The roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels (Rubiaceae) have been used as an alternative for Rubia cordifolia for the treatment of various diseases including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease for a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. To evaluate antihyperlipidemic activity of the roots of Rubia. yunnanensis Diels and to identify active compounds from the active fraction.
Orderly porous graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose (GO/CMC) monoliths were prepared by a unidirectional freeze-drying method. The porous monoliths were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Their properties including compressive strength and moisture adsorption were measured. The incorporation of GO changed the porous structure of the GO/CMC monoliths and significantly increased their compressive strength. The porous GO/CMC monoliths exhibited a strong ability to adsorb metal ions, and the Ni(2+) ions adsorbed on GO/CMC monolith were reduced by NaBH4 to obtain Ni GO/CMC monolith which could be used as catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Since CMC is biodegradable and non-toxic, the porous GO/CMC monoliths are potential environmental adsorbents.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Zhizhu decoction on gastric emptying and gastric mucosal protection. The Zhizhu decoction is composed of Aurantii fructus and Atractylodes macrocephala Rhizoma. Results showed that oral administration of the Zhizhu decoction accelerated gastric emptying in mouse and protected gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced ulcers in rat. Our investigations demonstrated that the Zhizhu decoction accelerated gastric emptying, at least in part, by activating the muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors. The gastroprotective effect is involved in its antioxidant effects and increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
The goals of this study were to investigate the effects of hypoxia on cochlear hair cell damage, and to explore the role of sirtuin1 in hypoxia-induced hair cell damage. Cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 4 rats were used in this study. Hypoxia was induced by treating cochlear explants with CoCl2. Cochlear cultures were treated with CoCl2 alone or in combination with the sirtuin1 activator resveratrol and the sirtuin1 inhibitor sirtinol. Hair cell damage was identified by phalloidin staining and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of sirtuin1 and acetylated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Low concentrations of CoCl2 (100-200 ?M) did not cause an obvious change in the number and morphology of hair cells, whereas higher concentrations of CoCl2 (300-400 ?M) induced swelling of hair cells, accompanied by cell loss. Increased sirtuin1 expression was induced by CoCl2 at 100 to 200 ?M, but not at 400 ?M. NF-?B acetylation was significantly increased in explants treated with 400 ?M CoCl2. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented CoCl2-induced hair cell loss and acetylation of NF-?B. The protective effect of resveratrol was significantly reduced by sirtinol. CoCl2 induces hair cell damage in organotypic cochleae cultures. Resveratrol attenuates CoCl2-induced cochlear hair cell damage possibly via activation of sirtuin1, which deacetylates NF-?B.
The excretory-secretory products (ESP) released by muscle stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ESP modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. In the present study, the ability of ESP of muscle larvae of T. spiralis (ML-ESP) to influence the proliferation and differentiation of murine myoblasts and the mechanisms were evaluated in vitro using C2C12 myoblast cell line, which were incubated for various times under grow or differentiation culture medium containing various concentrations of ML-ESP. The results indicated that ML-ESP promoted myoblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and increased the expression of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 as well as that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Conversely, ML-ESP inhibited the differentiation of these cells, which was evidenced by a reduction in the levels of MHC and MRFs expression (MyoD and myogenin) as well as that of p21. In addition, ML-ESP also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in differentiating C2C12 myoblast. Taken together, these results imply that certain critical mediators contained in ML-ESP inhibit myogenesis through enhancing skeletal myoblasts proliferation and down-regulating the expression of MRFs as well as involving p38 MAPK signalling pathway, which provides insight into the mechanisms utilised by T. spiralis to interfere normal wound repair in infected muscle cells and affect nurse cell formation.
A method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil. The soil sample was extracted by dichloromethane-acetone (1: 1, v/v) with an ultrasonic instrument, and the extract was cleaned up with a Florisil column. The identification and quantification of the analytes were carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode after the GC separation on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm). The eight point calibration curves showed a good linearity for all the congeners (0.997 3 - 0.997 6). The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 microg/kg. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than 14.3% and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 72.9% - 106.2%. The developed analytical method is rapid and accurate, and suitable for the determination of PAEs in soil.
A 70% ethanol-water extract from the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) inhibited triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. From the active fraction, seven new benzophenone C-glycosides, foliamangiferosides A (1), A(1) (2), A(2) (3), B (4), C(1) (5), C(2) (6), and C(3) (7), together with five known compounds were isolated and the structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The effects of these compounds on TG and the free fatty acid level in 3T3-L1 cells were determined, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. On the basis of the AMPK signaling pathway, several compounds were found to increase the AMPK enzyme expression and down-regulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression such as SREBP1c, FAS, and HSL.
INTRODUCTION:: The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gastrin can correct the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats and to determine the involvement of the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) in this process. METHODS:: Rat diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The mRNA and protein levels of insulin and PDX1 were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Serum levels of C-peptide and insulin were analyzed using radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS:: The combined administration of EGF and gastrin efficiently reversed the hyperglycemia induced by STZ. Elevated insulin concentration was detected in diabetic rats treated with EGF plus gastrin. The authors also found that both insulin and PDX1 expression were reduced in STZ-treated rats. Interestingly, the combination treatment also significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of insulin and PDX1, and that of their protein products. CONCLUSIONS:: Therapy with EGF plus gastrin corrected hyperglycemia and maintained insulin content in STZ-induced diabetic rats via up-regulation of PDX1 expression, suggesting that this combination treatment may provide a valuable approach for pancreatic islet neogenesis in vivo.
Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic nematode and food borne parasite and infection with T. spiralis leads to suppression of the host immune response and other immunopathologies. The excretory/secretory (ES) products of T. spiralis play important roles in the process of immunomodulation. However, the mechanisms and related molecules are unknown. Macrophages, a target for immunomodulation by the helminth parasite, play a critical role in initiating and modulating the host immune response to parasite infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ES products from different stages of T. spiralis on modulating J774A.1 macrophage activities. ES products from different stages of T. spiralis reduced the capacity of macrophages to express pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-1? , interleukin-6 , and interleukin-12) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. However, only ES products from 3-day-old adult worms and 5-day-old adult worms/new-born larvae significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, ES products alone boosted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-? and effector molecule arginase 1 in J774A.1 macrophages. Signal transduction studies showed that ES products significantly inhibited nuclear factor-?B translocation into the nucleus and the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 macrophages. These results suggest that ES products regulate host immune response at the macrophage level through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and induction of macrophage toward the alternative phenotype, which maybe important for worm survival and host health.
Oxytetracycline has been used in the treatment of acute and chronic bronchial inflammation and infectious asthma. However, its potential use for non-infectious asthma has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of oxytetracycline using a mouse asthma model. Female BALB/c mice, sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Naive CD4+ T cells from spleen were stimulated for 72 h with anti-CD3 (5 ?g/ml) plus anti-CD28 (2.5 ?g/ml) and differentiated into Th2 cells. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE production were measured by ELISA in BALF and cell supernatants. Histopathological evaluation was used to study the alterations in lung tissue. The mRNA levels of CCL5, CCL11, CCR1, and CCR3 were detected by real-time PCR. In addition, the protein levels of p-Akt, Akt, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), I?B? and p-I?B? in lung tissue and cells were measured by western blot or immunofluorescence analysis. Oxytetracycline treatment caused a marked reduction in IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, immune cells, and the level of ovalbumin-specific IgE. Real-time PCR studies demonstrated that oxytetracycline can significantly reduce CCL5, CCL11 and their specific receptor CCR1 and CCR3. Histological studies demonstrated that oxytetracycline substantially inhibited ovalbumin-induced inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue and goblet cell hyperplasia in airway. Oxytetracycline inhibited the NF-?B activation via phosphorylation and degradation of I?B? both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the increased phosphorylated Akt but not Akt protein levels in lung tissues after OVA inhalation were significantly reduced by the oral administration of oxytetracycline. These findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of oxytetracycline that might be mediated via reduction of inflammatory mediators and activation of transcription factors.
The sulfonated phenylenevinylene polyanion derivate (APPV) and exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) monolayers were alternatively assembled into ordered ultrathin films (UTFs) employing a layer-by-layer method, which shows uniform yellow luminescence. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy present a stepwise and regular growth of the UTFs upon increasing deposited cycles. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate that the UTFs are orderly periodical layered structure with a thickness of 3.3-3.5 nm per bilayer. The APPV/LDH UTFs exhibit well-defined polarized photoemission characteristic with the maximum luminescence anisotropy of approximately 0.3. Moreover, the UTF exhibit longer fluorescence lifetime (3-3.85-fold) and higher photostability than the drop-casting APPV film under UV irradiation, suggesting that the existence of a LDH monolayer enhances the optical performance of the APPV polyanion. A combination study of electrochemistry and periodic density functional theory was used to investigate the electronic structure of the APPV/LDH system, illustrating that the APPV/LDH UTF is a kind of organic-inorganic hybrid multiple quantum well (MQW) structure with a low band energy of 1.7-1.8 eV, where the valence electrons of APPV can be confined into the energy wells formed by the LDH monolayers effectively. Therefore, this work not only gives a feasible method for fabricating a luminescence ultrathin film but also provides a detailed understanding of the geometric and electronic structures of photoactive polyanions confined between the LDH monolayers.
Sj23, a member of the tetraspanin protein family, is a 23-kDa surface-exposed protein of Schistosoma japonicum and expressed in all infective parasite stages, which has been regarded as a potential candidate in vaccine development for schistosomiasis. In this study, we found that, in the BALB/c mouse model, Sj23 elicited rapid humoral responses after parasite infection and the dominant antibodies were of IgG2a subclass. Immunization with Sj23 by priming with recombinant SFV RNA virus particles followed by a boost with recombinant protein also generated strong IgG2a responses which did not provide protection against challenge with cercariae. Our data indicated that one of the functions of Sj23 of S. japonicum is to facilitate parasite immune regulation. Sj23 antigen-based vaccine may require strong adjuvant that can drive IgG1 responses which are more critical in resistance to helminth infection.
The acaricidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in vitro on Psoroptes cuniculi. In this study, different concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested, and the observed mites mortality was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (Acacerulen R®) controls. The morphological changes in P. cuniculi treated with trans-cinnamaldehyde were examined with light microscopy. By the analysis of variance one-way test, up to 8 ?g/ml of trans-cinnamaldehyde gave highly significant (P?0.01) percentages of mite mortality compared with the untreated controls, but only up to 256 ?g/ml, it showed the same efficacy of Acacerulen R®. At the same time, a bioassay was conducted by exposing mites to varying doses of trans-cinnamaldehyde in vitro cultures. The resulting data were analyzed by using a time-dose-mortality modeling technique, yielding the parameters for time and dose effects of P. cuniculi. The ? value was 2.01, indicating that trans-cinnamaldehyde had a good activity to kill P. cuniculi adults. Based on the time-dose-mortality relationships fitted and the virulence indices estimated, trans-cinnamaldehyde is a promising microbial agent for mites control.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gastrin can correct the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats and to determine the involvement of the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) in this process.
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