JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Room-temperature resonant quantum tunneling transport of macroscopic systems.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A self-assembled quantum dots array (QDA) is a low dimensional electron system applied to various quantum devices. This QDA, if embedded in a single crystal matrix, could be advantageous for quantum information science and technology. However, the quantum tunneling effect has been difficult to observe around room temperature thus far, because it occurs in a microcosmic and low temperature condition. Herein, we show a designed a quasi-periodic Ni QDA embedded in a single crystal BaTiO3 matrix and demonstrate novel quantum resonant tunneling transport properties around room-temperature according to theoretical calculation and experiments. The quantum tunneling process could be effectively modulated by changing the Ni QDA concentration. The major reason was that an applied weak electric field (?10(2) V cm(-1)) could be enhanced by three orders of magnitude (?10(5) V cm(-1)) between the Ni QDA because of the higher permittivity of BaTiO3 and the 'hot spots' of the Ni QDA. Compared with the pure BaTiO3 films, the samples with embedded Ni QDA displayed a stepped conductivity and temperature (?-T curves) construction.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of mouse liver metabolites by GC × GC-TOF MS.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC?×?GC-TOF MS) is a powerful analytical platform for analysis of metabolites in mouse liver. Metabolites are extracted using a solvent mixture of methanol/water (4:1, v/v). The metabolite extracts are analyzed on GC?×?GC-TOF MS after derivatization. The experimental data are further processed for metabolite identification and quantification. A three-tier method is used for high-accuracy metabolite identification, while metabolite quantification is performed to recognize metabolites with significant abundance differences between sample groups.
Related JoVE Video
Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD.
Related JoVE Video
Cajaninstilbene acid protects corticosterone-induced injury in PC12 cells by inhibiting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been reported that high corticosterone level could damage the normal hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, high concentration of corticosterone induced impair in PC12 cells has been widely used as in vitro model to screen neuroprotective agents. Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA), a natural stilbene isolated from Cajanus cajan leaves, has various activities. In present study, we investigated the effect of CSA on corticosterone-induced cell apoptosis and explored its possible signaling pathways in PC12 cells. We demonstrated that pretreatment with CSA at the concentrations of 1-8?mol/L remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity induced by 200?mol/L of corticosterone in PC12 cells by MTT, and further confirmed the neuroprotection by Hoechst 33342 and PI double staining and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) assay at the concentration of 8?mol/L. Moreover, the cytoprotection of CSA was proved to be associated with the homeostasis of intracellular Ca(2+), relieving corticosterone-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the contents of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA), increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the stabilization of ER stress via down-regulating the expression of ER chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), ER stress associated transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP/GADD153), and the X box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), as well as the expression of ER stress-specific protein caspase-12 and its downstream protein caspase-9. Considering all the findings, it is suggested that the neuroprotective activity of CSA against the impairment induced by corticosterone in PC12 cells was through the inhibition of oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated pathway.
Related JoVE Video
De novo congenital melanoma: analysis of 2 cases with array comparative genomic hybridization.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
: Congenital melanoma is extraordinarily rare, and 3 types have been described: transplacental metastases from the mother, de novo congenital melanoma, and melanoma occurring in association with a congenital melanocytic nevus. We describe 2 reports of array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of de novo congenital melanoma. The first patient was male, and the second was female; both had a scalp lesion present at birth, which grew quickly. The scalp mass from patient 1 showed a heterogeneous, anaplastic melanocytic neoplasm with large size and depth, high mitotic rate, ulceration, and necrosis. The scalp mass from patient 2 showed a broad melanocytic neoplasm with single cell and junctional nested proliferation at the dermal-epidermal junction and cellular, confluent aggregates of highly atypical melanocytes in the dermis with high mitotic rate. Patient 1 had lung and liver metastases detected by radiologic imaging and was treated with cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine but expired at the age of 5 months. Patient 2 developed a metastasis to the right neck with similar histologic features, and pulmonary metastases were also detected by imaging. Patient 2 is currently alive at the age of 4 years. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the first case revealed loss of chromosomes 3p26.3-p21.31, 5p15.33-q23.1, 11q15.5-q13.2, 14 (complete deletion), and 15q11.1-q22.31. The second case displayed gains in chromosomes 1q21.1-q44, 2p25.3-p11.1, 2q11.1-q37.3, 6p25.3-p11.1, 7p22.3-p11.2, 7q11.1-q36.3, 8p23.3-p11.1, 8q11.1-q24.3, 9p24.3-p11.2, 9q12-q34.3, 11q13.2-q13.4, 13q11-q34, 18p11.32-p11.21, 19p13.3-p11, 19q11-q13.43, 20p13-p11.1, and 20q11.21-q13.33. In both cases, the presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations corroborated the diagnosis of melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-Analysis to Assess the Efficacy and Toxicity of Docetaxel-Based Doublet Compared with Docetaxel Alone for Patients with Advanced NSCLC who Failed First-Line Treatment.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefit of docetaxel-based therapy in the second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. The goal of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel-based doublet compared with docetaxel alone for patients with advanced NSCLC who failed to improve with first-line treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in non-small cell lung cancer: Correlations with angiogenesis and prognosis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in angiogenesis and their association with the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using immunohistochemical staining, the expression of 15-PGDH and COX-2, and the microvessel density (MVD) levels were evaluated in 35 NSCLC specimens. Paracancerous normal lung tissue was collected as control samples from six patients. The correlation of 15-PGDH with COX-2, clinicopathological characteristics, MVD and overall survival (OS) was studied. NSCLC tissues showed a significantly lower expression level of 15-PGDH (P=0.009) and a significantly higher expression level of COX-2 (P=0.004) compared with normal lung tissue. The expression level of 15-PGDH was negatively correlated with MVD (P<0.001) and COX-2 expression (P=0.032). A low expression level of 15-PGDH, a high expression level of COX-2 and high levels of MVD were significantly correlated with a shorter OS time (15-PGDH, P<0.0001; COX-2, P=0.038; MVD, P<0.0001). This study provided clinical evidence that a low expression level of 15-PGDH is associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Furthermore, it was shown that 15-PGDH and COX-2 reciprocally regulate cancer angiogenesis, which may affect the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies six new risk loci for Parkinson's disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a meta-analysis of Parkinson's disease genome-wide association studies using a common set of 7,893,274 variants across 13,708 cases and 95,282 controls. Twenty-six loci were identified as having genome-wide significant association; these and 6 additional previously reported loci were then tested in an independent set of 5,353 cases and 5,551 controls. Of the 32 tested SNPs, 24 replicated, including 6 newly identified loci. Conditional analyses within loci showed that four loci, including GBA, GAK-DGKQ, SNCA and the HLA region, contain a secondary independent risk variant. In total, we identified and replicated 28 independent risk variants for Parkinson's disease across 24 loci. Although the effect of each individual locus was small, risk profile analysis showed substantial cumulative risk in a comparison of the highest and lowest quintiles of genetic risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.55-4.30; P = 2 × 10(-16)). We also show six risk loci associated with proximal gene expression or DNA methylation.
