The search for novel and more efficient chemo-agents against malignant osteoblastoma is important. In this study, we examined the potential anti-osteoblastoma function of bufotalin, and studied the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that bufotalin induced osteoblastoma cell death and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Further, bufotalin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation in osteoblastoma cells, the latter was detected by the induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), as well as caspase-12 activation. Conversely, the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal, the caspase-12 inhibitor z-ATAD-fmk as well as CHOP depletion by shRNA significantly inhibited bufotalin-induced osteoblastoma cell death and apoptosis. Finally, by using a mice xenograft model, we demonstrated that bufotalin inhibited U2OS osteoblastoma cell growth in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that ER stress contributes to bufotalin-induced apoptosis in osteoblastoma cells. Bufotalin might be investigated as a novel anti-osteoblastoma agent.
Alport syndrome (AS) is a monogenic disease of the basement membrane (BM), resulting in progressive renal failure due to glomerulonephropathy, variable sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular anomalies. It is caused by mutations in the collagen type IV alpha-3 gene (COL4A3), the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4), and the collagen type IV alpha-5 gene (COL4A5), which encodes type IV collagen ?3, ?4, and ?5 chains, respectively. To explore the disease-related gene in a four-generation Chinese Han pedigree of AS, exome sequencing was conducted on the proband, and a novel deletion mutation c.499delC (p.Pro167Glnfs*36) in the COL4A5 gene was identified. This mutation, absent in 1,000 genomes project, HapMap, dbSNP132, YH1 databases, and 100 normal controls, cosegregated with patients in the family. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor typical COL4A5-related ocular abnormalities (dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and the rare posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy) were present in patients of this family. The phenotypes of patients in this AS family were characterized by early onset-age and rapidly developing into end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our discovery broadens the mutation spectrum in the COL4A5 gene associated with AS, which may also shed new light on genetic counseling for AS.
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by selective loss of dopamine-producing neurons and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (SNCA) in neurons of particular brain regions. At least 20 loci and 15 disease-causing genes have been identified. Rare missense or multiplication mutations in the SNCA gene have been reported to be involved in some familial and sporadic cases of PD. More recently, two novel pathogenic missense mutations (p.H50Q and p.G51D) were identified in the SNCA gene. To evaluate whether mutation(s) in the coding region of SNCA gene is related to PD in Chinese population, we investigated the SNCA gene in 502 PD patients of Chinese Han ethnicity from Mainland China. No pathogenic mutation was identified in the coding region of the gene. A known G to A transition (c.306 + 66G>A, rs10005233) in the intron 4, which does not potentially change splicing, was identified. Our data indicate that mutations in the coding region of the SNCA gene are not likely to be a common cause of PD in Chinese population.
Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) is used traditionally in China for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice, which has been proved to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics (especially the area under the curve, AUC) of baicalin and wogonoside in type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of HLJDD extract and to explore its possible mechanism.
The counter-regulatory hormone glucagon inhibits lipogenesis via downregulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). The effect of glucagon is mediated via protein kinase A (PKA). To determine if SREBP-1 is a direct phosphorylation target of PKA, we conducted mass spectrometry analysis of recombinant n-terminal SREBP-1a following PKA treatment in vitro. This analysis identified serines 331/332 as bona-fide phosphorylation targets of PKA. To determine the functional consequences of phosphorylation at these sites, we constructed mammalian expression vector for both nSREBP-1a and 1c isoforms in which the candidate PKA phosphorylation sites were mutated to active phosphomimetic or non-phosphorylatable amino acids. The transcriptional activity of SREBP was reduced by the phosphomimetic mutation of S332 of nSREBP-1a and the corresponding serine (S308) of nSREBP-1c. This site is a strong candidate for mediating the negative regulatory effect of glucagon on SREBP-1 and lipogenesis.
Infantile nystagmus (IN) is characterized by bilateral involuntary, periodic, and predominantly ocular oscillations. In this article, we describe a mutation screen conducted on a 4-generation family in which 4 patients were affected with X-linked IN (XLIN).
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability. Mutations in the ATPase 13A2 gene were found to be the causes for the Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a rare form of recessively inherited atypical juvenile parkinsonism. The ATPase Na(+)/K(+) transporting beta 4 polypeptide gene (ATP1B4) is located within a 19-centimorgen region of the PARK12 near the marker DXS1001 and it encodes a protein named ?m, a member of P-type ATPases ?-subunit family. To determine whether mutations in the ATP1B4 gene are associated with PD, we screened the coding region of this gene in 100 Chinese Han patients with PD. A known single nucleotide variant rs2072452 (c.143T > C), predicted to lead to amino acid substitution (p.Val48Ala), was identified. Extended analysis of 202 patients with PD and 400 gender, age, and ethnicity matched healthy controls showed no significant differences between patients and control subjects for genotypic and allelic distributions (P = 0.638 for genotypic distribution; P = 0.685 for allelic distribution in females and P = 0.303 for allelic distribution in males), suggesting the variant in the coding region of the ATP1B4 gene may play little or no role in the development of PD in Chinese Han population.
