JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Psychometric Properties of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire among Chinese High School Students.
Omega (Westport)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test the psychometric properties of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) among Chinese high school students.
Related JoVE Video
Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole with Chalcones Catalyzed by a Dinuclear Zinc Catalyst.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of pyrrole with a wide range of simple nonchelating chalcone derivatives catalyzed by a chiral (Zn2EtL)n (L = (S,S)-1) complex has been developed. The catalyst (Zn2EtL)n complex was prepared in situ by reacting the chiral ligand (S,S)-1 with two equivalents of diethylzinc. A series of beta-pyrrole-substituted dihydrochalcones were usually formed mostly in excellent yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivity [up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee)] by using 15 mol % catalyst loading under mild conditions. The absolute stereochemistry of the products was determined to be of the S-configuration by X-ray crystallographic analysis of 13g. Meanwhile, a weak negative nonlinear effect was observed. On the basis of the experimental results and previous reports, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction.
Related JoVE Video
Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) in Critically Ill Patients in China.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In March 2013, human infection with a novel avian-origin reassortment influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in China. A total of 26 cases were confirmed and treated in Jiangsu. All the patients had findings consistent with pneumonia and were admitted to an ICU, which pose a threat to human health. We aimed to provide the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of the critically ill patients with H7N9 viral infection.
Related JoVE Video
Antibacterial Adhesion of Borneol-Based Polymer via Surface Chiral Stereochemistry.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During its adhesion on external surfaces, a cell exhibits obvious inclination to different molecular chirality, which encourages us to develop a new type of antibacterial material catering to the "chiral taste" of bacteria. On the basis of the natural product borneol (a camphane-type bicyclic monoterpene), a series of borneol-based polymer, polyborneolacrylate (PBA), was successfully prepared and showed superior antibacterial adhesion properties resulting from the borneol isomers on material surface. The results of this study reveal that bacteria simply dislike this type of stubborn surface of PBA, and the PBA surface stereochemistry contributes to the interfacial antibacterial activities. The PBA polymers were evaluated as noncytotoxic and can be simply synthesized, demonstrating their great potential for biomedical applications.
Related JoVE Video
The role of p38 MAPK in acute paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Context: Paraquat (PQ; 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) is highly toxic and accounts for a large proportion of the herbicide poisonings seen in clinic. The major cause of mortality is respiratory failure. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway coordinates various cellular stress responses that have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of PQ-induced lung injury. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on PQ-induced lung injury and cytokine secretion. Methods: In groups of 24, rats were treated with PQ, PQ and SB203580 (SB?+?PQ), SB203580 alone (SB) or normal saline (control group). Six rats from each group were euthanized at 1, 3, 5 or 7?d. Pathology of lung specimens was scored through hematoxylin and eosin staining. Edema in the lung was quantified from wet-to-dry weight ratios. p38 and p-p38MAPK proteins were measured via electrochemiluminescent Western blots. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) concentrations in lung specimens and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mortality rate of the SB?+?PQ group (16.7%) was significantly lower than that of the PQ group (33.3%; p?
Related JoVE Video
Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A star polymer, ?-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (?-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (?-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between ?-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation.
Related JoVE Video
Direct activation of RIP3/MLKL-dependent necrosis by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP6 triggers host antiviral defense.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3) and its downstream substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) have emerged as the key cellular components in programmed necrotic cell death. Receptors for the cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4 are able to activate RIP3 through receptor-interacting kinase-1 and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-?, respectively. This form of cell death has been implicated in the host-defense system. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive the activation of RIP3 by a variety of pathogens, other than the above-mentioned receptors, are largely unknown. Here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers RIP3-dependent necrosis. This process requires MLKL but is independent of TNF receptor, TLR3, cylindromatosis, and host RIP homotypic interaction motif-containing protein DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor. After HSV-1 infection, the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (ICP6) interacts with RIP3. The formation of the ICP6-RIP3 complex requires the RHIM domains of both proteins. An HSV-1 ICP6 deletion mutant failed to cause effective necrosis of HSV-1-infected cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ICP6, but not RHIM mutant ICP6, directly activated RIP3/MLKL-mediated necrosis. Mice lacking RIP3 exhibited severely impaired control of HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis. Therefore, this study reveals a previously uncharacterized host antipathogen mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on relations between transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and pungent property of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The five-flavor theory of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and the flavor efficacy generation mechanism has long been focuses and difficulties in studies on traditional Chinese medicinal properties. In this paper, by using the pharmacophore-based virtual screening technique, the authors discussed the relations between the pungent property and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by studying the TCM components' role in regulating TRPV1 ion channel. The results showed that the matching relationship between TRPV1 agonist pharmacophore model and TCM chemical components could identify the active ingredients from pungent herbs. Therefore, the authors proposed that TRPV1 is one of the potential targets for efficient pungent herbs. The pungent property of TCMs is decided by its chemical components, and consistent with the inherited and additive characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
[Protein interaction network analysis of Panax notoginseng saponins].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Panax notoginseng (PN) is one of the commonly used clinical medicines for cardiovascular diseases and possesses a variety of pharmacological effects. P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the most important bioactive components in PN. The purpose of this study was to explain the mechanism of PNS on molecular network level. 18 targets of the main medicinal ingredients of PNS were gained by virtual screening based on pharmacophores and data mining. A protein interaction network of PNS was constructed with 189 nodes and 721 interactions. By a graph theoretic clustering algorithm Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE), 14 modules were detected. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the modules demonstrated that the roles of PNS played in cardiovascular disease related to multiple biological processes, which could represent the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a whole to regulate the disease. The results showed that the blood circulation and hemostasis efficacy of PN related with the biological processes such as positive regulation of cAMP metabolic and biosynthetic process, platelet activation and regulation of blood vessel size, regulation of T cell proliferation and differentiation and so on. Therefore, the module-based network analysis will be an effective method for better understanding TCM.
Related JoVE Video
Velopharyngeal Configuration Changes Following Le Fort I Osteotomy With Maxillary Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate: A Cephalometric Study.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective :? To describe the morphological changes of velopharyngeal components in patients with cleft lip and palate after Le Fort I osteotomy with maxillary advancement and to clarify whether the velopharyngeal morphological changes are related to the distance of maxillary advancement. Design :? Retrospective case series. Setting :? Hospital and Stomatology Unit of Peking University, Beijing, China. Patients :? A total of 47 patients with maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Interventions :? Le Fort I osteotomy combined with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy and/or genioplasty for treatment of maxillofacial deformity. Main Outcome Measures :? The lateral cephalometric radiographs with velum at rest (n = 47) and during phonation of /i/ (n = 17) were undertaken preoperatively (T1), 1 week postoperatively (T2), and at least 6 months postoperatively (T3). Some measure indices of velopharyngeal configuration were collected and analyzed. Results :? The average maxillary advancement distance was 4.08 ± 1.58 mm. The velar length, velar angle, and nasopharyngeal depth increased, but velar thickness decreased. The motion of the soft palate had no significant change, but the motion of the posterior pharyngeal wall and the Passavant's ridge increased significantly. No significant linear correlation was found between maxillary advancement distance and velopharyngeal configuration changes. Conclusion :? Correction of maxillary hypoplasia by Le Fort I osteotomy with maxillary advancement increases the velopharyngeal cavity depth, which may impair velopharyngeal competence. The compensatory effects of the velopharyngeal soft tissue and posterior pharyngeal wall may alleviate this impairment to a certain extent.