Related JoVE Video
Global practical tracking by output feedback for nonlinear systems with unknown growth rate and time delay.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper is the further investigation of work of Yan and Liu, 2011, and considers the global practical tracking problem by output feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with not only unmeasured states dependent growth but also time-varying time delay. Compared with the closely related works, the remarkableness of the paper is that the time-varying time delay and unmeasurable states are permitted in the system nonlinear growth. Motivated by the related tracking results and flexibly using the ideas and techniques of universal control and dead zone, an adaptive output-feedback tracking controller is explicitly designed with the help of a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, to make the tracking error prescribed arbitrarily small after a finite time while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the results.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput identification of loss-of-function mutations for anti-interferon activity in the influenza A virus NS segment.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Viral proteins often display several functions which require multiple assays to dissect their genetic basis. Here, we describe a systematic approach to screen for loss-of-function mutations that confer a fitness disadvantage under a specified growth condition. Our methodology was achieved by genetically monitoring a mutant library under two growth conditions, with and without interferon, by deep sequencing. We employed a molecular tagging technique to distinguish true mutations from sequencing error. This approach enabled us to identify mutations that were negatively selected against, in addition to those that were positively selected for. Using this technique, we identified loss-of-function mutations in the influenza A virus NS segment that were sensitive to type I interferon in a high-throughput fashion. Mechanistic characterization further showed that a single substitution, D92Y, resulted in the inability of NS to inhibit RIG-I ubiquitination. The approach described in this study can be applied under any specified condition for any virus that can be genetically manipulated.
Related JoVE Video
Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population is a genetic isolate close to European and Middle Eastern groups, with genetic diversity patterns conducive to disease mapping. Here we report high-depth sequencing of 128 complete genomes of AJ controls. Compared with European samples, our AJ panel has 47% more novel variants per genome and is eightfold more effective at filtering benign variants out of AJ clinical genomes. Our panel improves imputation accuracy for AJ SNP arrays by 28%, and covers at least one haplotype in ? 67% of any AJ genome with long, identical-by-descent segments. Reconstruction of recent AJ history from such segments confirms a recent bottleneck of merely ? 350 individuals. Modelling of ancient histories for AJ and European populations using their joint allele frequency spectrum determines AJ to be an even admixture of European and likely Middle Eastern origins. We date the split between the two ancestral populations to ? 12-25?Kyr, suggesting a predominantly Near Eastern source for the repopulation of Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum.
Related JoVE Video
Chest radiographic characteristics of community-acquired Legionella pneumonia in the elderly.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Legionella is an important community-acquired pneumonia pathogen. Although the elderly are especially susceptible to Legionella, few studies have looked at comparative radiographic features of Legionella pneumonia in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the chest radiographic characteristics of community-acquired Legionella pneumonia in the elderly.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of loading rate and aeration on nitrogen removal and N2O emissions in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors treating slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to find optimal operation conditions for nitrogen removal from high strength slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C using the intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors (IASBRs) so as to provide an engineering control strategy for the IASBR technology. Two operational parameters were examined: (1) loading rates and (2) aeration rates. Both the two parameters affected variation of DO concentrations in the IASBR operation cycles. It was found that to achieve efficient nitrogen removal via partial nitrification-denitrification (PND), "DO elbow" point must appear at the end of the last aeration period. There was a correlation between the ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB)/nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) ratio and the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods; when the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods were lower than 4.86 mg/L, AOB became the dominant nitrifier population, which benefited nitrogen removal via PND. Both the nitrogen loading rate and the aeration rate influenced the population sizes of AOB and NOB. To accomplish efficient nitrogen removal via PND, the optimum aeration rate (A, L air/min) applied can be predicted according to the average organic loading rates based on mathematical equations developed in this study. The research shows that the amount of N2O generation in the aeration period was reduced with increasing the aeration rate; however, the highest N2O generation in the non-aeration period was observed at the optimum aeration rates.
Related JoVE Video
Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.
Ecol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species.
Related JoVE Video
Dysregulation of hepatic zinc transporters in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zinc deficiency is a consistent phenomenon observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease, but the mechanisms have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine if alcohol alters hepatic zinc transporters in association with reduction of hepatic zinc levels and if oxidative stress mediates the alterations of zinc transporters. C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diets for 2, 4, or 8 wk. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced hepatic zinc levels, but increased plasma and urine zinc levels, at all time points. Hepatic zinc finger proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?), were downregulated in ethanol-fed mice. Four hepatic zinc transporter proteins showed significant alterations in ethanol-fed mice compared with the controls. ZIP5 and ZIP14 proteins were downregulated, while ZIP7 and ZnT7 proteins were upregulated, by ethanol exposure at all time points. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure upregulated cytochrome P-450 2E1 and caused 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation in the liver. For the in vitro study, murine FL-83B hepatocytes were treated with 5 ?M 4-hydroxynonenal or 100 ?M hydrogen peroxide for 72 h. The results from in vitro studies demonstrated that 4-hydroxynonenal treatment altered ZIP5 and ZIP7 protein abundance, and hydrogen peroxide treatment changed ZIP7, ZIP14, and ZnT7 protein abundance. These results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure alters hepatic zinc transporters via oxidative stress, which might account for ethanol-induced hepatic zinc deficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide mapping of IBD segments in an Ashkenazi PD cohort identifies associated haplotypes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent series of large genome-wide association studies in European and Japanese cohorts established that Parkinson disease (PD) has a substantial genetic component. To further investigate the genetic landscape of PD, we performed a genome-wide scan in the largest to date Ashkenazi Jewish cohort of 1130 Parkinson patients and 2611 pooled controls. Motivated by the reduced disease allele heterogeneity and a high degree of identical-by-descent (IBD) haplotype sharing in this founder population, we conducted a haplotype association study based on mapping of shared IBD segments. We observed significant haplotype association signals at three previously implicated Parkinson loci: LRRK2 (OR = 12.05, P = 1.23 × 10(-56)), MAPT (OR = 0.62, P = 1.78 × 10(-11)) and GBA (multiple distinct haplotypes, OR > 8.28, P = 1.13 × 10(-11) and OR = 2.50, P = 1.22 × 10(-9)). In addition, we identified a novel association signal on chr2q14.3 coming from a rare haplotype (OR = 22.58, P = 1.21 × 10(-10)) and replicated it in a secondary cohort of 306 Ashkenazi PD cases and 2583 controls. Our results highlight the power of our haplotype association method, particularly useful in studies of founder populations, and reaffirm the benefits of studying complex diseases in Ashkenazi Jewish cohorts.
Related JoVE Video
Strong non-classical induction forces in ion-surface interactions: general origin of Hofmeister effects.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hofmeister effects continue to defy all-encompassing theories, and their origin is still a matter of debate. We observed strong Hofmeister effects in Ca2+/Na+ exchange on a permanently charged surface over a wide range of ionic strengths. They could not be attributed to dispersion forces, classical induction forces, ionic size, or hydration effects. We demonstrated that another stronger force was active in the ion-surface interactions, and which would create Hofmeister effects in general. The strength of this force was up to 10(4) times that of the classical induction force, and could be comparable to the Coulomb force. Coulomb, dispersion and hydration effects appeared to be interwined to affect the force. The presence of the observed strong non-classical induction force implied that energies of non-valence electrons of ions/atoms at the interface might be heavily underestimated in current theories, and possibly just those underestimated energies of non-valence electrons determined Hofmeister effects.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of free estrogens, conjugated estrogens, and bisphenol A in fresh livestock excreta and their removal by composting in North China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient pretreatment and analytical method was developed to investigate the occurrence and fate of four free estrogens (estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (17?-E2), estriol (E3), and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2)), four conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate sodium salt (E1-3S), 17?-estradiol-3-sulfate sodium salt (E2-3S), estrone-3-glucuronide sodium salt (E1-3G), and 17?-estradiol-3-glucuronide sodium salt (E2-3G)), and bisphenol A (BPA) in three livestock farms raising beef cattle, cows, sheep, swine, and chickens in Qi County, which is located in North China. The results demonstrated that one cow and one beef cattle excreted 956.25-1,270.41 and 244.38-319.99 ?g/day of total (free and conjugated) estrogen, respectively, primarily through feces (greater than 91%), while swine excreted 260.09-289.99 ?g/day of estrogens, primarily through urine (98-99%). The total estrogen excreted in sheep and broiler chicken feces was calculated to be 21.64-28.67 and 4.62-5.40 ?g/day, respectively. It was determined that conjugated estrogens contributed to 21.1-21.9% of the total estrogen excreted in cow feces and more than 98% of the total estrogen excreted in swine urine. After composting, the concentration of total estrogen decreased by 18.7-59.6%; however, increased levels of BPA were measured. In treated compost samples, estrogens were detected at concentrations up to 74.0 ng/g, which indicates a potential risk of estrogens entering the surrounding environment.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of survival and EGFR mutation with predominant histologic subtype according to the new lung adenocarcinoma classification in stage IB patients.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new lung adenocarcinoma classification proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) has recently been published. This study aimed to investigate the utility of the new histological classification for identifying the prognostic subtypes of adenocarcinomas in stage IB patients.Correlations between the classification and the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status was also studied.