Exome sequencing in a large essential tremor (ET) family identified a novel nonsense mutation (p.Q290X) in the fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) as the cause of this family. Because of the clinical overlap between ET and Parkinsons disease (PD), the role of FUS in an independent cohort of PD patients from China mainland was evaluated.
There is growing evidence that genetic abnormalities play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). At least 18 genetic loci and 13 disease-related genes for parkinsonism have been identified. The S100 calcium-binding beta (S100B), which is expressed and secreted by astrocytes, has been found to be associated with PD. To evaluate whether the S100B variants are related to PD in Chinese Han population, we conducted genetic examination of the S100B gene in 502 PD patients from Mainland China. We did identify two known variants c.279+4T>C (rs187503470) and c.99C>G (p.Leu33Leu, rs1051169) in our patients. Neither of these two variants is predicted to change amino acid or splice site, indicating that they are not pathogenic mutations. Our results suggest that mutations in the coding region or intron/exon boundaries of the S100B gene play little or no role in the development of PD in Chinese population.
Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HLJDD) is used traditionally in China for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice, which has been proved to be effective. In present investigation, the 3D-HPLC fingerprint of HLJDD and the contents of main components (namely berberine, baicalin and geniposide) contained in the extract of HLJDD were assayed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Type 2 diabetic rats were induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with HLJDD extract for 30d, while blood glucose and body weight were monitored during the experiment. At the end of experiment, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Intestinal mucosa homogenate was prepared and the activity of pancreatic lipase was analyzed. Moreover, the olive oil loading test (OOLT) was performed and the inhibitory effect of HLJDD extract on the pancreatic lipase in vitro was evaluated. The results showed that, after the treatment of HLJDD extract, the final body weight and the levels of fasting plasma glucose, TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly reduced while the HDL-C level was increased in type 2 diabetic rats. The OOLT showed that HLJDD extract could lower the postprandial plasma TG level of type 2 diabetic rats. The activity of pancreatic lipase in type 2 diabetic rats was decreased after the treatment of HLJDD extract. Moreover, HLJDD extract could inhibit the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. In conclusion, the TCM prescription HLJDD possessed potent lipid-modulating effect on type 2 diabetic rats. And HLJDD extract exerted hypolipidemic effects partly via inhibiting the increased activity of intestinal pancreatic lipase in type 2 diabetic rats.
Parkinsons disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The clinical manifestations of PD encompass a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Mutations in the F-box protein 7 gene (FBXO7) have been identified to cause Parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome, an autosomal recessive form of Parkinsonism. The F-box protein 42 gene (FBXO42), a paralog of the FBXO7 gene, is involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system that may play a role in the pathogenesis of PD.
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) is associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and atherogenesis. Transcription of the PLA2g2a gene is induced by multiple cytokines. Here, we report the surprising observation that thyroid hormone (T3) inhibited PLA2g2a gene expression in human and rat hepatocytes as well as in rat liver. Moreover, T3 reduced the cytokine-mediated induction of PLA2g2a, suggesting that the thyroid status may modulate aspects of the inflammatory response. In an effort to dissect the mechanism of repression by T3, we cloned the PLA2g2a gene and identified a negative T3 response element in the promoter. This T3 receptor (TR?)-binding site differed considerably from consensus T3 stimulatory elements. Using in vitro and in vivo binding assays, we found that TR? bound directly to the PLA2g2a promoter as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor. Knockdown of nuclear corepressor or silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors by siRNA blocked the T3 inhibition of PLA2g2a. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that nuclear corepressor and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors were associated with the PLA2g2a gene in the presence of T3. In contrast with the established role of T3 to promote coactivator association with TR?, our experiments demonstrate a novel inverse recruitment mechanism in which liganded TR? recruits corepressors to inhibit PLA2g2a expression.
Variants in the leucine-rich repeat and lg domain containing nogo receptor-interacting protein 1 gene (LINGO1) have been identified to be associated with the increased risk of essential tremor (ET), especially among Caucasians. To explore whether the LINGO1 gene plays a role in ET susceptibility, we performed a systematic genetic analysis of the coding region in the LINGO1 gene. Four nucleotide variants have been genotyped, including three known variants (rs2271398, rs2271397, and rs3743481), and a novel G ? C transition (ss491228439). Extended analysis showed no significant difference in genotypic and allelic distributions between 151 patients and 301 control subjects for these four variants (all P > 0.05). However, further sex-stratified analysis revealed that the C allele of rs2271397 and ss491228439 contributed the risk of ET in female (P = 0.017, OR = 2.139, 95 % CI 1.135 ~ 4.030 for rs2271397 and P = 0.038, OR = 1.812, 95 % CI 1.027 ~ 3.194 for ss491228439). Haplotype analysis indicated that A465-C474-C714 haplotype was significantly associated with increased risk of ET in female (P = 0.041, OR = 1.800, 95 % CI 1.020 ~ 3.178). Our results indicate that the LINGO1 variants are associated with ET in Chinese Han female patients.
