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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
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Precision Structural Engineering of Self-Rolled-up 3D Nanomembranes Guided by Transient Quasi-Static FEM Modeling.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Micro- and nanoscale tubular structures can be formed by strain-induced self-rolled-up nanomembranes. Precision engineering of the shape and dimension determines the performance of devices based on this platform for electronic, optical, and biological applications. A transient quasi-static finite element method (FEM) with moving boundary conditions is proposed as a general approach to design diverse types of three-dimensional (3D) rolled-up geometries. This method captures the dynamic release process of membranes through etching driven by mismatch strain and accurately predicts the final dimensions of rolled-up structures. Guided by the FEM modeling, experimental demonstration using silicon nitride membranes was achieved with unprecedented precision including controlling fractional turns of a rolled-up membrane, anisotropic rolling to form helical structures, and local stress control for 3D hierarchical architectures.
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[Polymorphisms of RHCE Gene among Serologic RhD Negative Donors of Han Population in Chinese Jiangsu Area].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was purposed to investigate the RHCE gene polymorphisms in Chinese Jiangsu Han blood donors with and without RHD gene among serologic RhD negative population. PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to detect RHCE genotype in 337 serologic RhD negative, RHD gene positive donors. The RHD gene-specific polymorphisms were also determined by PCR-SSP in these donors. The results showed that among 337 serologic RhD negative, RHD gene positive donor 20 were RHCE*C/C, 62 RHCE*C/c, 24 RHCE*c/c, 25 RHCE*E/e, and 81 RHCE*e/e; the allele frequencies for RHCE*C and RHCE*c were 0.4811 and 0.5189, respectively; and for RHCE*E and RHCE*e 0.1179 and 0.8821. Among 231 RHD gene negative donors, 3 were RHCE*C/C, 34 RHCE*C/c, 194 RHCE*c/c, 15 RHCE*E/e, 216 RHCE*e/e; the allele frequencies for RHCE*C and RHCE*c were 0.0866 and 0.9134, respectively; and allele frequencies for RHCE*E and RHCE*e were 0.0325 and 0.9675, respectively. It is concluded that the most prevalent allele of RHCE gene was RHCE*ccee in Chinese Han Jiangsu RHD gene negative population. There is statistical difference in RHCE genotype distribution among serologic RhD negative population with and without RHD gene.
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A novel miniaturized passively Q-switched pulse-burst laser for engine ignition.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A novel miniaturized Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YAG pulse-burst laser under 808 nm diode-laser pulse-pumping was demonstrated for the purpose of laser-induced plasma ignition, in which pulse-burst mode can realize both high repetition rate and high pulse energy simultaneously in a short period. Side-pumping configuration and two different types of laser cavities were employed. The pumping pulse width was constant at 250 ?s. For the plane-plane cavity, the output beam profile was flat-top Gaussian and the measured M2 value was 4.1 at the maximum incident pump energy of 600 mJ. The pulse-burst laser contained a maximum of 8 pulses, 7 pulses and 6 pulses for pulse-burst repetition rate of 10 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively. The energy obtained was 15.5 mJ, 14.9 mJ and 13.9 mJ per pulse for pulse-burst repetition rate of 10 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively. The maximum repetition rate of laser pulses in pulse-burst was 34.6 kHz for 8 pulses at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ and the single pulse width was 13.3 ns. The thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG rod was investigated, and an plane-convex cavity was adopted to compensate the thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG rod and improve the mode matching. For the plane-convex cavity, the output beam profile was quasi-Gaussian and the measured M2 value was 2.2 at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ. The output energy was 10.6 mJ per pulse for pulse-burst repetition rate of 100 Hz. The maximum repetition rate of laser pulses in pulse-burst was 27.4 kHz for 6 pulses at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ and the single pulse width was 14.2 ns. The experimental results showed that this pulse-burst laser can produce high repetition rate (>20 kHz) and high pulse energy (>10 mJ) simultaneously in a short period for both two different cavities.
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Small molecule restoration of wildtype structure and function of mutant p53 using a novel zinc-metallochaperone based mechanism.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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NSC319726 (ZMC1) is a small molecule that reactivates mutant p53 by restoration of WT structure/function to the most common p53 missense mutant (p53-R175H). We investigated the mechanism by which ZMC1 reactivates p53-R175H and provide evidence that ZMC1: 1) restores WT structure by functioning as a zinc-metallochaperone, providing an optimal concentration of zinc to facilitate proper folding; and 2) increases cellular reactive oxygen species that transactivate the newly conformed p53-R175H (via post-translational modifications), inducing an apoptotic program. We not only demonstrate that this zinc metallochaperone function is possessed by other zinc-binding small molecules, but that it can reactivate other p53 mutants with impaired zinc binding. This represents a novel mechanism for an anti-cancer drug and a new pathway to drug mutant p53.
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Interhemispheric Plasticity Protects the Deafferented Somatosensory Cortex from Functional Takeover After Nerve Injury.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Abstract Functional changes across brain hemispheres have been reported after unilateral cortical or peripheral nerve injury. Interhemispheric callosal connections usually underlie this cortico-cortical plasticity. However, the effect of the altered callosal inputs on local cortical plasticity in the adult brain is not well studied. Ipsilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation has been reliably detected in the deafferented barrel cortex (BC) at 2 weeks after unilateral infraorbital denervation (IO) in adult rats. The ipsilateral fMRI signal relies on callosal-mediated interhemispheric plasticity. This form of interhemispheric plasticity provides a good chronic model to study the interaction between callosal inputs and local cortical plasticity. The receptive field of forepaw in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), which is adjacent to the BC, was mapped with fMRI. The S1 receptive field expanded to take over a portion of the BC in 2 weeks after both ascending inputs and callosal inputs were removed in IO rats with ablated contralateral BC (IO+ablation). This expansion, estimated specifically by fMRI mapping, is significantly larger than what has been observed in the IO rats with intact callosal connectivity, as well as in the rats with sham surgery. This work indicates that altered callosal inputs prevent the functional takeover of the deafferented BC from adjacent cortices and may help preserve the functional identity of the BC.
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Quantification of regional myocardial wall motion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Quant Imaging Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile tool that also allows comprehensive and accurate measurement of both global and regional myocardial contraction. Quantification of regional wall motion parameters, such as strain, strain rate, twist and torsion, has been shown to be more sensitive to early-stage functional alterations. Since the invention of CMR tagging by magnetization saturation in 1988, several CMR techniques have been developed to enable the measurement of regional myocardial wall motion, including myocardial tissue tagging, phase contrast mapping, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), and strain encoded (SENC) imaging. These techniques have been developed with their own advantages and limitations. In this review, two widely used and closely related CMR techniques, i.e., tissue tagging and DENSE, will be discussed from the perspective of pulse sequence development and image-processing techniques. The clinical and preclinical applications of tissue tagging and DENSE in assessing wall motion mechanics in both normal and diseased hearts, including coronary artery diseases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and Duchenne muscular dystrophies, will be discussed.