Related JoVE Video
Renal metastasis after esophagectomy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solitary metastatic renal tumors are rarely encountered. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who developed a solitary renal metastasis after undergoing an esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent nephrectomy of the right kidney.
Related JoVE Video
Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The high plasticity of metallic glasses is highly desirable for a wide range of novel engineering applications. However, the physical origin of the ductile/brittle behaviour of metallic glasses with various compositions and thermal histories has not been fully clarified. Here we have found that metallic glasses with compositions at or near intermetallic compounds, in contrast to the ones at or near eutectics, are extremely ductile and also insensitive to annealing-induced embrittlement. We have also proposed a close correlation between the element distribution features and the plasticity of metallic glasses by tracing the evolutions of the element distribution rearrangement and the corresponding potential energy change within the sliding shear band. These novel results provide useful and universal guidelines to search for new ductile metallic glasses at or near the intermetallic compound compositions in a number of glass-forming alloy systems.
Related JoVE Video
Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200?mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200?mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput profiling of influenza A virus hemagglutinin gene at single-nucleotide resolution.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic research on influenza virus biology has been informed in large part by nucleotide variants present in seasonal or pandemic samples, or individual mutants generated in the laboratory, leaving a substantial part of the genome uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a single-nucleotide resolution genetic approach to interrogate the fitness effect of point mutations in 98% of the amino acid positions in the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Our HA fitness map provides a reference to identify indispensable regions to aid in drug and vaccine design as targeting these regions will increase the genetic barrier for the emergence of escape mutations. This study offers a new platform for studying genome dynamics, structure-function relationships, virus-host interactions, and can further rational drug and vaccine design. Our approach can also be applied to any virus that can be genetically manipulated.
Related JoVE Video
Activation energies of colloidal particle aggregation: towards a quantitative characterization of specific ion effects.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A quantitative description of specific ion effects is an essential and focused topic in colloidal and biological science. In this work, the dynamic light scattering technique was employed to study the aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles in the various alkali ion solutions with a wide range of concentrations. It indicated that the activation energies could be used to quantitatively characterize specific ion effects, which was supported by the results of effective hydrodynamic diameters, aggregation rates and critical coagulation concentrations. At a given concentration of 25 mmol L(-1), the activation energies for Li(+) are 1.2, 5.7, 28, and 126 times as much for Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+), respectively. Most importantly, the activation energy differences between two alkali cation species increase sharply with decrease of electrolyte concentrations, implying the more pronounced specific ion effects at lower concentrations. The dominant role of electrolyte cations during the aggregation of negatively charged colloidal particles was confirmed by alternative anions. Among the various theories, only the polarization effect can give a rational interpretation of the above specific ion effects, and this is substantially supported by the presence of strong electric fields from montmorillonite surfaces and its association mainly with electrolyte cations and montmorillonite particles. The classical induction theory, although with inclusion of electric field, requires significant corrections because it predicts an opposite trend to the experimentally observed specific ion effects.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence and removal of free estrogens, conjugated estrogens, and bisphenol A in manure treatment facilities in East China.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The occurrence of four free estrogens, four conjugated estrogens, and bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated in three cow farms, four swine farms, and five chicken farms. The daily total estrogen (free and conjugated) excretions of a cow were 145.23-179.27 ?g/d mainly through feces (92%), while swine excreted 42.56-219.25 ?g/d of estrogens mainly through urine (98-99%). Estrogen conjugates contributed 14.6-48.8% to the total estrogen excretions in cow feces and more than 98% in swine urine. A chicken excreted 0.66-12.78 ?g/d of total estrogens through feces, among which 34.2-100% was contributed by conjugated estrogens. The total estrogen removal efficiencies of manure anaerobic digesters and composters were 14.7-21.8% and less than 70.1%, respectively. Estrogens (E1, 17?-E2, E1-3S, and E2-3S) still existed in treated manure at concentrations up to 2695 ± 181 ng/L (anaerobic digestate) and at contents up to 80.8 ± 6.0 ng/g (compost). BPA was found in feces and compost samples at similar contents (nd-25 ng/g), and approximately 60-70% of BPA was removed in wastewater treatment facilities.
Related JoVE Video
Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 deficiency exacerbates pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), an inducible enzyme that converts prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays an important role in a variety of diseases. So far, the role of mPGES-1 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remained unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the role of mPGES-1 in pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. We found that mPGES-1 deficient (mPGES-1-/-) mice exhibited more severe fibrotic lesions with a decrease in PGE2 content in lungs after bleomycin treatment when compared with wild type (mPGES-1+/+) mice. The mPGES-1 expression levels and PGE2 content were also decreased in bleomycin-treated mPGES-1+/+ mice compared to saline-treated mPGES-1+/+ mice. Moreover, in both mPGES-1-/- and mPGES-1+/+ mice, bleomycin treatment reduced the expression levels of E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2) and EP4 receptor in lungs, whereas had little effect on EP1 and EP3. In cultured human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5), siRNA-mediated knockdown of mPGES-1 augmented transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-induced ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) protein expression, and the increase was reversed by treatment of PGE2, selective EP2 agonist and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings revealed mPGES-1 exerts an essential effect against pulmonary fibrogenesis via EP2-mediated signaling transduction, and activation of mPGES-1-PGE2-EP2-FAK signaling pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IPF patients.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoscale zero-valent iron/AC as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts in three-dimensional electrode system.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC) was investigated as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in three-dimensional (3D) electrode system for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Some important operating parameters such as cathodic potential, pH, and O? flow rate were investigated, exhibiting good decolorization. The mineralization of MO was significantly improved by 20-35% compared to two-dimensional (2D) AC system at the optimum conditions. Although the TOC removal of AC was higher than NZVI/AC due to its good adsorption capacity initially, heterogeneous Fenton catalysis played a more and more important roles in the following test. After eight runs, NZVI/AC still exhibited excellent catalytic properties with low iron leaching. Further, a relatively comprehensive mechanism of NZVI/AC as particle electrodes in 3D system was proposed.
Related JoVE Video
An aberrant spliced transcript of focal adhesion kinase is exclusively expressed in human breast cancer.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clarify the roles of a new aberrantly spliced transcript of FAK that lacks exon 26 (denoted -26-exon FAK) in human breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Malignant melanotic schwannian tumor: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling study of 40 cases, with a proposal for the reclassification of "melanotic schwannoma".