Related JoVE Video
Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit H2O2-induced osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis via ameliorating H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress represents a major cause of cellular damage and death in pathological conditions including osteoporosis, in which oxidative stress is associated with increased bone resorption and low bone mass. And grape seed proanthocyanidins are a group of polyphenolic bioflavonoids which are known to possess broad pharmacological activity and therapeutic potential, exerting a protective role against oxidant injury. The aim of our study was to investigate whether proanthocyanidins exert an anti-apoptosis effect in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, via their antioxidant activity. Firstly, we determined the anti-apoptosis effect of proanthocyanidins in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, which were subject to H2O2 treatment, then we determined the association of the antioxidant activity exerted by proanthocyanidins with their anti-apoptosis effect. Results demonstrated that proanthocyanidins inhibit H2O2-promoted apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, via ameliorating the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells post H2O2 treatment and reducing the apoptotic cell numbers. And the proanthocyanidins treatment also ameliorates the H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via promoting the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and respiratory chain complex IV, and reducing the mitochondrial free radical production, ROS and mitochondrial superoxide. Moreover, the proanthocyanidins inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis signaling which is mediated by p53. This study implied a possible anti-osteoporosis effect of proanthocyanidins via their antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity.
Related JoVE Video
Immunization with advanced glycation end products modified low density lipoprotein inhibits atherosclerosis progression in diabetic apoE and LDLR null mice.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundDiabetes propitiates atherosclerosis through undefined molecular mechanisms. Hyperglycemia induces formation of advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Anti-AGE-LDL autoantibodies favor atherosclerosis (AS) progression in humans, while anti oxidized LDL immunization inhibits AS in hypercholesterolemic, non-diabetic mice. We here investigated if AGE-LDL immunization protects against AS in diabetic mice.MethodsAfter diabetes induction with streptozotocin and high fat diet, both low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)¿/¿ and apoE female mice were randomized to: AGE-LDL immunization with aluminum hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant; Alum alone; or PBS.ResultsAGE-LDL immunization: significantly reduced AS; induced specific plasma IgM and IgG antibodies; upregulated splenic Th2, Treg and IL-10 levels, without altering Th1 or Th17 cells; and increased serum high density lipoprotein(HDL) while numerically lowering HbA1c levels.ConclusionsSubcutaneous immunization with AGE-LDL significantly inhibits atherosclerosis progression in hyperlipidemic diabetic mice possibly through activation of specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses and metabolic control improvement.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of chronic continual- and intermittent hypoxia-induced systemic inflammation on the cardiovascular system in rats.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Present study aimed to investigate the role of NF-?B-dependent inflammation pathways in pathophysiological responses of cardiovascular system in OSAS.
Related JoVE Video
[Genetic algorithm based multi-objective least square support vector machine for simultaneous determination of multiple components by near infrared spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The near infrared (NIR) spectrum contains a global signature of composition, and enables to predict different proper ties of the material. In the present paper, a genetic algorithm and an adaptive modeling technique were applied to build a multiobjective least square support vector machine (MLS-SVM), which was intended to simultaneously determine the concentrations of multiple components by NIR spectroscopy. Both the benchmark corn dataset and self-made Forsythia suspense dataset were used to test the proposed approach. Results show that a genetic algorithm combined with adaptive modeling allows to efficiently search the LS-SVM hyperparameter space. For the corn data, the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was significantly better than models built with PLS1 and PLS2 algorithms. As for the Forsythia suspense data, the performance of multi-objective LS-SVM was equivalent to PLS1 and PLS2 models. In both datasets, the over-fitting phenomena were observed on RBFNN models. The single objective LS-SVM and MLS-SVM didn't show much difference, but the one-time modeling convenience al lows the potential application of MLS-SVM to multicomponent NIR analysis.
Related JoVE Video
[An expression analysis of miR-200a in serum and liver tissue during the process of liver cancer development in rats].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore whether microRNA-200a (miR-200a) could be used as a novel biomarker of liver cancer using a rat model system.
Related JoVE Video
The role of COX-2 in mediating the effect of PTEN on BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are multi-potent progenitor cells (MPCs), can differentiate into different lineages, such as osteogenic, and adipogenic. PTEN, a tumor suppressor, may be involved in regulating bone development through interacting with COX-2. BMP9, the most potent osteogenic BMPs, can up-regulate COX-2 in MPCs. Whether PTEN is involved in BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs remains unknown. The goal of this investigation is to identify the effect of PTEN on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs and dissect the possible mechanism underlay this. We found that BMP9 down-regulates PTEN, and PTEN inhibitor (VO) effectively increases different osteogenic markers induced by BMP9 in MEFs. Exogenous expression of PTEN inhibits BMP9 induced ectopic bone formation apparently. Mechanistically, we found that VO can enhance BMP9 induced BMPs/Smads signaling prominently without no substantial effects on cell cycle. Further analysis indicates that VO can promote BMP9-induced expression of COX-2 in MEFs, which can be eliminated by PI3K inhibitor. Additionally, COX-2 knockdown abolishes the effect of VO on BMP9-induced ALP activities in MEFs. Our findings suggest that PTEN plays an important role in regulating BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs, which may be mediated by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to modulate the expression of COX-2.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of WWOX is associated with poor prognosis in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after Curative Resection.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Down-regulation of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis in several neoplasms. This study sought to investigate the expression and role of WWOX in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) METHODS: WWOX expression was measured by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The role of WWOX in proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, gene expression regulation and tumorigenesis was assessed by WWOX re-expression using lentivirus. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was performed to evaluate the methylation status of the WWOX gene regulatory region. A DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), was used to activate the endogenous WWOX gene in ICC cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Human intracellular ISG15 prevents interferon-?/? over-amplification and auto-inflammation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intracellular ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-?/?-inducible ubiquitin-like modifier which can covalently bind other proteins in a process called ISGylation; it is an effector of IFN-?/?-dependent antiviral immunity in mice. We previously published a study describing humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency but without unusually severe viral diseases. We showed that these patients were prone to mycobacterial disease and that human ISG15 was non-redundant as an extracellular IFN-?-inducing molecule. We show here that ISG15-deficient patients also display unanticipated cellular, immunological and clinical signs of enhanced IFN-?/? immunity, reminiscent of the Mendelian autoinflammatory interferonopathies Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and spondyloenchondrodysplasia. We further show that an absence of intracellular ISG15 in the patients' cells prevents the accumulation of USP18, a potent negative regulator of IFN-?/? signalling, resulting in the enhancement and amplification of IFN-?/? responses. Human ISG15, therefore, is not only redundant for antiviral immunity, but is a key negative regulator of IFN-?/? immunity. In humans, intracellular ISG15 is IFN-?/?-inducible not to serve as a substrate for ISGylation-dependent antiviral immunity, but to ensure USP18-dependent regulation of IFN-?/? and prevention of IFN-?/?-dependent autoinflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Inferior mesenteric vein serves as an alternative guide for transection of the pancreatic body during pancreaticoduodenectomy with concomitant vascular resection: a comparative study evaluating perioperative outcomes.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumors of the pancreatic head often involve the superior mesenteric and portal veins. The purpose of this study was to assess perioperative outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with concomitant vascular resection using the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) as a guide for transection of the pancreatic body (Whipple at IMV, WATIMV).
