPS-1. IGF-I-stimulated downstream signaling and biological actions were also significantly impaired in Nox4 Y491F-overexpressing cells. Disruption of Nox4 recruitment to SHPS-1 in aorta from diabetic mice inhibited IGF-I-stimulated Src oxidation and activation as well as cell proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanism by which localized Nox4-derived ROS regulates the sustained activity of a tyrosine kinase that is critical for mediating signal transduction and biological actions.
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Effects of heat stress during grain filling on the structure and thermal properties of waxy maize starch.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Clarifying the waxy maize starch physicochemical characteristics response to heat stress could modify starch quality. The effects of heat stress during grain filling (1-40day after pollination) on starch structure and thermal properties of four waxy maize varieties were investigated. The mean day/night temperature during grain filling for heat stress and control treatments was 35.2/16.1°C and 27.4/15.6°C, respectively. Heat stress during grain filling increased the starch average granule size and the proportion of long chains in amylopectin. Starch granules under heat stress presented more pitting or uneven surfaces. X-ray peak intensities in response to heat stress were variety dependent. Heat stress during grain filling decreased the swelling power and increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation percentage, while the gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. In conclusion, heat stress during grain filling significantly affected structural characteristics of waxy maize starch and consequently, changed its swelling and thermal properties.
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Expression of cytokines in mouse hepatitis B virus X gene-transfected model.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The expression profile in the mouse hepatitis B virus X (HBx)-transfected model was investigated in order to lay a foundation for further study on the implication of cytokines expression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hydrodynamic injection method via the tail vein was used to establish the animal HBx-transfected model. By using microassay, the differential expression of gene in each group was analyzed, which was further confirmed by using real-time PCR and semi-quantitative PCR. Most of chemokine genes such as Ccl2, Ccl5, Ccl9, MIG and IP-10 were up-regulated in the HBx-transfected mouse model versus the control mice, which was coincided with the microarray results. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect the expression of MIG and IP-10 in the liver tissues. Simultaneously, ELISA was adopted to measure the content of IFN-? in the liver tissues. DNA microassay revealed that the expression of 611 genes changed in HBx-transfected mice as compared with that in pCMV-tag2B-transfected mice, and most of the screened chemokines were up-regulated (including MIG and IP-10). Additionally, IFN-? protein levels were increased by 20.7% (P<0.05) in pCMV-tag2B-HBx-transfected mice as compared with the untreated mice. IFN-? protein levels were reduced by 53.9% (P<0.05) in pCMV-tag2B-transfected mice as compared with the untreated mice, which was consistent with the up-regulation of MIG and IP-10. It was suggested HBx transfection could induce the expression of MIG and IP-10 in the liver tissues, which might play the roles in HBV-related liver immunity and cytokines-mediated antiviral effect.
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Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3? in protective effect of propofol against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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It was previously reported that propofol, an intravenously administered hypnotic and anesthetic agent, protects organs from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is known to play an important role in the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of GSK-3? and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the protective effects of propofol against hepatic I/R injury.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the clam Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae): has a unique non-coding region, missing atp8 and typical tRNA Ser.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae) is one commonly cultured bivalve species in the western Pacific Ocean. In the current study, the complete mitrochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the clam M. veneriformis was determined. The M. veneriformis mt genome is 16,854 bp in length and encodes 34 genes on the same strand, including 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 20 transfer RNA genes. The length of 12 PCGs is 11,358 bp, which accounts for 67.4% in whole mt genome. The proportion is similar to other clams mt genomes and within those of bivalves mt genomes. Gene order (which is the same as that of RZ C. antiquata) of M. veneriformis mt genome is compared with that of other veneroids. Compared with the typical gene content of animal mt genomes, atp8 and two tRNA(Ser) genes are missing in the mt genome. All non-coding regions are 1978 bp in length, among them the longest one is speculated as the control region, which is located between the tRNA(His) and tRNA(Arg). The secondary largest non-coding region (NCR(664)) between the tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Thr) in the M. veneriformis mt genome contains one section of tandem repeats (125 nt × 5.2 or 249 nt × 2.6). The tandem repeats account for 97.89% (650/664) of the NCR(664), which is a unique characteristic of the M. veneriformis mt non-coding regions compared with those of other veneroids.