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melanotic schwannomas (MSs), variably associated with the Carney complex, are rare tumors that usually involve spinal nerve roots but may occur in other locations. Clinicopathologic evaluation poorly predicts the behavior of MS. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported. We report a series of 40 well-characterized MSs, one of the largest series to date. The tumors were comprehensively evaluated, and clinical follow-up was obtained. Immunohistochemistry for S100 protein, Melan-A, HMB45, tyrosinase, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), EMA, SMARCB1, Ki-67 antigen, ASMTL, and the Carney complex-associated PRKAR1A gene product was performed using commercially available antibodies and the Ventana Ultraview detection system. Gene microarray study was conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 MSs and the results compared with previous data from melanoma and schwannoma. Differentially expressed genes were selected at >3-fold and P<0.001. The Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. The tumors occurred in 18 male and 22 female patients (mean age 41 y; range, 11 to 84 y) and involved the paravertebral nerve roots (N=31), mediastinum (N=3), sacrum, cauda equina, para-aortic region, fifth cranial nerve, buttock, and cerebellum (N=1 each). Two patients had known Carney complex, and 1 patient also had a cutaneous myxoma, suggestive of Carney complex. The tumors expressed S100 protein (21/25, 84%), Melan-A (23/25, 92%), HMB45 (25/25, 100%), tyrosinase (25/25, 100%), GFAP (0/24, 0%), EMA (0/9, 0%), SMARCB1 (retained in 25/25, 100%), and ASMTL (5/19, 26%); PRKAR1A expression was lost in 7/20 cases (35%). Ki-67-labeling index was <5% in 23/25 cases (92%) and 5% to 10% in 2/25 cases (8%). Gene expression profiling showed significant differences between MS, melanoma, and conventional schwannoma. Clinical follow-up (26/40, 65%; mean 55 mo; range, 1 to 300 mo) showed local recurrences in 9/26 (35%) and metastases in 11/26 (44%) patients. Fourteen patients were alive without disease, 5 were alive with disease, and 7 had died of disease. Only a mitotic rate >2/10 HPF correlated with metastases (P=0.008). The clinicopathologic features of tumors with and without psammoma bodies were identical. We conclude that MSs are distinctive malignant tumors, rather than benign neoplasms with occasionally unpredictable behavior, and propose their reclassification as "malignant melanotic schwannian tumors." Loss of PRKAR1A expression suggests a link to Carney complex, even when this history is absent.
Related JoVE Video
ABCC4 copy number variation is associated with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the eighth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. However, previous genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism association analyses have not explained the high heritability associated with ESCC. In this study, we performed genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis on 128 discordant sibling pairs to identify novel genes that contribute to ESCC susceptibility. A total of 57 774 individual CNVs were identified, and an interactive network of common CNV-associated genes was constructed, which showed that several ABC transporter genes contain CNVs in ESCC patients. Independent validation of a CNV at 13q32.1 in 1048 northern Chinese Han subjects demonstrated that the amplification of ABCC4 significantly correlated with ESCC risk [odds ratio: 3.36 (1.65-7.93), P = 0.0013]. Immunohistochemistry staining suggested that high copy numbers correlated with increased protein levels. High expression of ABCC4 was an independent poor prognostic factor for ESCC [relative risk: 1.73 (1.10-2.73), P = 0.0181]. The CNV region showed strong enhancer activity. Furthermore, inhibition of ABCC4 protein in ESCC cells decreased cell proliferation and motility via the inhibition of COX-2, PGE2 receptors and c-Myc expression; AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation; and ?-catenin nuclear translocation in ESCC cells. In conclusion, the CNV at 13q32.1 is associated with ESCC susceptibility, and a gene within this locus, ABCC4, activates the oncogenic pathways in ESCC and thus facilitates cancer cell development and progression. A direct genetic contribution of ESCC risk through CNV common variants was determined in this study, and ABCC4 might therefore have predictive and therapeutic potential for ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolomics study on model rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with Bu?Fei Jian?Pi.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The therapeutic effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been know for numerous years; however, the mechanism of action of the beneficial effects of TCM remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of COPD through metabolomic analysis as well as explore the targets and intervention mechanisms of TCM therapy using the common TCM granules Bu?Fei Jian?Pi. COPD rat models were established using smoke inhalations and recurrent bacterial infections. Rats were then divided into three groups as follows: A1, control healthy rats; B1, COPD model; and D1, Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated COPD rats. Following administration of the medicine, the metabolomic pro?le of the lung tissue of rats in each group was assessed using high?performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole?time?of?flight mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that there was a significanlty different spectrum of metabolites in the lung tissue of the model group compared to that of the control group as well as the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated COPD group; in addition, following treatment with Bu?Fei Jian?Pi, the metabolites of COPD rats were comparable with those of the control. Notable changes were observed in 31 metabolites between the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated group and the model group; however, there were 13 comparable metabolites between the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi and control groups as well as the model and control groups. Eleven metabolites showed a negative fold change in the Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated groups compared to concentrations in the model group; however, minimal changes were observed in phenylpyruvic acid and ??D?fucose expression. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Bu?Fei Jian?Pi granules had beneficial effects on measured outcomes in a rat model of stable COPD, indicated by a significantly different spectrum of metabolites. This therefore indicated that the metabolites which had significantly altered expression in the model group compared with that of the control and Bu?Fei Jian?Pi?treated groups may be potential biomarkers of COPD.
Related JoVE Video
Recent updates on electrochemical degradation of bio-refractory organic pollutants using BDD anode: a mini review.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is playing an important role in environmental electrochemistry and has been successfully applied to the degradation of various bio-refractory organic pollutants. However, the review concerning recent progress in this research area is still very limited. This mini-review updated recent advances on the removal of three kinds of bio-refractory wastewaters including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and dyes using BDD electrode. It summarized the important parameters in three electrochemical oxidation processes, i.e., anodic oxidation (AO), electro-Fenton (EF), and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and compared their different degradation mechanisms and behaviors. As an attractive improvement of PEF, solar photoelectro-Fenton using sunlight as UV/vis source presented cost-effectiveness, in which the energy consumption for enrofloxacin removal was 0.246 kWh/(g TOC), which was much lower than that of 0.743 and 0.467 kWh/(g TOC) by AO and EF under similar conditions. Finally the existing problems and future prospects in research were suggested.
Related JoVE Video
De novo single exon deletion of AUTS2 in a patient with speech and language disorder: a review of disrupted AUTS2 and further evidence for its role in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene is suggested to play a critical role in early brain development, and its association with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders, and other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has recently gained more attention. Genomic rearrangements and copy number variations (CNVs) involving AUTS2 have been implicated in a range of NDDs with or without congenital malformations and dysmorphic features. Here we report a 62?kb de novo deletion encompassing exon 6 of AUTS2 detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in a 4.5 year-old female patient with severe speech and language disorder, history of tonic-clonic movements, and pes planus with eversion of the feet. This is one of the smallest de novo intragenic deletions of AUTS2 described in patients with NDDs. We reviewed previously reported small pathogenic CNVs (<300?kb) in 19 cases, and correlated their specific locations within AUTS2 as well as presence of enhancers, regulatory elements, and CpG islands with the clinical findings of these cases and our patient. Our report provides additional insight into the clinical spectrum of AUTS2 disruptions.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-506 inhibits PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells via CD151.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine, which is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). CD151, one of PRRSV entry mediators, determines the cell susceptibility for PRRSV. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating virus infection and viral pathogenesis. In the present study, targeting porcine CD151 miRNAs were identified, and their function during PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells was further verified. We found that miR-506 could directly target porcine CD151 3'-UTR mRNA by luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-506 significantly decreased CD151 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-506 reduced cellular PRRSV replication and virus release in MARC-145 cells. Our results suggested that miR-506 could inhibit PRRSV replication by directly targeting PRRSV receptor of CD151 in MARC-145 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of miR-506 and its function in vivo need further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of icotinib in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer after failure of chemotherapy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The preclinical experiments and several clinical studies showed icotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who failed previous chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective study of the efficacy and safety of icotinib monotherapy in a different and more recent sample of Chinese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Effects and mechanism of bufei yishen formula in a rat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bufei Yishen Formula (BYF) has been used for centuries in Asia to effectively treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study established a COPD animal model in rats, wherein three groups (control, COPD, and BYF) were used to evaluate the mechanism(s) and curative effect of BYF. Pulmonary function and histomorphology demonstrated that BYF had an evident effect on COPD. Gene microarray was then exploited to analyze the effects of BYF on COPD. ClueGO analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that BYF improved COPD by regulating expression of interleukins, myosin filament assembly components, and mitochondrial electron transport-related molecules. Moreover, ELISA revealed that expression of several interleukins (IL1 ? , IL6, IL8, and IL10) was reduced in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by BYF treatment. It was concluded that BYF has therapeutic effects on COPD in rats through its effects on interleukin expression and/or secretion. Furthermore, pharmacological or targeted expression of two differentially expressed genes, ? F2R and ? ?Sprik1, might be useful in novel COPD therapies. This study provides the basis for mechanisms of BYF on COPD and new therapeutic drug targets.