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydroxycinnamic acid hydrazide derivatives as inducer of caspase-3.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to generate compounds with superior antitumor activity and reduced toxicity, twelve new hydroxycinnamic acid hydrazide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against two cancer cell lines (H1299 lung carcinoma cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells), and compared to two normal counterparts (NL-20 lung epithelial cells and H184B5F5/M10 breast cells) by MTT method. The results demonstrated that some of these compounds possessed good antiproliferative activity against the two cancer cell lines. Among them, compound 2c was active against the growth of H1299 lung carcinoma cells with IC50 values of 1.50 ?M, which was more active than the positive topotecan (IC50 = 4.18 ?M). Simultaneously, it showed lower cytotoxic effects on normal NL-20 lung epithelial cells (IC50 > 10 ?M). Mechanism studies indicated that it induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase followed by activation of caspase-3, and consequently caused the cell death. Further studies on the structure optimization are ongoing.
Related JoVE Video
Continuous versus interrupted suture techniques of pancreaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has traditionally been a source of significant morbidity and potential mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Both patient-derived and technical factors contribute to pancreatic anastomotic failure. The continuous suture duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) described previously is associated with a low rate of POPF. The aim of the present study was to observe whether the new technique would effectively reduce the POPF rate in comparison with conventional interrupted suture duct-to-mucosa PJ.
Related JoVE Video
Hairpin DNA-assisted silicon/silver-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing platform for ultrahighly sensitive and specific discrimination of deafness mutations in a real system.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is well-recognized as a powerful analytical tool for ultrahighly sensitive detection of analytes. In this article, we present a kind of silicon-based SERS sensing platform made of a hairpin DNA-modified silver nanoparticles decorated silicon wafer (AgNPs@Si). In particular, the AgNPs@Si with a high enhancement factor (EF) value of ~4.5 × 10(7) is first achieved under optimum reaction conditions (i.e., pH = 12, reaction time = 20 min) based on systematic investigation. Such resultant AgNPs@Si is then employed for construction of a silicon-based SERS sensing platform through surface modification of hairpin DNA, which is superbly suitable for highly reproducible, multiplexed, and ultrasensitive DNA detection. A detection limit of 1 fM is readily achieved in a very reproducible manner along with high specificity. Most significantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that the silicon-based SERS platform is highly efficacious for discriminating deafness-causing mutations in a real system at the femtomolar level (500 fM), which is about 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than that (~5 nM) ever reported by conventional detection methods. Our results raise the exciting potential of practical SERS applications in biology and biomedicine.
Related JoVE Video
DUSP28 contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the p38 MAPK signaling.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DUSP28, a member of the atypical dual?specificity phosphatase (DUSP) family, is a candidate tumor?related gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selected by genome?wide approach, but its pathological role in HCC has not been elucidated. Here, we report for the first time that DUSP28 is involved in HCC progression. Quantitative real?time PCR and semi?quantitative RT?PCR showed notably elevated expression of DUSP28 in HCC specimens compared to that in corresponding adjacent non?tumor liver. DUSP28 overexpression promoted HCC cell proliferation, colony formation and soft agar colony formation in vitro while DUSP28 knockdown resulted in the opposite effects. Furthermore, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that DUSP28 could lead to an increased population of cancer cells in S phase, with a concomitant decrease of cells in G1 phase. Investigation of the mechanism revealed that DUSP28 could activate the p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DUSP28 plays a significant role in HCC progression and may be a feasible molecular target for anti?cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[The study of catheterization to measure ventricular pressure in mice through venous cannula in external jugular vein].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study a feasible method of measuring right ventricular pressure by catheterization in mice.
Related JoVE Video
One-pot synthesis of diarylmethanones through palladium-catalyzed sequential coupling and aerobic oxidation of aryl bromides with acetophenone as a latent carbonyl donor.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A one-pot palladium-catalyzed synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical diarylmethanones using acetophenone and aryl bromides as raw materials has been developed. In this reaction, acetophenone acts as a latent carbonyl donor and two pathways of palladium-catalyzed sequential coupling and aerobic oxidation are identified. The reaction is applicable to a spectrum of substrates and delivers the products in moderate to good yields. This method can be used for the synthesis of ketoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in a two-step procedure and 45% overall yield.
Related JoVE Video
Oncogenic herpesvirus KSHV Hijacks BMP-Smad1-Id signaling to promote tumorigenesis.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Whether KS is a true neoplasm or hyperplasia has been a subject of intensive debate until recently when KSHV is unequivocally shown to efficiently infect, immortalize and transform rat primary mesenchymal precursor cells (MM). Moreover, KSHV-transformed MM cells (KMM) efficiently induce tumors with hallmark features of KS when inoculated into nude mice. Here, we showed Smad1 as a novel binding protein of KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA interacted with and sustained BMP-activated p-Smad1 in the nucleus and enhanced its loading on the Id promoters. As a result, Ids were significantly up-regulated in KMM cells and abundantly expressed in human KS lesions. Strikingly, genetic and chemical inhibition of the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway blocked the oncogenic phenotype of KSHV-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus hijacks and converts a developmental pathway into an indispensable oncogenic pathway for tumorigenesis. Importantly, our results demonstrate the efficacy of targeting the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway for inhibiting the growth of KSHV-induced tumors, and therefore identify the BMP pathway as a promising therapeutic target for KS.