The F-box only protein 48 gene (FBXO48) is located in 2p13.3, the disease gene locus of Parkinson disease type 3 (PARK3), and it is one of the paralogs of the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7), which is a causative gene of the Parkinson disease type 15 (PARK15; also known as Parkinsonian-pyramidal disease, PPD). To determine whether genetic mutation in the coding region of the FBXO48 gene plays a role in the etiology of PD, we screened DNA samples from 350 Chinese Han patients with PD. No mutation in the coding region of the FBXO48 gene was identified in our PD cohort, suggesting that mutations in the coding region of the FBXO48 gene play little or no role in the development of PD.
We conducted genetic analysis of the fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) in Chinese Han patients with essential tremor (ET) in a case-control association study. One hundred eighty unrelated patients with ET were screened for mutations in the coding region and exon-intron boundaries of FUS. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to evaluate if the c.1176G>A variant results in change of splice site. Two hundred seventy-three normal control subjects were also analyzed when DNA variants were identified in ET cohort. A novel missense mutation, c.1176G>A (p.M392I), in FUS was identified in a 62-year-old patient. Four known variants (c.52C>A, p.P18T; c.147C>A, p.G49G; c.291T>C, p.Y97Y; c.684C>T, p.G228G) were observed in the case-control study without statistically significant differences in genotype and allele distributions. Mutation(s) in FUS might be associated with a small subset of ET cases in the Chinese population.
Wilsons disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ATPase Cu(2+) transporting beta polypeptide gene (ATP7B). The detailed metabolism of copper-induced pathology in WD is still unknown. Gene mutations as well as the possible pathways involved in the ATP7B deficiency were documented. The ATP7B gene was analyzed for mutations in 18 Chinese Han families with WD by direct sequencing. Cell viability and apoptosis analysis of ATP7B small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells were measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. Finally, the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) of ATP7B siRNA-treated cells were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis. Twenty different mutations including four novel mutations (p.Val145Phe, p.Glu388X, p.Thr498Ser and p.Gly837X) in the ATP7B gene were identified in our families. Haplotype analysis revealed that founder effects for four mutations (p.Arg778Leu, p.Pro992Leu, p.Ile1148Thr and p.Ala1295Val) existed in these families. Transfection of HepG2 cells with ATP7B siRNA resulted in decreased mRNA expression by 86.3%, 93.1% and 90.8%, and decreased protein levels by 58.5%, 85.5% and 82.1% at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively (All P<0.01). In vitro study revealed that the apoptotic, cell cycle and lipid metabolism pathway may be involved in the mechanism of WD. Our results revealed that the genetic cause of 18 Chinese families with WD and ATP7B deficiency-induce apoptosis may result from imbalance in cell cycle and lipid metabolism pathway.
Recently, variants (rs2568494, rs2869967 and rs3821104) in the IREB2, FAM13A and XRCC5 genes were found to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in non-Asian populations by genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis. To evaluate whether variants in these genes are related to COPD in Chinese Han population, we investigated COPD patients of Chinese Han ethnicity from Mainland China. Significant differences in genotypic distributions (?(2)=6.319, p=0.042 for rs2869967; ?(2)=6.062, p=0.048 for rs3821104) and allele distributions (?(2)=4.014, p=0.045 for rs2869967; ?(2)=5.607, p=0.018 for rs3821104) were observed between patients and control subjects for variants rs2869967 and rs3821104, whereas no statistically significant associations for genotypic and allelic distribution between IREB2 rs2568494 and COPD phenotype (p>0.05) were identified. Our results support that FAM13A rs2869967 and XRCC5 rs3821104 are associated with COPD in Chinese Han population.
