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[Effects of salinity on spawning and larval development of Exopalaemon carinicauda].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Female Exopalaemon carinicauda at ovarian maturation stage II rearing by artificial propagation in the laboratory were chosen as test material. The shrimps were gradually acclimated to the experimental salinity levels of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 to determine the effects of salinity on spawning, embryonic development and larval growth of E. carinicauda. The results showed that the ovaries of female E. carinicauda could mature at all test salinity levels. However, it failed to spawn at salinity 2. Salinity levels from 10 to 20 were the most favorable for female E. carinicauda spawning. Although larval development was most successful in eggs incubated at salinity levels of 5 to 30, embryonic development were significantly affected by salinity, and the egg incubation period was shorter at salinities of 15, 20 and 25 than at the other salinities. There were no significant effects of salinity on the rates of larval metamorphosis and survival, but the dry mass of individuals was significantly affected by salinity. The dry mass of shrimps reared at salinities of 15 and 20 were significantly higher than at the other salinities. The growth of 20-day old shrimps was significantly affected by salinity. The specific growth rate increased with the increasing salinity level from 5 to 20, and then decreased at the salinity above 20. The mRNA level of gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was high at high and low salinities, and the lowest at the theoretical salinity 17.5, which might be equal to the hemolymph osmotic pressure of E. carinicauda. It was implied that female parent E. carinicauda could reproduce in a wide range of salinities, while 20-day old shrimps presented higher growth rates at salinities near its theoretical isosmotic point.
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Crenobacter luteus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A slightly thermophilic, Gram-staining negative and strictly aerobic bacteria, designated strain YIM 78141T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected at Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were short-rod-shaped and colonies were yellowish and circular. The strain grew at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0-9.0) and 10-55 oC (optimum, 40-50 oC). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison demonstrated that strain YIM 78141T belongs to the family Neisseriaceae, and it also showed low level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 93.4%) compared to all other genera in this family. The only quinone was ubiquinone 8 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 67.3 mol%. Major fatty acids (>5 %) were C12:0, C16:0, C18:1 ?7c and summed feature 3. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl methylethanolamine, phospholipids of unknown structure containing aminoglycophospholipid and three unidentified polar lipids. On the basis of the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as genotypic data, this strain should be classified as a novel genus and species of the family Neisseriaceae, for which the name Crenobacter luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78141T (= BCRC 80650T= KCTC 32558T= DSM 27258T).
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Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24?%; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) (?=?CCTCC AA 2011022(T)?=?JCM 18057(T)).
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A putative soybean GmsSOS1 confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis sos1-1 mutant.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The cDNA of GmsSOS1, a putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene isolated from Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid, was constructed into plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1300 and then transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens under the control of CaMV 35S promoter to Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and mutant (atsos1-1) plants. By hygromycin resistance detection and PCR analysis, transgenic plants (WT35S:GmsSOS1 and atsos1-1 35S:GmsSOS1) were obtained. Seed germination, seedling growth, and Na(+) contents in roots and shoots were analytically compared among WT, atsos1-1 mutant, and their transgenic lines under salt stress. The results showed that when GmsSOS1 was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana, the inhibitions of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth were all significantly improved, and enhanced salt tolerance was displayed, which may be attributed to the decrease of Na(+) absorption in roots and transportation in shoots of the transgenic lines, especially for that of atsos1-1 mutant.
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Streptomyces calidiresistens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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A Streptomyces-like actinomycete strain, designated as YIM 78087(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Hehua hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of strain YIM 78087(T) was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 78087(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces fimbriatus DSM 40942(T), Streptomyces marinus DSM 41968(T) and Streptomyces qinglanensis DSM 42035(T) (97.18, 97.05 and 97.1 % similarity, respectively). Combined with the low values of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YIM 78087(T) and its closest neighbours, these analyses indicated that this new isolate represents a different genomic species in the genus Streptomyces. The predominant menaquinones of strain YIM 78087(T) were identified as MK-9 (H4) and MK-9 (H6). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 (28.4 %), anteiso-C17:0 (23.0 %) and iso-C16:0 (15.1 %). The whole-cell hydrolysates found to contain glucose, mannose and ribose. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 73.0 mol%. Based on the comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain YIM 78087(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces calidiresistens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78087(T) (=BCRC 16955(T)=DSM 42108(T)=JCM 19629(T)).