Related JoVE Video
Cycloastragenol, a triterpene aglycone derived from Radix astragali, suppresses the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cycloastragenol (CAG), a bioactive triterpenoid sapogenin isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Radix astragali, was reported to promote the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). Here we investigated the effect of CAG on adipogenesis. The image-based Nile red staining analyses revealed that CAG dose dependently reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the IC50 value of 13.0 ?M. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity assay provided evidence that CAG was free of injury on HepG2 cells up to 60 ?M. In addition, using calcium mobilization assay, we observed that CAG stimulated calcium influx in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with a dose dependent trend, the EC50 value was determined as 21.9 ?M. There were proofs that elevated intracellular calcium played a vital role in suppressing adipocyte differentiation. The current findings demonstrated that CAG was a potential therapeutic candidate for alleviating obesity and hyperlipidemia.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial DNA mutation screening of male patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to analyze the differences between the genes of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) region and the Cambridge Reference sequence, in order to screen the mutation sites and investigate the correlation between mutations, clinical parameters and complications associated with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). mtDNA was obtained from male patients with OSAHS in the Zhejiang Province. In total, 60 male patients with OSAHS and 102 healthy adults were assessed to determine the levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Furthermore, peripheral mtDNA was extracted and bidirectional sequencing was conducted to enable mutation screening. In the mtDNA D-loop region, 178 mutation sites were identified, of which 115 sites were present in the two groups. The number of non-common sites in the OSAHS group was significantly higher compared with the control group (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the mutations among the mild, moderate and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). A total of 21 cases in the severe OSAHS group exhibited mutation rates of >10%. In the control group, there were 24 cases where the np73A-G and np263A-G mutations were predominant. The np303-np315 region was identified to be the highly variable region and various mutation forms were observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the neck perimeter, TG and LDL levels among the OSAHS-no-mutation subgroups (P<0.05) and LDL was shown to be associated with an mtDNA mutation in the OSAHS group. Numerous polymorphic mutation sites were identified in the mtDNA D-loop region of the OSAHS group. Therefore, mtDNA mutation sites may be closely associated with the clinical manifestations and complications of OSAHS.
Related JoVE Video
Transcription-Independent Functions of an RNA Polymerase II Subunit, Rpb2, During Genome Rearrangement in the Ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The RNA polymerase II (Pol-II) holoenzyme, responsible for messenger RNA production, typically consists of 10-12 subunits. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that maternally deposited, long, noncoding, template RNAs are essential for programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Here we show that such RNAs are bidirectionally transcribed and transported to the zygotic nucleus. The gene encoding the second-largest subunit of Pol-II, Rpb2, has undergone gene duplication, and the two paralogs, Rpb2-a and -b, display different expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation of double-stranded RNAs identified an association with Rpb2-a. Through immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we show that Rpb2-a in early zygotes appears surprisingly unassociated with other Pol II subunits. A partial loss of function of Rpb2-a leads to an increase in expression of transposons and other germline-limited satellite repeats. We propose that evolutionary divergence of the Rpb2 paralogs has led to acquisition of transcription-independent functions during sexual reproduction that may contribute to the negative regulation of germline gene expression.
Related JoVE Video
POSS dendrimers constructed from a 1 ? 7 branching monomer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we demonstrate the first known approach to create G1 and G2 POSS dendrimers with 9 and 65 POSS units, and 56 and 392 terminal vinyl groups from a 1 ? 7 branching monomer in only one and three steps.
Related JoVE Video
Common and uncommon applications of bowel ultrasound with pathologic correlation in children.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this article is to describe the indications and techniques for bowel ultrasound for inflammatory bowel disease and other common and uncommon entities and describe and illustrate their imaging appearances, including endoscopic or surgical correlation.
Related JoVE Video
Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the parotid gland in a child: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a term used to describe a group of highly malignant neoplasms of soft-tissue origin, with varying degrees of divergent differentiation. The occurrence of peripheral PNET in the head and neck region has been reported infrequently in the medical literature. This disease generally occurs in adolescents and young adults, and rarely occurs in children <3 years old. The current study presents an extremely rare case of pPNET of the parotid gland in a 2-year-old male, which had been previously misdiagnosed and treated as a mumps. The lesion showed the characteristic histological features of pleomorphic cellular infiltrate with hyperchromatic small cells scattered in the fibrovascular stroma, interposed by fibrous septa and Homer-Wright rosettes. Positive immunohistochemical staining for CD99 and vimentin was detected. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy following surgical removal, and has been under close observation since the treatment (approximately seven months), with no signs of recurrence. The clinical history and radiological and histopathological findings are presented, together with the immunoreactivity of this tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays critical role in brain damage after chronic intermittent hypoxia in growing rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children is associated with multiple system morbidities. Cognitive dysfunction as a result of central nervous system complication has been reported in children with OSAHS. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related apoptosis plays an important role in various diseases of the central nervous system, but very little is known about the role of ERS in mediating pathophysiological reactions to cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) exposures, modeling OSAHS, across 2 and 4weeks in growing rats made more reference memory errors, working memory errors and total memory errors in the 8-Arm radial maze task, increased significantly TUNEL positive cells, upregulated the unfolded protein response in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme l and some downstream products. A selective inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor-2a dephosphorylation, salubrinal, prevented C/EBP-homologous protein activation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex throughout hypoxia/reoxygenation exposure. Our findings suggest that ERS mediated cell apoptosis may be one of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS children. Further, a specific ERS inhibitor Salubrinal should be tested for neuroprotection against CIH-induced injury.
Related JoVE Video
Study of liver cirrhosis over ten consecutive years in Southern China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the etiology and complications of liver cirrhosis (LC) in Southern China.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Xin-Ji-Er-Kang formula on 2K1C-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK), a Chinese herbal formula, is effective against hypertension induced coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis and toxic myocarditis. In this study, the effect of XJEK on cardiovascular system was investigated. To test the hypothesis that Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) has an anti-hypertensive effect mediated through attenuation of cardiac remodeling, and amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
Related JoVE Video
Subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte counts are related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome: Tianjin chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and health cohort study.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100-3,900 cells/mm(3)) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57-2.49) and 1.50 (1.22-1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 on the proliferation and differentiation of human oral cancer cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) is an antizyme targeting ornithine decarboxylase for degradation, subsequently inhibiting polyamine production to prevent cell proliferation. OAZ1 is also involved in other major cellular events, including differentiation and apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that OAZ1 has tumor suppressor activities and its effects on cell proliferation and differentiation have been reported in several cancer cell lines. To explore the role of OAZ1 in human oral cancer, the effects of OAZ1 were studied on the proliferation and differentiation of human malignant oral cancer cell line, SCC15. MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that stable OAZ1 expression in SCC15 significantly inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.001) and induced G0/G1 arrest with the G1?phase cells increased from 55.83 to 65.26%. Morphological observation revealed the increased formation of epithelial islands. Further results from quantitative reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis proved the upregulation of several terminal differentiation marker genes (K10, FLG and LOR) in OAZ1?expressed SCC15 cells. To elucidate the possible mechanism of LOR upregulation by OAZ1, further experiments were performed and it was found that the OAZ1 expression inhibited Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) at the protein level and RNA interference of SNIP1 in SCC15 cells, which increased the expression of LOR. These results show that OAZ1 simultaneously inhibits the proliferation and induces the differentiation of oral cancer cells in humans. The effects on cellular differentiation depend partly on the degradation of SNIP1.