The geometric structure, electronic structure and magnetic properties of substitutionally Mo-doped graphene are studied based on first-principles calculations. Mo introduces a magnetic moment of 2 ?(B) in graphene. The magnetic properties and band structure can be well understood using a hybridization model. Magnetic coupling between two Mo impurities is also discussed. Depending on the relative position of the two Mo impurities, the ground state of the system can be ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic or paramagnetic. A Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY)-like behavior is observed when the distance between Mo atoms is relatively large. However, when the distance between Mo atoms is rather small, the RKKY model is not suitable to describe the magnetic ordering due to their non-neglectable direct interactions.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by vocal and motor tics. While environmental causes have been proposed to play a role, genetic factors are believed to be the main determinants of the disorder and its clinical manifestations. Recently, a heterozygous W317X mutation in the histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) was reported to be responsible for TS in a two-generation pedigree. To investigate whether the HDC gene play a role in TS in Chinese Han population, we performed genetic analysis of the coding region of the HDC gene in 100 Chinese Han patients with TS. Three variants were found including a C?>?T transition (IVS1?+?52C?>?T), a novel C?>?A transition (c.426C?>?A) in exon 4, and a novel G?>?A transition (c.1743G?>?A) in exon 12, both predicted with no amino acid change. Extended analysis was conducted in a total of 120 TS patients and 240 sex, age, and ethnicity matched healthy controls. No significant differences in genotypic and allele distribution between patients and controls for these three variants (P?=?0.274, P?=?1.000 and P?=?0.632 for genotypic distribution, respectively; P?=?0.143, P?=?1.000 and P?=?0.582 for allele distribution, respectively) were observed, suggesting variants in the HDC gene may play little or no role in TS susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a serious disease with high mortality in cultured mud crab (Scylla serrata). This study sequenced and analyzed 12 genome segments of MCRV. The 12 genome segments had a total length of 24.464 kb, showing a total G+C content of 41.29% and predicted 15 ORFs. Sequence analysis showed that the majority of MCRV genes shared low homology with the counterpart genes of other reoviruses, e.g., the amino acid identity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was lower than 13.0% compared to the RdRp sequences of other reoviruses. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of RdRp and capping enzyme suggested MCRV as a single group. Further genome-based phylogenetical analysis of conserved termini and reovirus polymerase motif indicates that this MCRV belongs to a new genus of the Reoviridae family, tentatively named as Crabreovirus.
To compare the structures and functions of rabbit bladder after partial bladder outlet obstruction versus without ischemia so as to explore the effects of ischemia on bladder pathogenesis in rabbits with partial bladder outlet obstruction.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Activity of PDC is inhibited by phosphorylation via the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Here, we examined the regulation of Pdk4 gene expression by the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?). C/EBP? modulates the expression of multiple hepatic genes including those involved in metabolism, development, and inflammation. We found that C/EBP? induced Pdk4 gene expression and decreased PDC activity. This transcriptional induction was mediated through two C/EBP? binding sites in the Pdk4 promoter. C/EBP? participates in the hormonal regulation of gluconeogenic genes. Previously, we reported that Pdk4 was induced by thyroid hormone (T(3)). Therefore, we investigated the role of C/EBP? in the T(3) regulation of Pdk4. T(3) increased C/EBP? abundance in primary rat hepatocytes. Knockdown of C/EBP? with siRNA diminished the T(3) induction of the Pdk4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt1a) genes. CPT1a is an initiating step in the mitochondrial oxidation of long chain fatty acids. Our results indicate that C/EBP? stimulates Pdk4 expression and participates in the T(3) induction of the Cpt1a and Pdk4 genes.
Recently, the rs3129882 variant in intron 1 of HLA-DRA was found to be associated with late-onset sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) in Americans of European ancestry. To evaluate whether the same variant is related to PD in Chinese population, we investigated late-onset sporadic PD patients of Chinese Han ethanicity in Mainland China. We found significant difference in genotypic and allele distribution between patients and control subjects (?²)=6.446, p=0.040 for genotypic distribution; ?²=5.762, p=0.016 for allele distribution), suggesting this variant is associated with late-onset sporadic PD in Chinese Han population.
Essential tremor (ET) has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, rs9652490 variant in the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 gene (LINGO1) was found to be associated with ET susceptibility. To evaluate whether the same variant is associated also with PD susceptibility, we investigated the association between the LINGO1 rs9652490 variant and PD phenotype in Caucasian and Chinese PD subjects. We found no significant differences in genotypic and allele distribution between patients and control subjects (?(2)=1.931, p=0.381 for genotypic distribution; ?(2)=0.001, p=0.973 for allele distribution), suggesting this variant is not associated with PD.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression.
Several genetic variants in transcription factor genes have been reported to be associated with Parkinsons disease (PD). The mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 gene (MASH1) controls development of the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, polyglutamine length variation in MASH1 gene appears to confer protective effects against PD, at least in Japanese population. To determine whether genetic variation in the coding region of the MASH1 gene plays a role in the etiology of PD Caucasian patients, we analyzed the whole coding region of the MASH1 gene in PD patients from North America. Case-control analysis showed nominal association between polyglutamine length variation in MASH1 and Caucasian PD, 8% of PD vs 13% of normal controls had 13 CAG repeats (p=0.027, chi2=4.906). Our data support the role of the polyglutamine length variants in the MASH1 gene in PD susceptibility.
The proneural protein Neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2) is a transcription factor of importance for the differentiation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. To determine whether genetic variation in the coding region of the NEUROG2 gene plays a role in the etiology of Parkinsons disease (PD), we screened DNA samples from 202 PD patients and 201 normal controls. No mutation in the NEUROG2 gene was identified in our PD cohort, except that novel compound heterozygous variants (Gly56Arg and Asp206Glu) were found in a 91-year normal male, suggesting that mutations in the coding region of the NEUROG2 gene play little or no role in the development of PD.