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Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkali geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, South-West China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant and Gram-stain negative bacterium, designated strain YIM 78007(T), was isolated from an alkaline geothermal soil sample from Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of strain YIM 78007(T) were observed to be aerobic and short rod-shaped. The colonies were observed to be orange-red, convex and circular. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 78007(T) clustered with members of the genus Roseomonas (with similarities from 97.2 to 92.2 %). Optimal growth of strain YIM 78007 occurs at 40-50 °C and pH 8.0-10.0. The predominant ubiquinone was identified as Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ?7c and C16:0. The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63 mol %. The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain YIM 78007(T) and its closet neighbours (Roseomonas lacus JCM 13283(T) and Roseomonas terrae JCM 14592(T)) were well below the threshold required for the proposal of a novel species. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the phylogenetic analysis, as well as low DNA-DNA hybridization values, allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78007(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain YIM 78007(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78007(T) (=BCRC 80644(T) = JCM 19656(T)).
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Zhizhongheella caldifontis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Comamonadaceae.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant, strictly aerobic and Gram-staining negative bacterial strain, designated YIM 78140(T), was isolated from a water sample in Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The colonies were light brown, convex and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YIM 78140(T) indicated that it was clustered with members of ?-Proteobacteria (with the similarity from 96.9 to 93.6 %). Good growth occurred at 40-50 °C, pH 8.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant ubiquinones were Q-8 and Q-9. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C17:0 cyclo, C18:1 ?7c and summed feature 3. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.8 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, phylogenetic analysis allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78140(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, the strain YIM 78140(T) represents a novel genus of the family Comamonadaceae, for which the name Zhizhongheella caldifontis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78140(T) (= BCRC 80649(T) = KCTC 32557(T)).
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Quantitative Analysis of Panax ginseng by FT-NIR Spectroscopy.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a rapid and efficient tool, was used to determine the total amount of nine ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. In the study, the regression models were established using multivariate regression methods with the results from conventional chemical analytical methods as reference values. The multivariate regression methods, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR), were discussed and the PLSR was more suitable. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), second derivative, and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were utilized together for the spectral preprocessing. When evaluating the final model, factors such as correlation coefficient (R (2)) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were considered. The final optimal results of PLSR model showed that root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (R (2)) in the calibration set were 0.159 and 0.963, respectively. The results demonstrated that the NIRS as a new method can be applied to the quality control of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma.
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Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated from a geothermal area.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Two thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77925T and YIM 77777, were isolated from two hot springs Hydrothermal Explosion (Shuirebaozhaqu) area and Frog Mouth Spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the two strains were Gram-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. They were able to grow at 50-70 oC, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5% (w/v). Colonies are circular, convex, non-transparent and form yellow-pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison clearly demonstrated that strains YIM 77925T and YIM 77777 belong to the genus Thermus, and they also created low level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared to all other species in this genus. Their predominant menaquinone was MK-8. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77925T and YIM 77777 were 65.6 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77925T and YIM 77777 could not be classified into any recognized species of the genus Thermus. Thus the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77925T (=DSM 25901T=CCTCC 2012061T).
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[Epidemiological analysis of selected congenital limb malformations in Hengyang].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To describe the epidemiological characteristics of selected congenital limb malformations (CLM) in newborns of Hengyang.