Related JoVE Video
Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1? was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
A long-term demasculinization of X-linked intergenic noncoding RNAs in Drosophila melanogaster.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have revealed key roles of noncoding RNAs in sex-related pathways, but little is known about the evolutionary forces acting on these noncoding RNAs. Profiling the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster with whole-genome tiling arrays found that 15% of male-biased transcribed fragments are intergenic noncoding RNAs (incRNAs), suggesting a potentially important role for incRNAs in sex-related biological processes. Statistical analysis revealed a paucity of male-biased incRNAs and coding genes on the X chromosome, suggesting that similar evolutionary forces could be affecting the genomic organization of both coding and noncoding genes. Expression profiling across germline and somatic tissues further suggested that both male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and sexual antagonism could contribute to the chromosomal distribution of male-biased incRNAs. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the evolutionary age of male-biased incRNAs is a significant predictor of their chromosomal locations. In addition to identifying abundant sex-biased incRNAs in the fly genome, our work unveils a global picture of the complex interplay between noncoding RNAs and sexual chromosome evolution.
Related JoVE Video
The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data.
Paul M Thompson, Jason L Stein, Sarah E Medland, Derrek P Hibar, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Miguel E Rentería, Roberto Toro, Neda Jahanshad, Gunter Schumann, Barbara Franke, Margaret J Wright, Nicholas G Martin, Ingrid Agartz, Martin Alda, Saud Alhusaini, Laura Almasy, Jorge Almeida, Kathryn Alpert, Nancy C Andreasen, Ole A Andreassen, Liana G Apostolova, Katja Appel, Nicola J Armstrong, Benjamin Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Michael Bauer, Carrie E Bearden, Orjan Bergmann, Elisabeth B Binder, John Blangero, Henry J Bockholt, Erlend Bøen, Catherine Bois, Dorret I Boomsma, Tom Booth, Ian J Bowman, Janita Bralten, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, David G Brohawn, Randy L Buckner, Jan Buitelaar, Kazima Bulayeva, Juan R Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Rita M Cantor, Melanie A Carless, Xavier Caseras, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, M Mallar Chakravarty, Kiki D Chang, Christopher R K Ching, Andrea Christoforou, Sven Cichon, Vincent P Clark, Patricia Conrod, Giovanni Coppola, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Ian J Deary, Eco J C de Geus, Anouk den Braber, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Chantal Depondt, Lieuwe de Haan, Greig I de Zubicaray, Danai Dima, Rali Dimitrova, Srdjan Djurovic, Hongwei Dong, Gary Donohoe, Ravindranath Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Stefan Ehrlich, Carl Johan Ekman, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Louise Emsell, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Jesen Fagerness, Scott Fears, Iryna Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Simon E Fisher, Tatiana Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Sophia Frangou, Eva Maria Frey, Thomas Frodl, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Sudheer Giddaluru, David C Glahn, Beata Godlewska, Rita Z Goldstein, Randy L Gollub, Hans J Grabe, Oliver Grimm, Oliver Gruber, Tulio Guadalupe, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Saskia Hagenaars, Tomáš Hájek, Geoffrey B Hall, Jeremy Hall, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Johanna Hass, Sean N Hatton, Unn K Haukvik, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Ian B Hickie, Beng-Choon Ho, David Hoehn, Pieter J Hoekstra, Marisa Hollinshead, Avram J Holmes, Georg Homuth, Martine Hoogman, L Elliot Hong, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Kristy S Hwang, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Caroline Johnston, Erik G Jönsson, René S Kahn, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sinead Kelly, Sungeun Kim, Peter Kochunov, Laura Koenders, Bernd Krämer, John B J Kwok, Jim Lagopoulos, Gonzalo Laje, Mikael Landén, Bennett A Landman, John Lauriello, Stephen M Lawrie, Phil H Lee, Stephanie Le Hellard, Herve Lemaitre, Cassandra D Leonardo, Chiang-Shan Li, Benny Liberg, David C Liewald, Xinmin Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Eva Loth, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Michelle Luciano, Fabio Macciardi, Marise W J Machielsen, Glenda M Macqueen, Ulrik F Malt, René Mandl, Dara S Manoach, Jean-Luc Martinot, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, Morten Mattingsdal, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Francis J McMahon, Katie L McMahon, Eva Meisenzahl, Ingrid Melle, Yuri Milaneschi, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Eric K Moses, Bryon A Mueller, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Benson Mwangi, Matthias Nauck, Kwangsik Nho, Thomas E Nichols, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Allison C Nugent, Lars Nyberg, Rene L Olvera, Jaap Oosterlaan, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Melina Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Martina Papmeyer, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Godfrey D Pearlson, Brenda W Penninx, Charles P Peterson, Andrea Pfennig, Mary Phillips, G Bruce Pike, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Steven G Potkin, Benno Pütz, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jerod Rasmussen, Marcella Rietschel, Mark Rijpkema, Shannon L Risacher, Joshua L Roffman, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Dan Rujescu, Mina Ryten, Perminder S Sachdev, Alireza Salami, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Jonathan Savitz, Andrew J Saykin, Cathy Scanlon, Lianne Schmaal, Hugo G Schnack, Andrew J Schork, S Charles Schulz, Remmelt Schür, Larry Seidman, Li Shen, Jody M Shoemaker, Andrew Simmons, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Jair C Soares, Scott R Sponheim, Emma Sprooten, John M Starr, Vidar M Steen, Stephen Strakowski, Lachlan Strike, Jessika Sussmann, Philipp G Sämann, Alexander Teumer, Arthur W Toga, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Daniah Trabzuni, Sarah Trost, Jessica Turner, Martijn van den Heuvel, Nic J van der Wee, Kristel van Eijk, Theo G M van Erp, Neeltje E M van Haren, Dennis van 't Ent, Marie-José van Tol, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Dick J Veltman, Amelia Versace, Henry Völzke, Robert Walker, Henrik Walter, Lei Wang, Joanna M Wardlaw, Michael E Weale, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Lars T Westlye, Heather C Whalley, Christopher D Whelan, Tonya White, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, David Zilles, Marcel P Zwiers, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Peter R Schofield, Nelson B Freimer, Natalia S Lawrence, Wayne Drevets, .