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Live nephron imaging by MRI.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The local sensitivity of MRI can be improved with small MR detectors placed close to regions of interest. However, to maintain such sensitivity advantage, local detectors normally need to communicate with the external amplifier through cable connections, which prevent the use of local detectors as implantable devices. Recently, an integrated wireless amplifier was developed that can efficiently amplify and broadcast locally detected signals, so that the local sensitivity was enhanced without the need for cable connections. This integrated detector enabled the live imaging of individual glomeruli using negative contrast introduced by cationized ferritin, and the live imaging of renal tubules using positive contrast introduced by gadopentetate dimeglumine. Here, we utilized the high blood flow to image individual glomeruli as hyperintense regions without any contrast agent. These hyperintense regions were identified for pixels with signal intensities higher than the local average. Addition of Mn(2+) allowed the simultaneous detection of both glomeruli and renal tubules: Mn(2+) was primarily reabsorbed by renal tubules, which would be distinguished from glomeruli due to higher enhancement in T1-weighted MRI. Dynamic studies of Mn(2+) absorption confirmed the differential absorption affinity of glomeruli and renal tubules, potentially enabling the in vivo observation of nephron function.
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Phenotypic and Genotypic Changes over Time and across Facilities of Serial Colonizing and Infecting Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Injured Service Members.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Escherichia coli is the most common colonizing and infecting organism isolated from U.S. service members injured during deployment. Our objective was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic changes of infecting and colonizing E. coli organisms over time and across facilities to better understand their transmission patterns. E. coli isolates were collected via surveillance cultures and infection workups from U.S. military personnel injured during deployment (June 2009 to May 2011). The isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multiplex PCR for phylotyping to determine their resistance profiles and clonality. A total of 343 colonizing and 136 infecting E. coli isolates were analyzed, of which 197 (57%) and 109 (80%) isolates, respectively, produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL). Phylogroup A was predominant among both colonizing (38%) and infecting isolates (43%). Although 188 unique pulsed-field types (PFTs) were identified from the colonizing isolates, and 54 PFTs were identified from the infecting isolates, there was a lack of PFT overlap between study years, combat zones, and military treatment facilities. On a per-subject basis, 26% and 32% of the patients with serial colonizing isolates and 10% and 21% with serial infecting isolates acquired changes in their phylogroup and PFT profiles, respectively, over time. The production of ESBL remained high over time and across facilities, with no substantial changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities. Overall, our results demonstrated an array of genotypic and phenotypic differences for the isolates without large clonal clusters; however, the same PFTs were occasionally observed in the colonizing and infecting isolates, suggesting that the source of infections may be endogenous host organisms.
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Comparison of Chinese and international psychiatrists' views on classification of mental disorders.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This study aimed to explore the views and attitudes of Chinese psychiatrists on mental disorders classification, and to compare their similarities and differences with those of the international mental health professionals.
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A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between uric acid and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease in China.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Although many studies have examined the relationship between uric acid (UA) and coronary artery disease (CAD), whether UA is an independent risk factor contributing to progression of CAD is still controversial. Whether UA plays a different role in different sexes is also unclear.
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Overall survival of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients after adjusting for crossover in the MM-003 trial for pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In the phase III MM-003 trial, pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (POM+LoDEX) improved overall survival (OS) versus high-dose dexamethasone (HiDEX) in 455 patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) after treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide. Here, a two-stage Weibull method was used to adjust for the crossover of patients in the HiDEX arm to pomalidomide-based therapy. The adjusted difference in median OS between patients in the POM+LoDEX and HiDEX arms was 7·0 months (12·7 vs. 5·7 months, respectively). These findings provide important evidence for understanding the clinical efficacy of pomalidomide on OS benefits seen in RRMM patients.
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Efficacy of two chemical coagulants and three different filtration media on removal of Aspergillus flavus from surface water.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Aquatic fungi are common in various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling as well as interacting with other organisms. Species of Aspergillus are the most common fungi that occur in water. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, used at different concentrations to treat drinking water, in removing Aspergillus flavus, as well as testing three different filtration media: sand, activated carbon, and ceramic granules, for their removal of fungi from water. The results revealed that both coagulants were effective in removing fungi and decreasing the turbidity of drinking water, and turbidity decreased with increasing coagulant concentration. Also, at the highest concentration of the coagulants, A. flavus was decreased by 99.6% in the treated water. Among ceramic granules, activated carbon, and sand used as media for water filtration, the sand and activated carbon filters were more effective in removing A. flavus than ceramic granules while simultaneously decreasing the turbidity levels in the test water samples. Post-treatment total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the experimental water did not decrease; on the contrary, TN concentrations increased with the increasing dosage of coagulants. The filtration process had no effect in reducing TOC and TN in tested water.
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Ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 promotes the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by modifying ?-catenin degradation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 and the homeobox protein HOXB9 each promote metastatic progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the clinicopathologic significance of FAT10 and HOXB9 in HCC and investigated a mechanistic role for FAT10 in HOXB9-mediated invasiveness and metastasis. Relative to adjacent normal tissues, FAT10 and HOXB9 were markedly overexpressed in HCC, where a positive correlation in their expression and associated malignant characteristics were found. RNAi-mediated silencing of FAT10 decreased HOXB9 expression and inhibited HCC invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of FAT10 silencing were reversed by HOXB9 overexpression, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of HOXB9 decreased HCC invasion and metastasis driven by FAT10 overexpression. Mechanistically, FAT10 regulated HOXB9 expression by modulating the ?-catenin/TCF4 pathway, directly binding to ?-catenin and preventing its ubiquitination and degradation. Together, our results identified a novel HCC regulatory circuit involving FAT10, ?-catenin/TCF4, and HOXB9, the dysfunction of which drives invasive and metastatic character in HCC. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5287-300. ©2014 AACR.
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Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances in the biofilms of typical bacteria by the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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A combined approach of physicochemical extraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was applied to characterize the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of typical bacterial biofilms in this study. Physicochemical analysis showed variation of the contents of DNA, polysaccharide and protein in different fractions of EPS in different mediums. The sulfur K-edge XANES analysis yielded a variety of spectra. Spectral fitting of the XANES spectra utilizing a large set of model compounds showed that there was more reduced sulfur in both LB-EPS (loosely bound EPS) and TB-EPS (tightly bound EPS) of all the biofilms in LB medium than in R2A medium. More oxidized sulfur was identified in LB-EPS than that in TB-EPS, suggesting different niches and physiological heterogeneity in the biofilms. Our results suggested that the sulfur K-edge XANES can be a useful tool to analyze the sulfur speciation in EPS of biofilms.