Related JoVE Video
Necroptosis mediates TNF-induced toxicity of hippocampal neurons.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a critical proinflammatory cytokine regulating neuroinflammation. Elevated levels of TNF-? have been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the signaling events that lead to TNF-?-initiated neurotoxicity are still unclear. Here, we report that RIP3-mediated necroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis, is activated in the mouse hippocampus after intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-?. RIP3 deficiency attenuates TNF-?-initiated loss of hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the molecular mechanism of TNF-?-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. HT-22 cells are sensitive to TNF-? only upon caspase blockage and subsequently undergo necrosis. The cell death is suppressed by knockdown of CYLD or RIP1 or RIP3 or MLKL, suggesting that this necrosis is necroptosis and mediated by CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL signaling pathway. TNF-?-induced necroptosis of HT-22 cells is largely independent of both ROS accumulation and calcium influx although these events have been shown to be critical for necroptosis in certain cell lines. Taken together, these data not only provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of RIP3 in TNF-?-induced toxicity of hippocampal neurons, but also demonstrate that TNF-? promotes CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis of hippocampal neurons largely bypassing ROS accumulation and calcium influx.
Related JoVE Video
Oridonin inhibits the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells by suppressing Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been reported that oridonin (ORI) can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cell lines. However, the exact mechanism for this function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the proliferation inhibitory effect of ORI on human osteosarcoma (OS) 143B cells and dissected the possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying this effect. We demonstrated that ORI can inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle in 143B cells. Using luciferase reporter assay, we found that the Wnt/?-catenin signaling was inhibited in 143B cells by ORI. Accordingly, the total protein levels and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin were reduced by ORI treatment. ORI increased glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) activity and upregulated Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) expression. We found that Dkk-1 overexpression or ?-catenin knockdown can potentiate the proliferation inhibitory effect of ORI in 143B cells, while ?-catenin overexpression attenuated this effect. Using the xenograft tumor model of human OS, we demonstrated that ORI effectively inhibited the growth of tumors. Histological examination showed that ORI inhibited cancer cell proliferation, decreased the expression of PNCA and ?-catenin. Our findings suggest that ORI can inhibit 143B OS cell proliferation by downregulating Wnt/?-catenin signal transduction, which may be mediated by upregulating the Dkk-1 expression and/or enhancing the function of GSK3?. Therefore, ORI can be potentially used as an effective adjuvant agent for the clinical management of OS.
Related JoVE Video
Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in male patients: report of 16 cases.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical characteristics, surgical strategies and prognosis of solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) of the pancreas in male patients.
Related JoVE Video
Betaine supplementation protects against high-fructose-induced renal injury in rats.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High fructose intake causes metabolic syndrome, being an increased risk of chronic kidney disease development in humans and animals. In this study, we examined the influence of betaine on high-fructose-induced renal damage involving renal inflammation, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. Betaine was found to improve high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome including hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rats with systemic inflammation. Betaine also showed a protection against renal dysfunction and tubular injury with its restoration of the increased glucose transporter 9 and renal-specific transporter in renal brush bolder membrane and the decreased organic anion transporter 1 and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporter 2 in the renal cortex in this model. These protective effects were relevant to the anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in renal tissue of high-fructose-fed rat, being more likely to suppress renal NOD-like receptor superfamily, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation than nuclear factor ?B activation. Subsequently, betaine with anti-inflammation ameliorated insulin signaling impairment by reducing the up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and lipid accumulation partly by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/palmityltransferase 1/carnitine/organic cation transporter 2 pathway in kidney of high-fructose-fed rats. These results indicate that the inflammatory inhibition plays a pivotal role in betaine's improvement of high-fructose-induced renal injury with insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Reprint of "induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats".
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on vascular dysfunction in high fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats.
Related JoVE Video
Identifying network public opinion leaders based on Markov Logic Networks.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Benefical Therapeutic Effect of Chinese Herbal Xinji'erkang Formula on Hypertension-Induced Renal Injury in the 2-Kidney-1-Clip Hypertensive Rats.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increase in evidence shows that the role of kidney injury in hypertension is important. Xinji'erkang (XJEK), a Chinese herbal formula, has been identified as an effective preparation in the treatment of coronary heart disease and myocarditis. We have previously demonstrated that XJEK attenuate oxidative stress and hypertension target organ damage. The aim of this study was to assess the renal protective function of XJEK.
Related JoVE Video
25-hydroxyvitamin d3-deficiency enhances oxidative stress and corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in exacerbation of asthma. The role of vitamin D in oxidative stress and asthma exacerbation remains unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and oxidative stress in asthma exacerbation. Severe asthma exacerbation patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency (V-D deficiency) or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-sufficiency (V-D sufficiency) were enrolled. Severe asthma exacerbation with V-D-deficiency showed lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) compared to that with V-D-sufficiency. V-D-deficiency intensified ROS release and DNA damage and increased TNF-?, OGG1 and NF?B expression and NF?B phosphorylation in severe asthma exacerbation. Supplemental vitamin D3 significantly increased the rates of FEV1 change and decreased ROS and DNA damage in V-D-deficiency. Vitamin D3 inhibited LPS-induced ROS and DNA damage and were associated with a decline in TNF-? and NF?B in epithelial cells. H2O2 reduces nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines. V-D pretreatment enhanced the dexamethasone-induced nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines and monocytes from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency asthma patients. These findings indicate that V-D deficiency aggravates oxidative stress and DNA damage, suggesting a possible mechanism for corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic effect of vagus nerve stimulation on depressive-like behavior, hyperglycemia and insulin receptor expression in zucker Fatty rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are common comorbid diseases and highly prevalent in the clinical setting with an unclarified mechanism. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats natively develop T2D with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Here we studied whether ZDF rats also innately develop depression, what a correlation is between depression and T2D, whether insulin receptor (IR) expression is involved in, and whether transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) would be beneficial in amelioration of the comorbidity. Six week old male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were randomly divided into naïve (ZDF, n?=?6; ZL, n?=?7) and taVNS (ZDF-taVNS, n?=?8; ZL-taVNS, n?=?6) groups. Once daily 30 min-taVNS sessions were administrated under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in taVNS groups. Blood glucose levels were tested weekly, and plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) level and immobility time in forced swimming test were determined on day 35 in all groups. The expression of insulin receptor (IR) in various tissues was also detected by immunostaining and Western blot. We found that naïve ZDF rats developed hyperglycemia steadily. These ZDF rats showed a strong positive correlation between longer immobility time and higher plasma HbAlC level. Long term taVNS treatment simultaneously prevented the development of depression-like behavior and progression of hyperglycemia in ZDF rats. The expression of IR in various tissues of naïve ZDF rats is lower than in naïve ZL and long-term taVNS treated ZDF rats. Collectively, our results indicate that in ZDF rats, i) depression and T2D develop simultaneously, ii) immobility time and HbAlc concentrations are highly and positively correlated, iii) a low expression of IR may be involved in the comorbidity of depression and T2D, and iv) taVNS is antidiabetic and antidepressive possibly through IR expression upregulation.