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Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample, and reclassification of Lysobacter thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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A thermotolerant Gram-staining negative and aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77520(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, South-West China. Cells of the strain were found to be rod-shaped and colonies were light beige and circular. The strain was found to grow in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 0 %), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 25-55 °C (optimum, 45 °C). The only quinone detected was Q-8 and the genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 66.9 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The phospholipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, five unknown phospholipids and three aminophospholipids. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 77520(T) was found to form a cluster with Lysobacter thermophilus YIM 77875(T) and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to L. thermophilus YIM 77875(T) (96.0 %). These two strains formed a distinct lineage of the family Xanthomonadaceae. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, a new genus, Vulcaniibacterium gen. nov. is proposed with Vulcaniibacterium tengchongense sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain of V. tengchongense sp. nov. is strain YIM 77520(T) (=DSM 25623(T) = CCTCC AB 2011152(T)). Furthermore we propose that L. thermophilus Wei et al. 2012 is reclassified in the new genus as Vulcaniibacterium thermophilum comb. nov. (type strain YIM 77875(T) = CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)) based on polyphasic data.
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Amycolatopsis dongchuanensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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A novel actinomycete strain, designated YIM 75904(T), was isolated from a soil sample that had been collected from a dry and hot river valley in Dongchuan county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic position of the novel strain was investigated by a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain YIM 75904(T) formed a distinct clade within the genus Amycolatopsis and appeared to be closely related to Amycolatopsis sacchari K24(T) (99.3% sequence similarity). Strain YIM 75904(T) had a type-IV cell wall, with no detectable mycolic acids, and had MK-9(H(4)) as its predominant menaquonine. Its cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, glucose and arabinose, and its major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 68.5 mol%. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridizations, strain YIM 75904(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amycolatopsis for which the name Amycolatopsis dongchuanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 75904(T) (=CCTCC AA 2011016(T) =JCM 18054(T)).
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Thermocatellispora tengchongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Streptosporangiaceae.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain YIM 77521(T), was isolated from a sandy soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The strain formed branched substrate mycelia and no fragmentation was found. Masses of short, straight or irregular chains of three to eight warty ornamented spores were borne from aerial mycelia. The strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and the whole-cell sugars contained mannose, galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)), MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(8)). The diagnostic polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16?:?0), C(17?:?0) 10-methyl and C(18?:?0). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 77521(T) was 73.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM 77521(T) fell within the radiation of the suborder Streptosporangineae and formed a distinct monophyletic lineage adjacent to the family Streptosporangiaceae with a high bootstrap value. On the basis of combined data from the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain YIM 77521(T) represents a novel genus and species within the family Streptosporangiaceae, for which the name Thermocatellispora tengchongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77521(T) (?=?DSM 45615(T) ?=?CCTCC AA 2011013(T)).
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Actinokineospora soli sp. nov., a thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from soil, and emended description of the genus Actinokineospora.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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A strain of thermotolerant actinomycete, designated YIM 75948(T), was isolated from a soil sample in Yunnan province, China. The strain grew at 25-55 °C (optimum 37 °C). The substrate mycelium and aerial mycelium produced on Czapeks agar were both pale yellow to white. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0) and C(16:0) and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(4))(.) The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine with hydroxy fatty acids, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 75948(T) belonged in the genus Actinokineospora and that its closest relative among recognized species was Actinokineospora fastidiosa DSM 43855(T) (97.6% sequence similarity). The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel strain and A. fastidiosa DSM 43855(T) was, however, only 47.8%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data and the results of the DNA-DNA hybridizations, strain YIM 75948(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinokineospora for which the name Actinokineospora soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 75948(T) (?=JCM 17695(T)?=DSM 45613(T)). The description of the genus Actinokineospora is emended to reflect the fact that the genomic DNA G+C contents of A. fastidiosa DSM 43855(T) and the type strain of Actinokineospora soli sp. nov. recorded in the present study fell above the range given in previous descriptions of this genus.