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
Related JoVE Video
Erectile function restoration after repair of resected cavernous nerves by adipose-derived stem cells combined with autologous vein graft in rats.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cavernous nerve (CN) injury is the main cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) following radical prostatectomy. The recovery of erectile function following this procedure remains challenging. Here, we investigated the ability of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with autologous vein graft to improve erectile function in a rat model of bilateral long CN resection. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36) were randomized into four groups. Group A underwent sham operation. In Groups B, C, and D, an 8-mm segment of CN was excised bilaterally. In Group B and C, a 10-mm segment of autologous saphenous vein was interposed bilaterally at the site of injury, and the two nerve stumps were inserted into the vein lumen. 50 ?L ADSCs were injected into each vein in Group B, and 50 ?L of phosphate-buffered saline was injected in Group C. Group D underwent no repair. Erectile function assessed after 3 months by measuring intracavernosal pressure demonstrated significant recovery in erectile function in Group B with minimal recovery in Group C or D. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the nNOS-positive area was significantly larger in Group B than in Group D. ADSCs combined with autologous vein graft treatment had beneficial effects on the smooth muscle/collagen ratio in the corpus cavernosum. This procedure, therefore, provided a means of regenerating CN tissue and restoring autonomic erectile function after long bilateral CN resection (0.8 cm) in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Chemoradiotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone after surgery in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To conduct a comprehensive review whether chemotherapy to radiotherapy after surgical resection could improve the loco regional control and survival compared with postoperative radiotherapy alone.
Related JoVE Video
The clinical features of foreign body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the clinical features of foreign-body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients.
Related JoVE Video
New insights into FAK phosphorylation based on a FAT domain-defective mutation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mounting evidence suggests that the FAK N-terminal (FERM) domain controls FAK phosphorylation and function; however, little is known regarding the role of the C terminal (FAT) domain in FAK regulation. We identified a patient-derived FAK mutant, in which a 27-amino acid segment was deleted from the C-terminal FAT domain (named FAK-Del33). When FAK-Del33 was overexpressed in specific tumor cell lines, Y397 phosphorylation increased compared with that observed in cells expressing FAK-WT. Here, we attempt to unveil the mechanism of this increased phosphorylation. Using cell biology experiments, we show that FAK-Del33 is incapable of co-localizing with paxillin, and has constitutively high Y397 phosphorylation. With a kinase-dead mutation, it showed phosphorylation of FAK-Del33 has enhanced through auto-phosphorylation. It was also demonstrated that phosphorylation of FAK-Del33 is not Src dependent or enhanced intermolecular interactions, and that the hyperphosphorylation can be lowered using increasing amounts of transfected FERM domain. This result suggests that Del33 mutation disrupting of FAT's structural integrity and paxillin binding capacity leads to incapable of targeting Focal adhesions, but has gained the capacity for auto-phosphorylation in cis.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb-herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix.
Front Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb-herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix.
Related JoVE Video
CP-673451, a platelet-derived growth-factor receptor inhibitor, suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and migration.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Although some advances in lung cancer therapy have been made, patient survival is still poor. The platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) and their ligands play critical roles in the regulation of many cancer cell processes, including cell survival and cell motility. Herein, we investigate the anticancer activities of CP-673451, a potent selective inhibitor of PDGFR kinase, in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. We found that CP-673451 is effective at suppressing cell viability, inducing cell apoptosis, and inhibiting cell migration and invasion by suppressing the PDGFR downstream signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, CP-673451 is effective at suppressing NSCLC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that CP-673451 might be a promising therapeutic compound for NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 quasispecies delineation by tag linkage deep sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trade-offs between throughput, read length, and error rates in high-throughput sequencing limit certain applications such as monitoring viral quasispecies. Here, we describe a molecular-based tag linkage method that allows assemblage of short sequence reads into long DNA fragments. It enables haplotype phasing with high accuracy and sensitivity to interrogate individual viral sequences in a quasispecies. This approach is demonstrated to deduce ? 2000 unique 1.3 kb viral sequences from HIV-1 quasispecies in vivo and after passaging ex vivo with a detection limit of ? 0.005% to ? 0.001%. Reproducibility of the method is validated quantitatively and qualitatively by a technical replicate. This approach can improve monitoring of the genetic architecture and evolution dynamics in any quasispecies population.
Related JoVE Video
Human developmental chondrogenesis as a basis for engineering chondrocytes from pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166(low/neg)CD146(low/neg)CD73(+)CD44(low)BMPR1B(+)) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5-6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166(low/neg)BMPR1B(+) putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolomic analysis of the effects of chronic arsenic exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced fatty liver disease.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arsenic is a widely-distributed environmental component that is associated with a variety of cancer and non-cancer adverse health effects. Additional lifestyle factors, such as diet, contribute to the manifestation of disease. Recently, arsenic was found to increase inflammation and liver injury in a dietary model of fatty liver disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential mechanisms of this diet-environment interaction via a high throughput metabolomics approach. GC×GC-TOF MS was used to identify metabolites that were significantly increased or decreased in the livers of mice fed a Western diet (a diet high in fat and cholesterol) and co-exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The results showed that there are distinct hepatic metabolomic profiles associated with eating a high fat diet, drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and the combination of the two. Among the metabolites that were decreased when arsenic exposure was combined with a high fat diet were short-chain and medium-chain fatty acid metabolites and the anti-inflammatory amino acid, glycine. These results are consistent with the observed increase in inflammation and cell death in the livers of these mice, and they point to potentially novel mechanisms by which these metabolic pathways could be altered by arsenic in the context of diet-induced fatty liver disease.
Related JoVE Video
Differential effects of epigenetic modifiers on the expansion and maintenance of human cord blood stem/progenitor cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epigenetic therapies, including DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are increasingly being considered to treat haematological malignancies, while their effects on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) remain largely unexplored. We compared the effects of several HDAC inhibitors, including valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), alone or in combination with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5azaD) on the expansion of HSCs. VPA induced the highest expansion of CD34+CD90+ cells and progenitor cells compared with other HDAC inhibitors or the sequential addition of 5azaD/TSA in culture. Xeno-transplantation studies demonstrated that VPA prevents HSC loss, while 5azaD/TSA treatment leads to a net expansion of HSCs that retain serial transplantation ability. 5azaD/TSA-mediated HSC expansion was associated with increased histone acetylation and transient DNA demethylation, which corresponded with higher gene transcript levels. However, some genes with increased transcript levels lacked changes in methylation. Importantly, a global microarray analysis revealed a set of differentially expressed genes in 5azaD/TSA- and VPA-expanded CD34+ cells that might be involved in the expansion and maintenance of transplantable HSCs, respectively. In summary, our data indicate that treatment of HSCs with different chromatin-modifying agents (CMAs) results in either the expansion or maintenance of HSCs, an observation of potential therapeutic importance.
Related JoVE Video
Intestinal transport of 3,6-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3,6-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the above results indicate that 3,6-disinapoylsucrose might be transported across the intestinal mucosa by paracellular passive penetration and paracellular enhancers could increase the intestinal permeability of this compound and thus slightly improve its oral bioavailability.
Related JoVE Video
Olanzapine activates hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin: new mechanistic insight into metabolic dysregulation with atypical antipsychotic drugs.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Olanzapine (OLZ), an effective treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders, causes weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Most studies to date have focused on the potential effects of OLZ on the central nervous systems mediation of weight; however, peripheral changes in liver or other key metabolic organs may also play a role in the systemic effects of OLZ. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of OLZ on hepatic metabolism in a mouse model of OLZ exposure. Female C57Bl/6J mice were administered OLZ (8 mg/kg per day) or vehicle subcutaneously by osmotic minipumps for 28 days. Liver and plasma were taken at sacrifice for biochemical analyses and for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis. OLZ increased body weight, fat pad mass, and liver-to-body weight ratio without commensurate increase in food consumption, indicating that OLZ altered energy expenditure. Expression and biochemical analyses indicated that OLZ induced anaerobic glycolysis and caused a pseudo-fasted state, which depleted hepatic glycogen reserves. OLZ caused similar effects in cultured HepG2 cells, as determined by Seahorse analysis. Metabolomic analysis indicated that OLZ increased hepatic concentrations of amino acids that can alter metabolism via the mTOR pathway; indeed, hepatic mTOR signaling was robustly increased by OLZ. Interestingly, OLZ concomitantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism caused by OLZ in liver may be mediated, at least in part, via simultaneous activation of both catabolic (AMPK) and anabolic (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways, which yields new insight into the metabolic side effects of this drug.