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Integrating epigenetic marks for identification of transcriptionally active miRNAs.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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MicroRNAs have been identified as important regulators involved in biological processes and human diseases. We proposed a computational approach to systematic identification of active promoters of miRNAs by active models using epigenetic characteristics at active promoters of protein-coding genes together with a genomic context-based filtering step in nine human cell types, which were validated to exhibit greater conservation, more overlap with CAGE-identified TSSs, more conserved TFBSs and higher transcription factor binding signal intensities. Furthermore, expression analysis showed discordance between transcriptional activation of miRNAs and expression of their precursor and mature forms, indicating that precursor and mature miRNA expression is insufficient to account for transcriptional activation of miRNAs. Compared to other methods, our approach identified higher percentages of active miRNAs with CAGE-detected TSS activity and primary transcript expression, further supporting the validity of our approach, which will be valuable to understand the biological roles of miRNAs in specific cell contexts.
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The effects of antidepressant treatment on resting-state functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Although most knowledge regarding antidepressant effects is at the receptor level, the neurophysiological correlates of these neurochemical changes remain poorly understood. Such an understanding could benefit from elucidation of antidepressant effects at the level of neural circuits, which would be crucial in identifying biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we recruited 20 first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-escitalopram. Twenty healthy controls (HCs) were also scanned twice with an 8-week interval. Whole-brain connectivity was analyzed using a graph-theory approach-functional connectivity strength (FCS). The analysis of covariance of FCS was used to determine treatment-related changes. We observed significant group-by-time interaction on FCS in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampi. Post hoc analyses revealed that the FCS values in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex were significantly higher in the MDD patients compared to HCs at baseline and were significantly reduced after treatment; conversely, the FCS values in the bilateral hippocampi were significantly lower in the patients at baseline and were significantly increased after treatment. Importantly, FCS reduction in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was significantly correlated with symptomatic improvement. Together, these findings provided evidence that this commonly used antidepressant can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity associated with the medial prefrontal-limbic system, thus significantly adding to our understanding of antidepressant effects at a circuit level and suggesting potential imaging-based biomarkers for treatment evaluation in MDD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Palladium-catalyzed oxidative CH/CH cross-coupling of pyridine N-oxides with five-membered heterocycles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Using Ag2CO3 as an additive, we developed the Pd-catalyzed intermolecular C-H/C-H cross-coupling of pyridine N-oxides with five-membered heterocycles such as 1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazoles, thiophens and furans. This protocol provides an efficient and regioselective approach for the synthesis of unsymmetrical biheteroaryl molecules.
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Ultrathin silica films: the atomic structure of two-dimensional crystals and glasses.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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For the last 15?years, we have been studying the preparation and characterization of ordered silica films on metal supports. We review the efforts so far, and then discuss the specific case of a silica bilayer, which exists in a crystalline and a vitreous variety, and puts us into a position to investigate, for the first time, the real space structure (AFM/STM) of a two-dimensional glass and its properties. We show that pair correlation functions determined from the images of this two-dimensional glass are similar to those determined by X-ray and neutron scattering from three-dimensional glasses, if the appropriate sensitivity factors are taken into account. We are in a position, to verify, for the first time, a model of the vitreous silica structure proposed by William Zachariasen in 1932. Beyond this, the possibility to prepare the crystalline and the glassy structure on the same support allows us to study the crystal-glass phase transition in real space. We, finally, discuss possibilities to use silica films to start investigating related systems such as zeolites and clay films. We also mention hydroxylation of the silica films in order to adsorb metal atoms modeling heterogenized homogeneous catalysts.
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Advanced treatment of cephalosporin pharmaceutical wastewater by nano-coated electrode and perforated electrode.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the degradation of nonbiodegradable organic pollutants in biologically cephalosporin pharmaceutical wastewater using different electrodes such as non-nano-scale electrode (traditional coated), nano-scale (nano-coated) electrode, and perforated electrode after biotreatment. The traditional coated electrode plate, nano-coated electrode plate, and two different perforated titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode plates with an average pore size of 10 ?m and 20 ?m were chosen as the anode. The results demonstrated that traditional coated electrode, nano-scale electrode, and perforated electrode could effectively remove nonbiodegradable organic pollutants from pharmaceutical wastewater. The perforated electrode with an average pore size of 10 ?m exhibited the best degradation effect with a 90 % decrease in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (COD content reduced from 320 mg L(-1) to 32 mg L(-1)). During catalytic degradation, the electrical conductivity of pharmaceutical wastewater increased and the pH increased and finally reached equilibrium. It was also found that the perforated TiO2 electrode produced relatively large amounts of dissolved oxygen during the catalytic oxidation process, reaching above 4 mg L(-1), whereas the nano-coated electrode produced little dissolved oxygen. The biotoxicities of all wastewater samples increased firstly then decreased slightly during the electrical catalytic oxidation, but the final biotoxicities were all higher than initial ones.
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Exposure to mutagenic disinfection byproducts leads to increase of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) in drinking water has become a global issue because of its risks on the public health. Usually, the antibiotic concentrations in drinking water are too low to select antibiotic resistant strains effectively, suggesting that factors other than antibiotics would contribute to the emergence of BAR. In the current study, the impacts of mutagenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on BAR were explored, using four typical DBPs: dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetonitrile, potassium bromate, and 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). After exposure to DBPs, resistances to 10 individual antibiotics and multiple antibiotics were both raised by various levels, norfloxacin and polymycin B resistances were enhanced even greater than 10-fold compared with control. MX increased the resistance most observably in the selected DBPs, which was consistent with its mutagenic activity. The resistant mutants showed hereditary stability during 5-day culturing. The increase of BAR was caused by the mutagenic activities of DBPs, since mutation frequency declined by adding ROS scavenger. Mutagenesis was further confirmed by sequencing of the related genes. Our study indicated that mutagenic activities of the selected DBPs could induce antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance, which may partially explain the lack of agreement between BAR and antibiotic levels in drinking water.
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia patients in China and its association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life: Findings of the third national survey on use of psychotropic medications in China.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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This study examined the use, demographic and clinical correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) and its associations with treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients in China.
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High-repetition-rate and short-pulse-width electro-optical cavity-dumped YVO?/Nd:GdVO? laser.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In this paper, an electro-optical cavity-dumped 1.06 ?m laser using YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 composite crystal under 808 nm diode-laser pumping was reported. Theoretical calculations showed that the temperature distribution in YVO4/Nd:GdVO4 crystal was lower than that in GdVO4/Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 crystals under the same conditions. A constant 3.8±0.3??ns pulse width was obtained and the repetition rate could reach up to 50 kHz with a maximum average output power of 5.6 W and slope efficiency of 40.7%, corresponding to a peak power of 31.1 kW.
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MicroRNAs regulate vascular smooth muscle cell functions in atherosclerosis (review).