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Pseudonocardia yuanmoensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from soil in Yunnan, south-west China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2011
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A novel Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, spore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM 75926(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected at soil forest in Yuanmo county of Yunnan province, south-west China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain YIM 75926(T) belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia and was closely related to Pseudonocardia halophobica DSM 43089(T) (98.1% similarity). Strain YIM 75926(T) had MK-8 (H(4)) as the predominant menaquinone. The whole organism hydrolysates mainly consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid, mannose, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) (37.16%) and C(16:0) (12.43%). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 75926(T) was 70.6 mol%. The resultant phylogenetic trees further showed that strain YIM 75926(T) belong to Pseudonocardia and had a distinct subclade within the evolutionary radiation of the genus Pseudonocardia. On the basis of its comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain YIM 75926(T) represent a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, named Pseudonocardia yuanmoensis sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 75926(T) (=CCTCC AA 2011017(T) = JCM 18055(T)).
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Actinomadura sediminis sp. nov., a marine actinomycete isolated from mangrove sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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In this study, the taxonomic position of an actinobacterium, strain YIM M 10931(T), which was isolated from a mangrove sediment sample collected in Dugong Creek, Little Andaman, India, was determined by a polyphasic approach. This gram-positive, aerobic strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, which differentiated into short, hooked or spiral spore chains. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole cell sugars consisted of mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and madurose. The cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of iso-C(16?:?0), 10-methyl C(18?:?0) and C(16?:?0). The quinone system was predominantly composed of MK-9(H(8)) (45.5?%) and MK-9(H(6)) (39?%). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Actinomadura. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence generated from the strain identified its closest relatives as Actinomadura cremea DSM 43676(T) (98.4?% sequence similarity), Actinomadura rifamycini DSM 43936(T) (97.4?%) and Actinomadura apis IM17-1(T) (96.9?%). It was obvious from the resulting phylogenetic trees that strain YIM M 10931(T) belongs to a distinct subclade within the evolutionary radiation of the genus Actinomadura. DNA-DNA hybridizations of strain YIM M 10931(T) with A. cremea DSM 43676(T) and A. rifamycini DSM 43936(T) were performed and further confirmed that the isolate represents a separate genomic species. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics presented, it is proposed that strain YIM M 10931(T) represents a novel species within the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura sediminis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YIM M 10931(T) (?=?CCTCC AA 2010009(T)?=?DSM 45500(T)).
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[Yield loss model and yield loss mechanism of high-yielding summer maize infected by Physoderma maydis].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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A total of 21 different disease-grading summer maize groups were formed by fixed-point natural infection of maize brown spot in the field, and mass loss estimation models of single ear mass and 100-grain mass were constructed by stepwise regression with DPS software. The mass loss estimation models of single ear and 100-grain were Y = -4.012 + 0.377X1 - 0.228X2 + 0.694X3 - 0.144X4 and Y = -4.536 + 0.173X1 + 0.188X2 + 0.248X3 - 0.034X4, respectively, where Y was yield loss rate, X1 was the disease index at flowering stage, X2 was the disease index at pollination stage, X3 was the disease index at filling stage, and X4 was the disease index at dough stage. The measured relationships between the disease indices at different growth stages and the mass loss for single ear and 100-grain coincided well with the modeling results. Maize brown spot directly affected the net photosynthetic rate of ear height leaf and the activities of RuBP carboxylase and PEP carboxylase. The higher the disease-grade, the lower the net photosynthetic rate and the activities of the two enzymes were.
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Cloning, expression and characterization of an alkaline thermostable GH9 endoglucanase from Thermobifida halotolerans YIM 90462 T.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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The endoglucanase gene, thcel9A, from Thermobifida halotolerans YIM 90462(T) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21(DE). The 2895-bp full-length gene encodes a 964-residue polypeptide (Thcel9A) containing a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolases (GH) family 9. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Thcel9A is closely related to Cel9A of Thermobifidafusca YX. Thcel9A was purified from the culture supernatant by Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography and the purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 55°C and pH 8.0. Substrate specificity assays showed that it not only had CMCase activity, but also hydrolase activity on microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper. These properties suggested that Thcel9A is a classical GH9 group A endoglucanase.