Related JoVE Video
Combined determination of surface properties of nano-colloidal particles through ion selective electrodes with potentiometer.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five parameters, including specific surface area, surface potential, charge density, electrostatic field strength and charge number on the solid-liquid interface, are important surface properties of charged nano-colloidal particles. Currently, although the specific surface area (outer surface area) can be instrumentally determined through inert gas adsorption, there is no instrument that can determine the other four surface properties, let alone give a combined measurement. A new method for the combined measurement of five surface properties by Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes with a potentiometer was developed, which can give precise results with good repeatability from the measurements. Besides, this new method bears three other significant advantages: (1) for the first time, the surface potential and total surface area (both inner and outer surface areas) of particles can be easily determined with a potentiometer, (2) the enhanced dispersion forces of counterions in the surface electrostatic field from charged particles were considered and (3) a combined measurement of the five surface properties can be done with a potentiometer. The combined measurement means that the five surface properties of particles can be determined under identical conditions, which is very important for the study of interface reactions in aqueous solutions. Based on the method, a new apparatus for the combined measurement of the five surface properties of nano-colloidal particles can be developed.
Related JoVE Video
[Three-dimensional displacement of implant-supported cantilever fixed partial denture under oblique loading].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to research the three-dimensional displacements of implant-supported cantilever fixed partial denture (CFPD) under oblique loading. One Beagle dog was used in this experiment. Two immediate implants of ITI were inserted in the mandible of the dog, and the implant-supported CFPD which used the implants as abutments was made in vitro fresh mandible. Then the digital laser speckle technique was employed to measure the three-dimensional displacements of CFPD under different oblique loading. We found that when an oblique loading was exerted on the pontic, the displacement increased with increasing of load. Under equal loading, the displacement of the abutment near to the pontic was smaller than that of the pontic but greater than that of the abut-ment far from the pontic. When oblique loading was exerted on the abutment, the displacement of the direct loaded abutment was greater than that of the other abutment and the pontic. Under the.eeual loading, the displacement of implant-supported CFPD of loading on pontic was greater than that of loading on abutments. The experiments demonstrated that implant-supported cantilever fixed partial denture (CFPD) is an effective and advisable therapy for totally? or partially edentulous patients. However, it is also suggested that the clinicians should avoid exerting oblique loading, especially the obliqe loading of the pontic when th e CPDF is used.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated in an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The removal efficiencies of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) were 100% in both reactors in steady operation state. The total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies were 90.4% in the IASBR and 79.3% in the SBR, while the total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were 88.8% in the IASBR and 82.3% in the SBR. The efficiencies of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) were 90.4% in the IASBR and 79.3% in the SBR, indicating that the IASBR was more efficient than the SBR in SND. The sludge in the IASBR had a P release capability of 16.6 mg P/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) but only 7.5 mg P/g VSS in the SBR.
Related JoVE Video
Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, laboratory-scale hybrid biofilters were set up to treat the separated pig manure digestate liquid at two loading rates of 0.12 and 0.07 kg N m(-3) per day. The hybrid biofilters were operated with a sequencing batch reactor mode. Over the operation of 136 days, 84% and 88% of total nitrogen was removed on average in addition with complete nitrification at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. In the anoxic phase, the nitrate reduction rates were 0.31 and 0.24 mg L(-1) min(-1); and in the aerobic phase, nitrification rates were 0.29 and 0.18 mg L(-1) min(-1) at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. It was found that in the hybrid biofilters, biofilm biomass had much higher nitrification and denitrification activities than suspended growth biomass. Phosphorus removals achieved were up to 88%. The results show the hybrid biofilter technology is valid for high nutrient pig manure digestate liquid treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Reactive oxygen species play a central role in hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells without the functional roles of p53 and caspase-3.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and its compounds, which have the extensive application in diverse industries including metallurgy, textile and electroplating, are known to be genotoxic and mutagenic to humans. Although it is supported by a large body of literatures that p53 and caspase-3 played key roles in Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity, it is clear that Cr(VI) could induce apoptosis either without activating caspase, or in a p53- independent manner.
Related JoVE Video
Bronchogenic cyst of the interatrial septum.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bronchogenic cyst is considered as an uncommon congenital anomaly. It can be mostly found in mediastinum or lung. Intracardiac bronchogenic cyst is very rare. We found 2 cases in more than 20000 cardiac surgical cases in our department. The 2 cases bronchogenic cyst arose from interatrial septum (IAS), the preoperative diagnosis were myxoma, but the histological diagnosis were bronchogenic cyst in both cases. Although it is very rare, it should be considered while intracardiac tumor is diagnosed. It is recommended to complete resection of any bronchogenic cyst for primarily diagnostic and potentially therapeutic reasons, and every effort should be made to prevent complications due to injury to nearby tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater by means of FeS-based autotrophic denitrification.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy of iron(II) sulfide (FeS)-based autotrophic denitrification in simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater was studied with batch experiments. It was efficient at a wide pH range of 5-9, and temperature range of 10-40 °C. The concentrations of NH??-N, Mg²? and HCO?? in the wastewater should be kept over 7.8, 0.24 and 30 mg L?¹ for efficient nitrate (NO??-N) reduction, respectively. The NO??-N removal rate increased from 0 to 82 mg L?¹ d?¹ and then leveled off when the NO??-N concentration increased from 0 to 415 mg L?¹ and then to 700 mg L?¹, respectively. The NO??-N removal rate quickly increased, leveled off, and then sharply decreased when the PO?³?-P concentration increased from 0 to 0.1 mg L?¹, then to 114.0 mg L?¹, and further to 683.8 mg L?¹, respectively. The PO?³?-P removal was over 98% when the PO?³?-P concentration ranged 0-683.3 mg L?¹. During treatment of the secondary effluent of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant containing NO??-N of 14.9 mg L?¹ and total phosphorus (TP) of 3.9 mg L?¹, NO??-N was reduced to 1.1 mg L?¹ and TP was completely removed.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of phthalic acid esters in source waters: a nationwide survey in China during the period of 2009-2012.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The first nationwide survey of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (diethyl phthalate (DEP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP); bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) in source waters was conducted in China. The results showed these PAEs were ubiquitous in source waters. DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected with high concentrations ranging nd-1.52 ?g/L and nd-6.35 ?g/L, respectively. These PAEs concentrations (except DBP) in surface water (rivers, lakes and reservoirs) were generally higher than those in groundwater; DBP had high concentrations in groundwater in Northeast China (Liao River Basin) and North China (Hai River Basin). Their concentrations in the northern regions were generally higher than those in the southern and eastern regions; particularly, in North China. Three short-chain PAEs (DMP, DEP and DBP) were detected with high concentrations in Hai River Basin, Pearl River Basin and Yellow River Basin.
Related JoVE Video
Pseudo attP sites in favor of transgene integration and expression in cultured porcine cells identified by streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase.