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are involved in all stages of the progression of human atherosclerosis (AS). MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are non?coding, small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post?transcriptional level through translational repression or messenger RNA (mRNA) decay. Recently, a variety of functions of VSMCs that are involved in AS, including differentiation, migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and apoptosis, have been found to be regulated by miRNAs. This review provides an overview of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of the functions of VSMCs, as well as their targets and potential implications in AS. The data presented herein suggest that the specific modulation of miRNAs may present an attractive approach for the diagnosis and treatment of AS.
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Characteristics of Alzheimer's disease among patients in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Beijing.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In order to obtain data from patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia and their informants in a uniform manner and to foster further research among the Chinese and other races, we have conducted an international study to recruit patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Beijing. The Uniform Data Set was translated into Chinese and administrated to AD patients and their informants. A total of 1,107 AD dementia patients were recruited, including 691 from Taiwan, 244 from Beijing, and 172 from Hong Kong. There were differences in the AD patients: gender (p = 0.099), education (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), and handedness (p = 0.007). For informants, age (p = 0.679), gender (p = 0.117), education (p < 0.001), and living together or not (p < 0.001) differed in the three samples. Although three areas across the Taiwan Strait are ethnic Chinese, the clinical picture for patients and informants are very different. Further study is needed to clarify the significance of clinical characteristics in Chinese societies.
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Rapid multislice T1 mapping of mouse myocardium: Application to quantification of manganese uptake in ?-Dystrobrevin knockout mice.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, multislice cardiac T1 mapping method in mice and to apply the method to quantify manganese (Mn(2+) ) uptake in a mouse model with altered Ca(2+) channel activity.
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Arterial spin labeling-fast imaging with steady-state free precession (ASL-FISP): a rapid and quantitative perfusion technique for high-field MRI.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either echo-planar imaging (EPI) or true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (true FISP) readouts, which are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high-field MRI scanners. We have developed a rapid ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high-field preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2?s. In this initial implementation, a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL preparation was combined with a rapid, centrically encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in?vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 and 9.4?T (249?±?38 and 241?±?17?mL/min/100?g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in the detection of significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a rapid and quantitative in?vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high-field MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts.
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Small molecule compounds targeting the p53 pathway: are we finally making progress?
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Loss of function of p53, either through mutations in the gene or through mutations to other members of the pathway that inactivate wild-type p53, remains a critically important aspect of human cancer development. As such, p53 remains the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer. For these reasons, pharmacologic activation of the p53 pathway has been a highly sought after, yet unachieved goal in developmental therapeutics. Recently progress has been made not only in the discovery of small molecules that target wild-type and mutant p53, but also in the initiation and completion of the first in-human clinical trials for several of these drugs. Here, we review the current literature of drugs that target wild-type and mutant p53 with a focus on small-molecule type compounds. We discuss common means of drug discovery and group them according to their common mechanisms of action. Lastly, we review the current status of the various drugs in the development process and identify newer areas of p53 tumor biology that may prove therapeutically useful.
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A combined evaluation of the characteristics and acute toxicity of antibiotic wastewater.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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The conventional parameters and acute toxicities of antibiotic wastewater collected from each treatment unit of an antibiotic wastewater treatment plant have been investigated. The investigation of the conventional parameters indicated that the antibiotic wastewater treatment plant performed well under the significant fluctuation in influent water quality. The results of acute toxicity indicated that the toxicity of antibiotic wastewater could be reduced by 94.3 percent on average after treatment. However, treated antibiotic effluents were still toxic to Vibrio fischeri. The toxicity of antibiotic production wastewater could be attributed to the joint effects of toxic compound mixtures in wastewater. Moreover, aerobic biological treatment processes, including sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and aerobic biofilm reactor, played the most important role in reducing toxicity by 92.4 percent. Pearson?s correlation coefficients revealed that toxicity had a strong and positive linear correlation with organic substances, nitrogenous compounds, S(2-), volatile phenol, cyanide, As, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe. Ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)) was the greatest contributor to toxicity according to the stepwise regression method. The multiple regression model was a good fit for [TU50-15 min] as a function of [NH?(+)] with the determination coefficient of 0.981.
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3-Bromopyruvic acid, a hexokinase II inhibitor, is an effective antitumor agent on the hepatoma cells : in vitro and in vivo findings.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Over-expressed in cancer cells, hexokinase II (HK II) forms a mitochondrial complex, which promotes cancer survival. 3- Bromopyruvic acid (3-BrPA) dissociates HK II from this complex, causing cell death, and thus, having an anti-tumor effect. The design of this study was to first analyze the expression of HK II in the hepatoma cell line, BEL-7402, then investigate the effects of 3-Br-PA on these cells, and finally, discuss its potential for clinical usage. HK II expression was detected in BEL-7402 cells by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In vitro treatment of cells with 3-BrPA significantly inhibited their growth, as evaluated by MTT assay and adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). To analyze the in vivo function and safety of this drug, a tumor model was established by subcutaneously implanting hepatic cancer cells into nude mice. 3-BrPA treatment (50 mg/kg ip. daily, 6 days/week for three weeks) was effective in the animal model by attenuating tumor growth and causing tumor necrosis. Toxic signs were not observed. The acute toxicity study provided an LD50 of 191.7 mg/kg for 3-BrPA. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo analyses suggest that 3-BrPA exerts anti-hepatoma effects, and may be an effective pharmacological agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Minimally Invasive Selective Neck Dissection: A Prospective Study of Endoscopically Assisted Dissection via a Small Submandibular Approach in cT1-2N 0 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Selective neck dissection (SND) in clinical N0 (cN0) cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been performed by surgeons using a retroauricular or modified facelift approach with robotic or endoscopic assistance. However, these procedures provide cosmetic satisfaction at the cost of possible maximal invasiveness. In this prospective study, we introduced and evaluated the feasibility as well as surgical invasiveness and cosmetic outcome of endoscopically-assisted SND via a small submandibular approach.
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Congential scoliosis in Wilson's disease: case report and review of the literature.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, which leads to the accumulation of this metal in liver, brain, cornea and kidney. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study is to present a case of thoracic kyphosis occurring in the setting of Wilson'disease and explore the possible association between the two diseases.
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[Evaluation of the acute toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Acute toxicity of wastewater from 5 nodes of technological process in the pharmaceutical factory sewage treatment station was studied by luminescent bacteria tests. The EC50, TUa and LID of the wastewater in underground regulating tanks was 3.44%, 29 and 625, respectively, indicating the water was extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in surface regulating tanks, the EC50, TUa and LID was 2.46%, 41 and 244, respectively, also extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in middle sediment tanks, the EC50 > 100% and LID was 10, which was moderately toxic; for the wastewater in secondary sediment tanks and the final effluents, the EC50 was above 100% and LID was 1, with no observed toxicity. The results indicated that the existing treatment process effectively reduced the acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria, the effluents showed no observed toxicity to luminescent bacteria, which was lower than the relative effluent limits of pharmaceutical wastewater. The wastewater in lower concentration did not inhibit the luminosity, but enhanced the luminosity.