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[Effects of DA-6 on leaf photosynthetic carboxylase and protective enzyme activities and grain yield of high-yielding summer maize].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of foliar spraying DA-6 at the rates of 10, 20, and 40 mg x L(-1) at jointing stage on the leaf photosynthetic carboxylase and protective enzyme activities and grain yield of high-yielding summer maize cultivar Denghai 661. Comparing with the control (foliar spraying surfactant and water), spraying 10, 20, and 40 mg x L(-1) of DA-6 increased the grain yield of Denghai 661 significantly, with the increment being 10.0%, 8.9%, and 9.4%, respectively, but no significant differences were observed among the DA-6 treatments. Different concentration DA-6 increased the leaf area index, net photosynthetic rate, and RuBPCase and PEPCase activities significantly, and the promotion effects on the net photosynthetic rate and RuBPCase and PEPCase activities increased with increasing concentration of DA-6. After treated with DA-6, the leaf superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and the leaf soluble protein content at the stages of silking, grain-filling, milky, and wax maturity all increased significantly, and the leaf malondialdehyde decreased significantly, compared with the control. The catalase activity increased with increasing DA-6 concentration, but the other indices had no significant differences among the DA-6 treatments.
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[Effects of oxymatrine on the expressions of pro-collagen and fibronectin of fibroblasts derived from human hyperplastic scars].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
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To study the effects of oxymatrine (OM) on the expressions of pro-collagen I (PC I), pro-collagen II (PC III), fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA of fibroblasts from keloid (KFb), hyperplastic scar (HFb), and normal skin (NFb), and to compare with hydrocortisone (HC).
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[Nondestructive identification of the root of mountain cultivation ginseng and growth years by near infrared spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
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Mountain cultivation ginseng (MCG) and garden cultivation ginseng (GCCG) were identified by near infrared spectroscopy, so were MCG of different growth years. 96 MCG samples of different growth years, including 24 of fifteen years and 72 of ten years, and 177 GCG samples were collected. After the near infrared spectra of these samples were collected, discriminant analysis was used to distinguish MCG and GCG, so was MCG of different years. After the original spectra were pretreated, discriminant analysis models of MCG and GCG, MCG of different growth years were developed respectively with selected principa component numbers in full spectra region. The correct discrimination rate of two groups of model was both 100%. The propose methods are accurate, fast and nondestructive, and can be applied to the quality control of MCG. It has an important significance for building market image of MCG.
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Rapid discrimination of Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng using an electronic nose coupled with chemometrics.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
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Red ginseng is a precious and widely used traditional Chinese medicine. At present, Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng are both commonly found on the market. To rapidly and nondestructively discriminate between Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng, an electronic nose coupled with chemometrics was developed. Different red ginseng samples, including Chinese red ginseng (n=30) and Korean ginseng (South Korean red ginseng and North Korean red ginseng n=26), were collected. The metal oxide sensors on an electronic nose were used to measure the red ginseng samples. Multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were employed. All of the samples were analyzed by PCA. Most of the samples were used to set up DFA and SIMCA models, and then the remaining samples (Nos. 9, 10, 17, 18, 29, 30, 34, 43, 44, 50, and 51) were projected onto the DFA and SIMCA models in the form of black dots to validate the models. The results indicated that Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng were successfully discriminated using the electronic nose coupled with PCA, DFA and SIMCA. The checking scores of the DFA and SIMCA models were 100. The samples projected onto the DFA and SIMCA models were all correctly discriminated. The DFA and SIMCA models were robust. Electronic nose technology is a rapid, accurate, sensitive and nondestructive method to discriminate between Chinese red ginseng and Korean ginseng.