BMC Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phage PhiC31 integrase integrates attB-containing plasmid into pseudo attP site in eukaryotic genomes in a unidirectional site-specific manner and maintains robust transgene expression. Few studies, however, explore its potential in livestock. This study aims to discover the molecular basis of PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination in pig cells. We show that PhiC31 integrase can mediate site-specific transgene integration into the genome of pig kidney PK15 cells. Intramolecular recombination in pig PK15 cell line occurred at maximum frequency of 82% with transiently transfected attB- and attP-containing plasmids. An optimal molar ratio of pCMV-Int to pEGFP-N1-attB at 5:1 was observed for maximum number of cell clones under drug selection. Four candidate pseudo attP sites were identified by TAIL-PCR from those cell clones with single-copy transgene integration. Two of them gave rise to higher integration frequency occurred at 33%. 5 and 3 junction PCR showed that transgene integration mediated by PhiC31 integrase was mono-allelic. Micro- deletion and insertion were observed by sequencing the integration border, indicating that double strand break was induced by the recombination. We then constructed rescue reporter plasmids by ABI-REC cloning of the four pseudo attP sites into pBCPB + plasmid. Transfection of these rescue plasmids and pCMV-Int resulted in expected intramolecular recombination between attB and pseudo attP sites. This proved that the endogenous pseudo attP sites were functional substrates for PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination. Two pseudo attP sites maintained robust extracellular and intracellular EGFP expression. Alamar blue assay showed that transgene integration into these specific sites had little effect on cell proliferation. This is the first report to document the potential use of PhiC31 integrase to mediate site-specific recombination in pig cells. Our work established an ideal model to study the position effect of identical transgene located in diverse chromosomal contexts. These findings also form the basis for targeted pig genome engineering and may be used to produce genetically modified pigs for agricultural and biomedical uses.
Related JoVE Video
Adsorption removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution by anaerobic granular sludge: equilibrium and kinetic studies.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High concentration animal wastewater is often contaminated by tetracycline and an upflow anaerobic sludge bioreactor (UASB) with granular sludge is often used to treat the wastewater. The investigation of the adsorption process of tetracycline on anaerobic granular sludge during anaerobic digestion of animal wastewater will increase the understanding of antibiotics behavior in the UASB reactor. In this study, the effects of initial pH, humic acid concentration, and temperature on the removal of tetracycline by anaerobic granular sludge from aqueous solution were investigated using the batch adsorption technique in 100 mL flasks with 75 mL of work volume. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 93.0% was achieved around pH 3.0 and the removal efficiency at the neutral pH range (pH 6.0-8.0) is about 91.5%. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorption isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir model is better than the Freundlich model for the description of the adsorption process and confirms the result of thermodynamics analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities were 2.984, 4.108 and 4.618 mg/g at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. These results provide useful information for understanding the fate and transformation of tetracycline in a UASB digestion system and improving the management of tetracycline contaminated animal wastewater.
Related JoVE Video
Endoscopically acquired pancreatic cyst fluid microRNA 21 and 221 are associated with invasive cancer.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cysts are a group of lesions with heterogeneous malignant potential. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers to aid in cyst diagnosis and classification. The objective of this study was to identify potential microRNA (miR) biomarkers in endoscopically acquired pancreatic cyst fluid that could be used to distinguish between benign, premalignant, and malignant cysts.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorus removal in a sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) biofilter.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) biofilter was able to remove phosphorous from wastewater during autotrophic denitrification. Parameters influencing autotrophic denitrification in the SLAD biofilter, such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent nitrate (NO3 (-)), and influent PO4 (3-) concentrations, had significant effects on P removal. P removal was well correlated with total oxidized nitrogen (TON) removed in the SLAD biofilter; the more TON removed, the more efficient P removal was achieved. When treating the synthetic wastewater containing NO3 (-)-N of 30 mg L(-1) and PO4 (3-)-P of 15 mg L(-1), the SLAD biofilter removed phosphorus of 45 % when the HRT was 6 h, in addition with TN removal of nearly 100 %. The optimal phosphorus removal in the SLAD biofilter was around 60 %. For the synthetic wastewater containing a PO4 (3-)-P concentration of 15 mg L(-1), the main mechanism of phosphorus removal was the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates.
Related JoVE Video
PTP?-mediated Src activation by EGF in human breast cancer cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP?) functions as an activator of Src by dephosphorylating Tyr527/530, a critical negative regulatory site. The increase of PTP? catalytic activity requires its phosphorylation at Ser180 and/or Ser204 and its dissociation from PTP?/Grb2 complex. Here, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation increases the ability of PTP? to activate Src by dephosphorylating Tyr530 in BT-20 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines. Treatment of these cells with EGF transiently decreased the association of PTP? with Grb2 and enhanced PTP? catalytic activity via Ser180 and Ser204 phosphorylation that was blocked by the protein kinase C delta (PKC?) inhibitor rottlerin or knockdown of PKC? by siRNA or by the overexpression of PTP?S180A/S204A mutant. PTP? siRNA blocked EGF-mediated Src activation in cancer cells and inhibited on colony formation, whereas control siRNA did not. These results suggested that PTP? links activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling with Src activation and may provide a novel therapeutic target for treatment of breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
[Efficacy of icotinib for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with EGFR status identified].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As the first epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in China, icotinib shows promising anticancer activity in vitro and vivo. The phase III clinical study (ICOGEN) showed that icotinib has a good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with gefitinib. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the ef?cacy and tolerability of icotinib monotherapy for advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and wild-type patients in our hospital.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia by multiplex qRT-PCR.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as there are many lesions that are mimics, clinically and on pathologic examination. One of the most challenging lesions to differentiate from squamous cell carcinoma is pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, a reactive proliferation of the epidermis that can be encountered secondary to a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Utilizing the data set from our previously performed DNA microarray studies on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, we found that the genes C15orf48 and KRT9 had a distinct and robust gene expression pattern in distinguishing squamous cell carcinoma from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. C15orf48 had higher expression than KRT9 in squamous cell carcinoma, but lower expression than KRT9 in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. We developed and blindly validated a multiplex TaqMan PCR assay that utilizes these two highly discriminatory genes, which can be performed on material extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. The TaqMan assay was able to differentiate squamous cell carcinoma from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in 54 of 58 cases (93%). Squamous cell carcinoma was accurately identified in 27 of 28 cases (96%); pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in 27 of 30 cases (90%). This multiplex TaqMan PCR assay may be used as a helpful ancillary molecular diagnostic test to accurately distinguish squamous cell carcinoma from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in challenging cases.
Related JoVE Video
The Classification and Application of Toxic Chinese Materia Medica.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many important drugs in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) are known to be toxic, and it has long been recognized in classical Chinese medical theory that toxicity can arise directly from the components of a single CMM or may be induced by an interaction between combined CMM. Traditional Chinese Medicine presents a unique set of pharmaceutical theories that include particular methods for processing, combining and decocting, and these techniques contribute to reducing toxicity as well as enhancing efficacy. The current classification of toxic CMM drugs, traditional methods for processing toxic CMM and the prohibited use of certain combinations, is based on traditional experience and ancient texts and monographs, but accumulating evidence increasingly supports their use to eliminate or reduce toxicity. Modern methods are now being used to evaluate the safety of CMM; however, a new system for describing the toxicity of Chinese herbal medicines may need to be established to take into account those herbs whose toxicity is delayed or otherwise hidden, and which have not been incorporated into the traditional classification. This review explains the existing classification and justifies it where appropriate, using experimental results often originally published in Chinese and previously not available outside China. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic scopolamine-injection-induced cognitive deficit on reward-directed instrumental learning in rat is associated with CREB signaling activity in the cerebral cortex and dorsal hippocampus.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, has been used in experimental animal models of dementia. It has been demonstrated to disrupt performances in a battery of behavioral tests. However, no attempt has been made to determine how scopolamine-treated animals would respond to a series of reward-directed instrumental learning (RDIL) tasks.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.