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Immunotherapy for hepatoma using a dual-function vector with both immunostimulatory and pim-3-silencing effects.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Tumorigenesis is an immortalization process in which the growth of normal cells is uncontrolled and programmed cell death is suppressed. Molecular biologic and immunologic studies have revealed that the aberrant expression of some proto-oncogenes boosts proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, which is vital for tumor development. The hypofunction of the host immune system also drives the development and metastasis of malignant tumors. Pim-3, a member of the Pim family, is aberrantly expressed in several cancers. Data suggest that Pim-3 inhibits apoptosis by phosphorylating the proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bad. Here, we constructed a dual-function small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector containing an shRNA targeting Pim-3 and a TLR7-stimulating ssRNA. Stimulation with this bi-functional vector in vitro promoted significant apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and induced secretion of type I IFNs. Most importantly, this bi-functional vector more effectively inhibited subcutaneous Hepa1-6 cell growth than did single shRNA and ssRNA treatment in vivo. Natural killer (NK), CD4(+) T, and CD8(+) T cells and macrophages were required for effective tumor suppression, and CD4(+) T cells were shown to play a helper role in the activation of NK cells, possibly by regulating the secretion of Th1 or Th2 cytokines. This ssRNA-shRNA bi-functional vector may represent a promising approach for tumor therapy.
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Lack of dystrophin results in abnormal cerebral diffusion and perfusion in vivo.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Dystrophin, the main component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells. It is also involved in the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To elucidate the impact of dystrophin disruption in vivo, we characterized changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion in dystrophin-deficient mice (mdx) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Arterial spin labeling (ASL) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) studies were performed on 2-month-old and 10-month-old mdx mice and their age-matched wild-type controls (WT). The imaging results were correlated with Evan's blue extravasation and vascular density studies. The results show that dystrophin disruption significantly decreased the mean cerebral diffusivity in both 2-month-old (7.38±0.30×10(-4)mm(2)/s) and 10-month-old (6.93±0.53×10(-4)mm(2)/s) mdx mice as compared to WT (8.49±0.24×10(-4), 8.24±0.25×10(-4)mm(2)/s, respectively). There was also an 18% decrease in cerebral perfusion in 10-month-old mdx mice as compared to WT, which was associated with enhanced arteriogenesis. The reduction in water diffusivity in mdx mice is likely due to an increase in cerebral edema or the existence of large molecules in the extracellular space from a leaky BBB. The observation of decreased perfusion in the setting of enhanced arteriogenesis may be caused by an increase of intracranial pressure from cerebral edema. This study demonstrates the defects in water handling at the BBB and consequently, abnormal perfusion associated with the absence of dystrophin.
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Biofilms and persistent wound infections in United States military trauma patients: a case-control analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Complex traumatic injuries sustained by military personnel, particularly when involving extremities, often result in infectious complications and substantial morbidity. One factor that may further impair patient recovery is the persistence of infections. Surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, may play a role in hindering the management of infections; however, clinical data associating biofilm formation with persistent or chronic infections are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the production of bacterial biofilms as a potential risk factor for persistent infections among wounded military personnel.
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The influence of education on Chinese version of Montreal cognitive assessment in detecting amnesic mild cognitive impairment among older people in a Beijing rural community.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To assess the influence of education on the performance of Chinese version of Montreal cognitive assessment (C-MoCA) in relation to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in detecting amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) among rural-dwelling older people C-MoCA and MMSE was administered and diagnostic interviews were conducted among community-dwelling elderly in two villages in Beijing. The performance of C-MoCA and MMSE in detecting aMCI was evaluated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Effect size of education on variations in C-MoCA scores was estimated with general linear model. Among 172 study participants (24 cases of aMCI and 148 normal controls), the AUC of C-MoCA was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.62-0.81, cutoff = 20/21), compared to AUC of MMSE of 0.74 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84, cutoff = 26/27). The performance of both C-MoCA and MMSE was especially poorer among those with low (0-6 years) education. After controlling for gender and age, education ( ?(2) = 0.204) had a surpassing effect over aMCI diagnosis ( ?(2) = 0.052) on variations in C-MoCA scores. Among rural older people, the MoCA showed modest accuracy and was no better than MMSE in detecting aMCI, especially in those with low education, due to the overwhelming effect of education relative to aMCI diagnosis on variations in C-MoCA performance.
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Laser induced spark ignition of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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We report the laser induced spark ignition (LSI) of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames using the 1064 nm output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The minimum ignition energy (MIE) and ignition time of the LSI has been determined by measuring the emission signals due to the ignited flames. The effects of the gas mixture properties, including the overall equivalence ratio (?), oxygen concentration and flow rate, and the ignition positions on the two parameters have been investigated systematically. The variation of the MIE and ignition time with the experimental conditions has been compared with the existing results and discussed with a special concentration on the effects of the local ?.
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Reconfigurable nanoantennas using electron-beam manipulation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Plasmonic nanoantennas have been of increasing interest due to their ability to confine and enhance electric fields in deep sub-wavelength volumes, leading to large near-field optical forces and high refractive index sensitivity. Recently, to enhance the response for sensor applications, metal nanoantennas have been fabricated on pillars. An overlooked consequence of this elevated geometry is the introduction of the mechanical properties, for example, stiffness, as a tunable degree of freedom. Here we demonstrate pillar-bowtie nanoantenna arrays, fabricated on optically transparent SiO2, as a candidate system that couples intrinsic mechanical and electromagnetic degrees of freedom via gradient forces. We show that using a standard scanning electron microscope, individual nanoantenna gap sizes can be controllably tuned down to 5?nm, a factor of ~4 × smaller than what is currently achievable using conventional electron-beam lithography. This approach opens new avenues for fabricating reconfigurable nanoantennas that can inform exciting photonic applications.
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Near-infrared spectroscopy for examination of prefrontal activation during cognitive tasks in patients with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of observational studies.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Near-infrared spectroscopy has the potential for aiding the diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence from observational studies regarding the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with major depressive disorder and to identify the characteristic pattern of prefrontal lobe activity in major depressive disorder.
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Disrupted resting-state functional connectivity in minimally treated chronic schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The pathophysiology of chronic schizophrenia may reflect long term brain changes related to the disorder. The effect of chronicity on intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in schizophrenia without the potentially confounding effect of antipsychotic medications, however, remains largely unknown.
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Pharmacotherapy for acute mania and disconcordance with treatment guidelines: bipolar mania pathway survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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With the recent attention to evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines for bipolar disorders have been published. This survey investigated prescribing patterns and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of a manic and mixed episode across mainland China.
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Inhibitory effect of humanized anti-VEGFR-2 ScFv-As2O3-stealth nanoparticles conjugate on growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of humanized anti-VEGFR-2 ScFv-As2O3-stealth nanoparticles conjugate on growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo, which may be a potential agents with sensitivity and targeting ability for human hepatocellular cancer.