Related JoVE Video
Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation triggers melatonin secretion and is antidepressive in zucker diabetic Fatty rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Decreased circulating melatonin is implicated in depression. We recently found that Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF, fa/fa) develop depression-like behaviors and that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is antidepressive in ZDF rats. Here we studied whether the ZDF rats could be used as a depression rodent model and whether the antidepressive effect of taVNS is mediated through modulation of melatonin secretion. Adult male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were used. 30 min-taVNS procedures (2/15 Hz, 2 mA) were administered once daily under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in pineal intact ZDF (n?=?8) and ZL (n?=?6) rats, as well as in pinealectomized ZDF rats (n?=?8). Forced swimming test (FST) was used to determine depression-like behavior and ELISA to detect plasma melatonin concentration on day 35. We found that naïve ZDF rats had a longer immobility time in FST and that long-term (34 days) taVNS treatment ameliorated the depression-like behavior. In both pineal intact and pinealectomized ZDF rats, taVNS induced acute melatonin secretion, both during and after the taVNS session. A low melatonin level is related to the poor FST performance in ZDF rats (R?=?-0.544) in contrast to ZL rats (R?=?0.247). In conclusion, our results show that ZDF rats are ideal candidates of innate depression and that taVNS is antidepressive through triggering melatonin secretion and increasing its production.
Related JoVE Video
Altered inter-subregion connectivity of the default mode network in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a functional and structural connectivity study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the interactions between the default mode network (DMN) subregions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to examine alterations of long white matter tracts in paired DMN subregions and their functional connectivity in RRMS patients.
Related JoVE Video
A minimalist synthetic host with stacked guanidinium ions mimics the weakened hydration shells of protein-protein interaction interfaces.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein surfaces are complex solutes, and protein-protein interactions are specifically mediated by surface motifs that modulate solvation shells in complex and poorly understood ways. We report herein a supramolecular host that is designed to mimic one of the most important recognition motifs that drives protein-protein interactions - the stacked arginine side chain. We show that it binds its guests and displays good selectivity in the highly competitive medium of pure, buffered water. We use a combination of experimental studies of binding and molecular dynamics simulations to build a cohesive picture of how this biomimetic host achieves the feat. The presence of the stacking element next to the guanidinium groups causes a decrease in number of host-water hydrogen bonds, a decrease in the density of water around the host, and a decrease in water-water hydrogen bonds near the host. Experimental data using mixed organic/aqueous solvent systems confirm that this host relies on the hydrophobic effect in a way that the two control hosts do not. Our simulations and analysis provide detailed information on the linkage between (de)hydration and binding events in water in a way that could be applied to many aqueous supramolecular systems.
Related JoVE Video
Betaine Reduces Serum Uric Acid Levels and Improves Kidney Function in Hyperuricemic Mice.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Betaine as a dietary alkaloid has attracted the attention of patients with kidney diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of betaine on serum uric acid levels and kidney function, and explore their underlying mechanisms in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Betaine at 5, 10, 20, and 40?mg/kg was orally administered to hyperuricemic mice for 7 days and found to significantly reduce serum uric acid levels and increase fractional excretion of uric acid in hyperuricemic mice in a dose-dependent manner. It effectively restored renal protein level alterations of urate transport-related molecular proteins urate transporter 1, glucose transporter 9, organic anion transporter 1, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 in this model, possibly resulting in the enhancement of kidney urate excretion. Moreover, betaine reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and affected urinary levels of beta-2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase as well as upregulated renal protein levels of organic cation/carnitine transporters OCT1, OCTN1, and OCTN2, resulting in kidney function improvement in hyperuricemic mice. The findings from this study provide evidence that betaine has anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective actions by regulating protein levels of these renal organic ion transporters in hyperuricemic mice.
Related JoVE Video
Bioreducible POSS-Cored Star-Shaped Polycation for Efficient Gene Delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bioreducible star-shaped gene vector (POSS-(SS-PDMAEMA)8) with well-defined structure and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) from a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) macroinitiator. POSS-(SS-PDMAEMA)8 was composed of a biocompatible POSS core and eight disulfide-linked PDMAEMA arms, wherein the PDMAEMA chain length could be adjusted by controlling polymerization time. POSS-(SS-PDMAEMA)8 can effectively bind pDNA into uniform nanocomplexes with appropriate particle size and zeta potential. The incorporation of disulfide bridges gave the POSS-(SS-PDMAEMA)8 material facile bioreducibility. In comparison with POSS-(PDMAEMA)8 without disulfide linkage, POSS-(SS-PDMAEMA)8 exhibited much lower cytotoxicity and substantially higher transfection efficiency. The present work would provide useful information for the design of new POSS-based drug/gene carriers.
Related JoVE Video
PML4 facilitates erythroid differentiation by enhancing the transcriptional activity of GATA-1.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) has been implicated as a participant in multiple cellular processes including senescence, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. Studies of PML function in hematopoietic differentiation have previously focused principally on its myeloid activities, and also indicated that PML is involved in erythroid colony formation. However, the exact role that PML plays in erythropoiesis is essentially unknown. In this report, we found that PML4, a specific PML isoform expressed in erythroid cells, promotes endogenous erythroid genes expression in K562 as well as in primary human erythroid cells. We show that the PML4 effect is GATA-1-dependent using GATA-1 knockout/rescued G1E/G1E-ER4 cells. PML4, but not other detected PML isoforms, directly interact with GATA-1 and can recruit it into PML nuclear bodies. Furthermore, PML4 facilitates GATA-1 trans-activation activity in an interaction-dependent manner. Finally, we present evidence that PML4 enhances GATA-1 occupancy within the globin gene cluster and stimulates cooperation between GATA-1 and its co-activator, p300. These results demonstrate that PML4 is an important regulator of GATA-1 and participates in erythroid differention by enhancing GATA-1 trans-activation activity.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical application of condylectomy via intraoral approach under computer assisted surgical navigation].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the application of computer assisted surgical navigation in condylectomy via intraoral approach and its clinical results.