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Effect of SR load and pH regulatory mechanisms on stretch-dependent Ca(2+) entry during the slow force response.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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When cardiac muscle is stretched, there is an initial inotropic response that coincides with the stretch followed by a slower increase in twitch force that develops over several minutes (the "slow force response", or SFR). Unlike the initial response to stretch, the SFR is produced by an increase in Ca(2+) transient amplitude, but the cellular mechanisms that give rise to the increased transients are still debated. We have examined the relationship between the SFR, intracellular [Ca(2+)] and the inotropic state of right ventricular trabeculae from rat hearts at 37°C. The magnitude of the SFR varied with [Ca(2+)]o and stimulation frequency, so that the SFR was greatest for conditions associated with a reduced SR Ca(2+) content. The SFR was not blocked by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan, but was reduced by SN-6, an inhibitor of reverse mode Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange (NCX). The Na(+)/H(+)-exchange (NHE) inhibitor HOE642 had no effect in HCO3(-)-buffered solutions, but blocked 50% of the SFR in HCO3(-)-free solution. Inhibition of HCO3(-) transport by DIDS increased the SFR and made it sensitive to HOE642. The addition of cross-bridge cycle inhibitors (20mM BDM or 20?M blebbistatin) to the superfusate reduced the SFR as monitored by changes in Ca(2+). In HCO3(-)-free conditions, the SFR was associated with a slow acidification that was inhibited by BDM, and by stopping electrical stimulation. These results can be explained by stretch increasing metabolic demand and stimulating Na(+) entry via both NHE and the Na(+)/HCO3(-) transporters. This mechanism provides a novel link between inotropic state and stretch, as well as a way for the cell to compensate for increased acid load. The feedback mechanism between force and Ca(2+) transient amplitude that we describe is also limited by the degree of SR Ca(2+) load.
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Results of a phase III clinical trial with an HBsAg-HBIG immunogenic complex therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B patients: experiences and findings.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Even though various experimental therapeutic approaches for chronic hepatitis B infection have been reported, few of them have been verified by clinical trials. We have developed an antigen-antibody (HBsAg-HBIG) immunogenic complex therapeutic vaccine candidate with alum as adjuvant (YIC), aimed at breaking immune tolerance to HBV by modulating viral antigen processing and presentation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II B clinical trial of YIC has been reported previously, and herein we present the results of the phase III clinical trial of 450 patients.
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Remifentanil protects liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation of anti-apoptotic pathways.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Remifentanil protects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced organ injury, although its underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of remifentanil preconditioning, if any, against hepatic I/R injury in rats and the underlying mechanism involved.
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Overexpression of PeHA1 enhances hydrogen peroxide signaling in salt-stressed Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase plays a crucial role in controlling K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. Our previous microarray analysis indicated that Populus euphratica retained a higher abundance of PM H(+)-ATPase transcript versus a salt-sensitive poplar. To clarify the roles of the PM H(+)-ATPase in salt sensing and adaptation, we isolated the PM H(+)-ATPase gene PeHA1 from P. euphratica and introduced it into Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to wild-type, PeHA1-transgenic Arabidopsis had a greater germination rate, root length, and biomass under NaCl stress (50-150 mM). Ectopic expression of PeHA1 remarkably enhanced the capacity to control the homeostasis of ions and reactive oxygen species in salinized Arabidopsis. Flux data from salinized roots showed that transgenic plants exhibited a more pronounced Na(+)/H(+) antiport and less reduction of K(+) influx versus wild-type. Enhanced PM ATP hydrolytic activity, proton pumping, and Na(+)/H(+) antiport in PeHA1-transgenic plants, were consistent to those observed in vivo, i.e., H(+) extrusion, external acidification, and Na(+) efflux. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were typically higher in transgenic seedlings irrespective of salt concentration. In transgenic Arabidopsis roots, H2O2 production was higher under control conditions and increased more rapidly than wild-type when plants were subjected to NaCl treatment. Interestingly, transgenic plants were unable to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis when salt-induced H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These observations suggest that PeHA1 accelerates salt tolerance partially through rapid H2O2 production upon salt treatment, which triggers adjustments in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.
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Aspirin: a potential therapeutic approach in pancreatic cancer.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Inflammation has become a research hotspot in solid tumours and has been confirmed as a key factor in tumour development through the interactions of inflammatory mediators with gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive and deadliest forms of gastrointestinal cancer. A large case-control study found that aspirin, an anti-inflammatory drug, was associated with a decreased risk of PC. Moreover, aspirin has been shown to have inhibitory effects on PC in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, the clinical data analysis has not been similarly promising. Results from genetic and pharmacological studies suggest that the anti-tumour effects of aspirin are mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of COXs. Furtermore, other results suggest that the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of aspirin are also mediated through COX-independent mechanisms. The COX-dependent and COX-independent mechanisms will be described in this review. In addition, we will discuss future research directions on the risks and benefits of the use of aspirin to treat PC and the potential cellular/molecular.