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Revisiting the therapeutic effect of rTMS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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This study sought to determine the moderators in the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies on the therapeutic application of rTMS in schizophrenia assessing the effects of both low-frequency and high-frequency rTMS on negative symptoms. Results indicate that rTMS is effective in alleviating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The effect size was moderate (0.63 and 0.53, respectively). The effect size of rTMS on negative symptoms in sham-controlled trials was 0.80 as measured by the SANS and 0.41 as measured by the PANSS. A longer duration of illness was associated with poorer efficacy of rTMS on negative symptoms. A 10 Hz setting, at least 3 consecutive weeks of treatment, treatment site at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a 110% motor threshold (MT) were found to be the best rTMS parameters for the treatment of negative symptoms. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that rTMS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The moderators of rTMS on negative symptoms included duration of illness, stimulus frequency, duration of illness, position and intensity of treatment as well as the type of outcome measures used.
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Leptin Downregulates Aggrecan through the p38-ADAMST Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The mechanistic basis of obesity-associated intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is unclear. Aberrant expression of aggrecan and its degrading enzymes ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 is implicated in the development of IDD. Here, we investigated the effect of leptin, a hormone with increased circulating levels in obesity, on the expression of aggrecan and ADAMTSs in primary human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Real-time PCR and Western blots showed that leptin increased the mRNA and protein expression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 and reduced the level of aggrecan in NP cells, accompanied by a prominent induction of p38 phosphorylation. Treatment of NP cells with SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) abolished the regulation of aggrecan and ADAMTSs by leptin. Knockdown of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 by siRNAs also attenuated the degradation of aggrecan in leptin-stimulated NP cells. To conclude, we demonstrated that leptin induces p38 to upregulate ADAMTSs and thereby promoting aggrecan degradation in human NP cells. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the molecular pathogenesis of obesity-associated IDD.
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MiR-122 directly inhibits human papillomavirus E6 gene and enhances interferon signaling through blocking suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in SiHa cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is considered as one of the significant causes of human cervical cancer. The expression of the viral oncogenes like E6 and E7 play an important role in the development of the cancer. MiR-122 has been reported to exhibit a strong relationship with hepatitis viruses and take part in several tumor development, while the effects of miR-122 on HPV infection and the HPV viral oncogenes expression still remain unexplored. In this study, using RNAhybrid software, the potential binding sites between miR-122 and HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were identified. Over and loss of miR-122 function showed that miR-122 could directly bind with HPV16 E6 mRNA and significantly inhibit its expression in SiHa cells, which was further confirmed by constructing the miR-122-E6-mu to eliminate the miR-122 binding effects with E6. The increase of the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and its classical effective molecules and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1) protein indicated that miR-122 might enhance type I interferon in cervical carcinoma cells, which explained the significant reduction of HPV16 E7 and E6*I mRNA expression. This might be due to the binding between miR-122 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mRNA, which is the suppressor of interferon signaling pathway. Moreover, it was identified that the miR-122 binding position was nt359-nt375 in SOCS1 mRNA. Taken together, this study indicated that HPV16 could be effectively inhibited by miR-122 through both direct binding with E6 mRNA and promoting SOCS1-dependent IFN signaling pathway. Thus, miR-122 may serve as a new therapeutic option for inhibiting HPV infection.
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Frequency of the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele in a memory clinic cohort in Beijing: a naturalistic descriptive study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To describe the distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes among an elderly Chinese patient population with memory complaints treated in a memory clinic in Beijing and to compare the ?4 allele frequency among individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Guidelines disconcordance in acute bipolar depression: data from the national Bipolar Mania Pathway Survey (BIPAS) in mainland China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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With the recent attention to the importance of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines have been published. This survey investigated prescribing pattern and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of bipolar depression across mainland China. Pharmacological treatments of 1078 patients with bipolar depression were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Predictors for guidelines discordance were analyzed with logistic regression. Of the 1078 patients, 50.2% patients were treated against treatment guidelines recommendations. The patients who were treated in general hospitals (OR?=?1.53, 95% CI 1.18-1.97), with a depressive episode (OR?=?1.67, 95% CI 1.27-2.19) and an older age at first onset (OR?=?1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.28) were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatment than their counterparts. In contrast, the patients with current mental comorbidity, an older age at study entry, a longer duration of disease, and more frequent episodes in past year were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than their counterparts with an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.77), 0.52 (95CI% 0.36-0.75), 0.48 (95% CI 0.36-0.65), and 0.50 (95% CI 0.38-0.64), respectively. Our finding suggested the disconcordance with treatment guidelines in patients with an acute bipolar depression is common under naturalistic conditions in mainland China, and the predicting factors correlated with guidelines disconcordance include both psychiatrist-specific (clinicians from general hospitals) and patient-specific features (a depressive episode at first onset, no current co-morbidity with mental disorders, a younger age at study entry, an older age at first onset, shorter duration of disease, and non-frequent episodes in past year).
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[Efficacy of postoperative continuous wound infiltration with local anesthesia after open hepatectomy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy of continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative pain relief after open hepatectomy.
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The Structural Basis of Functional Improvement in Response to Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Cellular therapy for myocardial repair has been one of the most intensely investigated interventional strategies for acute myocardium infarction. Although the therapeutic potential of stem cells has been demonstrated in various studies, the underlying mechanisms for such improvement are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the long?term effects of stem cell therapy on both myocardial fiber organization and regional contractile function using a rat model of post?infarct remodeling. Human non?hematopoietic umbilical cord blood stem cells (nh?UCBSCs) were administered via tail vein to rats 2 days after infarct surgery. Animals were maintained without immunosuppressive therapy. In vivo and ex vivo MR imaging was performed on infarct hearts ten months after cell transplantation. Compared to the age?matched rats exposed to the identical surgery, both global and regional cardiac function of the nhUCBSC?treated hearts, such as ejection fraction, ventricular strain and torsion, were significantly improved. More importantly, the treated hearts exhibited preserved fiber orientation and water diffusivities that were similar to those in sham?operated control hearts. These data provide the first evidence that nh?UCBSC treatment may prevent/delay untoward structural remodeling in post?infarct hearts, which supports the improved LV function observed in vivo in the absence of immunosuppression, suggesting a beneficial paracrine effect that occurred with the cellular therapy.
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Atomic structure of an ultrathin fe-silicate film grown on a metal: a monolayer of clay?