Related JoVE Video
Cluster-root formation and carboxylate release in three Lupinus species as dependent on phosphorus supply, internal phosphorus concentration and relative growth rate.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some Lupinus species produce cluster roots in response to low plant phosphorus (P) status. The cause of variation in cluster-root formation among cluster-root-forming Lupinus species is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if cluster-root formation is, in part, dependent on different relative growth rates (RGRs) among Lupinus species when they show similar shoot P status.
Related JoVE Video
Morin reduces hepatic inflammation-associated lipid accumulation in high fructose-fed rats via inhibiting sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathway.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SphK1/S1P signaling pathway is involved in the development of hepatic inflammation and injury. But its role in high fructose-induced NAFLD has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crucial role of SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in high fructose-induced hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation in rats. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effects of morin, a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipedimic activities, on these hepatic changes in rats were investigated. High fructose-fed rats were orally treated with morin (30 and 60mg/kg) and pioglitazone (4mg/kg) for 8 weeks, respectively. Fructose feeding induced hyperlipidemia, and activated SphK1/S1P signaling pathway characterized by the elevation of SphK1 activity, S1P production as well as SphK1, S1PR1 and S1PR3 protein levels, which in turn caused NF-?B signaling activation to produce IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? and inflammation in the liver of rats. Subsequently, hepatic insulin and leptin signaling impairment and lipid metabolic disorder were observed in this animal model, resulting in liver lipid accumulation. Morin restored high fructose-induced the activation of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway in rats. Subsequently, the reduced NF-?B signaling activation by morin decreased inflammatory cytokine production, recovered insulin and leptin signaling impairment to reduce lipid accumulation and injury in the rat liver. These effects of morin were confirmed in Buffalo rat liver (BRL3A) cell model stimulated with 5mM fructose. Thus, the inhibition of hepatic SphK1/S1P signaling pathway may be a novel mechanism by which morin exerts hepatoprotection in high fructose-fed rats, possibly involving liver inflammation inhibition and lipid accumulation recovery.
Related JoVE Video
The alternative respiratory pathway mediates carboxylate synthesis in white lupin cluster roots under phosphorus deprivation.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plant adaptations associated with a high efficiency of phosphorus (P) acquisition can be used to increase productivity and sustainability in a world with a growing population and decreasing rock phosphate reserves. White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots that release carboxylates to efficiently mobilize P from P-sorbing soils. It has been hypothesized that an increase in the activity of the alternative oxidase (AOX) would allow for the mitochondrial oxidation of NAD(P)H produced during citrate synthesis in cluster roots at a developmental stage when there is a low demand for ATP. We used the oxygen-isotope fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) and the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) in different root sections of white lupins grown hydroponically with and without P. In parallel, AOX protein levels and internal carboxylate concentrations were determined in cluster and non-cluster roots. Higher in vivo AOP activity was measured in cluster roots when malate and citrate concentrations were also high, thus confirming our hypothesis. AOX protein levels were not always correlated with in vivo AOP activity, suggesting post-translational regulation of AOX.
Related JoVE Video
All-trans retinoic acid modulates bone morphogenic protein 9-induced osteogenesis and adipogenesis of preadipocytes through BMP/Smad and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is known that excessive adipogenesis contributes to osteoporosis, suggesting that trans-differentiation of adipogenic committed preadipocytes into osteoblasts may be a potential therapeutical approach for osteoporosis. We explored whether bone morphogenic protein 9 (BMP9) could induce 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to trans-differentiate into osteoblasts. BMP9 effectively increased expression of osteogenic markers and promoted mineralization in preadipocytes. However, BMP9 also led to adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes, as evidenced by increased lipid accumulation and up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors. In order to regulate the switch between osetogenesis and adipogenesis, we evaluated the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on BMP9-induced differentiation of preadipocytes. We found that ATRA enhanced BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and blocked BMP9-induced adipogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ATRA was shown to elevate BMP9 expression and activate BMP/Smad signaling. Additionally, BMP9 and ATRA exerted a synergistic effect on activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Knockdown of ?-catenin abolished the stimulatory effect of ATRA on BMP9-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and reversed the inhibitory effect of ATRA on BMP9-induced adipogenesis in preadipocytes. Furthermore, ATRA and BMP9 synergistically repressed glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) activity and promoted Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) function, suggesting that Wnt/?-catenin signaling was activated at least partly through PI3K/Akt/GSK3? pathway. Collectively, ATRA mediated BMP9-induced osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by BMP/Smad and Wnt/?-catenin signaling. The combination of BMP9 and ATRA may be explored as an effective therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
Non-aggregation based label free colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu2+ based on catalyzing etching of gold nanorods by dissolve oxygen.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A label-free non-aggregation colorimetric sensor has been designed for the detection of Cu(2+), based on Cu(2+) catalyzing etching of gold nanorods (AuNRs) along longitudinal axis induced by dissolve oxygen in the presence of S2O3(2-), which caused the aspect ratio (length/width) of AuNRs to decrease and the color of the solution to distinctly change. The linear range and the detection limit (LD, calculated by 10 Sb/k, n=11) of this sensor were 0.080-4.8 µM Cu(2+) and 0.22 µM Cu(2+), respectively. This sensor has been utilized to detect Cu(2+) in tap water and human serum samples with the results agreeing well with those of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), showing its remarkable practicality. In order to prove the possibility of catalyzing AuNRs non-aggregation colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu(2+), the morphological structures of AuNRs were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the sensing mechanism of colorimetric sensor for the detection of Cu(2+) was also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Intrusion of overerupted maxillary molars with miniscrew implant anchorage: A radiographic evaluation.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effects of intrusion of overerupted maxillary molars using miniscrew implant anchorage and to investigate the apical root resorption after molar intrusion. The subjects included 30 patients whose average ages were 35.5±9.0 years. All patients had received intrusion treatments for overerupted maxillary molars with miniscrew anchorage. There were 38 maxillary first molars and 26 maxillary second molars to be intruded. Two miniscrews were inserted in the buccal and palatal alveolar bone mesial to the overerupted molar. Force of 100-150 g was applied by the elastic chains between screw head and attachment on each side. Lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs taken before and after intrusion were used to evaluate dental changes and root resorption of molars. Only 6 of the 128 miniscrews failed. The first and second molars were significantly intruded by averages of 3.4 mm and 3.1 mm respectively (P<0.001). The average intrusion time was more than 6 months. The crown of the molars mesially tilted by averages of 3.1 degrees and 3.3 degrees (P<0.001) for first and second molars. The amounts of root resorption were 0.2-0.4 mm on average. The intrusion treatment of overerupted molars with miniscrew anchorages could be used as an efficient and reliable method to recover lost restoration space for prosthesis. Radiographically speaking, root resorption of molars was not clinically significant after application of intrusive forces of 200 to 300 g.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of Bmi-1 contributes to the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and it carries a poor prognosis due to a high rate of recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Bmi-1 plays a significant role in the growth and metastasis of many solid tumours. However, the exact mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion and metastasis, especially in HCC, are not yet known. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the expression of Bmi-1 in HCC samples and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic value, we also investigated related mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion in HCC. Our results showed that Bmi-1 is upregulated in HCC tissues compared to matched non-cancer liver tissues; and its expression is positively associated with tumour size, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage, respectively; multivariate analysis showed that high expression of Bmi-1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, the shRNA-mediated inhibition of Bmi-1 reduced the invasiveness of two HCC cell lines in vitro by upregulating phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression, inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway and downregulating the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These data demonstrate that Bmi-1 plays a vital role in HCC invasion and that Bmi-1 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Towards a protocol for stream macroinvertebrate sampling in China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard protocols are critical for maximizing data comparability and aggregation in national monitoring programs, and taxa richness is a common indicator of site condition and biological diversity. There are two general approaches for sampling stream macroinvertebrate assemblages: targeted richest habitat and site wide. At seven sites, we compared three methods: Ontario Benthic Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP). The OBBN method produced a biased sample at a site with a single small riffle, the RBP method produced the most total taxa, and the EMAP method produced the most taxa at four sites and the most individuals at six sites. The RBP method produced asymptotes for percent tolerant individuals, percent chironomid individuals, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index score after five to ten stations. The EMAP method produced asymptotes for those metrics after 10 to 20 stations per site. The EMAP method typically required half the number of stations as the RBP method to obtain 70-90% of true taxa richness as estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. We conclude that the EMAP method is preferable because of its greater precision in taxa richness estimates.