The regulation of lipid homeostasis by insulin is mediated in part by the enhanced transcription of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). The nascent SREBP-1c is embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and must be transported to the Golgi where two sequential cleavages generate its NH(2)-terminal fragment, nSREBP-1c. We have shown recently that in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, insulin rapidly and selectively stimulates proteolytic processing of the nascent SREBP-1c by enhancing the affinity of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP).SREBP-1c complex for coatomer protein complex II (COPII) vesicles. The SCAP.SREBP complex is retained in the ER by Insig proteins. We report here that insulin persistently stimulates controlled proteolysis of the nascent SREBP-1c by selectively reducing the level of Insig-2a protein via accelerated degradation of its cognate mRNA. Insulin enhanced the rate of turnover of Insig-2a mRNA via its 3-untranslated region. Insulin-induced depletion of Insig-2a promotes association of the SCAP.SREBP-1c complex with COPII vesicles and subsequent migration to the Golgi where site-1 and site-2 proteases process the nascent SREBP-1c. Consistent with this mechanism, experimental knockdown of Insig-2a expression with small interfering RNA mimicked insulin-induced proteolysis of the nascent SREBP-1c, whereas exogenous expression of Insig-2a in hepatocytes led to reduced intramembrane proteolysis of the newly synthesized SREBP-1c. The action of insulin on the processing of the nascent SREBP-1c via Insig-2a was highly selective, as proteolysis of the newly synthesized SREBP-2 remained unchanged under identical conditions. On the basis of these data, we propose that the stimulation of SREBP-1c processing by insulin is mediated by a selective depletion of Insig-2a protein by promoting decay of its cognate mRNA. Thus, insulin-induced reduction in Insig-2a protein leads to an enhanced export of the SCAP.SREBP-1c complex from ER to the Golgi.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of baicalin, a major bioactive component of Scutellariae radix, in diabetic conditions. The 4-week diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Plasma concentrations of baicalin were measured following oral (200 mg/kg) or intravenous (12 mg/kg) administration. Everted intestinal transport, intestinal mucosal metabolism of baicalin and intestinal beta-glucuronidase activity were also investigated. It was found that the diabetic condition significantly increased the exposure of baicalin following oral doses (AUC 100.77 +/- 4.16 microg x h/mL in diabetic rats vs. 48.48 +/- 7.94 microg x h/mL in normal rats). In contrast, the diabetic condition significantly decreased the exposure of baicalin following intravenous doses (AUC 11.20 +/- 2.28 microg x h/mL in diabetic rats vs. 18.02 +/- 3.45 microg x h/mL in normal rats). We also found lower apparent permeability coefficients of baicalin in the ileum of diabetic rats (8.43 x 10 (-6) +/- 2.40 x 10 (-6) cm/s in diabetic rats vs. 5.21 x 10 (-5) +/- 1.55 x 10 (-5) cm/s in normal rats). Further studies showed that the diabetic condition enhanced the hydrolysis of baicalin to baicalein in intestinal mucosal, accompanied by an increase of beta-glucuronidase activity. All these results suggested that the higher oral exposure of baicalin in diabetic rats did not result from the decreased hepatic metabolism or increased intestinal absorption of baicalin. The enhancement of intestinal beta-glucuronidase activity may partly account for the higher exposure of baicalin in diabetic rats after oral administration.
We compared hepatic expression of genes that regulate lipid biosynthesis and metabolic signaling in liver biopsy specimens from women who were undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP) for morbid obesity with that in women undergoing ventral hernia repair who had experienced massive weight loss (MWL) after prior GBP. Comprehensive metabolic profiles of morbidly obese (MO) (22 subjects) and MWL (9 subjects) were also compared. Analyses of gene expression in liver biopsies from MO and MWL were accomplished by Affymetrix microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting techniques. After GBP, MWL subjects had lost on average 102 lb as compared with MO subjects. This was accompanied by effective reversal of the dyslipidemia and insulin resistance that were present in MO. As compared with MWL, livers of MO subjects exhibited increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c and its downstream lipogenic targets, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase-1. Livers of MO subjects also exhibited enhanced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 protein and attenuated Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. Consistent with these findings, we found that the human SREBP-1c promoter was positively regulated by insulin and negatively regulated by STAT3. These data support the hypothesis that suppressor of cytokine signaling-3-mediated attenuation of the STAT signaling pathway and resulting enhanced expression of SREBP-1c, a key regulator of de novo lipid biosynthesis, are mechanistically related to the development of hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in MO women.