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Ultrathin Fe-doped silicate films were prepared on a Ru(0001) surface and, as a function of the Fe/Si ratio, structurally characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to identify the atomic structure. The results show that uniform substitution of Si by Fe in the silicate bilayer frame is thermodynamically unfavorable: the film segregates into a pure silicate and an Fe-silicate phase. The DFT calculations reveal that the Fe-silicate film with an Fe/Si = 1:1 ratio consists of a monolayer of [SiO4] tetrahedra on top of an iron oxide monolayer. As such, it closely resembles the structure of the clay mineral nontronite, a representative of the Fe-rich smectites. Furthermore, the DFT calculations predict formation of bridging Fe-O-Ru bonds between the Fe-silicate film and the Ru substrate accompanied by charge transfer from the metal substrate to the film, so that iron is in the oxidation state +III as in nontronite.
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[Mixed craniopharyngioma: long-term results after Gamma knife combined with stereotactic Brachytherapy].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To evaluate the long-term results of combination treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery and stereotactic intracavitary brachytherapy for mixed cystic and solid craniopharyngiomas.
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Plastid-localized glutathione reductase2-regulated glutathione redox status is essential for Arabidopsis root apical meristem maintenance.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Glutathione is involved in thiol redox signaling and acts as a major redox buffer against reactive oxygen species, helping to maintain a reducing environment in vivo. Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into reduced glutathione (GSH). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two GRs: GR1 and GR2. Whereas the cytosolic/peroxisomal GR1 is not crucial for plant development, we show here that the plastid-localized GR2 is essential for root growth and root apical meristem (RAM) maintenance. We identify a GR2 mutant, miao, that displays strong inhibition of root growth and severe defects in the RAM, with GR activity being reduced to ?50%. miao accumulates high levels of GSSG and exhibits increased glutathione oxidation. The exogenous application of GSH or the thiol-reducing agent DTT can rescue the root phenotype of miao, demonstrating that the RAM defects in miao are triggered by glutathione oxidation. Our in silico analysis of public microarray data shows that auxin and glutathione redox signaling generally act independently at the transcriptional level. We propose that glutathione redox status is essential for RAM maintenance through both auxin/PLETHORA (PLT)-dependent and auxin/PLT-independent redox signaling pathways.
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Reverse facial artery flap to reconstruct the medium-sized defects in the middle facial region following cancer ablation.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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This retrospective clinical study assessed the reliability of the reverse facial artery flap to reconstruct the medium-sized defects in the middle facial region following cancer ablation.Fifteen medium-sized defects were repaired with reversed facial artery flap following cancer surgery. The ages of the patients ranged from 2 to 69 years; 9 were male and 6 were female. The primary lesions included palate (5 cases), maxillary gingival (6 cases), cheek or buccal mucosa (3 case), and upper lip (1 case). The size of the skin paddle varied from 4.0 cm × 6.0 cm to 5.0 cm × 10.0 cm. Direct closure was achieved at all donor sites. Fourteen of the 15 flaps survived. No donor-site problems occurred. Two patients appeared to have temporary injury of facial nerve after operation. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 36 months; 1 patient died as a result of local recurrence and 1 patient developed cervical recurrence.Consequently, it has been demonstrated that the reversed facial artery flap had reliable blood supply and can reliably and conveniently be used for reconstruction of the medium-sized defects, especially in the middle third of oral and maxillofacial region.
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[Chlorination characteristic and disinfection by-product formation potential of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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In order to explore the chlorinated disinfection by-product formation potential and chemical structure of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater, the water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 etc, were determined in the secondary effluent and the molecular weight distribution of the DON was investigated before and after the reaction with chlorine. DBPs were determined by gas chromatography, and the changes of DON were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy before and after the reaction with chlorine. The results showed that DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 were 2.47 mg x L(-1), 14.45 mg x L(-1), 5.42 mg x L(-1) and 15.88 m(-1), and m(DOC)/m(DON) and SUVA were 5.85 mg x mg(-1) and 1.09 L x (m x mg)(-1) in the secondary effluent. After the reaction with chlorine, the proportion of small molecular weight (M(r) < 6 000) DON increased from 78% to 70% , and the proportion of large molecular weight (M(r) > 20 000) DON decreased from 21% to 14%. The medium molecular weight (M(r)6000-20000) DON accounted for a small proportion and was unchanged. Among the DBPs, the concentration of bromochloroacetonitrile was the highest, which was 6.887 microg x L(-1), and the concentration of trichloroacetonitrile was the lowest, which was only 0.217 microg x L(-1). In FTIR spectrum, the dominating bands were at 3 500-3 400, 2 260-2 200, 1 700-1 640, 1 500-1 450, 1 150-1 100 and 850-800 cm(-1) respectively before the reaction, and the 1 380-1 350 cm(-1) and 600-550 cm(-1) bands were the dominating bands in addition to the original absorbing regions after the reaction. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON depends intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.
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3D hierarchical architectures based on self-rolled-up silicon nitride membranes.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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This study presents the superior structural versatility of strained silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes as a platform for three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical tubular architectures. The effects of compressive and tensile stressed SiNx layer thickness on the self-rolled-up tube curvature, the sacrificial layer etching anisotropy on rolling direction and chirality, and stress engineering by localized thickness control or thermal treatment, are explored systematically. Using strained SiNx membranes as an electrically insulating and optically transparent mechanical support, compact 3D hierarchical architectures involving carbon nanotube arrays and passive electronic components are demonstrated by releasing the functional structures deposited and patterned in 2D. These examples highlight the uniqueness of this platform that exploits 2D processing and self-assembly to achieve highly functional 3D structures.
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Engineering Gd-loaded nanoparticles to enhance MRI sensitivity via T(1) shortening.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of obtaining high-resolution anatomical images of the body. Major drawbacks of MRI are the low contrast agent sensitivity and inability to distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue, making early detection challenging. To address this technological hurdle, paramagnetic contrast agents have been developed to increase the longitudinal relaxivity, leading to an increased signal-to-noise ratio. This review focuses on methods and principles that enabled the design and engineering of nanoparticles to deliver contrast agents with enhanced ionic relaxivities. Different engineering strategies and nanoparticle platforms will be compared in terms of their manufacturability, biocompatibility properties, and their overall potential to make an impact in clinical MR imaging.
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Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone for patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM-003): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Few effective treatments exist for patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma not responding to treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide. Pomalidomide alone has shown limited efficacy in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma, but synergistic effects have been noted when combined with dexamethasone. We compared the efficacy and safety of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone with high-dose dexamethasone alone in these patients.
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Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388mg/L) and TP (3.16mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis.
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Patterned defect structures predicted for graphene are observed on single-layer silica films.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Topological defects in two-dimensional materials such as graphene are considered as a tool for tailoring their physical properties. Here, we studied defect structures on a single-layer silica (silicatene) supported on Ru(0001) using a low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed easy formation of periodic defect structures, which were previously predicted for graphene on a theoretical ground, yet experimentally unrealized. The structural similarities between single-layer materials (graphene, silicene, silicatene) open a new playground for deeper understanding and tailoring structural, electronic, and chemical properties of the truly two-dimensional systems.