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Olivibacter jilunii sp. nov., isolated from DDT-contaminated soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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Bacterial strain 14-2A(T), isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil in China, was characterized by using a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain 14-2A(T) was found to be Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, non-flagellated and rod-shaped. The new isolate was able to grow at 4-42 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and with 0-5?% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 14-2A(T) showed the highest similarity with Olivibacter oleidegradans TBF2/20.2(T) (99.4?%), followed by Pseudosphingobacterium domesticum DC-186(T) (93.8?%), Olivibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 060(T) (93.6?%), Olivibacter terrae Jip13(T) (93.1?%), Olivibacter soli Gsoil 034(T) (92.8?%) and Olivibacter sitiensis AW-6(T) (89.6?%). The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains 14-2A(T) and O. oleidegradans TBF2/20.2(T) was 34.45±2.11?%. Strain 14-2A(T) contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, aminophospholipid and phosphatidylinositol mannoside as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 41.2 mol%. MK-7 is the major isoprenoid quinone. Summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c), iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0 3-OH are the major fatty acids. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain 14-2A(T) to the genus Olivibacter. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic data, strain 14-2A(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Olivibacter, for which the name Olivibacter jilunii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 14-2A(T) (?=?KCTC 23098(T)?=?CCTCC AB 2010105(T)).
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Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov., a novel psychrotroph isolated from a peat bog in Heilongjiang, Northern China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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A novel cold-resistant bacterium, designated YIM 016(T), was isolated from a peat bog sample collected from Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province, Northern China and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence clearly revealed that strain YIM 016(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. The strain is closely related to Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050(T), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) and Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) with similarities of 99.0 %, 97.0 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the low DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain YIM 016(T) and its closely related phylogenetic neighbours demonstrated that this isolate represents a new genomic species in the genus Paenibacillus. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic tests showed that growth of strain YIM 016(T) occurred at 4-37 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5 % (w/v). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, galactose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 016(T) was 51.7 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YIM 016(T) could be clearly distinguished from other species of the genus Paenibacillus. It is therefore concluded that strain YIM 016(T) represents a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 016(T) (= CCTCC AB 2011150(T) = JCM 18141(T)).
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Kineococcus glutineturens sp. nov., isolated from soil in Yunnan, south-west China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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An orange-coloured, non-spore-forming, motile and coccus-shaped actinobacterium, designated YIM 75677(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a dry-hot river valley in Dongchuan county, Yunnan Province, south-west China and its taxonomic position was investigated. Growth of strain YIM 75677(T) occurred at 12-55 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and NaCl tolerance up to 2 % (w/v). Cells adhered to agar media and were agglutinated tightly together. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9 (H(2)) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0). Mycolic acids were not present. The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 75677(T) was 74.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons clearly revealed that strain YIM 75677(T) represents a novel member of the genus Kineococcus and is closely related to Kineococcus xinjiangensis S2-20(T) (level of similarity, 98.6 %). Meanwhile, the result of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YIM 75677(T) and K. xinjiangensis S2-20(T) demonstrated that this isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Kineococcus. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YIM 75677(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kineococcus, for which the name Kineococcus glutineturens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 75677(T) (=CCTCC AA 209075(T) = JCM 18126(T)).
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Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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Two novel Gram-positive, spore-forming, thermophilic actinomycetes, designated as strain YIM 77501(T) and YIM 77570, were isolated from a sandy soil sample collected at Tengchong National Volcanic Geological Park, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the two isolates fell within the family Streptosporangiaceae. The strains formed extensively branched substrate and aerial mycelia which carried masses of long, straight or irregular spore chains composed of warty ornamented spores. Cell walls of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose were detected as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and 10-methyl C(17:0). The DNA G+C content was 74-76 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis, these strains represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Streptosporangiaceae, for which the name Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of T. rubra is YIM 77501(T) (=DSM 45614(T) = CCTCC AA 2011014(T)).