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[Protective effect of propofol and resveratrol pretreatment against hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To observe the effect of resveratrol and propofol, used either alone or in combination, on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI).
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Immunogenicity and safety of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children and infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks are a socioeconomic burden, especially in the western Pacific region. Results of phase 1 clinical trials suggest an EV71 vaccine has a clinically acceptable safety profile and immunogenicity. We aimed to assess the best possible dose and formulation, immunogenicity, and safety profile of this EV71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children.
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The antitumor effect of a new docetaxel-loaded microbubble combined with low-frequency ultrasound in vitro: preparation and parameter analysis.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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To develop a novel docetaxel (DOC)-loaded lipid microbubbles (MBs) for achieving target therapy and overcoming the poor water-solubility drawback of DOC.
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Human ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a novel target of oligomeric ?-synuclein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) through unknown mechanisms. Interestingly, a decrease in the numbers of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?4?2-nAChRs) in PD patients suggests an ?4?2-nAChR-mediated cholinergic deficit in PD. Although oligomeric forms of ?-synuclein have been recognized to be toxic and involved in the pathogenesis of PD, their direct effects on nAChR-mediated cholinergic signaling remains undefined. Here, we report for the first time that oligomeric ?-synuclein selectively inhibits human ?4?2-nAChR-mediated currents in a dose-dependent, non-competitive and use-independent manner. We show that pre-loading cells with guanyl-5-yl thiophosphate fails to prevent this inhibition, suggesting that the ?-synuclein-induced inhibition of ?4?2-nAChR function is not mediated by nAChR internalization. By using a pharmacological approach and cultures expressing transfected human nAChRs, we have shown a clear effect of oligomeric ?-synuclein on ?4?2-nAChRs, but not on ?4?4- or ?7-nAChRs, suggesting nAChR subunit selectivity of oligomeric ?-synuclein-induced inhibition. In addition, by combining the size exclusion chromatography and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses, we find that only large (>4 nm) oligomeric ?-synuclein aggregates (but not monomeric, small oligomeric or fibrillar ?-synuclein aggregates) exhibit the inhibitory effect on human ?4?2-nAChRs. Collectively, we have provided direct evidence that ?4?2-nAChR is a sensitive target to mediate oligomeric ?-synuclein-induced modulation of cholinergic signaling, and our data imply that therapeutic strategies targeted toward ?4?2-nAChRs may have potential for developing new treatments for PD.
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Which urban migrants default from tuberculosis treatment in shanghai, china?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Migration is a major challenge to tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide. TB treatment requires multiple drugs for at least six months. Some TB patients default before completing their treatment regimen, which can lead to ongoing infectiousness and drug resistance.
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An effective solution to discover synergistic drugs for anti-cerebral ischemia from traditional chinese medicinal formulae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ), which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G), berberine (B) and jasminoidin (J) was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G): 2(B): 0.5(J), and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could greatly improve the efficiency in finding new combination drug from TCM.
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Successional Distance between the Source and Recipient Influence Seed Germination and Seedling Survival during Surface Soil Replacement in SW China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adding propagules (source) to a degraded site (recipient) is a common way of manipulating secondary succession to restore diversity and services formerly provided by forests. However, heretofore no study has considered the effect of "successional distance" between source and recipient site. Four sites in the Shilin karst area of SW China were treated as different states along a secondary successional sere: grass, shrub, young secondary forest, and primary forest. Ten 1 m ×1m soil quadrats in the grass, shrub and young forest sites were replaced with 10 cm deep soil sources from corresponding later successional stage(s) in January 2009. Woody plant seed germination was monitored in the first year and seedling survival was monitored until the end of the second year. At the end of 2010, 2097 seeds of woody plants belonging to 45 taxa had germinated, and 3.9% of the seedlings and 7.8% of the species survived. Germination of most species was sensitive to ambient light (red, far-red, R:FR ratios, photosynthetically active radiation). Soil source and recipient site had a significant effect on the total number of seeds and number of species that germinated, and on the percentage of seedlings that survived through the end of the second year. Closer successional stages between recipient site and soil source had higher seed germination and seedling-survival percentages. However, a transition threshold exists in the young forest state, where seeds can germinate but not survive the second year. Our results, although based on an unreplicated chronosequence, suggest that successional distance between soil sources and recipient sites affect forest recruitment and restoration in degraded karst of SW China.