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An ecologically valid performance-based social functioning assessment battery for schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Psychiatrists pay more attention to the social functioning outcome of schizophrenia nowadays. How to evaluate the real world function among schizophrenia is a challenging task due to culture difference, there is no such kind of instrument in terms of the Chinese setting. This study aimed to report the validation of an ecologically valid performance-based everyday functioning assessment for schizophrenia, namely the Beijing Performance-based Functional Ecological Test (BJ-PERFECT). Fifty community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Fifteen of the healthy controls were re-tested one week later. All participants were administered the University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The finalized assessment included three subdomains: transportation, financial management and work ability. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were good. The total score significantly correlated with the UPSA-B. The performance of individuals with schizophrenia was significantly more impaired than healthy controls, especially in the domain of work ability. Among individuals with schizophrenia, functional outcome was influenced by premorbid functioning, negative symptoms and neurocognition such as processing speed, visual learning and attention/vigilance.
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MiRNA-365 and miRNA-520c-3p respond to risperidone treatment in first-episode schizophrenia after a 1 year remission.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by destabilizing target transcripts and inhibiting their translation. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been described in many human diseases, including schizophrenia. However, the effects on miRNA expression in response to antipsychotic treatment in peripheral circulation have not been thoroughly examined.
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Pilot Study of Angiogenic Response to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization with Resin Microspheres.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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To investigate the impact of radioembolization with yttrium-90 resin microspheres on the regulation of angiogenesis through observation of serial changes in a spectrum of angiogenic markers and other cytokines after therapy.
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Overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase promotes the motility and invasiveness of HepG2 cells in vitro.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Recent studies have indicated that telomerase activity promotes cancer invasion and metastasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Several studies have shown that expression of exogenous human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) can promote motility and invasiveness among telomerase-negative tumor cells, and inhibition of endogenous telomerase activity can reduce invasiveness in tumor cells. However, whether overexpression of hTERT can further enhance the motility and invasiveness of telomerase?positive tumor cells has yet to be determined. In the present study, we showed that stable overexpression of hTERT can increase telomerase activity and telomere length, which significantly promotes the invasive and metastatic potential of telomerase?positive HepG2 cells but does not affect cell proliferation. Further analysis suggested that enhanced invasiveness and metastasis may act through corresponding upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and Ras homolog gene family member C (RhoC). Our study indicated that exogenous expression of hTERT may promote invasiveness and metastasis through upregulation of MMP9 and RhoC.
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Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus in drinking water after treatment with UV irradiation followed by chlorination.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The disinfection process for inactivating microorganisms at drinking water treatment plants is aimed for safety of drinking water for humans from a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi by using chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation, etc. In the present study, a combination of two disinfectants, UV irradiation followed by chlorination, was evaluated for inactivating Aspergillus flavus under low contact time and low dosage of UV irradiation. The results indicated an inverse correlation between the inactivation of A. flavus by using UV irradiation only or chlorination alone. By using UV radiation, the 2 log10 control of A. flavus was achieved after 30 s of irradiation, while chlorination was observed to be more effective than UV, where the 2 log was achieved at chlorine concentration of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l, in contact time of 60, 5, 1 and 1 min, respectively. However, combined use (UV irradiation followed by chlorination) was more effective than using either UV or chlorination alone; 5 s UV irradiation followed by chlorination produced 4 log10 reduction of A. flavus at chlorine concentrations of 2 and 3 mg/l under a contact time of 15 min. The results indicated that efficiency of UV irradiation improves when followed by chlorination at low concentrations.
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A combined DTI and structural MRI study in medicated-naïve chronic schizophrenia.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Disconnection in white matter (WM) pathway and alterations in gray matter (GM) structure have been hypothesized as pathogenesis in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between the abnormal WM integrity and the alteration of GM in anatomically connected areas remains uncertain. Moreover, the potential influence of antipsychotic medication on WM anisotropy and cortical morphology was not excluded in previous studies. In this study, a total number of 34 subjects were enrolled, including 17 medicated-naïve chronic schizophrenia patients and 17 healthy controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to investigate the level of WM integrity. The FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine GM volume, cortical thickness and the surface area of GM regions which corresponded to abnormal WM fiber tracts. We observed that patients possessed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), along with smaller GM volume and cortical thinning in temporal lobe than the healthy controls, which reflected the underlying WM and GM disruption that contributed to the disease. In the patient population, the lower connectivity of ILF and IFOF was positively associated with cortical thickness in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus in males, and positively correlated with GM volume in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex in females. On the other hand, it was negatively correlated with cortical area of middle temporal gyrus in males and temporal pole in females respectively, but not when genders were combined. These findings suggested that abnormal WM integrity and anatomical correspondence of GM alterations in schizophrenia were interdependent on gender-separated analysis in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, combining TBSS and FreeSurfer might be a useful method to provide significant insight into interacting processes related to WM fiber tracts and GM changes in schizophrenia.
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Deciphering laminar-specific neural inputs with line-scanning fMRI.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Using a line-scanning method during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we obtained high temporal (50-ms) and spatial (50-?m) resolution information along the cortical thickness and showed that the laminar position of fMRI onset coincides with distinct neural inputs in rat somatosensory and motor cortices. This laminar-specific fMRI onset allowed us to identify the neural inputs underlying ipsilateral fMRI activation in the barrel cortex due to peripheral denervation-induced plasticity.
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Characteristics of Wenchuan earthquake victims who remained in a government-supported transitional community.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The Chinese government and provincial authorities built a large number of temporary communities to shelter survivors after the May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Most residents left within a few months but others remained. This study describes the characteristics and psychological status of those victims who remained in a government-supported transitional community 12 months post-earthquake compared to residents who departed prior to that time.
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Characterization, DBPs formation, and mutagenicity of different organic matter fractions in two source waters.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Dissolved organic matters (DOM) are critical in the formation of the mutagenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, five DOM fractions were isolated and investigated from a contaminated river and a clean reservoir source waters using resin adsorption. The DOM fractions were characterized with excitation-emission matrix, and several typical DBPs formation potentials and the mutagenicity of each DOM fraction were measured. Among these fractions, hydrophobic neutrals (HON), hydrophilic acids (HIA) and hydrophilic bases (HIB) generated the highest carbon-containing DBPs in the river source water, as did HIB and hydrophobic bases (HOB) in reservoir water. Hydrophobic acids (HOA), HON, and HIA were the three most important fractions forming nitrogen-containing DBPs. Following chlorination, the mutagenicity of HON, HIA, HOA and HIB was 1503, 626, 422 and 116ng 4-NQO/mg DOC in river water, respectively. Only HIA and HOA were mutagenic with 85 and 10ng 4-NQO/mg DOC in reservoir water, respectively. The soluble microbial products like substances and aromatic proteins contributed significantly to the mutagenicity of river water; whereas the humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances were the primary contributors to the mutagenicity of reservoir water.
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