Insulin coordinately up-regulates lipogenic gene transcription via induction of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Conversely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease lipogenic gene transcription via suppression of SREBP-1c. We therefore examined the ability of n-3 PUFA to mitigate induction of SREBP-1c and its downstream lipogenic targets by insulin in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Insulin induced expression of SREBP-1c mRNA 5-6 fold as well as rat SREBP-1c promoter activity. These effects were prevented by the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA), but not by the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (18:1 n-6, OLA). N-3 fatty acids also effectively prevented insulin induction of the downstream lipogenic enzyme targets fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl carboxyl coenzyme acetyltransferase-1 (ACC-1), and reduced de novo lipogenesis. The SREBP-1c promoter contains an insulin response unit consisting of tandem LXRalpha response elements (LXREs) as well as sites for NF-Y, Sp1, and SREBP-1c itself. The LXREs were identified as a primary site mediating suppression of SREBP-1c transcription by n-3 PUFA. DHA effectively prevented LXRalpha-dependent activation of both the wild type SREBP-1c promoter and the synthetic LXRE-driven promoter, and significantly blunted LXRalpha-dependent activation of a Gal4-LXRalpha chimeric protein thus demonstrating that n-3 PUFA effectively mitigate induction of SREBP-1c by insulin via reduced trans-activation of LXRalpha.
The objective of this study was to determine the molecular bases of disordered hepatic function and disease susceptibility in obesity. We compared global gene expression in liver biopsies from morbidly obese (MO) women undergoing gastric bypass (GBP) surgery with that of women undergoing ventral hernia repair who had experienced massive weight loss (MWL) following prior GBP. Metabolic and hormonal profiles were examined in MO vs. MWL groups. Additionally, we analyzed individual profiles of hepatic gene expression in liver biopsy specimens obtained from MO and MWL subjects. All patients underwent preoperative metabolic profiling. RNAs were extracted from wedge biopsies of livers from MO and MWL subjects, and analysis of mRNA expression was carried out using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray gene chips. Genes exhibiting greater than twofold differential expression between MO and MWL subjects were organized according to gene ontology and hierarchical clustering, and expression of key genes exhibiting differential regulation was quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We discovered 154 genes to be differentially expressed in livers of MWL and MO subjects. A total of 28 candidate disease susceptibility genes were identified that encoded proteins regulating lipid and energy homeostasis (PLIN, ENO3, ELOVL2, APOF, LEPR, IGFBP1, DDIT4), signal transduction (MAP2K6, SOCS-2), postinflammatory tissue repair (HLA-DQB1, SPP1, P4HA1, LUM), bile acid transport (SULT2A, ABCB11), and metabolism of xenobiotics (GSTT2, CYP1A1). Using gene expression profiling, we have identified novel candidate disease susceptibility genes whose expression is altered in livers of MO subjects. The significance of altered expression of these genes to obesity-related disease is discussed.
The regulation of lipid homeostasis by insulin is mediated in part by the enhanced transcription of the gene encoding SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c). Nascent SREBP-1c is synthesized and embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and must be transported to the Golgi in coatomer protein II (COPII) vesicles where two sequential cleavages generate the transcriptionally active NH(2)-terminal fragment, nSREBP-1c. There is limited indirect evidence to suggest that insulin may also regulate the posttranslational processing of the nascent SREBP-1c protein. Therefore, we designed experiments to directly assess the action of insulin on the post-translational processing of epitope-tagged full-length SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 proteins expressed in cultured hepatocytes. We demonstrate that insulin treatment led to enhanced post-translational processing of SREBP-1c, which was associated with phosphorylation of ER-bound nascent SREBP-1c protein that increased affinity of the SREBP-1c cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)-SREBP-1c complex for the Sec23/24 proteins of the COPII vesicles. Furthermore, chemical and molecular inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway and its downstream kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt prevented both insulin-mediated phosphorylation of nascent SREBP-1c protein and its posttranslational processing. Insulin had no effect on the proteolysis of nascent SREBP-2 under identical conditions. We also show that in vitro incubation of an active PKB/Akt enzyme with recombinant full-length SREBP-1c led to its phosphorylation. Thus, insulin selectively stimulates the processing of SREBP-1c in rat hepatocytes by enhancing the association between the SCAP-SREBP-1c complex and COPII proteins and subsequent ER to Golgi transport and proteolytic cleavage. This effect of insulin is tightly linked to phosphoinositide 3-kinase and PKB/Akt-dependent serine phosphorylation of the precursor SREBP-1c protein.
Invertebrates rely on innate immunity as the first line defense against microbes. In Drosophila, the inducible antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) regulated by the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) pathways are important effectors in innate immunity. Here we report an immune deficiency homolog (LvIMD) from the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The full-length cDNA of LvIMD is 758 bp with an open reading frame of 483 bp that encodes a putative protein of 160 amino acids including a death domain at the C-terminus. LvIMD death domain shows similarity to that of Drosophila IMD and human receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) pathway, with 27.9% and 26.4% identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis shows that LvIMD clusters with a predicted protein from the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) independent to insect IMDs and vertebrates RIP1s. LvIMD mRNA is expressed in most tissues and is induced in hepatopancreas and hemocytes after immune challenge. Luciferase reporter assays confirm that LvIMD is able to induce the expression of AMP genes, including Drosophila Attacin A and shrimp Penaeidin 4 in S2 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report that LvIMD participates in innate signaling to activate the expression of AMP genes in shrimp.