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Do transportation subsidies and living allowances improve tuberculosis control outcomes among internal migrants in urban Shanghai, China?
Western Pac Surveill Response J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) in internal migrants is one of three threats for TB control in China. To address this threat, a project was launched in eight of the 19 districts of Shanghai in 2007 to provide transportation subsidies and living allowances for all migrant TB cases. This study aims to determine if this project contributed to improved TB control outcomes among migrants in urban Shanghai.
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[Protective effect of remifentanil preconditioning against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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To assess the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) in the protective effect of remifentanil preconditioning (RPC) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
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An ATP signalling pathway in plant cells: extracellular ATP triggers programmed cell death in Populus euphratica.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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We elucidated the extracellular ATP (eATP) signalling cascade active in programmed cell death (PCD) using cell cultures of Populus euphratica. Millimolar amounts of eATP induced a dose- and time-dependent reduction in viability, and the agonist-treated cells displayed hallmark features of PCD. eATP caused an elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, resulting in Ca(2+) uptake by the mitochondria and subsequent H(2) O(2) accumulation. P.?euphratica exhibited an increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and cytochrome c was released without opening of the permeability transition pore over the period of ATP stimulation. Moreover, the eATP-induced increase of intracellular ATP, essential for the activation of caspase-like proteases and subsequent PCD, was found to be related to increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. NO is implicated as a downstream component of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration but plays a negligible role in eATP-stimulated cell death. We speculate that ATP binds purinoceptors in the plasma membrane, leading to the induction of downstream intermediate signals, as the proposed sequence of events in PCD signalling was terminated by the animal P2 receptor antagonist suramin.
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[Epidemiological analysis of rabies in 2010, China].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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To understand the related factors of rabies epidemic and provide the basic data for rabies control and prevention in China by statistic and retrospective analysis of rabies surveillance data in 2010.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) reveals a novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Euphausiid krill are dominant organisms in the zooplankton population and play a central role in marine ecosystems. Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) is one of the most important and dominant crustaceans in the North Pacific Ocean. In this paper, we described the gene content, organization, and codon usage of the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome. The mitochondrial genome of E. pacifica is 16 898 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Translocation of three transfer RNAs (trnL(1), trnL(2), and trnW) was found in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome when comparing with the pancrustacean ground pattern. The rate of K(a)/K(s) in 13 protein-coding genes among three krill is much less than 1, which indicates a strong purifying selection within this group. The largest noncoding region in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome contains one section with tandem repeats (4.7 x 154 bp), which are the largest tandem repeats found in malacostracan mitochondrial genomes so far. All analyses based on nucleotide and amino acid data strongly support the monophyly of Stomatopoda, Penaeidae, Caridea, Brachyura, and Euphausiacea. The Bayesian analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Decapoda, which confirms traditional findings. The maximum likelihood analysis based on amino acid data strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Penaeidae, which destroys the monophyly of Decapoda.
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Pedicle screw instrumentation plus augmentation vertebroplasty using calcium sulfate for thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficits.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy of posterior instrumentation plus vertebroplasty and posterolateral fusion using calcium sulfate for thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurologic deficits.
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[Peutz-Jeghers syndrome complicated with pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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To explore the clinical characteristics, complications and prognosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
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[New index for soil moisture monitoring based on deltaT(s)-albedo spectral information].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Monitoring soil moisture by remote sensing has been an important problem for both agricultural drought monitoring and water resources management. In the present paper, we acquire the land surface temperature difference (deltaT(s)) and broadband albedo using MODIS Terra reflectance and land surface temperature products to construct the deltaT(s)-albedo spectral feature space. According to the soil moisture variation in spectral feature space, we put forward a simple and practical temperature difference albedo drought index (TDADI) and validate it using ground-measured 0-10 cm averaged soil moisture of Ningxia plain The results show that the coefficient of determination (R2) of both them varies from 0.36 to 0.52, and TDADI has higher accuracy than temperature albedo drought index (TADI) for soil moisture retrieval. The good agreement of TDADI, Albedo/LST, LST/ NDVI and TVDI for analyzing the trends of soil moisture change supports the reliability of TDADI. However, TDADI has been designed only at Ningxia plain and still needs further validation in other regions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.