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Streptomyces manipurensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a limestone deposit site in Manipur, India.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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A novel actinobacterium, designated MBRL 201(T), was isolated from a sample collected from a limestone quarry at Hundung, Manipur, India. The strain was characterized using polyphasic taxonomy. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MBRL 201(T) and other Streptomyces species showed sequence similarities ranging from 93.0 to 99.6 % and strain MBRL 201(T) showed closest similarities to Streptomyces virginiae NBRC 12827(T) (99.6 %) and Streptomyces cinnamonensis NBRC 15873(T) (99.6 %). The DNA relatedness between MBRL 201(T) and the type strains of S. virginiae NBRC 12827(T) and S. cinnamonensis NBRC 15873(T) were 44.5 and 35.6 % respectively. Strain MBRL 201(T) contained LL: -diaminopimelic acid (A(2)pm) as the diagnostic diamino acid, with glucose as the main sugar, while small amounts of galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose were also present in cell-wall hydrolysates. The major fatty acids identified were anteiso-C(15:0) (38.9 %), iso-C(15:0) (19.9 %) and anteiso-C(17:1) (14.7 %). The predominant menaquinones detected were MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(8)), while the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositolmannosides, with other unknown phospholipids and lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.9 %. The phenotypic and genotypic data showed that strain MBRL 201(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces. It is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Streptomyces as a novel species, Streptomyces manipurensis sp. nov. The type strain is MBRL 201(T) (=DSM 42029(T) = JCM 17351(T)).
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Simultaneous determination of ginsenosides and lignans in Sheng-mai injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.
Pharmazie
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method with diode array detection was developed for simultaneous analysis of eight ginsenosides (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd) and one lignan (schizandrin) in Sheng-mai injection, a traditional Chinese medicine prescription widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 microm, 100 mm x 2.1 mm i.d.) using a linear gradient elution over 28 min with a mixture of water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.9998) within the test ranges. Validation proved the repeatability of the method was good and recovery was satisfactory. The validated method was successfully applied to 12 batches of Sheng-mai injection. The results showed that there was a great variation among different samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) further proved considerable variations among the samples from different factories and suggested that schizandrin, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 might have the greatest influence on the variation of 12 samples. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the UPLC method proposed was very useful for the analysis and quality evaluation of Sheng-mai injection.
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A micro-computed tomography study of the location and curvature of the lingual canal in the mandibular first premolar with two canals originating from a single canal.
J Endod
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Little is known about the lingual canal in the Vertucci type V mandibular first premolar. This study investigated the location of the lingual canal orifice and the curvature of the lingual canal by using micro-computed tomography.
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Geodermatophilus nigrescens sp. nov., isolated from a dry-hot valley.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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A novel actinomycete, designated as strain YIM 75980(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a dry-hot river valley in Dongchuan county, Yunnan province, south-west China and was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The organism produced circular, smooth, red to black coloured colonies comprising coccoid-shaped cells. Colonies on agar medium lacked mycelia and cells adhered to the agar. Strain YIM 75980(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and contained galactose, arabinose and glucosamine as the main sugars in the whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9 (H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0) and C(16:0). The DNA G + C content of strain YIM 75980(T) was 73.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly showed that strain YIM 75980(T) formed a distinct clade within the genus Geodermatophilus and was closely related to Geodermatophilus obscurus DSM 43160(T) (level of similarity, 97.9%). Furthermore, the result of DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YIM 75980(T) and G. obscurus 43160(T) demonstrated that this isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Geodermatophilus. Moreover, the physiological and biochemical data showed the differentiation of strain YIM 75980(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbour. Therefore, it is proposed that strain YIM 75980(T) represents a novel species of the genus Geodermatophilus, for which the name Geodermatophilus nigrescens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 75980(T) (=CCTCC AA 2011015(T) =JCM 18056(T)).
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