Radix scutellariaewas used alone or in combinationwith othermedicinal herbs in the treatment oftype 2 diabetes mellitus in China. At present, the pharmacokinetics of baicalin in type 2 diabeticrats following oral administration of Radix scutellariae extract was investigated. The resultsshowed that the pharmacokinetics (especially AUC) of baicalin in type 2 diabetic rats after oraladministration of Radix scutellariae extract was remarkably different from that in normal rats.Then the mechanism which resulted in the increased AUC of baicalin in diabetic rats wasinvestigated from system clearance and presystemic metabolism. And it was found that theincreased AUC of baicalin in diabetic rats at least partly resulted from higher production ofbaicalein in the intestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats.Moreover, the activity of ?-glucuronidase inintestinal mucosa of type 2 diabetic rats was demonstrated to be higher than that in normal rats,which confirmed the results above. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic behavior of baicalin wassignificantly altered in type 2 diabetic rats after orally administrated Radix scutellariae extract,which may partly result from the increased activity of intestinal ?-glucuronidase under thepathological state of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Noninvasive methods can facilitate early diagnosis of BK virus (BKV) replication and guide the evaluation of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). We developed 3 noninvasive methods for BKVAN screening including quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for BKV DNA load in urine and plasma, and quantitative assay of urine cytology by light microscopy or electron microscopy, and used these assays concurrently with renal transplant biopsies for the evaluation of 338 patients. BKVAN was diagnosed in 24 (7.1%) of 338 renal recipients. The median level of the 3 methods was the highest in pattern B of BKVAN (P < 0.05). Using these 3 methods for pattern B of BKVAN yielded a high sensitivity of 100%. Using decoy cells without quantitation had a sensitivity of 95.8% and a specificity of 83.1% for BKVAN. The amount of decoy cells in urine samples was related to BKV DNAuria, BKV DNAemia, and the pattern of BKVAN. Using a decoy cell threshold of >5 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) had an ideal sensitivity and specificity for high-risk BKVAN and BKVAN. Using a decoy cell threshold of >20 per 10 HPF for BKVAN had a specificity of 99.7%. Quantitative assay of urine cytology is a very convenient and sensitive method for diagnosis of BKVAN, which can be deemed as an additional diagnostic method for quantitative PCR screening with increased accuracy.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nuclear deacetylase that modulates lipid metabolism and enhances mitochondrial activity. SIRT1 targets multiple transcription factors and coactivators. Thyroid hormone (T(3)) stimulates the expression of hepatic genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis. We reported that T(3) induces genes for carnitine palmitoyltransferase (cpt1a), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (pdk4), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck). SIRT1 increases the expression of these genes via the activation of several factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, estrogen-related receptor ?, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator (PGC-1?). Previously, we reported that PGC-1? participates in the T(3) induction of cpt1a and pdk4 in the liver. Given the overlapping targets of T(3) and SIRT1, we investigated whether SIRT1 participated in the T(3) regulation of these genes. Resveratrol is a small phenolic compound whose actions include the activation of SIRT1. Addition of resveratrol increased the T(3) induction of the pdk4 and cpt1a genes in hepatocytes. Furthermore, expression of SIRT1 in hepatocytes mimicked resveratrol in the regulation of gene expression by T(3). The deacetylase activity of SIRT1 was required and PGC-1? was deacetylated following addition of T(3). We found that SIRT1 interacted directly with T(3) receptor (TR?). Knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the T(3) induction of cpt1a and pdk4 and reduced the T(3) inhibition of sterol response element binding protein (srebp-1c) both in isolated hepatocytes and in rat liver. Our results indicate that SIRT1 contributes to the T(3) regulation of hepatic genes.
Scutellaria-coptis herb couple (SC) is the main herb couple in many traditional Chinese compound formulas used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which has been used to treat diabetes mellitus for thousands of years in China. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the clinical use of SC in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of tumor that grows within the pancreatic ducts. It is a progress from hyperplasia to intraductal adenoma (IPMA), to noninvasive carcinoma, and ultimately to invasive carcinoma (IPMC). The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the progression from IPMA to IPMC. By using the GSE19650 affymetrix microarray data accessible from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between IPMA and IPMC, followed by the protein-protein interaction and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the DEGs. Our study identified thousands of DEGs which involved regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in this progression from IPMA to IPMC. Protein-protein interaction network construction found that MYC, IL6ST, NR3C1, CREBBP, GATA1 and LRP1 might play an important role in the progression. Furthermore, the SNP analysis confirmed the association between BRAC1 and pancreas cancer. In conclusion, our data provide a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of genes and pathways which may be involved in the progression of IPMN from IPMA to IPMC.