Related JoVE Video
Ultra-sensitive non-aggregation colorimetric sensor for detection of iron based on the signal amplification effect of Fe3+ catalyzing H2O2 oxidize gold nanorods.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fe(3+) can catalyze H2O2 to oxidize along on the longitudinal axis of gold nanorods (AuNRs), which caused the aspect ratio of AuNRs to decrease, longitudinal plasmon absorption band (LPAB) of AuNRs to blueshift (??) and the color of the solution to change obviously. Thus, a rapid response and highly sensitive non-aggregation colorimetric sensor for the determination of Fe(3+) has been developed based on the signal amplification effect of catalyzing H2O2 to oxidize AuNRs. This simple and selective sensor with a wide linear range of 0.20-30.00 ?M has been utilized to detect Fe(3+) in blood samples, and the results consisted with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Simultaneously, the mechanism of colorimetric sensor for the detection of Fe(3+) was also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Short- and long-term changes of condylar position after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular advancement in combination with Le Fort I osteotomy evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSO) may change condylar position, which can be one of the factors contributing to skeletal relapse. This study evaluated short- and long-term changes in condylar position using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and investigated changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) signs after BSSO for mandibular advancement in combination with Le Fort I osteotomy.
Related JoVE Video
Assay of OAZ1 mRNA Levels in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Combined with Application of Leukemia PCR Array Identified Relevant Gene Changes Affected by Antizyme.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ) has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target in various malignant tumors because it plays vital roles in cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and genomic stability. Therefore, there is a significant interest in discovering its function in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Firstly, OAZ1 mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR in 43 cases with CML and 23 controls, and we demonstrated that it is significantly down-regulated in CML patients. To further understand its functions in CML pathogenesis, OAZ1 was overexpressed, and the human leukemia PCR array analysis was used to monitor the expression of key genes commonly involved in leukemia development, classification and therapeutic response. We found several favorable up-regulation factors including CXCL10, DAPK1 and IKZF3. In conclusion, OAZ1 may be a useful therapeutic target in CML due to its potential ability to induce erythroid differentiation and cell apoptosis. These functions were proven to be associated with several gene changes that were directly or indirectly caused by OAZ1. The mechanism of how OAZ1 affects other genes remains to be elucidated. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of traditional Chinese medicine Xin-Ji-Er-Kang formula on 2K1C hypertensive rats: role of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
XinJiErKang (XJEK), a Chinese herbal formula, is identified as an effective preparation to treat coronary heart disease and myocarditis. The aim of the study is to investigate the anti-hypertensive effects of XJEK by oral administration and also to find out whether the drug has any role in oxidative stress and vascular endothelial function.
Related JoVE Video
A Comparison of Growth and Development of Three Major Agricultural Insect Pests Infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ascoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts, particularly noctuid larvae. Infection of a larva is characterized by retarded growth, reduced feeding and yellowish body color. In this paper, we reported the growth and development of three major agricultural noctuid insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using 10-fold serial dilutions (0 to 7) of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect S. litura larvae, we found no significant difference in larval mortalities from 0 to 10(3)-fold dilutions; however, significant differences were observed at 10(4)-fold dilution and above. Using a 10-fold dilution of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect H. armigera, S. exigua and S. litura larvae, we found that the growth and development were significantly affected. All infected larvae could not pupate; the survival times of treated H. armigera, S. litura and S. exigua larvae were significantly longer than untreated control larvae. Body weight showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 1 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. exigua, but day 2 in S. litura. Additionally, food intake also showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 2 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. litura, but day 3 in S. exigua.
Related JoVE Video
A novel donor splice-site mutation of major intrinsic protein gene associated with congenital cataract in a Chinese family.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify the disease-causing gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract.
Related JoVE Video
Phytoplankton and eutrophication degree assessment of Baiyangdian Lake wetland, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eight typical sampling sites were chosen to investigate the phytoplankton community structure and to assess the eutrophication degree of Baiyangdian Lake in 2009. Our results showed that among the total 133 species identified, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta dominated the phytoplankton community. In spring, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla, and the dominant species included Chlorella sp., Chroomonas acuta Uterm., and Microcystis incerta Lemm.; the density of the phytoplankton ranged from 496 × 10(4) to 6256 × 10(4) cells/L with an average of 2384 × 10(4) cells/L. However, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta became the dominant phyla in summer, and the dominant species were Chlorella sp., Leptolyngbya valderiana Anagn., and Nephrocytium agardhianum Nageli.; the density of the phytoplankton varied from 318 × 10(4) to 4630 × 10(4) cells/L with an average of 1785 × 10(4) cells/L. The density of the phytoplankton has increased significantly compared to the previous investigations in 2005. The index of Carlson nutritional status (TSIM) and the dominant genus assessment indicated that the majority of Baiyangdian Lake was in eutrophic state.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.