Huanglian Wan (HLW) is a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used to treat diabetes mellitus for thousands of years in China. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the clinical use of HLW in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Tourette syndrome (TS), a neurological disorder with a reported prevalence frequency ranging from 0.7% to 4.2%, is manifested by motor and phonic tics and associated with a variety of behavioral abnormalities including impulsivity. Clinical, neuroimaging and other studies support dysfunction of the dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurotransmitter systems in TS. To determine whether TS is associated with mutation in the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B gene (HTR2B), which has been also implicated in impulsivity, we screened 132 Caucasian and 128 Chinese Han patients with TS. Two novel (c.188T>G, Met63Arg; c.1346G>A, Arg449Gln) and three known (rs61731726, Gly51Gln; rs200541113, Lys324Asn; rs61731723, Asn438Asn) nucleotide variants were found. Further analysis of sex, age, and ethnically matched normal controls (138 Caucasians and 248 Chinese Han individuals), as well as an affected family member, indicated that these variants may not be pathogenically relevant, suggesting that variants in the HTR2B gene may play little or no role in the development of TS.
Variants of the BTB/POZ domain-containing protein 9 gene (BTBD9) (rs4714156, rs9357271, and rs9296249) and the serotonin 5-HT-2C receptor gene (HTR2C) (rs518147 and rs3813929) were reported to be associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) in White population recently. To examine the association between variants of the BTBD9 and the HTR2C genes and patients with TS among a Chinese Han population, 110 patients with TS and 440 sex-matched, age-matched, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls underwent sequencing and association analysis. There was a statistically significant association between the variant rs9296249 of the BTBD9 gene and the TS phenotype. However, no statistically significant associations were found between the other four variants (rs4714156, rs9357271, rs518147, and rs3813929) and the TS phenotype (P>0.05). Larger-scale studies are warranted to further define the relationship between variant rs9296249 of the BTBD9 gene and the risk of developing TS.
Induction of lipogenesis in response to insulin is critically dependent on the transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). FoxO1, a forkhead box class-O transcription factor, is an important mediator of insulin action, but its role in the regulation of lipid metabolism has not been clearly defined. We examined the effects of FoxO1 on srebp1 gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies showed that constitutively active (CA) FoxO1 (CA-FoxO1) reduced basal expression of SREBP-1c mRNA in liver by ?60% and blunted induction of SREBP-1c in response to feeding. In liver-specific FoxO knock-out mice, SREBP-1c expression was increased ?2-fold. Similarly, in primary hepatocytes, CA-FoxO1 suppressed SREBP1-c expression and inhibited basal and insulin-induced SREBP-1c promoter activity. SREBP-1c gene expression is induced by the liver X receptor (LXR), but CA-FoxO1 did not block the activation of SREBP-1c by the LXR agonist TO9. Insulin stimulates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1 and via "feed forward" regulation by newly synthesized SREBP-1c. CA-FoxO1 inhibited SREBP-1c by reducing the transactivational capacity of both Sp1 and SREBP-1c. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that FoxO1 can associate with the proximal promoter region of the srebp1 gene and disrupt the assembly of key components of the transcriptional complex of the SREBP-1c promoter. We conclude that FoxO1 inhibits SREBP-1c transcription via combined actions on multiple transcription factors and that this effect is exerted at least in part through reduced transcriptional activity of Sp1 and SREBP-1c and disrupted assembly of the transcriptional initiation complex on the SREBP-1c promoter.
Tourette syndrome/chronic tic phenotype (TS-CTD) is a neurological disorder manifested particularly by motor and vocal tics and associated with a variety of behavioral abnormalities. Recently, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L3 gene (MRPL3) S75N, the DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog subfamily C member 13 gene (DNAJC13) A2057S, the orofacial cleft 1 candidate 1 gene (OFCC1) R129G and c.-5A>G variants are reported to be associated with Tourette syndrome/chronic tic phenotype (TS-CTD) in patients of European ancestry. To evaluate whether these variants are associated with TS-CTD in Chinese Han patients, we screened 132 Chinese Han patients from Mainland China. None of the 132 samples from patients with TS-CTD showed the MRPL3 S75N, DNAJC13 A2057S, OFCC1 R129G and c.-5A>G variants, and these variants probably are a rare cause of TS-CTD in a Chinese Han ethnic group. Genetic heterogeneity of TS should be considered and tests designed to detect these variants in Chinese Han ethnic group probably will not have a diagnostic utility in clinical practice.
To observe the time-dapendcrt expression of TLR4 and TNF-? of N9 microglia exposured to normobaric hyperoxia after preconditioning with lipopolysaccharide in vitro and to explore the role of hyperoxia on the pro-flammation response of microglia and mechanism.
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